Posted by: reganenosusd | August 28, 2015

Summer 2015

Niemonen, Jack. (2015). Whither the White Working Class? A Comment on Khanna and Harris, “Discovering Race in a “Post-Racial’ World: Teaching Race through Primetime Television”.Teaching Sociology, 43(3), 236-241. 

Even though I recognize the value of using the mass media to teach sociological concepts and reveal racial biases, I caution against the use of classroom exercises that are developed solely in the context of whiteness studies. Overarching statements of white privilege mask complex race-class interactions generally and the mass media’s stereotypical depictions of the white working class specifically. In this conversation, I explain why the use of the concept white privilege in and of itself obfuscates more than it reveals complex race-class interactions today.

Anthropology and Sociology.

McCormick, Kara, Jiang, Z., Zhu, L. C., Lawson, S. R., Langenhorst, R., Ransburgh, R., Brunick, ColinTracy, Miranda C.Hurtig, Heather R.Mabee, Leah M.Mingo, Mark, Li, Y. H., Webby, R. J., Huber, Victor C., & Fang, Y. (2015). Construction and Immunogenicity Evaluation of Recombinant Influenza A Viruses Containing Chimeric Hemagglutinin Genes Derived from Genetically Divergent Influenza A H1N1 Subtype Viruses. Plos One, 10(6).

Background and Objectives Influenza A viruses cause highly contagious diseases in a variety of hosts, including humans and pigs. To develop a vaccine that can be broadly effective against genetically divergent strains of the virus, in this study we employed molecular breeding (DNA shuffling) technology to create a panel of chimeric HA genes. Methods and Results Each chimeric HA gene contained genetic elements from parental swine influenza A viruses that had a history of zoonotic transmission, and also from a 2009 pandemic virus. Each parental virus represents a major phylogenetic clade of influenza A H1N1 viruses. Nine shuffled HA constructs were initially screened for immunogenicity in mice by DNA immunization, and one chimeric HA (HA-129) was expressed on both a A/Puerto Rico/8/34 backbone with mutations associated with a live, attenuated phenotype (PR8(LAIV)-129) and a A/swine/Texas/4199-2/98 backbone (TX98-129). When delivered to mice, the PR8(LAIV)-129 induced antibodies against all four parental viruses, which was similar to the breadth of immunity observed when HA-129 was delivered as a DNA vaccine. This chimeric HA was then tested as a candidate vaccine in a nursery pig model, using inactivated TX98-129 virus as the backbone. The results demonstrate that pigs immunized with HA-129 developed antibodies against all four parental viruses, as well as additional primary swine H1N1 influenza virus field isolates. Conclusion This study established a platform for creating novel genes of influenza viruses using a molecular breeding approach, which will have important applications toward future development of broadly protective influenza virus vaccines.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Rajkowska, Grazyna, Mahajan, Gouri, Maciag, Dorota, Sathyanesan, Monica, Iyo, Abiye H., Moulana, Mohadetheh, Kyle, Patrick B., Woolverton, William L., Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose Javier, Stockmeier, Craig A., & Newton, Samuel S. (2015). Oligodendrocyte morphometry and expression of myelin – Related mRNA in ventral prefrontal white matter in major depressive disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 65, 53-62.

