Posted by: tadeterman | January 17, 2017

December 2016

Bonilla, J. O., Eduardo A. Callegari, C. D. Delfini, M. C. Estevez, & L. B. Villegas. (2016). Simultaneous chromate and sulfate removal by Streptomyces sp MC1. Changes in intracellular protein profile induced by Cr(VI). Journal of Basic Microbiology, 56(11), 1212-1221.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of increasing sulfate concentrations on chromium removal, to evaluate the effect of the presence of Cr(VI) on sulfate removal by Streptomyces sp. MC1 and to analyze the differential protein expression profile in the presence of this metal for the identification of proteins repressed or overexpressed. In the presence of Cr(VI) but in the absence of sulfate ions, bacterial growth was negligible, showing the Cr(VI) toxicity for this bacterium. However, the sulfate presence stimulated bacterium growth and Cr(VI) removal, regardless of its concentrations. Streptomyces sp. MC1 showed ability to remove chromium and sulfate simultaneously. Also, the sulfate presence favored the decrease of total chromium concentration from supernatants reaching a decrease of 50% at 48h. In presence of chromium, seven proteins were down-expressed and showed homology to proteins involved in protein biosynthesis, energy production and free radicals detoxification while two proteins involved in oxidation-reduction processes identified as dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase and S-adenosyl-l-methionine synthase were overexpressed.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Chaudhary, R., K. Saadin, K. P. Bliden, William S. Harris, B. Dinh, T. Sharma, U. S. Tantry, & P. A. Gurbel. (2016). Risk factors associated with plasma omega-3 fatty acid levels in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 113, 40-45.

Introduction: We sought to determine the associations between plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and various cardiovascular risk factors and with the use of fish oil supplements (FOS). Patients and methods: Patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing cardiac catheterization (n = 433) were studied. Serum fatty acid (FA) composition, the concentrations of lipids and biomarkers of oxidative stress, and dietary/lifestyle factors were measured. Results: FOS use was associated with a higher plasma EPA+DHA levels (3.7 +/- 1.5 vs. 2.6 +/- 1.1%, p < 0.0001). However, there was no relationship between FOS dose (mg/day) and EPA+DHA levels in 76 patients reporting FOS use (r = -0.21, p = 0.07). Lower levels were inversely associated with risk factor profiles including lower ApoB100/ApoA1 ratios (p < 0.001). Discussion and conclusions: Higher EPA+DHA levels characterized patients with lower CAD risk. The lack of relations between FOS dose and plasma EPA+DHA levels likely reflects uncaptured variability in EPA+DHA content of supplements. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Chiang, J. Y., Y. L. Lio, & T. R. Tsai. (2016). Empirical Bayesian Strategy for Sampling Plans with Warranty Under Truncated Censoring. International Journal of Reliability QChiauality & Safety Engineering, 23(5), 15.

To reach an optimal acceptance sampling decision for products, whose lifetimes are Burr type XII distribution, sampling plans are developed with a rebate warranty policy based on truncated censored data. The smallest sample size and acceptance number are determined to minimize the expected total cost, which consists of the test cost, experimental time cost, the cost of lot acceptance or rejection, and the warranty cost. A new method, which combines a simple empirical Bayesian method and the genetic algorithm (GA) method, named the EB-GA method, is proposed to estimate the unknown distribution parameter and hyper-parameters. The parameters of the GA are determined through using an optimal Taguchi design procedure to reduce the subjectivity of parameter determination. An algorithm is presented to implement the EB-GA method. The application of the proposed method is illustrated by an example. Monte Carlo simulation results show that the EB-GA method works well for parameter estimation in terms of small bias and mean square error.

Mathematics Department.

 

Collins, B., J. Z. Williams, Heather Karu, J. P. Hodde, V. A. Martin, & G. C. Gurtner. (2016). Nipple Reconstruction with the Biodesign Nipple Reconstruction Cylinder: A Prospective Clinical Study. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery-Global Open, 4(8), 6.

