Posted by: kelsijo97 | October 30, 2012

November 2012

Baugh, Lee A., Hoe, Erica, & Flanagan, J. Randall. (2012). Hand-held tools with complex kinematics are efficiently incorporated into movement planning and online control. Journal of neurophysiology, 108(7), 1954-1964.
Certain hand-held tools alter the mapping between hand motion and motion of the tool end point that must be controlled in order to perform a task. For example, when using a pool cue, the motion of the cue tip is reversed relative to the hand. Previous studies have shown that the time required to initiate a reaching movement (Fernandez-Ruiz J, Wong W, Armstrong IT, Flanagan JR. Behav Brain Res 219: 8-14, 2011), or correct an ongoing reaching movement (Gritsenko V, Kalaska JF. J Neurophysiol 104: 3084-3104, 2010), is prolonged when the mapping between hand motion and motion of a cursor controlled by the hand is reversed. Here we show that these time costs can be significantly reduced when the reversal is instantiated by a virtual hand-held tool. Participants grasped the near end of a virtual tool, consisting of a rod connecting two circles, and moved the end point to displayed targets. In the reversal condition, the rod translated through, and rotated about, a pivot point such that there was a left-right reversal between hand and end point motion. In the nonreversal control, the tool translated with the hand. As expected, when only the two circles were presented, movement initiation and correction times were much longer in the reversal condition. However, when full vision of the tool was provided, the reaction time cost was almost eliminated. These results indicate that tools with complex kinematics can be efficiently incorporated into sensorimotor control mechanisms used in movement planning and online control.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Dong, Gaofeng, Gross, Kylie, Qiao, Fangfang, Ferguson, Justine, Callegari, Eduardo A., Rezvani, Khosrow, et al. (2012). Calretinin interacts with huntingtin and reduces mutant huntingtin-caused cytotoxicity. Journal of neurochemistry, 123(3), 437-446.
Huntington’s disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expansion of CAG trinucleotide repeats encoding for polyglutamine (polyQ) in the huntingtin (Htt) gene. Despite considerable effort, the mechanisms underlying the toxicity of the mutated Htt protein remains largely uncertain. To identify novel therapeutic targets, we recently employed the approach of tandem affinity purification and discovered that calretinin (Cr), a member of the EF-hand family of calcium-binding proteins, is preferentially associated with mHtt, although it also interacts with wild-type Htt. These observations were supported by coimmunoprecipitation and by colocalization of Cr with mHtt in neuronal cultures. Over- expression of Cr reduced mHtt-caused cytotoxicity in both non-neuronal and neuronal cell models of HD, whereas knockdown of Cr expression in the cells enhanced mHtt-caused neuronal cell death. In addition, over-expression of Cr was also associated with reduction of intracellular free calcium and activation of Akt. These results suggest that Cr may be a potential therapeutic target for treatment of HD. 2012 The Authors Journal of Neurochemistry 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Mcdowell, Emily J., Callegari, Eduardo A., Malke, H., & Chaussee, Michael S. (2012). CodY-mediated regulation of Streptococcus pyogenes exoproteins. Bmc Microbiology, 12.
Background: The production of Streptococcus pyogenes exoproteins, many of which contribute to virulence, is regulated in response to nutrient availability. CodY is a transcriptional regulator that controls gene expression in response to amino acid availability. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the expression of streptococcal exoproteins associated with deletion of the codY gene. Results: We compared the secreted proteins produced by wild-type S. pyogenes to a codY mutant in the post-exponential phase of growth. We used both one and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to separate exoproteins. Proteins that were significantly different in abundance upon repeated analysis were identified with tandem mass spectrometry. The production of the secreted cysteine protease SpeB, a secreted chromosomally encoded nuclease (SdaB), and a putative adhesion factor (Spy49_0549) were more abundant in supernatant fluids obtained from the codY mutant. In addition, hyaluronidase (HylA), CAMP factor (Cfa), a prophage encoded nuclease (Spd-3), and an uncharacterized extracellular protein (Spy49_0015) were less abundant in supernatant fluids obtained from the codY mutant strain. Enzymatic assays showed greater DNase activity in culture supernatants isolated in the post-exponential phase of growth from the codY mutant strain compared to the wild-type strain. Because extracellular nucleases and proteases can influence biofilm formation, we also measured the ability of the strains to form biofilms during growth with both rich medium (Todd Hewitt yeast extract; THY) and chemically defined media (CDM). No difference was observed with rich media but with CDM the biofilms formed by the codY mutant strain had less biomass compared to the wild-type strain. Conclusions: Overall, the results indicate that CodY alters the abundance of a select group of S. pyogenes exoproteins, including DNases, a protease, and hylauronidase, which together may alleviate starvation by promoting dissemination of the pathogen to nutrient rich environments and by hydrolysis of host macromolecules.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Sun, Z., Huber, Victor C., Mccormick, Kara, Kaushik, R. S., Boon, A. C. M., Zhu, L. C., et al. (2012). Characterization of a porcine intestinal epithelial cell line for influenza virus production. Journal of General Virology, 93, 2008-2016.