White matter disturbance in the ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) in major depressive disorder (MDD) has been noted with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). However, the cellular and molecular pathology of prefrontal white matter in MDD and potential influence of antidepressant medications is not fully understood. Oligodendrocyte morphometry and myelin-related mRNA and protein expression was examined in the white matter of the vPFC in MDD. Sections of deep and gyral white matter from the vPFC were collected from 20 subjects with MDD and 16 control subjects. Density and size of CNPase-immunoreactive (-IR) oligodendrocytes were estimated using 3-dimensional cell counting. While neither density nor soma size of oligodendrocytes was significantly affected in deep white matter, soma size was significantly decreased in the gyral white matter in MDD. In rhesus monkeys treated chronically with fluoxetine there was no significant effect on oligodendrocyte morphometry. Using quantitative RT-PCR to measure oligodendrocyte-related mRNA for CNPase, PLP1, MBP, MOG, MOBP, Olig1 and Olig2, in MDD there was a significantly reduced expression of PLP1 mRNA (which positively correlated with smaller sizes) and increased expression of mRNA for CNPase, OLIG1 and MOG. The expression of CNPase protein was significantly decreased in MDD. Altered expression of four myelin genes and CNPase protein suggests a mechanism for the degeneration of cortical axons and dysfunctional maturation of oligodendrocytes in MDD. The change in oligodendrocyte morphology in gyral white matter may parallel altered axonal integrity as revealed by DTI.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Yuan, Sharleen, & Burrell, Brian D. (2013). Nonnociceptive afferent activity depresses nocifensive behavior and nociceptive synapses via an endocannabinoid-dependent mechanism. Journal of Neurophysiology, 110(11), 2607-2616.

Previously, low-frequency stimulation (LFS) of a nonnociceptive touch-sensitive neuron has been found to elicit endocannabinoid-dependent long-term depression (eCB-LTD) in nociceptive synapses in the leech central nervous system (CNS) that requires activation of a presynaptic transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)-like receptor by postsynaptically synthesized 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). This capacity of nonnociceptive afferent activity to reduce nociceptive signaling resembles gate control of pain, albeit longer lasting in these synaptic experiments. Since eCB-LTD has been observed at a single sensory-motor synapse, this study examines the functional relevance of this mechanism, specifically whether this form of synaptic plasticity has similar effects at the behavioral level in which additional, intersegmental neural circuits are engaged. Experiments were carried out using a semi-intact preparation that permitted both synaptic recordings and monitoring of the leech whole body shortening, a defensive withdrawal reflex that was elicited via intracellular stimulation of a single nociceptive neuron (the N cell). The same LFS of a nonnociceptive afferent that induced eCB-LTD in single synapses also produced an attenuation of the shortening reflex. Similar attenuation of behavior was also observed when 2-AG was applied. LFS-induced behavioral and synaptic depression was blocked by tetrahydrolipstatin (THL), a diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor, and by SB366791, a TRPV1 antagonist. The effects of both THL and SB366791 were observed following either bath application of the drug or intracellular injection into the presynaptic (SB366791) or postsynaptic (THL) neuron. These findings demonstrate a novel, endocannabinoid-based mechanism by which nonnociceptive afferent activity may modulate nocifensive behaviors via action on primary afferent synapses.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Cyr, Tim, Windels, Steve K., Moen, Ron, & Warmbold, Jerry W. (2014). DIVERSITY AND ABUNDANCE OF TERRESTRIAL GASTROPODS IN VOYAGEURS NATIONAL PARK, MN: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE RISK OF MOOSE BECOMING INFECTED WITH PARELAPHOSTRONGYLUS TENUIS. Alces, 50, 121-132.

Voyageurs National Park (VNP) has a stable population of about 40-50 moose (AIces alces). Recent declines in moose abundance in adjacent areas in northern Minnesota raise concerns about the long-term viability of moose in VNP. The parasitic nematode Parelaphostrongylus tenuis has been documented in moose in VNP and has been implicated in moose declines in other populations. Terrestrial gastropods are the intennediate hosts for P. tenuis, and describing spatial and temporal differences in their abundance should increase understanding about the risk of P. tenuis infection for VNP moose at the individual and population levels. We used cardboard sheets to estimate species composition and abundance of terrestrial gastropods in representative vegetation communities in VNP. We collected a total of 6,595 gastropods representing 25 species, 22 terrestrial snails and 3 slugs; 8 are known vectors of P. tenuis, including the slug Deroceras laeve, the most common species found. Gastropods were more abundant in September than July, and in upland forests (maximum = 555 gastropods/ m2) more than in wetter lowlands (20 gastropods/m2). We used location data from GPScollared moose in VNP to estimate the relative exposure of moose to gastropods that could be infected with P. tenuis larvae. The boreal hardwood forest and northern spruce-fir forest ecotypes had the highest use by moose and high abundance of P. tenuis vectors in summer, and may pose the greatest risk for infection. Habitat use and the related risk of ingesting gastropod vectors varied by individual moose. Our method can be extended in moose range to estimate the relative risk of P. tenuis infection.

