Posted by: reganenosusd | December 1, 2014

November 2014

Darling, Warren, Robert Morecraft, Diane Rotella, Marc Pizzimenti, Jizhi Ge, Kimberly Stilwell-Morecraft, . . . Paul Cheney. (2014). Recovery of precision grasping after motor cortex lesion does not require forced use of the impaired hand in macaca mulatta. Experimental Brain Research, 232(12), 3929-3938.

We investigated recovery of precision grasping of small objects between the index finger and thumb of the impaired hand without forced use after surgically placed lesions to the hand/arm areas of M1 and M1 + lateral premotor cortex in two monkeys. The unilateral lesions were contralateral to the monkey’s preferred hand, which was established in prelesion testing as the hand used most often to acquire raisins in a foraging board (FB) task in which the monkey was free to use either hand to acquire treats. The lesions initially produced a clear paresis of the contralesional hand and use of only the ipsilesional hand to acquire raisins in the FB task. However, beginning about 3 weeks after the lesion both monkeys spontaneously began using the impaired contralesional hand in the FB task and increased use of that hand over the next few tests. Moreover, the monkeys clearly used precision grasp to acquire the raisins in a similar manner to prelesion performances, although grasp durations were longer. Although the monkeys used the contralesional hand more often than the ipsilesional hand in some postlesion testing sessions, they did not recover to use the hand as often as in prelesion testing when the preferred hand was used almost exclusively. These findings suggest that recovery of fine hand/digit motor function after localized damage to the lateral frontal motor areas in rhesus monkeys does not require forced use of the impaired hand.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Slivka, P. F., C. L. Dearth, T. J. Keane, ….., Robert T. Riggio, J. E. Reing, & S. F. Badylak. (2014). Fractionation of an ECM hydrogel into structural and soluble components reveals distinctive roles in regulating macrophage behavior. Biomaterials Science, 2(10), 1521-1534.

Extracellular matrix (ECM) derived from mammalian tissues has been utilized to repair damaged or missing tissue and improve healing outcomes. More recently, processing of ECM into hydrogels has expanded the use of these materials to include platforms for 3-dimensional cell culture as well as injectable therapeutics that can be delivered by minimally invasive techniques and fill irregularly shaped cavities. At the cellular level, ECM hydrogels initiate a multifaceted host response that includes recruitment of endogenous stem/progenitor cells, regional angiogenesis, and modulation of the innate immune response. Unfortunately, little is known about the components of the hydrogel that drive these responses. We hypothesized that different components of ECM hydrogels could play distinctive roles in stem cell and macrophage behavior. Utilizing a well-characterized ECM hydrogel derived from urinary bladder matrix (UBM), we separated the soluble and structural components of UBM hydrogel and characterized their biological activity. Perivascular stem cells migrated toward and reduced their proliferation in response to both structural and soluble components of UBM hydrogel. Both components also altered macrophage behavior but with different fingerprints. Soluble components increased phagocytosis with an IL-1RA(high), TNF alpha(low), IL-1 beta(low), uPA(low) secretion profile. Structural components decreased phagocytosis with a PGE2(high), PGF2 alpha(high), TNF alpha(low), IL-1 beta(low), uPA(low), MMP2(low), MMP9(low), secretion profile. The biologic activity of the soluble components was mediated by Notch and PI3K/Akt signaling, while the biologic activity of the structural components was mediated by integrins and MEK/ERK signaling. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that soluble and structural components of ECM hydrogels contribute to the host response but through different mechanisms.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Tu, Wenyu, Alan Cook, Jamie L. Scholl, MacKenzie Mears, Michael J. Watt, Kenneth J. Renner, & Gina L. Forster. (2014). SEROTONIN IN THE VENTRAL HIPPOCAMPUS MODULATES ANXIETY-LIKE BEHAVIOR DURING AMPHETAMINE WITHDRAWAL. Neuroscience, 281, 35-43.