We have developed a porcine intestine epithelial cell line, designated SD-PJEC for the propagation of influenza viruses. The SD-PJEC cell line is a subclone of the IPEC-J2 cell line, which was originally derived from newborn piglet jejunum. Our results demonstrate that SD-PJEC is a cell line of epithelial origin that preferentially expresses receptors of oligosaccharides with Sia2-6Gal modification. This cell line is permissive to infection with human and swine influenza A viruses and some avian influenza viruses, but poorly support the growth of human-origin influenza B viruses. Propagation of swine-origin influenza viruses in these cells results in a rapid growth rate within the first 24 h post-infection and the titres ranged from 4 to 8 log(10) TCID(50) ml(-1). The SD-PJEC cell line was further tested as a potential alternative cell line to Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in conjunction with 293T cells for rescue of swine-origin influenza viruses using the reverse genetics system. The recombinant viruses A/swine/North Carolina/18161/02 (H1N1) and A/swine/Texas/4199-2/98 (H3N2) were rescued with virus titres of 7 and 8.25 log(10) TCID(50) ml(-1), respectively. The availability of this swine-specific cell line represents a more relevant substrate for studies and growth of swine-origin influenza viruses.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Carlisle, Jay D., Olmstead, Karen L. [Former Faculty Member], Richart, C. H., & Swanson, David L. (2012). FOOD AVAILABILITY, FORAGING BEHAVIOR, AND DIET OF AUTUMN MIGRANT LANDBIRDS IN THE BOISE FOOTHILLS OF SOUTHWESTERN IDAHO. Condor, 114(3), 449-461.
Food availability and acquisition are critical components of a stopover site’s suitability, but we know relatively little about how changes in food availability affect the stopover ecology of migrating landbirds. We examined fruit and arthropod availability in three habitats, studied foraging behavior and diet, and investigated use versus availability for passerines migrating through southwestern Idaho in autumn. Hemiptera dominated foliage-dwelling arthropod communities in all three habitats, whereas Hymenoptera were most numerous among ground-dwelling arthropods. Mountain shrubland had relatively high biomass of both ground-dwelling and foliage-dwelling arthropods, whereas conifer forest had high biomass of foliage-dwelling arthropods only and shrubsteppe had high biomass of ground-dwelling arthropods only. Species’ foraging behavior varied, but most species foraged in mountain shrubland more often than expected by chance. Diets of most species included a high proportion of certain Hemiptera and Hymenoptera with smaller proportions of Coleoptera, Diptera, and Heteroptera; Coleoptera and some Hemiptera were consistently preferred by most species. Importantly, all 19 bird species examined consumed some fruit, and this is the first documentation of frugivory for two warbler species. These data point to the importance of several arthropod taxa, especially the Hemiptera and Hymenoptera, and fruits to landbirds migrating in mountain shrubland in autumn. Finally, we found no effect of annual variation of fruit or arthropod abundance on migrants’ energetic condition, suggesting that food was sufficient for mass gain in all years of this study and/or that foraging behavior may be plastic enough to allow birds to gain mass despite annual differences in food availability.
Biology Department.
Hanlon, S. M., Kerby, Jacob L., & Parris, M. J. (2012). Unlikely Remedy: Fungicide Clears Infection from Pathogenic Fungus in Larval Southern Leopard Frogs (Lithobates sphenocephalus). Plos One, 7(8).
