Posted by: princekhaled | October 8, 2009

October 2009

Anderson-Mueller, B. E., M. D. Laudenschlager, et al.(2009).
Epidermoid Cyst of the Clitoris: An Unusual Cause of Clitoromegaly in a Patient without History of Previous Female Circumcision.
Journal of Pediatric & Adolescent Gynecology 22(5): e130-e132 actually

Abstract: Study Objective: To describe a rare cause of clitoromegaly. Setting: University Medical Center. Participants: Patient Intervention: Magnetic resonance imaging, surgical resection of the cyst, clitoroplasty Results: Clitoroplasty with removal of the intradermal cyst and resolution of pain. Conclusions: A 17-year-old immigrant female presented with clitoral pain associated with clitoromegaly. Epidermoid cysts are usually solitary, asymptomatic, slow-growing, proliferations of epidermal cells that are commonly present on the neck, scalp, face, or trunk. There have only been four reported cases of epidermoid cysts of the clitoris not associated with female genital mutilation. The cyst in this case was removed by local excision, and the patient”s pain has resolved.</i></p>

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sanford School of Medicine of the University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA
Department of Pathology, Sanford School of Medicine of the University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA
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Brandt, Y. and J. G. Swallow. (2009).
Do the elongated eye stalks of diopsid flies facilitate rival assessment?
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 63(8): 1243-1246.

The elongated eye span of male Diopsid flies is a sexually selected character that scales positively with body size. Previously, the duration of agonistic contests was found to increase as rival body size and eye span disparities decreased. Hence, along with its role in mate choice, eye span seems to facilitate mutual assessment of rival size. However, such results are also expected in the absence of rival assessment, when each individual persists according to its own size-dependent internal threshold. Here, we reanalyze these contests to distinguish between these two hypotheses using two measures of size: body length and eye span. Mutual assessment predicts that contest duration should increase with loser size and decrease with winner size. In contrast, our results were more consistent with self-assessment: We found a positive relationship between loser size and contest duration, whereas winner size did not affect contest duration. Thus, flies did not appear to assess the size of their rivals, indicating that the mutual assessment function of eye span elongation may be less important than previously suspected. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract)

Department of Biology, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD
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Brannian, J., K. Eyster, et al. (2009).
Progressive obesity leads to altered ovarian gene expression in the Lethal Yellow mouse: a microarray study.
Journal of Ovarian Research 2(1): 10-10.

Lethal yellow (LY; C57BL/6J Ay/a) mice exhibit adult-onset obesity, altered metabolic regulation, and early reproductive senescence. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that obese LY mice possess differences in expression of ovarian genes relative to age-matched lean mice.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD 57105, USA
Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD, USA
Sanford Research USD, Sioux Falls, SD, USA 4: Department of Biology, Augustana College, Sioux Falls, SD, USA

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Grover, J. and A. Lavin. (2009).
Passive versus Optimized Investing in Retirement Plan Portfolios.
Journal of Wealth Management 12(2): 48-59.

This article uses portfolios of Vanguard index funds to study the optimal portfolio allocation strategy, for long-term investors who are saving for retirement. The optimization, conducted using both a single-index-hybrid model (SIHM) and the Markowitz-Sharpe optimization method, suggests that in the long run, an optimized allocation strategy will yield cumulative returns equivalent to those of a passive allocation strategy with significantly less risk. In addition, the optimized allocation strategy achieves the favorable risk and reward profile using fewer funds than the passive strategy.

Professor of finance, University of South Dakota, Beacom School of Business in Vermillion, SD;
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Hanson, E. K. and C. Sundheimer (2009).
Telephone talk: Effects of timing and use of floorholder message on telephone conversations using synthesized speech.
AAC: Augmentative and Alternative Communication 25(2): 90-98.

Telephone interaction remains a challenging form of communication for many who use speech-generating devices (SGDs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of delayed starts and floorholder information at the beginning of synthesized-speech telephone calls to local businesses. Calls were placed to 100 randomly selected businesses asking for business hours. Each call was randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: a floorholder present with no delay, a floorholder present with a delay, floorholder absent and no delay, and floorholder absent with a delay. Overall, 76% of the calls were unsuccessful because the participant hung up or otherwise did not provide the information requested. The majority of successful calls occurred in the floorholder present and no delay condition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract)

University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD, US
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Long, M. E. and R. Quevillon (2009).
Imagery rescripting in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder.
Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy 23(1): 67-76.

