Posted by: katybug23 | January 20, 2011

November-December 2010

Bergeron, Michael F. (2010).  “The Young Athlete: Challenges of Growth, Development, and Society.” Current Sports Medicine Reports. 9, no. (Nov-Dec): 356-58.

 The young athlete: challenges of growth, development, and society. Curr. Sports Med. Rep., Vol. 9, No. 6, pp. 356-358, 2010. Youth sports provide numerous health-enhancing and other important benefits to participating children and adolescents. However, the motivations and goals of young athletes often conflict with those of adult stakeholders, and they are redirected. The youth sports industry has become exclusionary, as the professional model of development increasingly is prevalent and accepted. Youth who follow this model often cannot keep up with the unrealistic expectations and excessive demands. Too much play, training, travel, and pressure frequently lead to a variety of physical and psychological problems, particularly concurrent with the vulnerability of a young athlete going through pre- or early adolescence and the rapid growth phase. The need for alternative models, emphasizing fun and fundamentals, is becoming increasingly clear and urgent. With appropriate changes, youth sports once again can be an effective entry point for a lifetime of healthy sports participation and enjoyment.

 Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

 Breuninger, Scott. (2010).  “Planting an Asylum for Religion: Berkeley’s Bermuda Scheme and the Transmission of Virtue in the Eighteenth-Century Atlantic World.” Journal of Religious History. 34414-29.

 Following the aftermath of the South Sea bubble, George Berkeley grew disenchanted with British morality and turned his attention to a new project: a missionary college in Bermuda. Not only did he personally lobby friends and government officials, but he also worked tirelessly to persuade the public of his scheme’s value. To this end, he published his plan under the title A Proposal for the Better Supplying of Churches in Our Foreign Plantations (1724) and at the height of this enthusiasm wrote his only (existent) poem ‘America, or the Muse’s Refuge’ (1725/26). These verses were premised upon a classical commonplace, the notion of a translatio imperii and translatio religionis: the belief in the constant westward migration of empire and religion that provided the foundation of his plan. Through a contextual reading of these two pieces, this paper examines Berkeley’s contributions to early eighteent-century missionary activity in the Atlantic world.

History Department

Cao, Z., X. Sun, C. K. Yeh, and Y. Sun. (2010).  “Rechargeable Infection-Responsive Antifungal Denture Materials.” Journal of Dental Research. 89, no. (Dec): 1517-21.

Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CADS) is a significant clinical concern. We developed rechargeable infection-responsive antifungal denture materials for potentially managing the disease. Polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) was covalently bound onto diurethane dimethacrylate denture resins in the curing step. The PMAA resins bound cationic antifungal drugs such as miconazole and chlorhexidine digluconate (CG) through ionic interactions. The anticandidal activities of the drug-containing PMAA-resin discs were sustained for a prolonged period of time (weeks and months). Drug release was much faster at acidic conditions (pH 5) than at pH 7. Drugs bound to the denture materials could be “washed out” by treatment with EDTA, and the drug-depleted resins could be recharged with the same or a different class of anticandidal drugs. These results suggest clinical potential of the newly developed antifungal denture materials in the management of CADS and other infectious conditions.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

DeMots, Rachel L., James M. Novak, Karen F. Gaines, Aaron J. Gregor, and Daniel A. Soluk. (2010).  “Tissue-Diet Discrimination Factors and Turnover of Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes in White-Footed Mice (Peromyscus Leucopus).” Canadian Journal of Zoology. 88961-67.