Biology Department [Student]

Furness, Ambur N., & Soluk, Daniel A. (2015). The potential of diversion structures to reduce roadway mortality of the endangered Hine’s emerald dragonfly (Somatochlora hineana). Journal of Insect Conservation, 19(3), 449-455.

Roadways near wetlands and ponds inflict high roadkill rates on a wide variety of taxa. For threatened or endangered species that typically do not have large adult populations, fast reproduction rates, and/or rapid recolonization rates, such mortality is likely to have significant population consequences. Thus, exploring ways to reduce roadkill rates will have considerable conservation benefits. In this study, we evaluate whether a diversion structure can be used to modify flight behavior of the endangered Hine’s emerald dragonfly (Somatochlora hineana) in ways that would reduce roadway mortality. Flight behavior of adult S. hineana was observed with and without two 3 m high nets spaced at 6 and 12 m to simulate a small and a larger roadway. The netting significantly deterred (p < 0.0001) S. hineana adults from crossing the simulated roadway. Flight height was also influenced significantly (p = 0.0025) with flight heights over the 6 m net spacing being higher than those over the 12 m spacing. This study suggests that the use of diversion netting in areas where sensitive dragonfly species interact with motor vehicles might aid in reducing roadway mortality and might help reduce the overall impact of roadways on wetland ecosystems.

Biology Department.

Eichler, Barrett, Erickson, Jeremy, Keppen, Joseph, Sykes, Andrew, & Sereda, Grigoriy. (2015). A non-planar crystal polymorph of 1,2-bis(9-anthracenyl)ethyne. Tetrahedron Letters: International Organ for the Rapid Publication of Preliminary Communications in Organic Chemistry, 56(31), 4574-4577.

1,2-Bis(9-anthracenyl)ethyne was synthesized and a new crystal polymorph was discovered. The previously reported structure was completely planar with a torsional angle between the two anthracenyl rings of 0.0°, whereas the new polymorph had a torsional angle of 66.6°. The new polymorph also stacks differently between molecules and has greater π–electron overlap. In solution, the spectroscopic characteristics of both polymorphs were identical, but in the solid-state, results of red-shifted spectra for the co-planar polymorph indicate a strikingly simple example of the effect on UV–vis and fluorescence spectra of extending π-conjugation wrapped up in one molecule with two polymorphs. It was also determined that the co-planar polymorph is favored with rapid crystallization, whereas the twisted polymorph prefers slow crystallization. This may indicate that the co-planar polymorph is kinetically favored and the twisted polymorph is thermodynamically favored.

Chemistry Department.

Mariappan, KadarkaraisamyAlaparthi, MadhubabuHoffman, MariahRama, Myriam AlcantarBalasubramanian, VinothiniJohn, Danielle M., & Sykes, Andrew G. (2015). Improved selectivity for Pb(II) by sulfur, selenium and tellurium analogues of 1,8-anthraquinone-18-crown-5: synthesis, spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography and computational studies. Dalton Transactions, 44(26), 11774-11787.

We report here a series of heteroatom-substituted macrocycles containing an anthraquinone moiety as a fluorescent signaling unit and a cyclic polyheteroether chain as the receptor. Sulfur, selenium, and tellurium derivatives of 1,8-anthraquinone-18-crown-5 (1) were synthesized by reacting sodium sulfide (Na2S), sodium selenide (Na2Se) and sodium telluride (Na2Te) with 1,8-bis(2-bromoethylethyleneoxy) anthracene-9,10-dione in a 1 : 1 ratio. The optical properties of the new compounds are examined and the sulfur and selenium analogues produce an intense green emission enhancement upon association with Pb(II) in acetonitrile. Selectivity for Pb(II) is markedly improved as compared to the oxygen analogue 1 which was also competitive for Ca(II) ion. UV-Visible and luminescence titrations reveal that 2 and 3 form 1 : 1 complexes with Pb(II), confirmed by single-crystal X-ray studies where Pb(II) is complexed within the macrocycle through coordinate covalent bonds to neighboring carbonyl, ether and heteroether donor atoms. Cyclic voltammetry of 2-8 showed classical, irreversible oxidation potentials for sulfur, selenium and tellurium heteroethers in addition to two one-electron reductions for the anthraquinone carbonyl groups. DFT calculations were also conducted on 1, 2, 3, 6, 6 + Pb(II) and 6 + Mg(II) to determine the trend in energies of the HOMO and the LUMO levels along the series.