Background: Nipple reconstruction is the last stage in cosmetic reconstruction of the breast after mastectomy, but no method produces reliable and consistent aesthetic results. This study examined the use of the Biodesign Nipple Reconstruction Cylinder (NRC) during reconstruction of the nipple after mastectomy. Methods: Patients with a history of breast cancer and mastectomy desiring nipple reconstruction were invited to participate. After obtaining consent, unilateral or bilateral nipple reconstruction was performed. Skin flaps were raised, the NRC was placed beneath the flaps as a stent, and the site was protected for up to 4 weeks with a nipple shield. Nipple projection was measured for 12 months after surgery. Patient satisfaction was measured and adverse events were recorded. Follow-up examinations were performed at 1 week, and then at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Results: Eighty-two nipple reconstructions were performed in 50 patients. Related postoperative adverse events were minor, but reported in 8 reconstructions (9.8%) representing 7 patients (14.0%). Average projection at 6 and 12 months was 4.1 +/- 1.6 mm and 3.8 +/- 1.5 mm, respectively, compared with 10.5 +/- 2.2 mm 1 week after surgery. Of patients completing the satisfaction questionnaire at 12 months, 70/75 (93.3%) of reconstructions were rated “pleased” or “very pleased” with the overall outcome. Overall, 45/46 (97.8%) patients would recommend nipple reconstruction to other women. Conclusions: The Biodesign NRC offers a safe alternative to nipple reconstruction, resulting in stable projection and a high level of patient satisfaction for 12 months after placement.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Dellinger, Mayanna. (2016). An “Act of God”? Rethinking Contractual Impracticability in an Era of Anthropogenic Climate Change. Hastings Law Journal, 67(6), 1551-1619.

“Extreme” weather has become the new normal. Previously considered to be inexplicable and unpredictable “acts of God,” such weather can no longer reasonably be said to be so. They are acts of man. The current doctrine of contractual impracticability rests on the notion that a party may be exculpated from contractual liability if supervening events render a performance impracticable, unless they have implicitly or explicitly assumed the risk. To a large extent, courts still consider the foreseeability of the event and an a party’s ability to control it. However, it makes little logical or legal sense to continue to allow parties to escape liability for weather events that are in fact highly foreseeable given today’s knowledge about the causes and effects of severe weather. Some parties may even be found to have had some “control” of the development of the weather event and thus not be able to avoid liability. This Article proposes taking a new, hard look at the doctrine of impracticability and the closely related doctrine of frustration of purpose. By modernizing these doctrines to reflect current on-the-ground reality, the judiciary may further help instigate a broader awareness of the underlying problem and need for corrective action against climate change at both the private and governance scales. Meanwhile, a more equitable risk-sharing framework should be implemented where contracting parties have failed to reach a sufficiently detailed antecedent agreement on the issue. The law is never static. It must reflect real world phenomena. Climate change is a highly complex problem requiring attention and legal solutions for many problems including contractual performance liability. The general public is often said to have lost faith in the judiciary. Given this perception, courts could regain some of that faith in the context of events for which no “God,” other supernatural power, or even nature can be blamed.

School of Law.

 

Dempers, J. J., J. Coldrey, E. H. Burger, …., Brad B. Randall, R. D. Folkerth, H. C. Kinney, & Pass Network. (2016). The Institution of a Standardized Investigation Protocol for Sudden Infant Death in the Eastern Metropole, Cape Town, South Africa. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 61(6), 1508-1514.

The rate for the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in Cape Town, South Africa, is estimated to be among the highest in the world (3.41/1000 live births). In several of these areas, including those of extreme poverty, only sporadic, nonstandardized infant autopsy, and death scene investigation (DSI) occurred. In this report, we detail a feasibility project comprising 18 autopsied infants with sudden and unexpected death whose causes of death were adjudicated according to the 1991 NICHD definitions (SIDS, n = 7; known cause of death, n = 7; and unclassified, n = 4). We instituted a standardized autopsy and infant DSI through a collaborative effort of local forensic pathology officers and clinical providers. The high standard of forensic investigation met international standards, identified preventable disease, and allowed for incorporation of research. We conclude that an effective infant autopsy and DSI protocol can be established in areas with both high sudden unexpected infant death, and elsewhere. (SUID)/SIDS risk and infrastructure challenges.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Haynes, R. L., R. D. Folkerth, D. S. Paterson, K. G. Broadbelt, S. D. Zaharie, R. H. Hewlett, J. J. Dempers, E. Burger, S. Wadee, P. Schubert, C. Wright, M. A. Sens, Laura NelsenBradley B. Randall, H. Tran, E. Geldenhuys, A. J. Elliott, H. J. Odendaal, H. C. Kinney, & Pass Network. (2016). Serotonin Receptors in the Medulla Oblongata of the Human Fetus and Infant: The Analytic Approach of the International Safe Passage Study. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, 75(11), 1048-1057.