Stable isotope analysis has become an increasingly valuable tool in investigating animal ecology. Here we document the turnover rates for carbon in the liver, muscle, and whole blood tissue, as well as the tissue-diet discrimination values for carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the liver, whole blood, muscle, and hair, of the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque, 1818)). A 168-day diet-switching experiment was conducted with a laboratory population of white-footed mice. The δ<sup>13</sup>C values for all tissues deviated less than 1‰ from those of the diet except for whole blood, which had a slightly higher tissue-diet discrimination factor of 1.8‰. All tissues were enriched in <sup>15</sup>N by approximately 3‰ relative to the diet except for liver tissue, which was 4.5‰ higher than the dietary δ<sup>15</sup>N value. Turnover rates for tissues of white-footed mice were ranked liver > whole blood > muscle. The half-lives calculated for liver tissue differed significantly between the two diet switches performed in this experiment. We demonstrate that there is potential for variation in tissue-diet discrimination values and tissue turnover rates between even closely related species. These findings highlight the importance of determining species-specific estimates of these parameters prior to the use of stable isotope analysis in field investigations of animal ecology.

 Biology Department

 Huntington, Mark K., and Fredric H. Thanel. (2010).  “Rational Screening Strategies.” S D Med. 63, no. (2010): 379-81.

 Screening for disease can significantly improve both individual and public health. Many different screening interventions have been proposed for a wide range of conditions. This article reviews the elements that make up an effective clinical screening test and discusses what it means to effectively detect and treat a condition, risks and benefits of screening and the measurement of outcomes from screening.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

Ikiugu, Moses N. (2010).  “The New Occupational Therapy Paradigm: Implications for Integration of the Psychosocial Core of Occupational Therapy in All Clinical Specialties.” Occupational Therapy in Mental Health. 26343-53.

In this paper, it is argued that the new occupational therapy paradigm includes a core of psychosocial skills, consistent with the profession’s historical roots in mental health. It is proposed that contrary to the declining presence of occupational therapy in mental health, psychosocial interventions should be explicitly integrated in all professional practice, such that occupational therapy will become the profession of choice in addressing psychosocial issues of all clients irrespective of clinical specialty. A case study is presented as an example to demonstrate how this explicit integration may be achieved in physical rehabilitation.

School of Health Sciences

Lenze, E. J., A. M. Goate, P. Nowotny, Paul A. Thompson, C. Andreescu, and B. G. Pollock. (2010).  “Relation of Serotonin Transporter Genetic Variation to Efficacy of Escitalopram for Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Older Adults.” Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 30, no. (Dec): 672-77.

Objective: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is common in older adults and can be treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Genetic variation in the serotonin transporter gene promoter region is posited to be associated with SSRI efficacy: 2 polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR S/L and rs25531 g/a) form a haplotype with the La combination having higher transcription activity than other haplotypes. We hypothesized that GAD patients with no La haplotypes (La-) have lower SSRI treatment efficacy than those with 1 to 2 La haplotypes (La+). Method: The study enrolled subjects aged 60 years or older with a principal diagnosis of GAD into a 12-week, randomized trial of escitalopram versus placebo. One hundred fifty subjects were genotyped for the serotonin transporter promoter region haplotype and were divided into La- and La+ genotype groups; the primary analyses were done in European Americans only (n = 125; n = 59 with escitalopram and n = 66 with placebo). Results: Escitalopram had no efficacy in the Laj group versus moderate efficacy in the La+ group. This genetic moderation of SSRI efficacy was due to a higher placebo response in Laj subjects, compared with La+ subjects. Drug concentration did not affect the genetic results. Exploratory analyses suggest that Laj subjects had greater variability of anxiety symptoms unrelated to treatment. Conclusions: The serotonin transporter promoter haplotype is associated with variability in SSRI efficacy for late-life GAD. The variability may result from a genetic effect on anxiety symptom variability unrelated to treatment, rather than a pharmacodynamic effect that has been previously assumed. Further research is needed to understand the pharmacogenetic mechanism of this haplotype.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus 

McKechnie, Andrew E., and David L. Swanson. (2010).  “Sources and Significance of Variation in Basal, Summit and Maximal Metabolic Rates in Birds.” Current Zoology. 56741-58.