Chemistry Department.

Shen, W., Lin, X., Jiang, Chaoyang, Li, C. Y., Lin, H. X., Huang, J. T., Wang, S., Liu, G. K., Yan, X. M., Zhong, Q. L., & Ren, B. (2015). Reliable Quantitative SERS Analysis Facilitated by Core-Shell Nanoparticles with Embedded Internal Standards. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, 54(25), 7308-7312.

Quantitative analysis is a great challenge in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Core-molecule-shell nanoparticles with two components in the molecular layer, a framework molecule to form the shell, and a probe molecule as a Raman internal standard, were rationally designed for quantitative SERS analysis. The signal of the embedded Raman probe provides effective feedback to correct the fluctuation of samples and measuring conditions. Meanwhile, target molecules with different affinities can be adsorbed onto the shell. The quantitative analysis of target molecules over a large concentration range has been demonstrated with a linear response of the relative SERS intensity versus the surface coverage, which has not been achieved by conventional SERS methods.

Chemistry Department.

Jorgensen, Lindsey E., & Messersmith, Jessica J. (2015). Impact of Aging and Cognition on Hearing Assistive Technology Use. Seminars in Hearing, 36(3), 162-174.

Many factors go into appropriate recommendation and use of hearing assistive technology (HAT). The aging auditory system presents with its own complications and intricacies; there are many types of age-related hearing loss, and it is possible that the underlying cause of hearing loss can significantly impact the recommendations and performance with HATs. The audiologist should take into consideration peripheral and central auditory function when selecting HATs for the aging adult population as well as when selecting appropriate types of technology including personal sound amplification products, hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other assistive technology. The cognitive ability of the patient plays a central role in the recommendations of HAT. It is possible that the use of HATs could mitigate some of the effects of cognitive decline and thus should be considered as early as possible. Assessment of ability and appropriate recommendations are crucial to consistent use of HAT devices.

Communication Disorders Department.

Emery, Noah N., & Simons, Jeffrey S. (2015). Mood & alcohol-related attentional biases: New considerations for gender differences and reliability of the visual-probe task. Addictive Behaviors, 50, 1-5.

Introduction Alcohol-related attentional biases are positively associated with drinking history and may represent a mechanism by which alcohol use behavior is maintained over time. This study was designed to address two unresolved issues regarding alcohol-related attention biases. Specifically, this study tested whether acute changes in positive and negative mood increase attentional biases toward alcohol cues and whether coping and enhancement drinking motives moderate these effects. Methods Participants were 100 college students aged 18–25, who drank alcohol at least once in the last 90 days. In a 2 × 3 mixed design, participants were randomized to one of three mood conditions (neutral, negative, or positive) and completed visual-probe tasks pre- and post-mood-induction. Results Attentional biases toward alcohol cues were significantly associated with alcohol consumption among men, but not women. Although the mood manipulation was highly successful, attentional biases did not vary as a function of mood condition and hypothesized moderating effects of drinking motives were not significant. Conclusions The largely null findings of the experiment are discussed in light of the fact that the visual probe task had poor reliability. Issues related to the reliability of visual-probe task are discussed, as more research is needed to evaluate and improve the psychometrics of this method.

Psychology Department.

Simons, Jeffrey S., Wills, Thomas A., Emery, Noah N., & Marks, Russell M. (2015). Quantifying alcohol consumption: Self-report, transdermal assessment, and prediction of dependence symptoms. Addictive Behaviors, 50, 205-212.