The Safe Passage Study is an international, prospective study of approximately 12 000 pregnancies to determine the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) upon stillbirth and the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). A key objective of the study is to elucidate adverse effects of PAE upon binding to serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptors in brainstem homeostatic networks postulated to be abnormal in unexplained stillbirth and/or SIDS. We undertook a feasibility assessment of 5-HT1A receptor binding using autoradiography in the medulla oblongata (6 nuclei in 27 cases). 5-HT1A binding was compared to a reference dataset from the San Diego medical examiner’s system. There was no adverse effect of postmortem interval <= 100 h. The distribution and quantitated values of 5-HT1A binding in Safe Passage Study cases were essentially identical to those in the reference dataset, and virtually identical between stillbirths and live born fetal cases in grossly non-macerated tissues. The pattern of binding was present at mid-gestation with dramatic changes in binding levels in the medullary 5-HT nuclei over the second half of gestation; there was a plateau at lower levels in the neonatal period and into infancy. This study demonstrates feasibility of 5-HT1A binding analysis in the medulla in the Safe Passage Study.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Ikiugu, Moses N., Ashley K. Hoyme, Brittany Mueller, & Rochelle R. Reinke. (2016). Difference between meaningful and psychologically rewarding occupations: Findings from two pilot studies. Journal of Occupational Science, 23(2), 266-277.

Introduction: Meaningful occupations are hypothesized to be healing because they activate the dopaminergic neural pathways in the brain. We investigated whether: 1) self-selected meaningful occupations activated the dopaminergic neural pathways; and 2) there were differences in the categories of occupations that were perceived by study participants to be; a) meaningful, b) psychologically rewarding (likely to activate the dopaminergic or reward neural pathways), and/or c) both meaningful and psychologically rewarding. Method: In study number one, participants’ brains were scanned on fMRI while they watched themselves engaging in various types of occupations. In study number two we used the Experience sampling method and Repeated Measures designs. Findings: Self-selected meaningful occupations did not activate the reward neural pathways as hypothesized. Occupational category had an effect on mood and meaningfulness. Fun occupations elicited the most positive mood, especially when they were mentally stimulating and were performed with other people. Conclusion: Occupations that were both meaningful and psychologically rewarding were mentally stimulating and fostered connection with other people. Psychologically rewarding occupations tended to be perceived as fun, while physically stimulating occupations were perceived as meaningful. A larger study with a more representative sample will be conducted in an attempt to verify these findings.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Lamichhane, Sujan, Jordan Anderson, T. Remund, P. Kelly, & Gopinath Mani. (2016). Dextran sulfate as a drug delivery platform for drug-coated balloons: Preparation, characterization, in vitro drug elution, and smooth muscle cell response. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B-Applied Biomaterials, 104(7), 1416-1430.

Drug-coated balloons (DCBs) have now emerged as a promising approach to treat peripheral artery disease. However, a significant amount of drug from the balloon surface is lost during balloon tracking and results in delivering only a subtherapeutic dose of drug at the diseased site. Hence, in this study, the use of dextran sulfate (DS) polymer was investigated as a platform to control the drug release from balloons. An antiproliferative drug, paclitaxel (PAT), was incorporated into DS films (PAT-DS). The characterizations using SEM, FT-IR, and DSC showed that the films prepared were smooth and homogenous with PAT molecularly dispersed in the bulk of DS matrix in amorphous form. An investigation on the interaction of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with control-DS and PAT-DS films showed that both films inhibited SMC growth, with a superior inhibitory effect observed for PAT-DS films. PAT-DS coatings were then produced on balloon catheters. The integrity of coatings was well-maintained when the balloons were either deflated or inflated. In this study, up to 2.2 mu g/mm(2) of PAT was loaded on the balloons using the DS platform. Drug elution studies showed that only 10 to 20% of the total PAT loaded was released from the PAT-DS coated balloons during the typical time period of balloon tracking (1 min) and then approximate to 80% of the total PAT loaded was released during the typical time period of balloon inflation and treatment (from 1 min to 4 min). Thus, this study demonstrated the use of DS as a platform to control drug delivery from balloons. (c) 2015 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1416-1430, 2016.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Liu, J., M. Yamashita, & A. K. Soma. (2016). Light yield of an undoped CsI crystal coupled directly to a photomultiplier tube at 77 Kelvin. Journal of Instrumentation, 11, 18.