Withdrawal from amphetamine is associated with increased anxiety and sensitivity to stressors which are thought to contribute to relapse. Rats undergoing amphetamine withdrawal fail to exhibit stress-induced increases in serotonin (5-HT) release in the ventral hippocampus and show heightened anxiety-like behaviors. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that reducing 5-HT levels in the ventral hippocampus is a causal mechanism in increasing anxiety-like behaviors during amphetamine withdrawal. First, we tested whether reducing 5-HT levels in the ventral hippocampus directly increases anxiety behavior. Male rats were bilaterally infused with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) into the ventral hippocampus, which produced a 83% decrease in ventral hippocampus 5-HT content, and were tested on the elevated plus maze (EPM) for anxiety-like behavior. Reducing ventral hippocampus 5-HT levels decreased the time spent in the open arms of the maze, suggesting that diminished ventral hippocampus 5-HT levels increases anxiety-like behavior. Next, we tested whether increasing 5-HT levels in the ventral hippocampus reverses anxiety behavior exhibited by rats undergoing amphetamine withdrawal. Rats were treated daily with either amphetamine (2.5-mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 2 weeks, and at 2 weeks withdrawal, were infused with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine (0.5 mu M) bilaterally into the ventral hippocampus and tested for anxiety-like behavior on the EPM. Rats pre-treated with amphetamine exhibited increased anxiety- like behavior on the EPM. This effect was reversed by ventral hippocampus infusion of paroxetine. Our results suggest that 5-HT levels in the ventral hippocampus are critical for regulating anxiety behavior. Increasing 5-HT levels during withdrawal may be an effective strategy for reducing anxiety-induced drug relapse. (C) 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Wu, L. P., Y. Q. Huang, Das Manas, Y. Y. Chen, J. H. Fan, & H. G. Mo. (2014). REAL-TIME MONITORING OF STRESSES AND DISPLACEMENTS IN CERVICAL NUCLEI PULPOSI DURING CERVICAL SPINE MANIPULATION: A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL ANALYSIS. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 37(8), 561-568.

Objective: The objective of this study was to research the distribution of stresses and displacements in cervical nuclei pulposi during simulated cervical spine manipulation (CSM). Methods: A 3-dimensional finite element model of C-3/4 similar to C-6/7 was established. The detailed mechanical parameters of CSM were analyzed and simulated. During the process, the changes in stresses and displacements of cervical nuclei pulposi within the model were displayed simultaneously and dynamically. Results: Cervical spine manipulation with right rotation was targeted at the C-4 spinous process of the model. During traction, levels of stresses and displacements of the nuclei pulposi exhibited an initial decrease followed by an increase. The major stresses and displacements affected the C-3/4 nucleus pulposus during rotation in CSM, when its morphology gradually changed from circular to elliptical. The highest stress (48.53 kPa) occurred at its right superior edge, on rotating 40 degrees to the right. It protruded toward the right superior, creating a gap in its left inferior aspect. The highest displacement, also at 40 degrees right, occurred at its left superior edge and measured 0.7966 mm. Dimensions of stresses and displacements reduced quickly on rapid return to neutral position. Conclusion: The morphology of the C-3/4 nucleus pulposus changed during CSM with right rotation, and it created a gap in its left inferior aspect. Biomechanically, it is more safe and rational to rotate toward the healthy side than the prolapsed side of the intervertebral disk during CSM. Upon ensuring due safety, the closer the application force is to the diseased intervertebral disk, the better is the effect of CSM.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka, Abdelali Barakat, Piotr Łakomy, Dariusz J. Smoliński, & Marcin Zadworny. (2014). Lignin and lignans in plant defence: Insight from expression profiling of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase genes during development and following fungal infection in Populus. Plant Science, 229, 111-121.

Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyses the final step in the biosynthesis of monolignol, the main component of lignin. Lignins, deposited in the secondary cell wall, play a role in plant defence against pathogens. We re-analysed the phylogeny of CAD/CAD-like genes using sequences from recently sequenced genomes, and analysed the temporal and spatial expression profiles of CAD/CAD-like genes in Populus trichocarpa healthy and infected plants. Three fungal pathogens ( Rhizoctonia solani , Fusarium oxysporum , and Cytospora sp.), varying in lifestyle and pathogenicity, were used for plant infection. Phylogenetic analyses showed that CAD/CAD-like genes were distributed in classes represented by all members from angiosperm lineages including basal angiosperms and Selaginella . The analysed genes showed different expression profiles during development and demonstrated that three genes were involved in primary xylem maturation while five may function in secondary xylem formation. Expression analysis following inoculation with fungal pathogens, showed that five genes were induced in either stem or leaves. These results add further evidence that CAD/CAD-like genes have evolved specialised functions in plant development and defence against various pest and pathogens. Two genes ( PoptrCAD11 and PoptrCAD15 ), which were induced under various stresses, could be treated as universal markers of plant defence using lignification or lignan biosynthesis.