Research on alcohol use depends heavily on the validity of self-reported drinking. The present paper presents data from 647 days of self-monitoring with a transdermal alcohol sensor by 60 young adults. We utilized a biochemical measure, transdermal alcohol assessment with the WrisTAS, to examine the convergent validity of three approaches to collecting daily self-report drinking data: experience sampling, daily morning reports of the previous night, and 1-week timeline follow-back (TLFB) assessments. We tested associations between three pharmacokinetic indices (peak concentration, area under the curve (AUC), and time to reach peak concentration) derived from the transdermal alcohol signal and within- and between- person variation in alcohol dependence symptoms. The WrisTAS data corroborated 85.74% of self-reported drinking days based on the experience sampling data. The TLFB assessment and combined experience sampling and morning reports agreed on 87.27% of drinking days. Drinks per drinking day did not vary as a function of wearing or not wearing the sensor; this indicates that participants provided consistent reports of their drinking regardless of biochemical verification. In respect to self-reported alcohol dependence symptoms, the AUC of the WrisTAS alcohol signal was associated with dependence symptoms at both the within- and between- person level. Furthermore, alcohol dependence symptoms at baseline predicted drinking episodes characterized in biochemical data by both higher peak alcohol concentration and faster time to reach peak concentration. The results support the validity of self-report alcohol data, provide empirical data useful for optimal design of daily process sampling, and provide an initial demonstration of the use of transdermal alcohol assessment to characterize drinking dynamics associated with risk for alcohol dependence.

Psychology Department.

Barta, Ashley L., Nutescu, Edith A., Thompson, Paul A., Bussey, Henry I., & Gulseth, Michael P. (2015). Relationship between time spent at extreme International Normalized Ratios and time in therapeutic range with bleeding and thrombosis in warfarin-treated patients. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 72(14), 1188-1194.

Purpose. The relationship between the time spent at extreme International Normalized Ratios (INRs) and the time in the therapeutic range (TTR) with bleeding and thrombosis in warfarin-treated patients was examined. Methods. Consecutive patients treated with warfarin for atrial fibrillation or for venous thrombosis who were managed by the anticoagulation management service or adult internal medicine clinic of a large, tertiary care, integrated health system between June 1, 2011, and October 9, 2012, were eligible for study inclusion. Data collected for the outcomes analysis included INRs and dates; current use of aspirin, clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticagrelor, ticlopidine, or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs; and any clinically significant bleeding or thrombosis events identified. Results. In the 837 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 636.5 patient-years of therapy were provided, of which 14.4 patient-years (2.26% of time) were spent at INRs of <1.5; 2.9 patient-years of therapy (0.45% of time) were spent at INRs of >4.5. The patient population had a mean individual TTR of 65%. The percentage of time at an INR of >4.5 was positively associated with an increased risk of major bleeding (p = 0.0085). The percentage of time spent with an INR of <1.5 was not associated with a significant increase in the risk of thrombosis. Conclusion. The percentage of time spent with an INR of >4.5 was associated with an increased risk of major bleeding in patients receiving warfarin for atrial fibrillation or for venous thrombosis at two outpatient clinics. The relationships between thrombosis risk and the TTR or the time spent at an INR of <1.5 were not significant, but the thromboembolic event rate was unusually low, as was the time spent at an INR of <1.5.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Belcher, Harolyn M. E., Stone, Jacqueline D., McFadden, Jenese A., Hemmingson, Tyler A., …., Osdel, Joanne, Avila, Margaret, Yorker, Beatrice, Hoffman, Beth R., & Turner-Musa, Jocelyn O. (2015). Evaluating maternal and child health and leadership competencies of emerging mch leaders: The mchc/rise-up experience. Maternal and Child Health Journal.