A light yield of 20.4 +/- 0.8 photoelectrons/keV was achieved with an undoped CsI crystal coupled directly to a photomultiplier tube at 77 Kelvin. This is by far the largest yield in the world achieved with CsI crystals. An energy threshold that is several times lower than the current dark matter experiments utilizing CsI(Tl) crystals may be achievable using this technique. Together with novel CsI crystal purification methods, the technique may be used to improve the sensitivities of dark matter and coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments. Also measured were the scintillation light decay constants of the undoped CsI crystal at both room temperature and 77 Kelvin. The results are consistent with those in the literature.

Physics Department.

 

Ragsdale, A. K., B. M. Frederick, D. W. Dukes, Andrea L. Liebl, K. G. Ashton, E. D. McCoy, H. R. Mushinsky, & A. W. Schrey. (2016). Fire Increases Genetic Diversity of Populations of Six-Lined Racerunner. Journal of Heredity, 107(7), 654-659.

Wildfires are highly variable and can disturb habitats, leading to direct and indirect effects on the genetic characteristics of local populations. Florida scrub is a fire-dependent, highly fragmented, and severely threatened habitat. Understanding the effect of fire on genetic characteristics of the species that use this habitat is critically important. We investigated one such lizard, the Six-lined Racerunner (Aspidoscelis sexlineata), which has a strong preference for open areas. We collected Six-lined Racerunners (n = 154) from 11 sites in Highlands County, FL, and defined 2 time-since-last-fire (TSF) categories: recently burned and long unburned. We screened genetic variation at 6 microsatellites to estimate genetic differentiation and compare genetic diversity among sites to determine the relationship with TSF. A clear pattern exists between genetic diversity and TSF in the absence of strong genetic differentiation. Genetic diversity was greater and inbreeding was lower in sites with more recent TSF, and genetic characteristics had significantly larger variance in long unburned sites compared with more recently burned sites. Our results suggest that fire suppression increases variance in genetic characteristics of the Six-lined Racerunner. More generally, fire may benefit genetic characteristics of some species that use fire-dependent habitats and management efforts for such severely fragmented habitat will be challenged by the presence of multiple species with incompatible fire preferences.

Biology Department.

 

Solanki, Rajeshwan R., Jamie L. Scholl, Michael J. Watt, Kenneth J. Renner, & Gina L. Forster. (2016). Amphetamine Withdrawal Differentially Increases the Expression of Organic Cation Transporter 3 and Serotonin Transporter in Limbic Brain Regions. Journal of Experimental Neuroscience, 10, 93-100.

Amphetamine withdrawal increases anxiety and stress sensitivity related to blunted ventral hippocampus (vHipp) and enhances the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) serotonin responses. Extracellular serotonin levels are regulated by the serotonin transporter (SERT) and organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3), and vHipp OCT3 expression is enhanced during 24 hours of amphetamine withdrawal, while SERT expression is unaltered. Here, we tested whether OCT3 and SERT expression in the CeA is also affected during acute withdrawal to explain opposing regional alterations in limbic serotonergic neurotransmission and if respective changes continued with two weeks of withdrawal. We also determined whether changes in transporter expression were confined to these regions. Male rats received amphetamine or saline for two weeks followed by 24 hours or two weeks of withdrawal, with transporter expression measured using Western immunoblot. OCT3 and SERT expression increased in the CeA at both withdrawal timepoints. In the vHipp, OCT3 expression increased only at 24 hours of withdrawal, with an equivalent pattern seen in the dorsomedial hypothalamus. No changes were evident in any other regions sampled. These regionally specific changes in limbic OCT3 and SERT expression may partially contribute to the serotonergic imbalance and negative affect during amphetamine withdrawal.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Wang, Xiao-Tian, Rui Zheng, Yan-Han Xuan, Jie Chen, & Shu Li. (2016). Not All Risks Are Created Equal: A Twin Study and Meta-Analyses of Risk Taking Across Seven Domains. Journal of Experimental Psychology-General, 145(11), 1548-1560.

Humans routinely deal with both traditional and novel risks. Different kinds of risks have been a driving force for both evolutionary adaptations and personal development. This study explored the genetic and environmental influences on human risk taking in different task domains. Our approach was threefold. First, we integrated several scales of domain-specific risk-taking propensity and developed a synthetic scale, including both evolutionarily typical and modern risks in the following 7 domains: cooperation/competition, safety, reproduction, natural/physical risk, moral risk, financial risk, and gambling. Second, we conducted a twin study using the scale to estimate the contributions of genes and environment to risk taking in each of these 7 domains. Third, we conducted a series of meta-analyses of extant twin studies across the 7 risk domains. The results showed that individual differences in risk-taking propensity and its consistency across domains were mainly regulated by additive genetic influences and individually unique environmental experiences. The heritability estimates from the meta-analyses ranged from 29% in financial risk taking to 55% in safety. Supporting the notion of risk-domain specificity, both the behavioral and genetic correlations among the 7 domains were generally low. Among the relatively few correlations between pairs of risk domains, our analysis revealed a common genetic factor that regulates moral, financial, and natural/physical risk taking. This is the first effort to separate genetic and environmental influences on risk taking across multiple domains in a single study and integrate the findings of extant twin studies via a series of meta-analyses conducted in different task domains.