Biology Department.

Dahdul, Wasila M., H. Cui, Paula M. Mabee, C. J. Mungall, D. Osumi-Sutherland, R. L. Walls, & M. A. Haendel. (2014). Nose to tail, roots to shoots: spatial descriptors for phenotypic diversity in the Biological Spatial Ontology. Journal of Biomedical Semantics, 5, 13.

Background: Spatial terminology is used in anatomy to indicate precise, relative positions of structures in an organism. While these terms are often standardized within specific fields of biology, they can differ dramatically across taxa. Such differences in usage can impair our ability to unambiguously refer to anatomical position when comparing anatomy or phenotypes across species. We developed the Biological Spatial Ontology (BSPO) to standardize the description of spatial and topological relationships across taxa to enable the discovery of comparable phenotypes. Results: BSPO currently contains 146 classes and 58 relations representing anatomical axes, gradients, regions, planes, sides, and surfaces. These concepts can be used at multiple biological scales and in a diversity of taxa, including plants, animals and fungi. The BSPO is used to provide a source of anatomical location descriptors for logically defining anatomical entity classes in anatomy ontologies. Spatial reasoning is further enhanced in anatomy ontologies by integrating spatial relations such as dorsal to into class descriptions (e.g., ‘dorsolateral placode’ dorsal to some ‘epibranchial placode’). Conclusions: The BSPO is currently used by projects that require standardized anatomical descriptors for phenotype annotation and ontology integration across a diversity of taxa. Anatomical location classes are also useful for describing phenotypic differences, such as morphological variation in position of structures resulting from evolution within and across species.

Biology Department.

Haendel, M. A., J. P. Balhoff, ….., Paula M. Mabee, A. Niknejad, M. Robinson-Rechavi, . . . C. J. Mungall. (2014). Unification of multi-species vertebrate anatomy ontologies for comparative biology in Uberon. Journal of Biomedical Semantics, 5, 13.

Background: Elucidating disease and developmental dysfunction requires understanding variation in phenotype. Single-species model organism anatomy ontologies (ssAOs) have been established to represent this variation. Multi-species anatomy ontologies (msAOs; vertebrate skeletal, vertebrate homologous, teleost, amphibian AOs) have been developed to represent ‘natural’ phenotypic variation across species. Our aim has been to integrate ssAOs and msAOs for various purposes, including establishing links between phenotypic variation and candidate genes. Results: Previously, msAOs contained a mixture of unique and overlapping content. This hampered integration and coordination due to the need to maintain cross-references or inter-ontology equivalence axioms to the ssAOs, or to perform large-scale obsolescence and modular import. Here we present the unification of anatomy ontologies into Uberon, a single ontology resource that enables interoperability among disparate data and research groups. As a consequence, independent development of TAO, VSAO, AAO, and vHOG has been discontinued. Conclusions: The newly broadened Uberon ontology is a unified cross-taxon resource for metazoans (animals) that has been substantially expanded to include a broad diversity of vertebrate anatomical structures, permitting reasoning across anatomical variation in extinct and extant taxa. Uberon is a core resource that supports single-and cross-species queries for candidate genes using annotations for phenotypes from the systematics, biodiversity, medical, and model organism communities, while also providing entities for logical definitions in the Cell and Gene Ontologies.

Biology Department.

How, Martin J., Megan L. Porter, Andrew N. Radford, Kathryn D. Feller, Shelby E. Temple, Roy L. Caldwell, . . . Nicholas W. Roberts. (2014). Out of the blue: the evolution of horizontally polarized signals in Haptosquilla (Crustacea, Stomatopoda, Protosquillidae). Journal of Experimental Biology, 217(19), 3425-3431.