The rates at which birds use energy may have profound effects on fitness, thereby influencing physiology, behavior, ecology and evolution. Comparisons of standardized metabolic rates (e. g., lower and upper limits of metabolic power output) present a method for elucidating the effects of ecological and evolutionary factors on the interface between physiology and life history in birds. In this paper we review variation in avian metabolic rates [basal metabolic rate (BMR; minimum normothermic metabolic rate), summit metabolic rate (M-sum; maximal thermoregulatory metabolic rate), and maximal metabolic rate (MMR; maximal exercise metabolic rate)], the factors associated with this variation, the evidence for functional links between these metabolic traits, and the ecological and evolutionary significance of avian metabolic diversity. Both lower and upper limits to metabolic power production are phenotypically flexible traits, and vary in association with numerous ecological and evolutionary factors. For both inter- and intraspecific comparisons, lower and upper limits to metabolic power production are generally upregulated in response to energetically demanding conditions and downregulated when energetic demands are relaxed, or under conditions of energetic scarcity. Positive correlations have been documented between BMR, M-sum and MMR in some, but not all studies on birds, providing partial support for the idea of a functional link between lower and upper limits to metabolic power production, but more intraspecific studies are needed to determine the robustness of this conclusion. Correlations between BMR and field metabolic rate (or daily energy expenditure) in birds are variable, suggesting that the linkage between these traits is subject to behavioral adjustment, and studies of the relationship between field and maximal metabolic rates are lacking. Our understanding of avian metabolic diversity would benefit from future studies of: (1) the functional and mechanistic links between lower and upper limits of metabolic power output; (2) the environmental and ecological cues driving phenotypically flexible metabolic responses, and how responses to such cues might impact population responses to climate change; (3) the shapes of metabolic reaction norms and their association with environmental variability; and (4) the relationship of metabolic variation to fitness, including studies of repeatability and heritability of minimum and maximum metabolic power output [Current Zoology 56 (6): 741-758, 2010].

Biology Department

Meng, Qingguo G., Robert J. Witte, Yajuan J. Gong, Elizabeth L. Day, Jiangchao C. Chen, P. Stanley May, and Mary T. Berry. (2010).  “Thin Film Deposition and Photodissociation Mechanisms for Lanthanide Oxide Production from Tris(2,2,6,6-Tetramethyl-3,5-Heptanedionato)-Ln(Iii) in Laser-Assisted Mocvd.” Chemistry of Materials. 22, no. (Nov): 6056-64.

Photoionization mass spectrometry reveals details of the multistep unimolecular mechanism, whereby the 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato (thd(-)) anionic ligand decomposes, while still bound in the metal complex, to yield a gas-phase metal oxide product in metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of lanthanide oxides from Ln(thd)3 precursors. The decomposition occurs with stepwise elimination of small closed-shell hydrocarbon fragments and carbon monoxide up to a penultimate Ln(OC2H) ethyneoxide, from which both LnO (dominant) and LnC(2) (minor) products are derived. Formation of the metal oxide and carbide occurs in competition with a previously described mechanism(1-3) wherein sequential dissociation of ligand radicals produces the reduced metal Ln(0). Evidence for gas-phase formation of a Ln(2)(thd)(6) dimer as a result of expansion-cooling in the precursor source assembly is also given. Laser-assisted MOCVD of Eu(thd)(3) on silica, with subsequent exposure to atmosphere, produces amorphous Eu2O3 with small areas of crystallinity attributed to reaction of the oxide with atmospheric carbon dioxide and water.