Amphibians are often exposed to a wide variety of perturbations. Two of these, pesticides and pathogens, are linked to declines in both amphibian health and population viability. Many studies have examined the separate effects of such perturbations; however, few have examined the effects of simultaneous exposure of both to amphibians. In this study, we exposed larval southern leopard frog tadpoles (Lithobates sphenocephalus) to the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and the fungicide thiophanate-methyl (TM) at 0.6 mg/L under laboratory conditions. The experiment was continued until all larvae completed metamorphosis or died. Overall, TM facilitated increases in tadpole mass and length. Additionally, individuals exposed to both TM and Bd were heavier and larger, compared to all other treatments. TM also cleared Bd in infected larvae. We conclude that TM affects larval anurans to facilitate growth and development while clearing Bd infection. Our findings highlight the need for more research into multiple perturbations, specifically pesticides and disease, to further promote amphibian heath.
Biology Department.
Hoverman, J. T., Mihaljevic, J. R., Richgels, K. L. D., Kerby, Jacob L., & Johnson, P. (2012). Widespread Co-occurrence of Virulent Pathogens Within California Amphibian Communities. Ecohealth, 9(3), 288-292.
The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, ranaviruses, and trematodes (Ribeiroia ondatrae and echinostomes) are highly virulent pathogens known to infect amphibians, yet the extent to which they co-occur within amphibian communities remains poorly understood. Using field surveillance of 85 wetlands in the East Bay region of California, USA, we found that 68% of wetlands had a parts per thousand yen2 pathogens and 36% had a parts per thousand yen3 pathogens. Wetlands with high pathogen species richness also tended to cluster spatially. Our results underscore the need for greater integration of multiple pathogens and their interactions into amphibian disease research and conservation efforts.
Biology Department.
Basa, Prem N., & Sykes, Andrew G. (2012). Differential Sensing of Zn(II) and Cu(II) via Two Independent Mechanisms. The Journal of organic chemistry, 77(19), 8428-8434.
Selective reduction of an anthracenone-quinoline imine derivative, 2, using 1.0 equiv of NaBH(4) in 95% ethanol affords the corresponding anthracen-9-ol derivative, 3, as confirmed by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, ESI-MS, FTIR, and elemental analysis results. UV-vis and fluorescence data reveal dramatic spectroscopic changes in the presence of Zn(II) and Cu(II). Zinc(II) coordination induces a 1,5-prototropic shift resulting in anthracene fluorophore formation via an imine-enamine tautomerization pathway. Copper(II) induces a colorimetric change from pale yellow to orange-red and results in imine hydrolysis in the presence of water. Spectroscopic investigations of metal ion response, selectivity, stoichiometry, and competition studies all suggest the proposed mechanisms. ESI-MS analysis, FTIR, and single-crystal XRD further support the hydrolysis phenomenon. This is a rare case of a single sensor that can be used either as a chemosensor (reversibly in the case of Zn(II)) or as a chemodosimeter (irreversibly in the case of Cu(II)); however, the imine must contain a coordinating Lewis base, such as quinoline, to be active for Cu(II).
Chemistry Department.
Meruga, J. M., Cross, W. M., May, P. Stanley, Luu, Quocauh, Crawford, G. A., & Kellar, J. J. (2012). Security printing of covert quick response codes using upconverting nanoparticle inks. Nanotechnology, 23(39).
Counterfeiting costs governments and private industries billions of dollars annually due to loss of value in currency and other printed items. This research involves using lanthanide doped beta-NaYF4 nanoparticles for security printing applications. Inks comprised of Yb3+/Er3+ and Yb3+/Tm3+ doped beta-NaYF4 nanoparticles with oleic acid as the capping agent in toluene and methyl benzoate with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as the binding agent were used to print quick response (QR) codes. The QR codes were made using an AutoCAD file and printed with Optomec direct-write aerosol jetting (R). The printed QR codes are invisible under ambient lighting conditions, but are readable using a near-IR laser, and were successfully scanned using a smart phone. This research demonstrates that QR codes, which have been used primarily for information sharing applications, can also be used for security purposes. Higher levels of security were achieved by printing both green and blue upconverting inks, based on combinations of Er3+/Yb3+ and Tm3+/Yb3+, respectively, in a single QR code. The near-infrared (NIR)-to-visible upconversion luminescence properties of the two-ink QR codes were analyzed, including the influence of NIR excitation power density on perceived color, in term of the CIE 1931 chromaticity index. It was also shown that this security ink can be optimized for line width, thickness and stability on different substrates.