The polarization of light provides information that is used by many animals for a number of different visually guided behaviours. Several marine species, such as stomatopod crustaceans and cephalopod molluscs, communicate using visual signals that contain polarized information, content that is often part of a more complex multidimensional visual signal. In this work, we investigate the evolution of polarized signals in species of Haptosquilla, a widespread genus of stomatopod, as well as related protosquillids. We present evidence for a pre-existing bias towards horizontally polarized signal content and demonstrate that the properties of the polarization vision system in these animals increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the signal. Combining these results with the increase in efficacy that polarization provides over intensity and hue in a shallow marine environment, we propose a joint framework for the evolution of the polarized form of these complex signals based on both efficacy-driven (proximate) and content-driven (ultimate) selection pressures.

Biology Department.

Zhao, Zhong-Qiu, Xian-Yu Liu, Joseph Jeffry, ….., Kenneth J. Renner, & Yun-Qing Li. (2014). Descending Control of Itch Transmission by the Serotonergic System via 5-HT1A-Facilitated GRP-GRPR Signaling. Neuron, 84(4), 821-834.

Summary Central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptophan, 5-HT) modulates somatosensory transduction, but how it achieves sensory modality-specific modulation remains unclear. Here we report that enhancing serotonergic tone via administration of 5-HT potentiates itch sensation, whereas mice lacking 5-HT or serotonergic neurons in the brainstem exhibit markedly reduced scratching behavior. Through pharmacological and behavioral screening, we identified 5-HT1A as a key receptor in facilitating gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)-dependent scratching behavior. Coactivation of 5-HT1A and GRP receptors (GRPR) greatly potentiates subthreshold, GRP-induced Ca 2+ transients, and action potential firing of GRPR + neurons. Immunostaining, biochemical, and biophysical studies suggest that 5-HT1A and GRPR may function as receptor heteromeric complexes. Furthermore, 5-HT1A blockade significantly attenuates, whereas its activation contributes to, long-lasting itch transmission. Thus, our studies demonstrate that the descending 5-HT system facilitates GRP-GRPR signaling via 5-HT1A to augment itch-specific outputs, and a disruption of crosstalk between 5-HT1A and GRPR may be a useful antipruritic strategy.

Biology Department.

Netzer, Nathan L., Feng-Rong Dai, Zhenqiang Wang, & Chaoyang Jiang. (2014). pH-Modulated Molecular Assemblies and Surface Properties of Metal-Organic Supercontainers at the Air-Water Interface. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, 53(41), 10965-10969.

The orientation of metal-organic supercontainer (MOSC) molecules in Langmuir films was systematically studied at the air-water interface. The acidity of the aqueous subphases plays a significant role in tuning the orientation of MOSC molecules in the Langmuir films. Furthermore, Langmuir-Blodgett films of MOSCs were prepared and the uniform multilayer structures demonstrated various surface properties, depending on their conditions of fabrication. Our use of Langmuir films provides a novel approach to access tunable assemblies of MOSC molecules in two-dimensional thin films.

Chemistry Department.

Arens, Ashley M., Raluca M. Gaher, Jeffrey S. Simons, & Robert D. Dvorak. (2014). Child Maltreatment and Deliberate Self-Harm: A Negative Binomial Hurdle Model for Explanatory Constructs. Child Maltreatment, 19(3/4), 168-177.

Emerging adults demonstrate the highest rates of deliberate self-harm (DSH) and thus represent a population in need of further study. While child maltreatment (CM) history is a risk factor for DSH, the mechanisms behind this relationship are not fully understood. This study tested a model of mechanisms linking CM with DSH (likelihood of engaging in the behavior and frequency among those who self-harm) via negative urgency (tendency to engage in impulsive behaviors under conditions of negative affect), distress tolerance, sense of control, and desire for control in a sample of college students. As hypothesized, CM had a strong positive direct association with both the likelihood and frequency of DSH. CM was positively associated with negative urgency and inversely associated with distress tolerance and sense of control. Negative urgency was positively associated with DSH likelihood and frequency. Distress tolerance was not directly associated with DSH but was indirectly associated with DSH likelihood and frequency via negative urgency. Sense of control was not associated with the likelihood of engaging in DSH; however, among those who endorsed a history of DSH, sense of control was positively associated with DSH frequency. Desire for control was not associated with either CM or DSH.