Chemistry Department

Mirtz, Timothy A., Jeffrey J. Hebert, and Lawrence H. Wyatt. (2010).  “Attitudes of Non-Practicing Chiropractors: A Pilot Survey Concerning Factors Related to Attrition.” Chiropr Osteopat. 18, no. (2010 Nov): 29.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Research into attitudes about chiropractors who are no longer engaged in active clinical practice is non-existent. Yet non-practicing chiropractors (NPCs) represent a valid sub-group worthy of study. AIM: The purpose of this research was to assess attrition attitudes of NPCs about the chiropractic profession and develop a scale to assess such attitudes. METHODS: A 48 item survey was developed using the PsychData software. This survey included 35 Likert-style items assessing various aspects of the profession namely financial, educational, psychosocial and political. An internet discussion site where NPCs may be members was accessed for recruitment purposes. RESULTS: A total of 70 valid responses were received for analysis. A majority of respondents were male with 66% being in non-practice status for 3 to 5 years and less with 43% indicating that they had graduated since the year 2000. Most respondents were employed either in other healthcare professions and non-chiropractic education. A majority of NPCs believed that business ethics in chiropractic were questionable and that overhead expense and student loans were factors in practice success. A majority of NPCs were in associate practice at one time with many believing that associates were encouraged to prolong the care of patients and that associate salaries were not fair. Most NPCs surveyed believed that chiropractic was not a good career choice and would not recommend someone to become a chiropractor. From this survey, a 12 item scale was developed called the “chiropractor attrition attitude scale” for future research. Reliability analysis of this novel scale demonstrated a coefficient alpha of 0.90. CONCLUSION: The low response rate indicates that findings cannot be generalized to the NPC population. This study nonetheless demonstrates that NPCs attrition attitudes can be assessed. The lack of a central database of NPCs is a challenge to future research. Appropriate investigation of attrition within the chiropractic profession would be helpful in the analysis of attitudes regarding both chiropractic education and practice. Further research is needed in this area.

School of Education

 Monroe, Emy. M., Colleen Lynch, Daniel A. Soluk, and Hugh B. Britten. (2010).  “Nonlethal Tissue Sampling Techniques and Microsatellite Markers Used for First Report of Genetic Diversity in Two Populations of the Endangered Somatochlora Hineana (Odonata: Corduliidae).” Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 103, no. (Nov): 1012-17. 

Techniques for obtaining DNA noninvasively or nonlethally are highly desirable in molecular genetic studies of protected species, and several advances have been made in these types of sampling and extraction techniques. Insects present a unique set of difficulties in this regard that are not present when working with most vertebrates. This study evaluated the effectiveness of several nonlethal sampling techniques for larval and adults of the federally listed endangered dragonfly Somatochlora hineana (Williamson) (Odonata: Corduliidae). Fecal pellets and shed exuviae from captive S. hineana larvae did not provide high enough quality DNA for microsatellite analyses. Invasive, but nonlethal, wing clips from adults and tarsi from larvae provided high-quality DNA that amplified 10 microsatellite markers for this species. Ten loci were polymorphic in 94 specimens with four to 14 alleles per locus. Two populations in WI had average observed heterozygosity of 0.47, which is within the range reported for other donates. Our sampling techniques and these new microsatellite markers provide an essential tool for determining the genetic structure of S. hineana populations throughout its range.

Biology Department 

Nguyen, Loc T., B. Ciric, V. P. Van Keulen, M. Rodriguez, L. R. Pease, K. Tamada, D. B. Flies, and L. P. Chen. (2010).  “Immunotherapeutic Potential of B7-Dc (Pd-L2) Cross-Linking Antibody in Conferring Antitumor Immunity (Retraction of Vol 64, Pg 4965, 2004).” Cancer Research. 70, no. (Nov): 9528-28.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus 

Schweinle, William, William Ickes, Kathryn Rollings, and Colette Jacquot. (2010).  “Maritally Aggressive Men: Angry, Egocentric, Impulsive, and/or Biased.” Journal of Language & Social Psychology. 29399-424. 

This research explored the relationships between the language that 86 married men used to describe their marriages, other personal characteristics of the men, and the men’s wife-directed aggression. Methods included linguistic inquiry word count analysis, temperament measures, an empathic accuracy-type paradigm, and signal detection analysis. Husbands’ use of anger words and egocentric words in describing their marriages, along with husbands’ impulsivity, critical/rejecting overattribution bias, and attentional disorder/ impairment predicted the men’s wife-directed aggression. Multiple regression and moderation analyses revealed that men’s use of anger words and first-person pronouns in describing their own marriages were unique predictors of their wife-directed aggression. Also, men’s critical/rejecting overattribution bias and impulsivity interacted to predict the men’s wife-directed aggression. Results are discussed in terms different wife-abuser subtypes and their implications for the treatment of aggressive husbands.