Chemistry Department.
Johnson, R. A., Burritt, T. H., Elliott, S. R., Gehman, V. M., Guiseppe, Vincente E., & Wilkerson, J. F. (2012). Alpha backgrounds for HPGe detectors in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section A, 693, 51-58.
Abstract: The Majorana Experiment will use arrays of enriched HPGe detectors to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge. Such a decay, if found, would show lepton-number violation and confirm the Majorana nature of the neutrino. Searches for such rare events are hindered by obscuring backgrounds which must be understood and mitigated as much as possible. A potentially important background contribution to this and other double-beta decay experiments could come from decays of alpha-emitting isotopes in the 232Th and 238U decay chains on or near the surfaces of the detectors. An alpha particle emitted external to an HPGe crystal can lose energy before entering the active region of the detector, either in some external-bulk material or within the dead region of the crystal. The measured energy of the event will only correspond to a partial amount of the total kinetic energy of the alpha and might obscure the signal from neutrinoless double-beta decay. A test stand was built and measurements were performed to quantitatively assess this background. We present results from these measurements and compare them to simulations using Geant4. These results are then used to measure the alpha backgrounds in an underground detector in situ. We also make estimates of surface contamination tolerances for double-beta decay experiments using solid-state detectors.
Physics Department.
Arens, Ashley M., Gaher, Raluca M., & Simons, Jeffrey S. (2012). Child maltreatment and deliberate selfharm among college students: Testing mediation and moderation models for impulsivity. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 82(3), 328-337.
This study examined the relationship between child maltreatment, impulsivity, and deliberate self-harm in a sample of college students. Four subtypes of impulsivity (urgency, premeditation, perseverance, and sensation seeking) were examined. Results show that participants who report child maltreatment histories also report higher levels of negative affect and higher levels of impulsivity, specifically negative urgency. In addition, those who report histories of child maltreatment are more likely to endorse deliberate self-harm behaviors as an adult. Of the 4 subtypes of impulsivity, urgency was most strongly related to deliberate self-harm. Urgency, but not the other subtypes of impulsivity, mediated the relationship between child maltreatment and self-harm. The current study contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms behind deliberate self-harm behavior by suggesting that individuals with histories of child maltreatment are more likely to engage in deliberate self-harm in an attempt to quickly reduce intense negative affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)
Psychology Deaprtment.
Kvigne, Valborg L., Randall, Brad, Simanton, Edward G., Brenneman, G., & Welty, T. K. (2012). Blood Alcohol Levels for American Indian Mothers and Newborns. Pediatrics, 130(4), E1015-E1018.
Very little is known about the alcohol elimination rates of newborns who have had chronic alcohol exposure in utero. In these case reports, blood alcohol levels were taken immediately before delivery, at delivery, and postdelivery for 2 mothers who drank alcohol during their pregnancies and 3 single-birth newborns. Newborn A1 of Mother A had no physical characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The initial blood alcohol level for this newborn was 38.4 mg/dL 129 minutes after birth, with a subsequent blood alcohol level of 5.5 mg/dL 304 minutes after delivery, resulting in an alcohol elimination rate of 11.3 mg/dL per hour. The blood alcohol level for Mother A was 87.4 mg/dL 66 minutes before delivery. Newborn A2 of mother A had FAS. Sixty minutes after delivery, the blood alcohol level for this newborn was 39.5 mg/dL, and the alcohol level of the mother was 42.1 mg/dL. Newborn B1 of mother B had FAS. At 67 minutes after birth, newborn B1 had a blood alcohol level of 246.5 mg/dL, which dropped to 178.7 mg/dL 302 minutes after birth, resulting in an alcohol elimination rate of 17.3 mg/dL per hour. This alcohol elimination rate is within the metabolism range (15-49 mg/dL per hour) of adults with alcoholism. The maternal blood alcohol level was 265.9 mg/dL 27 minutes before delivery. Blood alcohol levels drawn on both the mother and newborn at delivery and 2 or 3 hourly follow-up levels can provide evidence that fetal alcohol dehydrogenase activity is induced by chronic maternal alcohol use. Pediatrics 2012; 130: e1015-e1018
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls  Campus.