Psychology Department.

Simons, Jeffrey S., T. A. Wills, & D. J. Neal. (2014). The Many Faces of Affect: A Multilevel Model of Drinking Frequency/Quantity and Alcohol Dependence Symptoms Among Young Adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 123(3), 676-694.

This research tested a multilevel structural equation model of associations between 3 aspects of affective functioning (state affect, trait affect, and affective lability) and 3 alcohol outcomes (likelihood of drinking, quantity on drinking days, and dependence symptoms) in a sample of 263 college students. Participants provided 49 days of experience sampling data over 1.3 years in a longitudinal burst design. Within-person results: At the daily level, positive affect was directly associated with greater likelihood and quantity of alcohol consumption. Daily negative affect was directly associated with higher consumption on drinking days and with higher dependence symptoms. Between-person direct effects: Affect lability was associated with higher trait negative, but not positive, affect. Trait positive affect was inversely associated with the proportion of drinking days, whereas negative affectivity predicted a greater proportion of drinking days. Affect lability exhibited a direct association with dependence symptoms. Between-person indirect effects: Trait positive affect was associated with fewer dependence symptoms via proportion of drinking days. Trait negative affect was associated with greater dependence symptoms via proportion of drinking days. The results distinguish relations of positive and negative affect to likelihood versus amount of drinking and state versus trait drinking outcomes, and highlight the importance of affect variability for predicting alcohol dependence symptoms.

Psychology Department.

Chatterjee, Archana. (2014). The next generation of HPV vaccines: nonavalent vaccine V503 on the horizon. Expert Review of Vaccines, 13(11), 1279-1290.

HPV infection with ‘high-risk’ genotypes is associated with ano-genital and oropharyngeal cancers. Two currently licensed prophylactic HPV vaccines designed to prevent disease associated with HPV 16 and 18 are in use around the world. Both vaccines have very high efficacy for prevention of vaccine type-associated cervical precancers, preventing approximately 70% of these lesions. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine has also been shown to prevent HPV16/18-associated vaginal, vulvar and anal precancers, and HPV6/11-associated ano-genital warts. To broaden protection against HPV genotypes not in the current vaccines, ‘second-generation’ vaccines with additional genotypes are under development. Merck, Sharp and Dohme has submitted a Biologics License Application for its investigational nonavalent HPV vaccine V503 to the US FDA, with standard review being granted. The nonavalent HPV vaccine appears to be safe and effective in preventing persistent infection and precancerous lesions associated with HPV types 16/18/31/33/45/52/58, as well as genital warts related to HPV types 6 and 11.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Hanson, Jessica D., Tracey R. McMahon, Emily R. Griese, & DenYelle B. Kenyon. (2014). Understanding Gender Roles in Teen Pregnancy Prevention among American Indian Youth. American Journal of Health Behavior, 38(6), 807-815.

Objectives: To examine the impact of gender norms on American Indian (AI) adolescents’ sexual health behavior. Methods: The project collected qualitative data at a reservation site and an urban site through 24 focus groups and 20 key informant interviews. Results: The reasons that AI youth choose to abstain or engage in sexual intercourse and utilize contraception vary based on gender ideologies defined by the adolescent’s environment. These include social expectations from family and peers, defined roles within relationships, and gender empowerment gaps. Conclusions: Gender ideology plays a large role in decisions about contraception and sexual activity for AI adolescents, and it is vital to include re-definitions of gender norms within AI teen pregnancy prevention program.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Liaw, Winston, Sarah Coleman, Andrew Bazemore, & Mark K. Huntington. (2014). Another risk to US travelers—malaria. Journal of Family Practice, 63(11), E1-E7.