School of Health Sciences 

Shylesh, Sankaranarayanapillai, Zhou Zhou, Qingguo Meng, Alex Wagener, Andreas Seifert, Stefan Ernst, and Werner R. Thiel. (2010).  “Sustainable, Green Protocols for Heterogenized Organocatalysts: N-Phenylthiazolium Salts Heterogenized on Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Mesoporous Supports.” Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemistry. 33265-69. 

Abstract: A heterogenized organocatalyst was synthesized by the covalent anchoring of N-phenyl-thiazolium salts over mesoporous organosilica (phenylene–silica, ethane–silica) and mesoporous silica (MCM-41) supports. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns as well as nitrogen physisorption analysis confirmed the retention of mesoporous structure after the grafting reactions. Solid-state NMR analysis (<sup>13</sup>C CP-MAS NMR, <sup>29</sup>Si MAS NMR) certified the integrity of organocatalyst residing inside the pore channels of the mesoporous supports. Catalytic evaluation in the benzoin condensation reaction as well as in the cross-coupling of aldehydes with acyl imines indicated that the organocatalyst heterogenized on mesoporous phenylene organosilica exhibited higher catalytic activity, stability and reusability than the analogous mesoporous silica support. The better activity and stability of the phenylene–silica support was attributed to the enhanced hydrophobic properties arising from the frame wall organic groups.

Chemistry Department 

Son, Jung-Ho, Michael A. Pudenz, and James D. Hoefelmeyer. (2010).  “Reactivity of the Bifunctional Ambiphilic Molecule 8-(Dimesitylboryl)Quinoline: Hydrolysis and Coordination to Cu(I), Ag(I) and Pd(Ii).” Dalton Trans. 39, no. (2010 Dec 7 (Epub 2010 Oct): 11081-90. 

The ambiphilic molecule 8-(dimesitylboryl)quinoline (1) was synthesized by treatment of 8-bromoquinoline or 8-iodoquinoline with n-BuLi followed by dimesitylboronfluoride. Hydrolysis of 1 is unusually rapid compared to bulky triorganoboranes with the sequential loss of mesitylene and formation of mesityl(quinolin-8-yl)borinic acid (2) and 8-quinoline boronic acid dimer (3). Cooperativity within the bifunctional ambiphilic site leads to water activation and protodeboronation of the B-C(Mes) bonds. Blocking of the ambiphilic site of 1 by methylation of the quinoline nitrogen atom leads to an air-stable N-methyl-quinolinium salt. Coordination complexes were formed by reaction of 1 with CuCl, Ag(OTf), and PdCl(2)(PhCN)(2) with coordination of the quinolinyl nitrogen to the metal ion. The Cu(I) and Ag(I) centers are stabilized by (3)-BC(ipso)C(ortho) -interaction. The isolated Pd(II) complex is a product of cyclometalation, resulting from elimination of HCl upon deprotonation of the ortho-methyl group of nearby mesityl. The bonding in 7 could be understood as a 16-electron Pd complex that features an anionic (3)-C(ipso)-C(ortho)-C(benzyl) allylic ligand fragment plus a Pd B bond, or an (4)-BC(ipso)-C(ortho)-C(benzyl) boratabutadiene anion fragment.

Chemistry Department 

Sun, X. B., Z. B. Cao, N. Porteous, and Y. Y. Sun. (2010).  “Amine, Melamine, and Amide N-Halamines as Antimicrobial Additives for Polymers.” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 49, no. (Nov): 11206-13. 