Psychology Department.

 

Wei, W. Z., J. Liu, & D. M. Mei. (2016). Discrimination of nuclear and electronic recoil events using plasma effect in germanium detectors. Journal of Instrumentation, 11, 17.

We report a new method of using the plasma time difference, which results from the plasma effect, between the nuclear and electronic recoil events in high-purity germanium detectors to distinguish these two types of events in the search for rare physics processes. The physics mechanism of the plasma effect is discussed in detail. A numerical model is developed to calculate the plasma time for nuclear and electronic recoils at various energies in germanium detectors. It can be shown that under certain conditions the plasma time difference is large enough to be observable. The experimental aspects in realizing such a discrimination in germanium detectors is discussed.

Physics Department.

 

Zhao, C., X. Chen, D. Zang, …., X. Wang, & J. Liu. (2016). A novel nickel complex works as a proteasomal deubiquitinase inhibitor for cancer therapy. Oncogene, 35(45), 5916-5927.

Based on the central role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in the degradation of cellular proteins, proteasome inhibition has been considered an attractive approach for anticancer therapy. Deubiquitinases (DUBs) remove ubiquitin conjugates from diverse substrates; therefore, they are essential regulators of the UPS. DUB inhibitors, especially the inhibitors of proteasomal DUBs are becoming a research hotspot in targeted cancer therapy. Previous studies have shown that metal complexes, such as copper and zinc complexes, can induce cancer cell apoptosis through inhibiting UPS function. Moreover, we have found that copper pyrithione inhibits both 19S proteasome-associated DUBs and 20S proteasome activity with a mechanism distinct from that of the classical 20S proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. In the present study, we reveal that (i) nickel pyrithione complex (NiPT) potently inhibits the UPS via targeting the 19S proteasome-associated DUBs (UCHL5 and USP14), without effecting on the 20S proteasome; (ii) NiPT selectively induces proteasome inhibition and apoptosis in cultured tumor cells and cancer cells from acute myeloid leukemia human patients; and (iii) NiPT inhibits proteasome function and tumor growth in nude mice. This study, for the first time, uncovers a nickel complex as an effective inhibitor of the 19S proteasomal DUBs and suggests a potentially new strategy for cancer treatment.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Hahn, Christine K.Jill M. Morris, & Gerard A. Jacobs. (2016). Predictors of bystander behaviors and sexual assertiveness among college women attending a sexual assault prevention program. Journal of Community Psychology.

Identifying predictors of bystander behaviors and sexual assertiveness can help to inform sexual assault prevention programs on college campuses. College sorority members (N = 141) completed measures of sexual assault history, rape myth acceptance, bystander self‐efficacy, sexual assertiveness, and bystander behaviors before attending The Women’s Program, which is a bystander‐based sexual assault prevention program. Regression analyses were conducted. Lower rape myth acceptance and greater bystander self‐efficacy predicted more engagement in bystander behaviors and higher sexual assertiveness. A total of 28 participants completed a 2‐week follow‐up survey that included measures of rape myth acceptance, bystander self‐efficacy, and sexual assertiveness. T‐test analyses were conducted. Rape myth acceptance was significantly lower among participants at 2‐week follow‐up compared to baseline. Implications for sexual assault prevention on college campuses are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Psychology Department.

 

Hong, Kwangseok, Guiling Zhao, Zhongkui Hong, Zhe Sun, Yan Yang, Philip S. Clifford, Michael J. Davis, Gerald A. Meininger, & Michael A. Hill. (2016). Mechanical activation of angiotensin II type 1 receptors causes actin remodelling and myogenic responsiveness in skeletal muscle arterioles. Journal of Physiology, 594(23), 7027-7047.