Purpose: This study examines maternal and child health core competencies and leadership characteristics of undergraduate students following participation in the Maternal and Child Health Careers/Research Initiatives for Student Enhancement-Undergraduate Program (MCHC/RISE-UP). MCHC/RISE-UP is a 10-week public health leadership program designed to promote diversity in public health workforce through mentored research, community engagement and advocacy, and clinical experiences for undergraduate students.Description: The MCHC/RISE-UP is a national consortium of University Centers for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities including, (1) Kennedy Krieger Institute (Kennedy Krieger, lead institution) partnering with Morgan State University, a Historically Black University, (2) the University of South Dakota partnering with Tribal Serving Institutions; and (3) the University of Southern California Children’s Hospital-Los Angeles and their partner institution, California State University Los Angeles, a Hispanic Serving Institution.Assessment: Eighty-four junior and senior undergraduates and recent baccalaureate degree students who participated in the MCHC/RISE-UP worked on 48 maternal and child health projects. Following the MCHC/RISE-UP, students demonstrated statistically significant improvements in all maternal and child health core competencies. Transformational leadership characteristics also increased (mean increase 9.4, 95 % CI 7.2–11.8; p < 0.001). At closing interview, over twice as many students endorsed a public health career goal compared to program admission (17.9 vs 57.7 %; p = 0.022).Conclusion: Multi-institutional collaborative public health leadership programs may extend the reach and recruitment of diverse students into the maternal and child health field. Experiential, didactic, and mentored learning opportunities may enhance student integration of maternal and child health competencies and transformational leadership characteristics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Dey, NandinaWilliams, CaseyLeyland-Jones, Brian, & De, Pradip. (2015). A critical role for HER3 in HER2-amplified and non-amplified breast cancers: function of a kinase-dead RTK. American Journal of Translational Research, 7(4), 733-750.

ERBB3/HER3 is the most intriguing RTK by virtue of its ability to transduce multiple cytosolic signals for the proliferation and growth of tumor cells in spite of being a “kinase dead” receptor that binds to its true ligand, heregulin. Although other members of the HER3 family like EGFR and HER2 have long been recognized to be associated with breast tumorigenesis and studied because of their predictive and prognostic value, the significance of HER3 as an irrefutable component of HER family signalosome is a relatively new development. The recent understanding of signals originating from the oncogenic partnership of HER3 with HER2 in the context of HER2 amplification/overexpression showed the critical clinical value for the treatment of HER2+BC. The downstream signaling cascade (included but not limited to the PI3K signaling) associated with signals originating from HER2:HER3 dimers play a vital role in the tumorigenesis, drug-resistance and tumor progression of HER2+BC. The upregulation of HER3 activity provides an alternate “escape route” via which tumor cells bypass either the inhibition of the HER family RTKs or the inhibition of the downstream PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway. By understanding the signaling that provides this “escape route” for these tumor cells treated with a targeted therapy (HER2 inhibitors or inhibitors of downstream PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway), we are just beginning to appreciate the prognostic value of HER3 in breast cancer. In this review, we will discuss the relevance of HER3 signaling in the context of, (1) downstream oncogenic signals and (2) therapeutic options in HER2 amplified BC.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Ferley, Derek D., & Vukovich, Marshall D. (2015). TIME-TO-FATIGUE DURING INCLINE TREADMILL RUNNING: IMPLICATIONS FOR INDIVIDUALIZED TRAINING PRESCRIPTION. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29(7), 1855-1862.