Chan, Daniel K., & Miskimins, W. Keith. (2012). Metformin and phenethyl isothiocyanate combined treatment in vitro is cytotoxic to ovarian cancer cultures. Journal of Ovarian Research, 5.
Background: High mortality rates in ovarian cancer are largely a result of resistance to currently used chemotherapies. Expanding therapies with a variety of drugs has the potential to reduce this high mortality rate. Metformin and phenethyl isothiocyanate ( PEITC) are both potentially useful in ovarian cancer, and they are particularly attractive because of their safety. Methods: Cell proliferation of each drug and drug combination was evaluated by hemacytometry with Trypan blue exclusion or Sytox green staining for cell death. Levels of total and cleaved PARP were measured by Western blot. General cellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species were measured by flow cytometry and live cell confocal microscopy with the fluorescent dyes dihydroethidine and MitoSOX. Results: Individually, metformin and PEITC each show inhibition of cell growth in multiple ovarian cancer cell lines. Alone, PEITC was also able to induce apoptosis, whereas metformin was primarily growth inhibitory. Both total cellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species were increased when treated with either metformin or PEITC. The growth inhibitory effects of metformin were reversed by methyl succinate supplementation, suggesting complex I plays a role in metformin’s anti-cancer mechanism. PEITC’s anti-cancer effect was reversed by N-acetyl-cysteine supplementation, suggesting PEITC relies on reactive oxygen species generation to induce apoptosis. Metformin and PEITC together showed a synergistic effect on ovarian cancer cell lines, including the cisplatin resistant A2780cis. Conclusions: Here we show that when used in combination, these drugs are effective in both slowing cancer cell growth and killing ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Furthermore, the combination of these drugs remains effective in cisplatin resistant cell lines. Novel combinations such as metformin and PEITC show promise in expanding ovarian cancer therapies and overcoming the high incidence of cisplatin resistant cancers.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Leavitt, David A., Rambachan, Aksharananda, Haberman, Ken, Demarco, Romano, & Shukla, Aseem R. (2012). Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Ipsilateral Ureteroureterostomy for Ectopic Ureters in Children: Description of Technique. Journal of Endourology, 26(10), 1279-1283.
Purpose: We report our experience and present our technique with the robot-assisted laparoscopic ipsilateral ureteroureterostomy (IUU) in the management of ureteral duplication with ectopia in children. Patients and Methods: We reviewed our institutional experience for all patients who underwent a robot-assisted laparoscopic IUU at the University of Minnesota Amplatz Children’s Hospital between December 2010 and October 2011. An intraoperative, three-port technique was used after a ureteral stent was placed into the ipsilateral lower pole. Demographic information, diagnosis, operative time, hospital course, complications, and follow-up were all evaluated. Results: Our series included four female patients and one male patient with a mean age of 61 months (6 to 182 mos). All five had a diagnosis of upper pole ectopic ureters, one of which was associated with an ureterocele. Mean total operative time was 225 minutes (181 to 253 min), and mean hospital stay was 1.2 days (1-2 days). There were no intraoperative complications. In follow-up, at the time of ureteral stent removal, pyelonephritis developed in one patient, but all patients had resolution of their presenting symptoms including urinary tract infections and incontinence. A significant reduction in upper pole hydronephrosis was seen in all patients. Conclusions: Our experience indicates that robot-assisted laparoscopic IUU is safe and effective in the management of ureteral duplication anomalies in children.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Park, W. S., Ryu, J., Cho, K. H., Ahn, Hyun Joo, Lee, John H., Vermeer, Paola, et al. (2012). Human papillomavirus in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas in korea: Use of G1 cycle markers as new prognosticators. Head and Neck-Journal for the Sciences and Specialties of the Head and Neck, 34(10), 1408-1417.