The Gq/11 protein-coupled angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) has been shown to be activated by mechanical stimuli. In the vascular system, evidence supports the AT1R being a mechanosensor that contributes to arteriolar myogenic constriction. The aim of this study was to determine if AT1R mechanoactivation affects myogenic constriction in skeletal muscle arterioles and to determine underlying cellular mechanisms. Using pressure myography to study rat isolated first-order cremaster muscle arterioles the AT1R inhibitor candesartan (10−7-10−5 m) showed partial but concentration-dependent inhibition of myogenic reactivity. Inhibition was demonstrated by a rightward shift in the pressure-diameter relationship over the intraluminal pressure range, 30-110 mmHg. Pressure-induced changes in global vascular smooth muscle intracellular Ca2+ (using Fura-2) were similar in the absence or presence of candesartan, indicating that AT1R-mediated myogenic constriction relies on Ca2+-independent downstream signalling. The diacylglycerol analogue 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG) reversed the inhibitory effect of candesartan, while this rescue effect was prevented by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF 109203X. Both candesartan and PKC inhibition caused increased G-actin levels, as determined by Western blotting of vessel lysates, supporting involvement of cytoskeletal remodelling. At the single vascular smooth muscle cell level, atomic force microscopy showed that cell swelling (stretch) with hypotonic buffer also caused thickening of cortical actin fibres and this was blocked by candesartan. Collectively, the present studies support growing evidence for novel modes of activation of the AT1R in arterioles and suggest that mechanically activated AT1R generates diacylglycerol, which in turn activates PKC which induces the actin cytoskeleton reorganization that is required for pressure-induced vasoconstriction.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Huang, ShupingChoumini Balasanthiran, Sergei Tretiak, James D. Hoefelmeyer, Svetlana V. Kilina, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2016). Dynamics of charge at water-to-semiconductor interface: Case study of wet [0 0 1] anatase TiO2 nanowire. Chemical Physics, 481, 184-190.

The behavior of water molecules on the surfaces of the TiO 2 nanowire grown in [0 0 1] direction has been investigated by combining theoretical calculations and experiments. Calculated UV–visible absorption spectra reproduce the main features of the experimental spectra. Computations predict that a photoexcitation followed by a sequence of relaxation events results in photoluminescence across the gap. TiO 2 nanowires in vacuum and aqueous environment exhibit different dynamics of photo-excited charge carriers. In water, computed relaxation of electrons (holes) is approximately 2 (4) times faster compared with vacuum environment. Faster relaxation of holes vs. electrons and specific spatial localization of holes result to formation of long lived charge transfer excitation with positive charge at the surface of the nanowire. Comparison of relaxation process in TiO 2 /water interfaces focusing on different surfaces and nanostructures has potential in identifying structural characteristics of TiO 2 materials important for efficient photo-electrochemical water splitting.

Chemistry Department.

 

McDougall, Matthew A.Michael WalshKristina WattierRyan KniggeLindsey Miller,Michalene Stevermer, & Bruce S. Fogas. (2016). The effect of social networking sites on the relationship between perceived social support and depression.Psychiatry Research, 246, 223-229.

This study examined whether Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have a negative moderator effect on the established relationship between perceived social support and depression in psychiatric inpatients. Survey instruments assessing for depression, perceived social support, and SNS use, were filled out by 301 psychiatric inpatients. Additional data on age, gender, and primary psychiatric diagnosis were collected. A step-wise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine significant interactions. There was no significant interaction of SNS use on the relationship between perceived social support and depression when measured by Social Media Use Integration Scale or by hours of SNS use per day. There was a significant negative relationship between perceived social support and depression, and a significant positive relationship between hours of SNS use per day and depression, measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Limitations include a gender discrepancy among participants, generalizability, recall bias, and SNS measurement. This is the first study to look at SNS use and depression in psychiatric inpatients. SNS use did not affect perceived social support or the protective relationship between perceived social support and depression. Hours of SNS use per day were correlated with depression scores. Future studies between SNS use and depression should quantify daily SNS use.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Rezvani, Khosrow. (2016). UBXD Proteins: A Family of Proteins with Diverse Functions in Cancer. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 17(10), 18.