Ferley, DD and Vukovich, MD. Time-to-fatigue during incline treadmill running: Implications for individualized training prescription. J Strength Cond Res 29(7): 1855-1862, 2015Uphill running has been touted as a key interval training tactic for distance runners despite few scientifically derived recommendations for individualized training prescription. To date, a majority of uphill training research has focused on shorter, faster training bouts; however, longer, slower bouts based on an individual’s velocity at maximum oxygen consumption (Vmax) may prove more effective. One potential longer bout length may be associated with the time Vmax can be maintained (Tmax), an approach proven effective in level-grade interval training. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation included examining the Tmax, heart rate, and test-retest reliability of incline treadmill running (INC) on a 10% grade at 65, 70, 75, 80, and 85%Vmax compared with level-grade running at Vmax. Twelve moderately trained distance runners (age, 26.4 +/- 4.8; body mass, 64.3 +/- 12.9 kg; height, 171.2 +/- 9.3 cm; and V.o(2)max, 56.6 +/- 7.6 mlmin(-1)kg(-1)) completed 2 Tmax INC trials at each submaximal Vmax and a level-grade Tmax at Vmax. The dependent variables were Tmax, heart rate plateau (HRPlateau), and half-time to heart rate plateau (1/2HR(Plateau)) of each condition. Statistical significance was set to p 0.05. Student’s t-test revealed no significant differences in Tmax, HRPlateau, and 1/2HR(Plateau) between trials 1 and 2 at any INC condition. One-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences in (a) Tmax during INC at 75, 80, and 85%Vmax and level-grade at Vmax and (b) 1/2HR(Plateau) during INC at 80 and 85%Vmax and all other conditions. In conclusion, Tmax and heart rate dynamics during INC proved reliable, and simple regression analysis revealed approximate to 68%Vmax during INC yields the same level-grade Tmax at Vmax.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Hanson, Jessica D., Nothwehr, F., Yang, J. G., & Romitti, P. (2015). Indirect and Direct Perceived Behavioral Control and the Role of Intention in the Context of Birth Control Behavior. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19(7), 1535-1542.

Unintended pregnancies can have negative consequences for both mother and child. The focus of this study was to utilize perceived behavioral control measures (PBC; part of the theory of planned behavior) to identify relevant behavioral determinants of birth control use. This study also tested associations between direct and indirect PBC measures and intention of birth control use and between intention and birth control use. The methods included a randomly selected sample of patients at a health care system in the Upper Midwest who were sent a self-administered survey, with 190 non-pregnant women returning completed surveys. Participants indicated a high level of control over using birth control, and a significant positive correlation was observed between direct and indirect PBC measures. Participants also reported high intentions to use birth control, and a significant positive correlation was observed between intention and PBC. Additionally, both PBC measures and intention were independently and significantly associated with behavior, and PBC remained significantly associated with behavior when intention was added into the model. In conclusion, compared to the previous literature, this study is unique in that it examines indirect PBC measures and also the important role that PBC plays with actual birth control behavior.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Maher, Diane M., Khan, Sheema, Nordquist, Jordan L.Ebeling, Mara C.Bauer, Nichole A., Kopel, Lucas, Singh, Man Mohan, Halaweish, Fathi, Bell, Maria C., Jaggi, Meena, & Chauhan, Subhash C. (2015). Ormeloxifene efficiently inhibits ovarian cancer growth. Cancer Letters, 356(2), 606-612.

Ovarian cancer continues to be a leading cause of cancer related deaths for women. Anticancer agents effective against chemo-resistant cells are greatly needed for ovarian cancer treatment. Repurposing drugs currently in human use is an attractive strategy for developing novel cancer treatments with expedited translation into clinical trials. Therefore, we examined whether ormeloxifene (ORM), a non-steroidal Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM) currently used for contraception, is therapeutically effective at inhibiting ovarian cancer growth. We report that ORM treatment inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cell lines, including cell lines resistant to cisplatin. Furthermore, ORM treatment decreases Akt phosphorylation, increases p53 phosphorylation, and modulates the expression and localization patterns of p27, cyclin E, cyclin D1, and CDK2. In a pre-clinical xenograft mouse ORM treatment significantly reduces tumorigenesis and metastasis. These results indicate that ORM effectively inhibits the growth of cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. ORM is currently in human use and has an established record of patient safety. Our encouraging in vitro and pre-clinical in vivo findings indicate that ORM is a promising candidate for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Munce, Thayne A.Dorman, Jason C.Thompson, Paul A.Valentine, Verle D., & Bergeron, Michael F.(2015). Head Impact Exposure and Neurologic Function of Youth Football Players. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 47(8), 1567-1576.