The article provides preventive measures for international travelers to limit risk of endemic disease malaria. It notes the necessity of reviewing the itineraries and health data of the travelers and educating patients. It recommends nonpharmacologic interventions even for those administering chemoprophylaxis with consideration of the location, comparative antimalarial agent side effects and dosage requirement.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

May, Philip A., Amy Baete, Jaymi Russo, Amy J. Elliott, Jason Blankenship, Wendy O. Kalberg, . . . H. Eugene Hoyme. (2014). Prevalence and Characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Pediatrics, 134(5), 855-866.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) among first grade students (6- to 7-year-olds) in a representative Midwestern US community. METHODS: From a consented sample of 70.5% of all first graders enrolled in public and private schools, an oversample of small children (≤25th percentile on height, weight, and head circumference) and randomly selected control candidates were examined for physical growth, development, dysmorphology, cognition, and behavior. The children’s mothers were interviewed for maternal risk. RESULTS: Total dysmorphology scores differentiate significantly fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) from one another and from unexposed controls. Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) is not as clearly differentiated from controls. Children who had FASD performed, on average, significantly worse on 7 cognitive and behavioral tests and measures. The most predictive maternal risk variables in this community are late recognition of pregnancy, quantity of alcoholic drinks consumed 3 months before pregnancy, and quantity of drinking reported for r the index child’s father. From the final multidisciplinary case findings, 3 techniques were used to estimate prevalence. FAS in this community likely ranges from 6 to 9 per 1000 children (midpoint, 7.5), PFAS from 11 to 17 per 1000 children (midpoint, 14), and the total rate of FASD is estimated at 24 to 48 per 1000 children, or 2.4% to 4.8% (midpoint, 3.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Children who have FASD are more prevalent among first graders in this Midwestern city than predicted by previous, popular estimates.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Munce, Thayne A., Jason C. Dorman, Tryg O. Odney, Paul A. Thompson, Verle D. Valentine, & Michael F. Bergeron. (2014). Effects of Youth Football on Selected Clinical Measures of Neurologic Function: A Pilot Study. Journal of Child Neurology, 29(12), 1601-1607.

We assessed 10 youth football players (13.4 ± 0.7 y) immediately before and after their season to explore the effects of football participation on selected clinical measures of neurologic function. Postseason postural stability in a closed-eye condition was improved compared to preseason (P = .017). Neurocognitive testing with the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery revealed that reaction time was significantly faster at postseason (P = .015). There were no significant preseason versus postseason differences in verbal memory (P = .507), visual memory (P = .750), or visual motor speed (P = .087). Oculomotor performance assessed by the King-Devick test was moderately to significantly improved (P = .047-.115). A 12-week season of youth football did not impair the postural stability, neurocognitive function, or oculomotor performance measures of the players evaluated. Though encouraging, continued and more comprehensive investigations of this at-risk population are warranted.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Sherman, M. E., M. Piedmonte, P. L. Mai, ….., Maria C. Bell, S. V. Blank, . . . M. H. Greene. (2014). Pathologic Findings at Risk-Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy: Primary Results From Gynecologic Oncology Group Trial GOG-0199. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 32(29), 3275-+.

Purpose Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) lowers mortality from ovarian/tubal and breast cancers among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Uncertainties persist regarding potential benefits of RRSO among high-risk noncarriers, optimal surgical age, and anatomic origin of clinically occult cancers detected at surgery. To address these topics, we analyzed surgical treatment arm results from Gynecologic Oncology Group Protocol-0199 (GOG-0199), the National Ovarian Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Study. Participants and Methods This analysis included asymptomatic high-risk women age >= 30 years who elected RRSO at enrollment. Women provided risk factor data and underwent preoperative cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) serum testing and transvaginal ultrasound (TVU). RRSO specimens were processed according to a standardized tissue processing protocol and underwent central pathology panel review. Research-based BRCA1/2 mutation testing was performed when a participant’s mutation status was unknown at enrollment. Relationships between participant characteristics and diagnostic findings were assessed using univariable statistics and multivariable logistic regression. Results Invasive or intraepithelial ovarian/tubal/peritoneal neoplasms were detected in 25 (2.6%) of 966 RRSOs (BRCA1 mutation carriers, 4.6%; BRCA2 carriers, 3.5%; and noncarriers, 0.5%; P < .001). In multivariable models, positive BRCA1/2 mutation status (P = .0056), postmenopausal status (P = .0023), and abnormal CA-125 levels and/or TVU examinations (P < .001) were associated with detection of clinically occult neoplasms at RRSO. For 387 women with negative BRCA1/2 mutation testing and normal CA-125 levels, findings at RRSO were benign. Conclusion Clinically occult cancer was detected among 2.6% of high-risk women undergoing RRSO. BRCA1/2 mutation, postmenopausal status, and abnormal preoperative CA-125 and/or TVU were associated with cancer detection at RRSO. These data can inform management decisions among women at high risk of ovarian/tubal cancer. (C) 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Stevens, D. C., Paul A. Thompson, C. C. Helseth, B. Hsu, M. Akram Khan, & D. P. Munson. (2014). A comparison of the direct cost of care in an open-bay and single-family room NICU. Journal of Perinatology, 34(11), 830-835.