Background Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) exhibits distinct patterns worldwide, but its prevalence has not been extensively evaluated in Korea. The E7 oncogene-mediated carcinogenesis and its meaning are yet to be uncovered for oropharyngeal SCCs. Methods In a Korean oropharyngeal SCC cohort, epidemiological indicators, HPV, and G1 cell cycle marker expressions were correlated with survival. Results Among 93 surgically treated patients with oropharyngeal SCCs, 49.5% were HPV+, which were significantly younger, and predominantly nonsmoking. They demonstrated better survival than HPV- (94% vs 60%). Patients who were HPV+ with oropharyngeal SCCs expressed higher p16, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4), and lower pRb. The p16 (hazard ratio [HR] 2.39), pRb (HR 2.13), and CCND1 (HR 2.09) correlated with survival. Notably, combined markers like p16/cdk4 ratio (HR 2.47) and cdk4+CCND1 sum (HR 2.65) were more significantly correlated. Conclusion Incidence of HPV-related oropharyngeal SCC in Korea is similar to U.S.-European data. HPV presence correlates with improved survival. Expression ratios of G1 markers may predict survival of oropharyngeal SCCs better than each marker alone. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2011
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Phung, Y., Gao, W., Man, Y. G., Nagata, Satoshi, & Ho, M. (2012). High-affinity monoclonal antibodies to cell surface tumor antigen glypican-3 generated through a combination of peptide immunization and flow cytometry screening. Mabs, 4(5), 592-599.
Isolating high-affinity antibodies against native tumor antigens on the cell surface is not straightforward using standard hybridoma procedures. Here, we describe a combination method of synthetic peptide immunization and high-throughput flow cytometry screening to efficiently isolate hybridomas for cell binding. Using this method, we identified high-affinity monoclonal antibodies specific for the native form of glypcian-3 (GPC3), a target heterogeneously expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other cancers. We isolated a panel of monoclonal antibodies (YP6, YP7, YP8, YP9 and YP9.1) for cell surface binding. The antibodies were used to characterize GPC3 protein expression in human liver cancer cell lines and tissues by flow cytometry, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. The best antibody (YP7) bound cell surface-associated GPC3 with equilibrium dissociation constant, K-D = 0.3 nmol/L and was highly specific for HCC, not normal tissues or other forms of primary liver cancers (such as cholangiocarcinoma). Interestingly, the new antibody was highly sensitive in that it detected GPC3 in low expression ovarian clear cell carcinoma and melanoma cells. The YP7 antibody exhibited significant HCC xenograft tumor growth inhibition in nude mice. These results describe an improved method for producing high-affinity monoclonal antibodies to cell surface tumor antigens and represent a general approach to isolate therapeutic antibodies against cancer. The new high-affinity antibodies described here have significant potential for GPC3-expressing cancer diagnostics and therapy.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Raidoo, Deshandra M. (2012). Fluoxetine-induced tardive dyskinesia in a patient with Parkinson’s disease. Acta Neuropsychiatrica, 24(5), 306-309.
Background: This is a report of a 66-year-old male with Parkinson’s disease (PD), depression and anxiety who developed tardive dyskinesia (TD) while on fluoxetine. Methods: The patient underwent psychiatric, neurological and neuroimaging examination. Results: The patient’s neuroimaging examination was normal, his psychiatric assessment revealed depression and anxiety, and his neurological evaluation diagnosed only mild PD. The patient’s TD resolved when fluoxetine was discontinued and recurred upon re-exposure. Conclusion: This case shows that fluoxetine as monotherapy can be associated with TD especially in patients with concomitant PD. Clinicians must be aware of this side-effect and monitor for features of TD due to antidepressants that are often used to treat comorbid depression in patients with PD.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Romanowicz, M., Ehlers, S., Walker, D., Shinozaki, Gen, Litzow, M., Hogan, W., et al. (2012). Testing a Diathesis-Stress Model: Potential Genetic Risk Factors for Development of Distress in Context of Acute Leukemia Diagnosis and Transplant. Psychosomatics, 53(5), 456-462.