N-Chloro-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinol laurate (Cl-TMPL) was prepared by reacting 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinol hydrochloride (TMP center dot HCl) with lauroyl chloride, followed by chlorination with sodium dichloroisocyanurate. The chemical structure of Cl-TMPL was characterized with FT-IR, NMR, DSC, and TGA analyses. The antimicrobial performance of Cl-TMPL against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was compared with 1-chloro-3-dodecyl-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (Cl-DDMH), an amide N-halamine, and chloro-2,4-diamino-6-dodecyl-1,3,5-triazine (Cl-DADT), a melamine (imino) N-halamine. The three classes of N-halamines were used as additives for polyurethane (PU). Visible light transparency data indicated that up to 6% of Cl-DDMH or Cl-DADT could be compatibly mixed with PU, but Cl-TMPL had low compatibility with PU at higher than 2% of Cl-TMPL. With the same additive content, Cl-DDMH and Cl-DADT provided more powerful antimicrobial and biofilm-controlling effects than Cl-TMPL. In stability studies, however, PU samples with Cl-TMPL released the lowest amount of active chlorine into the immersing solution, suggesting the highest stability of the antimicrobial and biofilm-controlling efficacy.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus 

Swanson, David L. “Seasonal Metabolic Variation in Birds: Functional and Mechanistic Correlates ” In Current Ornithology, edited by Charles F. Thompson, p. cm. Boston: Springer, 2010.

Biology Department 

Tang, Mingxin, Jie Li, Wei Huang, Huabro Su, Qiangrong Liang, Zongwen Tian, Kathleen M. Horak, Jeffery D. Molkentin, and Xuejun Wang. (2010).  “Proteasome Functional Insufficiency Activates the Calcineurin–Nfat Pathway in Cardiomyocytes and Promotes Maladaptive Remodelling of Stressed Mouse Hearts.” Cardiovascular Research. 88424-33. 

Aims Proteasome functional insufficiency (PFI) may play an important role in the progression of congestive heart failure but the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Calcineurin and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) are degraded by the proteasome, and the calcineurin–NFAT pathway mediates cardiac remodelling. The present study examined the hypothesis that PFI activates the calcineurin–NFAT pathway and promotes maladaptive remodelling of the heart. Methods and results Using a reporter gene assay, we found that pharmacological inhibition of 20S proteasomes stimulated NFAT transactivation in both mouse hearts and cultured adult mouse cardiomyocytes. Proteasome inhibition stimulated NFAT nuclear translocation in a calcineurin-dependent manner and led to a maladaptive cell shape change in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Proteasome inhibition facilitated left ventricular dilatation and functional decompensation and increased fatality in mice with aortic constriction while causing cardiac hypertrophy in the sham surgery group. It was further revealed that both calcineurin protein levels and NFAT transactivation were markedly increased in the mouse hearts with desmin-related cardiomyopathy and severe PFI. Expression of an aggregation-prone mutant desmin also directly increased calcineurin protein levels in cultured cardiomyocytes. Conclusions The calcineurin–NFAT pathway in the heart can be activated by proteasome inhibition and is activated in the heart of a mouse model of desmin-related cardiomyopathy that is characterized by severe PFI. The interplay between PFI and the calcineurin–NFAT pathway may contribute to the pathological remodelling of cardiomyocytes characteristic of congestive heart failure.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus 

van Middendorp, Joost J., Gonzalo M. Sanchez, and Alwyn L. Burridge. (2010).  “The Edwin Smith Papyrus: A Clinical Reappraisal of the Oldest Known Document on Spinal Injuries.” European Spine Journal. 191815-23. 

Dating from the seventeenth century b.c. the Edwin Smith papyrus is a unique treatise containing the oldest known descriptions of signs and symptoms of injuries of the spinal column and spinal cord. Based on a recent ‘medically based translation’ of the Smith papyrus, its enclosed treasures in diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic reasoning are revisited. Although patient demographics, diagnostic techniques and therapeutic options considerably changed over time, the documented rationale on spinal injuries can still be regarded as the state-of-the-art reasoning for modern clinical practice.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

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