Objective:This research examined the proposition that the direct costs of care were no different in an open-bay (OPBY) as compared with a single-family room (SFR) neonatal intensive care (NICU) environment.Study Design:This was a sequential cohort study.Result:General linear models were implemented using clinical and cost data for all neonates admitted to the two cohorts studied. Costs were adjusted to year 2007 U.S. dollars. Models were constructed for the unadjusted regression and subsequently by adding demographic variables, treatment variables, length of respiratory support and length of stay. With the exception of the last, none were found to achieve significance. The full model had R2=0.799 with P=0.0095 and predicted direct costs of care less in the SFR NICU.Conclusion:For the time, location and administrative practices in place, this study demonstrates that care can be provided in the SFR NICU at no additional cost as compared with OPBY NICU.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Yoshida, T., Y. Yoshioka, H. Takahashi, ….., Yasuhiro Abe, Y. Mukai, . . . Y. Tsutsumi. (2014). Intestinal absorption and biological effects of orally administered amorphous silica particles. Nanoscale Research Letters, 9, 7.

Although amorphous silica nanoparticles are widely used in the production of food products (e.g., as anticaking agents), there is little information available about their absorption and biological effects after oral exposure. Here, we examined the in vitro intestinal absorption and in vivo biological effects in mice of orally administered amorphous silica particles with diameters of 70, 300, and 1,000 nm (nSP70, mSP300, and mSP1000, respectively) and of nSP70 that had been surface-modified with carboxyl or amine groups (nSP70-C and nSP70-N, respectively). Analysis of intestinal absorption by means of the everted gut sac method combined with an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer showed that the intestinal absorption of nSP70-C was significantly greater than that of nSP70. The absorption of nSP70-N tended to be greater than that of nSP70; however, the results were not statistically significant. Our results indicate that silica nanoparticles can be absorbed through the intestine and that particle diameter and surface properties are major determinants of the degree of absorption. We also examined the biological effects of the silica particles after 28-day oral exposure in mice. Hematological, histopathological, and biochemical analyses showed no significant differences between control mice and mice treated with the silica particles, suggesting that the silica nanoparticles evaluated in this study are safe for use in food production.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Quatman-Yates, C., J. Hugentobler, Robin Ammon, N. Mwase, B. Kurowski, & G. D. Myer. (2014). The Utility of the Balance Error Scoring System for Mild Brain Injury Assessments in Children and Adolescents. Physician and Sportsmedicine, 42(3), 32-38.

The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) is widely recognized as an acceptable assessment of postural control for adult patients following a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion. However, the measurement properties of the BESS as a post-mTBI assessment test for younger patients are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of the BESS as a post-mTBI assessment test for children and adolescents aged 8 to 18 years through 2 investigations: (1) a retrospective medical records review of the relationship among age, BESS scores, and other common post-mTBI assessment tests; and (2) a prospective study comparing BESS scores for a cohort of children with a recent mTBI and BESS scores for a cohort of matched healthy peers. Age was found to be significantly correlated with several of the BESS measures and the total BESS score (P < 0.05). Significant differences were observed between the injured and healthy cohorts for 3 of the BESS measures and the total BESS score. However, the observed differences were not likely to be clinically meaningful. Cumulatively, evidence from the literature and the results of these studies indicate that the BESS may be limited for producing accurate assessments of younger athletes’ post-mTBI postural control abilities. Future research recommendations include testing of modified versions of the BESS or other alternatives for post-mTBI postural control assessments with younger individuals.