Objective: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDIVF) is a nerve growth factor that has antidepressant-like effects in animals and may be implicated in the etiology of mood-related phenotypes, specifically in the context of stressful life events. We hypothesized that this single-nucleotide polymorphism will predict the development of psychological distress among patients diagnosed with acute leukemia and preparing for hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). We also explored the relationship of other genetic factors to psychological distress, including 5HTTLPR and STin2, FKBP5, and the CRHR1 TAT haplotype. Method: In a retrospective cohort design, 107 adult acute leukemia survivors preparing for HSCT at a major medical center completed a pre-HSCT psychological evaluation and volunteered to donate blood to the HSCT Cell and Serum Research Repository for future research studies. Results: There was evidence of a potential association between BDNF (Va166Met) and psychological distress. More specifically, rs6265 was related to both personal mental health history (P = 0.09, 0.06 adjusted) and diagnosis of depression/adjustment disorder at time of pre-transplant evaluation (P = 0.11, 0.09 adjusted). Other genetic factors were unrelated to distress. Conclusion: The BDNF Va166Met polymorphism may contribute to development of depressive symptomatology in patients undergoing stressful life events, such as diagnosis of acute leukemia and preparation for HSCT. The SNPs in BDNF might be applicable in identifying patients at risk for developing psychological distress and depression in the context of coping with stressful medical conditions. Polymorphism in other genes (FKBP5, CRHR1, and SHIT) did not show any significant relationships. Replication studies are needed with larger samples of people undergoing similar significant life stressors. (Psychosomatics 2012; 53:456-462)
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Shearer, Gregory C., Pottala, James V., Hansen, Susan N., Brandenburg, Verdayne, & Harris, William S. (2012). Effects of prescription niacin and omega-3 fatty acids on lipids and vascular function in metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of lipid research, 53(11), 2429-2435.
The metabolic syndrome includes both dyslipidemia and impaired vascular function. Because extended-release niacin (ERN) and prescription omega-3 acid ethyl-esters (P-OM3) independently improve these characteristics, we tested their effects in combination. Sixty metabolic syndrome subjects were randomized to 16 weeks of treatment on dual placebo, P-OM3 (4g/day), ERN (2 g/day), or combination in a double-blind trial. Lipoprotein subfractions and vascular endpoints were measured and tested using ANCOVA. ERN increased HDL cholesterol by 5.4 mg/dl from baseline (P = 0.04), decreased triglycerides (TG) by 39 mg/dl (-21%, P = 0.003), and decreased the augmentation index, which is a measure of vascular stiffness, by 3.5 units (P = 0.04). P-OM3 reduced TG by 26 mg/dl (-13%, P = 0.04). Combination treatment increased HDL cholesterol by 7.8 mg/dl (P = 002) and decreased TG by 72 mg/dl (-34%) but there was no improvement in vascular stiffness. Detailed analysis of lipoprotein subfractions revealed increased large, bouyant HDL(2) (3.3 mg/dl; P = 0.002) and decreased VLDL(1+2) (-32%; P < 0.0001), among subjects treated with combination therapy, that were not present with either therapy alone. ERN and P-OM3 alone improved characteristics of metabolic syndrome; however, whereas subjects on combination therapy did not have improved vascular stiffness, TG and HDL levels improved as did certain lipoprotein subfractions.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Wieking, B. G., Vermeer, D. W., Spanos, W. C., Lee, K. M., Vermeer, P., Lee, W. T., et al. (2012). A non-oncogenic HPV 16 E6/E7 vaccine enhances treatment of HPV expressing tumors. Cancer Gene Therapy, 19(10), 667-674.
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative factor for >90% of cervical cancers and 25% of head and neck cancers. The incidence of HPV positive (+) head and neck squamous cell carcinomas has greatly increased in the last 30 years. E6 and E7 are the two key viral oncoproteins that induce and propagate cellular transformation. An immune response generated during cisplatin/radiation therapy improves tumor clearance of HPV(+) cancers. Augmenting this induced response during therapy with an adenoviral HPV16 E6/E7 vaccine improves long-term survival in pre-clinical models. Here, we describe the generation of an HPV16 E6/E7 construct, which contains mutations that render E6/E7 non-oncogenic, while preserving antigenicity. These mutations do not allow E6/E7 to degrade p53, pRb, PTPN13, or activate telomerase. Non-oncogenic E6/E7 (E6Δ/E7Δ) expressed as a stable integrant, or in the [E1-, E2b-] adenovirus, lacks the ability to transform human cells while retaining the ability to induce an HPV-specific immune response. Moreover, E6Δ/E7Δ plus chemotherapy/radiation statistically enhances clearance of established HPV(+) cancer in vivo.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Nelson, Cynthia. (2012). If You Invite the Candidates, They Will Come: Special Guest Visits the Classroom. Social Studies & the Young Learner, 25(1), P1-P4.