Football players are subjected to repetitive impacts that may lead to brain injury and neurologic dysfunction. Knowledge about head impact exposure (HIE) and consequent neurologic function among youth football players is limited. Purpose: This study aimed to measure and characterize HIE of youth football players throughout one season and explore associations between HIE and changes in selected clinical measures of neurologic function. Methods: Twenty-two youth football players (11-13 yr) wore helmets outfitted with a head impact telemetry (HIT) system to quantify head impact frequency, magnitude, duration, and location. Impact data were collected for each practice (27) and game (9) in a single season. Selected clinical measures of balance, oculomotor performance, reaction time, and self-reported symptoms were assessed before and after the season. Results: The median individual head impacts per practice, per game, and throughout the entire season were 9, 12, and 252, respectively. Approximately 50% of all head impacts (6183) had a linear acceleration between 10g and 20g, but nearly 2% were greater than 80g. Overall, the head impact frequency distributions in this study population were similar in magnitude and location as in high school and collegiate football, but total impact frequency was lower. Individual changes in neurologic function were not associated with cumulative HIE. Conclusion: This study provides a novel examination of HIE and associations with short-term neurologic function in youth football and notably contributes to the limited HIE data currently available for this population. Whereas youth football players can experience remarkably similar head impact forces as high school players, cumulative subconcussive HIE throughout one youth football season may not be detrimental to short-term clinical measures of neurologic function.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Benson, Nicholas, Beaujean, A. Alexander, & Taub, Gordon E. (2015). Using Score Equating and Measurement Invariance to Examine the Flynn Effect in the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 50(4), 398-415.

The Flynn effect (FE; i.e., increase in mean IQ scores over time) is commonly viewed as reflecting population shifts in intelligence, despite the fact that most FE studies have not investigated the assumption of score comparability. Consequently, the extent to which these mean differences in IQ scores reflect population shifts in cognitive abilities versus changes in the instruments used to measure these abilities is unclear. In this study, we used modern psychometric tools to examine the FE. First, we equated raw scores for each common subtest to be on the same scale across instruments. This enabled the combination of scores from all three instruments into one of 13 age groups before converting raw scores into Z scores. Second, using age-based standardized scores for standardization samples, we examined measurement invariance across the second (revised), third, and fourth editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Results indicate that while scores were equivalent across the third and fourth editions, they were not equivalent across the second and third editions. Results suggest that there is some evidence for an increase in intelligence, but also call into question many published FE findings as presuming the instruments’ scores are invariant when this assumption is not warranted.

School of Education.

Brown-Rice, Kathleen A., Furr, Susan, & Jorgensen, Maribeth. (2015). Analyzing Greek Members Alcohol Consumption by Gender and the Impact of Alcohol Education Interventions. Journal of Alcohol & Drug Education, 59(1), 19-38.

Members of the Greek community have been found to engage in riskier alcohol drinking behaviors and have higher alcohol-related negative consequences. A sample of Greek members were surveyed in Spring of 2013 (n = 372). It was found that The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) scores were significantly higher for male respondents than female respondents. During the fall semester, alcohol education sessions were offered to all members of the Greek community. Of the respondents who attended alcohol education sessions (n = 334), 55% reported these sessions changed their perception of high risk drinking. Implications for alcohol education programming are discussed.

School of Education.

Roh, Soonhee, Lee, Yeon-Shim, Lee, Kyoung, Shibusawa, Tazuko, & Yoo, Grace. (2015). Friends, Depressive Symptoms, and Life Satisfaction Among Older Korean Americans. Journal of Immigrant & Minority Health, 17(4), 1091-1097.

This study examined the interactive effects of social network support and depressive symptoms on life satisfaction among older Korean Americans (KAs). Using data from a sample of 200 elders in a large metropolitan area ( M = 72.50, SD = 5.15), hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the interaction between social network support and depressive symptoms on life satisfaction among older KAs. After controlling for demographic variables, both social network support and depressive symptoms were identified as predictors for life satisfaction. Interaction effects indicated strong associations between higher social network support specifically from friends and lower depressive symptoms with higher levels of life satisfaction. Findings highlight the important role that friends play in terms of social network support for the mental health of older KAs, and the need for geriatric practitioners to monitor and assess the quality of social network support-including friendships-when working with older KAs.

School of Health Sciences.

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