School of Education.

Stachowitz, Annie L., Hee-Sook Choi, & Amy Schweinle. (2014). THE USE OF THE BASC-2 FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF FEMALE ADOLESCENTS AT RISK FOR DEVELOPING AN EATING DISORDER. Psychology in the Schools, 51(10), 1063-1075.

Eating disorders, disordered eating, and body dissatisfaction prevalence rates are on the rise among adolescent females. The present study examined the potential use of a commonly used social-emotional instrument, the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2), for detecting the presence of possible eating disorders in adolescent females in a school setting. Participants included 65 female adolescents aged 13 to 17 years from Midwestern public middle and high schools. The Eating Disorder Inventory-Third Edition was used to determine eating disorder risk and level of body dissatisfaction. Those adolescents at risk for developing an eating disorder differed significantly on 12 of the 16 BASC-2 scales, whereas four of these scales were also in the clinically significant range according to the BASC-2 normative sample. A common profile of a female adolescent at risk for developing an eating disorder was explored. Implications of the findings and recommendations for future research are discussed.

School of Education.

Yom, Jae P., K. J. Simpson, S. W. Arnett, & C. N. Brown. (2014). The Effects of a Lateral In-flight Perturbation on Lower Extremity Biomechanics During Drop Landings. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 30(5), 655-662.

One potential ACL injury situation is due to contact with another person or object during the flight phase, thereby causing the person to land improperly. Conversely, athletes often have flight-phase collisions but do land safely. Therefore, to better understand ACL injury causation and methods by which people typically land safely, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an in-flight perturbation on the lower extremity biomechanics displayed by females during typical drop landings. Seventeen collegiate female recreational athletes performed baseline landings, followed by either unexpected laterally-directed perturbation or sham (nonperturbation) drop landings. We compared baseline and perturbation trials using paired-samples t tests (P < .05) and 95% confidence intervals for lower-extremity joint kinematics and kinetics and GRF. The results demonstrated that perturbation landings compared with baseline landings exhibited more extended joint positions of the lower extremity at initial contact; and, during landing, greater magnitudes for knee abduction and hip adduction displacements; peak magnitudes of vertical and medial GRF; and maximum moments of ankle extensors, knee extensors, and adductor and hip adductors. We conclude that a lateral in-flight perturbation leads to abnormal GRF and angular motions and joint moments of the lower extremity.

School of Education.

Kunsook Song, Bernstein, Cho Sunhee, Roh Soonhee, T. Nguyen My Hanh, Chen Daniel, Chiu Ya-Lin, & Bang Heejung. (2014). Development and Psychometric Testing of the Mental Health Service Barrier Assessment Instrument. Journal of Theory Construction & Testing, 18(2), 40-49.

The aim of this study was to develop and test an instrument identifying barriers to utilization of mental health services among Korean Americans. A 41-item initial instrument representing barriers to mental health services among Korean Americans was developed based on a literature review. Items were reduced to a final 22-item mental health service barrier assessment (MHSBA) instrument. The final instrument was evaluated by a sample of 256 Korean American community residents. Assessment of the scale was based on internal consistency estimates and principal components analysis. Simple and multiple linear regressions were used to reveal relationship between participants’ characteristics and the overall MHSBA instrument. Reliability of the instrument was high, with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.93. “Years of stay in the US” was negatively associated with the barrier score (p<0.0001) and higher education was associated with higher barrier (p=.009). People who had medical insurance (p=.05) and who were confident in speaking English (p=.003) tended to have a lower barrier score. The MHSBA has demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties, reflecting cultural understanding of the relevance and comprehension of health-care access in this population. Further studies are warranted.

School of Health Sciences.

Simmons, Thomas E. (2014). The ‘Evil Child’ in Literature, Film and Popular Culture. Journal of Popular Culture, 47(4), 899-902.

School of Law.


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