The author discusses a class project which teaches students understand the importance of voting and the election process and how to prepare if a candidate visits the classroom. It states that lessons to review or introduce students to the election process should be prepared and presented. In addition, basic duties and responsibilities of some of the offices that would be seen on the ballot should be explored and expectations of student behavior during candidate visits should be reviewed.
School of Education.
Jang, Y. R., Park, N. S., Cho, S., Roh, Soonhee, & Chiriboga, D. A. (2012). Diabetes and depressive symptoms among Korean American older adults: The mediating role of subjective health perceptions. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 97(3), 432-437.
Purpose: In recognition of the impact of chronic diseases on mental health and the lack of research on Asian American subgroups, the present study examined subjective perceptions of health as a potential mediator in the association between diabetes and depressive symptoms in Korean American older adults. Methods: Multivariate analysis with data from 672 Korean American older adults in Florida explored the mediation model of health perceptions. Results: The presence of diabetes was associated with negative perceptions of health and elevated symptoms of depression. The proposed mediation model was also supported: negative perceptions of health served as an intervening step between diabetes and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: The intervening role of health perceptions yields implications for developing health promotion interventions targeting older individuals with diabetes. Results suggest that even in the presence of chronic health conditions, mental well-being of older adults can be maintained by having optimistic beliefs and positive attitudes towards their own health. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
School of Health Sciences.
Park, Jisung, Roh, Soonhee, & Yeo, Younsook. (2012). Religiosity, Social Support, and Life Satisfaction Among Elderly Korean Immigrants. Gerontologist, 52(5), 641-649.
Purpose: The present study tested Smith’s (2003. Theorizing religious effects among American adolescents. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42, 17–30. doi:10.1111/1468-5906.t01-1-00158) theory of religious effects to explore the relationship of religiosity, social support, and life satisfaction among elderly Korean immigrants. The study investigated the mediating role of social support to the relationship between religiosity and life satisfaction. Design and Methods: We hypothesized that religiosity would be positively associated with life satisfaction and that the relationship between religiosity and life satisfaction would be mediated by social support. Structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed hypotheses with a sample of 200 Korean immigrant older adults in New York City (mean age = 72.5, range = 65–89). Results: We found that greater religiosity was related to greater life satisfaction and that social support partially explained the positive relationship between religiosity and life satisfaction. Implications: Results indicated that religious engagement and social support could be significant factors to improve the quality of life among elderly Korean immigrants. Social services that facilitate religiosity and social support may be beneficial for Korean elders’ life satisfaction. Future studies are invited to replicate this study for diverse ethnic groups of elderly immigrants.
School of Health Sciences.
Seefeldt, Teresa M., Mort, Jane R., Brockevelt, Barbara, Giger, Jarod, Jordre, Becca, Lawler, Michael, et al. (2012). A pilot study of interprofessional case discussions for health professions students using the virtual world Second Life. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning, 4(4), 224-231.
Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of a virtual world, Second Life (Linden Labs;, in interprofessional case discussions for health professions students. Methods: Students from pharmacy, nursing, physician assistant, physical therapy, and occupational therapy programs used Second Life to conduct hour-long interprofessional discussions of a mock patient case. The sessions were facilitated by a pharmacy faculty member. Pre- and post-activity surveys evaluated students” opinions on the use of Second Life for interprofessional education (IPE). Results: Forty-seven students participated in one of the nine interprofessional team meetings with participants located in any of four cities. Group size ranged from four to seven students. All students completed the pre- and post-activity surveys. The students had favorable impressions of the activity with 60% of the participants agreeing or strongly agreeing that Second Life was an effective method of conducting IPE. In addition, a larger percentage of students clearly identified important characteristics of an effective interprofessional team after the virtual IPE. Students cited convenience, flexibility, the ability to discuss the case in real-time with other students, and the interactive nature of the session as the major advantages to the use of Second Life. Technical issues were the most commonly reported challenges in using Second Life. Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrated that Second Life can be an effective option for interprofessional case discussions, although continued efforts to minimize technical challenges are needed.
School of Health Sciences.

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