The UBXD family is a diverse group of UBX (ubiquitin-regulatory X) domain-containing proteins in mammalian cells. Members of this family contain a UBX domain typically located at the carboxyl-terminal of the protein. In contrast to the UBX domain shared by all members of UBXD family, the amino-terminal domains are diverse and appear to carry out different roles in a subcellular localization-dependent manner. UBXD proteins are principally associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they positively or negatively regulate the ER-associated degradation machinery (ERAD). The distinct protein interaction networks of UBXD proteins allow them to have specific functions independent of the ERAD pathway in a cell type- and tissue context-dependent manner. Recent reports have illustrated that a number of mammalian members of the UBXD family play critical roles in several proliferation and apoptosis pathways dysregulated in selected types of cancer. This review covers recent advances that elucidate the therapeutic potential of selected members of the UBXD family that can contribute to tumor growth.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Roh, Soonhee, Catherine E. Burnette, Kyoung Hag Lee, Yeon-Shim Lee, James I. Martin, &Michael J. Lawler. (2017). Predicting Help-Seeking Attitudes Toward Mental Health Services Among American Indian Older Adults. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 36(1), 94-115.

American Indian (AI) older adults are vulnerable to mental health disparities, yet very little is known about the factors associated with help-seeking for mental health services among them. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of Andersen’s Behavioral Model in explaining AI older adults’ help-seeking attitudes toward professional mental health services. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine predisposing, enabling, and need variables as predictors of help-seeking attitudes toward mental health services in a sample of 233 AI older adults from the Midwest. The model was found to have limited utility in the context of older AI help-seeking attitudes, as the proportion of explained variance was low. Gender, perceived stigma, social support, and physical health were significant predictors, whereas age, perceived mental health, and health insurance were not.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Simons, Raluca M.Jeffrey S. SimonsDawne OlsonLee Baugh, Vincent Magnotta, & Gina Forster. (2016). Posttraumatic stress and alcohol use among veterans: Amygdala and anterior cingulate activation to emotional cues. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 30(7), 720-732.

This fMRI study tested a model of combat trauma, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), alcohol use, and behavioral and neural responses to emotional cues in 100 OIF/OEF/OND veterans. Multilevel structural equation models were tested for left and right dorsal ACC (dACC), rostral ACC (rACC), and amygdala blood-oxygen- level dependent responses during the emotional counting Stroop test and masked faces task. In the Stroop task, combat exposure moderated the effect of combat stimuli resulting in hyperactivation in the rACC and dACC. Activation in the left amygdala also increased in response to combat stimuli, but effects did not vary as a function of combat severity. In the masked faces task, activation patterns did not vary as a function of stimulus. However, at the between-person level, amygdala activation during the masked faces task was inversely associated with PTSS. In respect to behavioral outcomes, higher PTSS were associated with a stronger Stroop effect, suggesting greater interference associated with combat words. Results are consistent with the premise that combat trauma results in hyperactivation in the ACC in response to combat stimuli, and, via its effect on PTSS, is associated with deficits in cognitive performance in the presence of combat stimuli. Across tasks, predeployment drinking was inversely associated with activation in the dACC but not the rACC or amygdala. Drinking may be a buffering factor, or negatively reinforcing in part because of its effects on normalizing brain response following trauma exposure. Alternatively, drinking may undermine adaptive functioning of the dACC when responding to traumatic stress cues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Psychology Department.

 

Williams, Suzanne Ellen, Leon Greene, Sonya Satinsky, & John Neuberger. (2016). Content Analysis of Conceptually Based Physical Education in Southeastern United States Universities and Colleges. Physical Educator, 73(4), 671-688.

The purposes of this study were to explore PE in higher education through the offering of traditional activity- and skills-based physical education (ASPE) and conceptually based physical education (CPE) courses and to conduct an exploratory content analysis on the CPE available to students in randomized colleges and universities in the Southeastern United States. Method: A randomized sample of 56 institutions was screened to determine if PE and CPE courses were offered and/or required, followed by a closer examination of the CPE courses. Results: Preliminary research indicated that 73% of the institutions required PE as a general education requirement, 77% offered CPE, and 46% included CPE in the general education requirements. Further research suggested that upon comparison to national healthand PE-related standards and recommendations, many course content analysis criteria dependent variables including course components, description and objectives, curriculum, and evaluation scored 50% or higher, which indicated shared characteristics among all of the CPE courses. Conclusions: PE and CPE are important components of high-er education, with the majority of the institutions in this sample including PE in their general education requirements. In addition, most of these institutions offered CPE, with nearly half stipulating a CPE requirement. More specifically, this sample of CPE courses shared many commonalities. Programming combining health education concepts in the classroom and regular PA and exercise in a laboratory setting may encourage students to have active, healthy lifestyles during the semester of enrollment that can be continued later in life.

School of Education.

 

Xiaoying, Lan, Zhao Chong, Chen Xin, Zhang Peiquan, …., Wang Xuejun, Shi Xianping, & Liu Jinbao. (2016). Nickel pyrithione induces apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia cells resistant to imatinib via both Bcr/Abl-dependent and Bcr/Abl-independent mechanisms. Journal of Hematology & Oncology, 9, 1-16.

Background: Acquired imatinib (IM) resistance is frequently characterized by Bcr-Abl mutations that affect IM binding and kinase inhibition in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Bcr-Abl-T315I mutation is the predominant mechanism of the acquired resistance to IM. Therefore, it is urgent to search for additional approaches and targeting strategies to overcome IM resistance. We recently reported that nickel pyrithione (NiPT) potently inhibits the ubiquitin proteasome system via targeting the 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (UCHL5 and USP14), without effecting on the 20S proteasome. In this present study, we investigated the effect of NiPT, a novel proteasomal deubiquitinase inhibitor, on cell survival or apoptosis in CML cells bearing Bcr-Abl-T315I or wild-type Bcr-Abl. Methods: Cell viability was examined by MTS assay and trypan blue exclusion staining assay in KBM5, KBM5R, K562, BaF3-p210-WT, BaF3-p210-T315I cells, and CML patients’ bone marrow samples treated with NiPT. Cell apoptosis in CML cells was detected with Annexin V-FITC/PI and rhodamine-123 staining followed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry and with western blot analyses for apoptosis-associated proteins. Expression levels of Bcr-Abl in CML cells were analyzed by using western blotting and real-time PCR. The 20S proteasome peptidase activity was measured using specific fluorogenic substrate. Active-site-directed labeling of proteasomal DUBs, as well as the phosphorylation of USP14 was used for evaluating the inhibition of the DUBs activity by NiPT. Mouse xenograft models of KBM5 and KBM5R cells were analyzed, and Bcr-Abl-related proteins and protein biomarkers related to proliferation, differentiation, and adhesion in tumor tissues were detected by western blots and/or immunohistological analyses. Results: NiPT induced apoptosis in CML cells and inhibited the growth of IM-resistant Bcr-Abl-T315I xenografts in nude mice. Mechanistically, NiPT induced decreases in Bcr-Abl proteins, which were associated with downregulation of Bcr-Abl transcription and with the cleavage of Bcr-Abl protein by activated caspases. NiPT-induced ubiquitin proteasome system inhibition induced caspase activation in both IM-resistant and IM-sensitive CML cells, and the caspase activation was required for NiPT-induced Bcr-Abl downregulation and apoptotic cell death. Conclusions: These findings support that NiPT can overcome IM resistance through both Bcr-Abl-dependent and Bcr-Abl-independent mechanisms, providing potentially a new option for CML treatment.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Yao, Qingqing, Jaqueline G. L. Cosme, Tao Xu, Jacob M. Miszuk, Paulo H. S. Picciani, Hao Fong, & Hongli Sun. (2017). Three dimensional electrospun PCL/PLA blend nanofibrous scaffolds with significantly improved stem cells osteogenic differentiation and cranial bone formation. Biomaterials, 115, 115-127.

Nanofibrous scaffolds that are morphologically/structurally similar to natural ECM are highly interested for tissue engineering; however, the electrospinning technique has the difficulty in directly producing clinically relevant 3D nanofibrous scaffolds with desired structural properties. To address this challenge, we have developed an innovative technique of thermally induced nanofiber self-agglomeration (TISA) recently. The aim of this work was to prepare ( via the TISA technique) and evaluate 3D electrospun PCL/PLA blend (mass ratio: 4/1) nanofibrous scaffolds having high porosity of ∼95.8% as well as interconnected and hierarchically structured pores with sizes from sub-micrometers to∼300 μm for bone tissue engineering. The hypothesis was that the incorporation of PLA (with higher mechanical stiffness/modulus and bioactivity) into PCL nanofibers would significantly improve human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) osteogenic differentiation in vitro and bone formation in vivo. Compared to neat PCL-3D scaffolds, PCL/PLA-3D blend scaffolds had higher mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity; as a result, they not only enhanced the cell viability of hMSCs but also promoted the osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, our in vivo studies revealed that PCL/PLA-3D scaffolds considerably facilitated new bone formation in a critical-sized cranial bone defect mouse model. In summary, both in vitro and in vivo results indicated that novel 3D electrospun PCL/PLA blend nanofibrous scaffolds would be strongly favorable/desired for hMSCs osteogenic differentiation and cranial bone formation.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

 

 

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