The use of imagery in psychotherapy has received surprisingly little attention from researchers despite its long history in psychology and the significance of imagery in a number of psychological disorders. One procedure warranting increased attention is imagery rescripting, an imagery technique in which an image is modified in some way to decrease distress. Imagery rescripting is relatively new with a small but growing empirical base. This article briefly reviews hypothesized mechanisms for therapeutic change via imagery techniques, emphasizing imagery rescripting, and how they might be relevant in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We review studies employing imagery rescripting as a component of treatment, followed by recommendations for future direction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract)

Disaster Mental Health Institute, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD, US
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Mutsvangwa, T. E. M., J. Smit, et al. (2009).
Design, Construction, and Testing of a Stereo-Photogrammetric Tool for the Diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Infants.
IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 28(9): 1448-1458.

Stereo-photogrammetry provides a low cost, easy to use, and noninvasive alternative to traditional facial anthropometry for the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). We describe such a system for use in obtaining 3-D facial information in infants. The infant is photographed using three high resolution digital cameras simultaneously while seated in a car seat. The subject’s head is enclosed in a control frame during imaging. Technical system tests, namely control frame interpolation, camera calibration reliability, and camera synchronization delay assessments were performed. Direct and stereo-photogrammetric measurements of a doll were compared. Of 275 inter-landmark distances, 100% were within a 1.5 mm error range and 92.36% within a 1 mm error range when the two modalities were compared. Stereo-photogrammetry proved to be highly precise with submillimeter error in landmark placement for all landmarks on the doll. An intra-modality comparison of inter-landmark distances using two sets of images of five subjects showed the stereo-photogrammetric system to be highly reliable, with an average 72.25% of distances within a 1 mm error range. The system has potential for large scale screening and surveillance studies for FAS.

Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD 57117 USA

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Peterson, S. S., T. Kirby, et al.(2009).
Chelating, bridging, and chain structures within Ag(I) and Cu(I) complexes of bis(nicotinyloxy), bis(isonicotinyloxy), and bis(pyrimidine-5-carboxyloxy)-1,8-disubstituted anthraquinone ligands.
Polyhedron 28(14): 3031-3035.

Reaction of Ag(I) and Cu(I) [M(NCCH3)4]X (X=BF4- and PF6-) salts with 1,8-bis(nicotinyloxy)anthracene-9,10-dione (1), 1,8-bis(isonicotinyloxy)anthracene-9,10-dione (2), and 1,8-bis(pyrimidine-5-carboxyloxy)anthracene-9,10-dione (3), yield new chelating and bridging complexes and two new coordination polymers. The bridging capabilities of ligands 1 and 2 have not been demonstrated before, and ligand 1, by itself, has the flexibility to produce either chelated or bridged structures and an unusual ladder coordination polymer. The tetradentate ligand 3 also produces a one-dimensional coordination polymer in the presence of one equivalent of Ag(I). All complexes have been characterized by X-ray crystallography.

The Department of Chemistry, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States
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Simons, J. S., K. B. Carey, et al.(2009).
Alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms: A multidimensional model of common and specific etiology.
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 23(3): 415-427.

This study tested a theoretical model hypothesizing differential pathways from 5 predictors to alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms. The participants were college students (N = 2,270) surveyed on 2 occasions in a 6-month prospective design. Social norms, perceived utility of alcohol use, and family history of alcohol problems were indirectly associated with Time 2 abuse and dependence symptoms through influencing level of alcohol consumption. Poor behavioral control had a direct effect on alcohol abuse but not on dependence symptoms at Time 2, whereas affective lability exhibited a direct prospective effect on alcohol dependence but not on abuse symptoms. A multigroup analysis showed that high levels of poor control increased the strength of paths from both consumption level and affective lability to abuse symptoms. Implications for prevention of alcohol problems among college students are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract)

Department of Psychology, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD.
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Villavicencio, A., A. Goyeneche, et al. (2009).
Involvement of Akt, Ras and cell cycle regulators in the potential development of endometrial hyperplasia in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome.
Gynecologic Oncology 115(1): 102-107.

Abstract: Objective: To examine whether the abundance, localization, and/or activity of cell cycle regulators CDK2, Cyclin E, p27, and survival proteins AKT and Ras in PCOS-associated endometria (with and without hyperplasia) differ from non-PCOS endometria. Methods: The expression of CDK2, Cyclin E, p27, AKT and Ras was measured by immunohistochemistry and/or Western blot in 9 normal endometria (NE), 12 endometria from PCOS patients without endometrial hyperplasia (PCOSE), 7 endometria from PCOS women with endometrial hyperplasia (HPCOSE), and 9 endometria from patients with endometrial hyperplasia (HE). The activity of CDK2 was assessed by an in vitro kinase assay. Results: CDK2, Cyclin E and p27 proteins were expressed mainly in the endometrial epithelial cells of the studied groups. No change in the activity of CDK2 was observed in total extracts obtained from the tissue samples. However, the nuclear expression of CDK2 in epithelial cells was slightly elevated in PCOSE and significantly increased in HPCOSE when compared to NE. Higher expression of p27 was detected in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of PCOSE and HPCOSE when compared to NE. Also, we found an increment in Ser473-AKT phosphorylation and an over-expression of the Ras oncogene in endometria of patients with PCOS. Conclusion: The PCOS condition is associated with increased Ser473-AKT phosphorylation, elevated expression of Ras, increased cytoplasmic abundance of p27, and increased nuclear abundance of CDK2 in the endometrial epithelial cells. These biological events could potentially provide a chance for endometrial cells from PCOS patients to exit the controlled cell cycle and become hyperplastic at a later stage.

Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, USA
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Wang, X.-T. (2008).
Risk Communication and Risky Choice in Context.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1128(1): 78-89.

This chapter takes a synthetic approach to six related lines of research on decision making at risk and views risky choice as a function of cue use with priorities in the context of risk communication. An evolutionary analysis of risk and risk communication is presented in which risk is defined not only as variance in monetary payoff but also as variance in biological relatedness, social relations, and ultimately in reproductive fitness. Empirical evidence of ecological and social significance embedded in risk messages is analyzed, and how these risk cues affect behavioral decision making is examined. A new explanatory framework, the ambiguity and ambivalence hypothesis, identifies two key preconditions contributing to inconsistency and biases in making risky choices as a result of cue use in the course of risk communication.

Psychology Department, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota, USA

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Weaver, K. E. (2009).
Identification and characterization of a family of toxin–antitoxin systems related to the Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pAD1 par addiction module.
Microbiology 155(9): 2930-2940.

The par locus of the Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pAD1 is an RNA-regulated addiction module encoding the peptide toxin Fst. Homology searches revealed that Fst belongs to a family of at least nine related peptides encoded on the chromosomes and plasmids of six different Gram-positive bacterial species. Comparison of an alignment of these peptides with the results of a saturation mutagenesis analysis indicated regions of the peptides important for biological function. Examination of the genetic context of the fst genes revealed that all of these peptides are encoded within par-like loci with conserved features similar to pAD1 par. All four Ent. faecalis family members were demonstrated to produce the expected toxin-encoding and regulatory RNA products. The locus from the Ent. faecalis plasmid pAMS1 was demonstrated to function as an addiction module and Fst was shown to be toxic to Staphylococcus aureus, suggesting that a plasmid-encoded module in that species is performing the same function. Thus, the pAD1-encoded par locus appears to be the prototype of a family of related loci found in several Gram-positive species.

Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA.
Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA
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Halasa, N., J. Englund, S. Nachman, V. Huber, K. Allison, T. Yi, J. McCullers, and P. Flynn.
Safety of Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in Mild to Moderately Immunocompromised Children with Cancer.
Acta Paediatrica, 98 (2009): 151-52.

Basic Biomedical Sciences.  Vermillion
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Heaton, Timothy H.
Recent Developments in Young-Earth Creationist Geology.
Science & Education, 18 (2009): 1341-58.

Young-earth creationism has undergone a shift in emphasis toward building of historical models that incorporate Biblical and scientific evidence and the acceptance of scientific conclusions that were formerly rejected. The RATE Group admitted that massive amounts of radioactive decay occurred during earth history but proposed a period of accelerated decay during Noah’s Flood to fit the resulting history into a young-earth timeframe. Finding a mechanism for the acceleration and dealing with the excessive heat and radiation it would generate posed major problems for the project. Catastrophic plate tectonics was proposed to explain continental movements in a short timeframe and serve as a trigger for Noah’s Flood, but other creationists rejected the idea citing hopeless chronological problems. Creationists have also sought to explain the order of the fossil record and the Ice Age in a young-earth timeframe. An examination of these efforts demonstrates the anti-scientific nature of using the Bible as a non-negotiable framework for earth history.

Earth Sciences Department, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States
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Husak, Jerry F., and D. J. Irschick.
Steroid Use and Human Performance: Lessons for Integrative Biologists.
Integrative and Comparative Biology, 49 (2009): 354-64.

While recent studies have begun to address how hormones mediate whole-animal performance traits, the field conspicuously lags behind research conducted on humans. Recent studies of human steroid use have revealed that steroid use increases muscle cross-sectional area and mass, largely due to increases in protein synthesis, and muscle fiber hypertrophy attributable to an increased number of satellite cells and myonuclei per unit area. These biochemical and cellular effects on skeletal muscle morphology translate into increased power and work during weight-lifting and enhanced performance in burst, sprinting activities. However, there are no unequivocal data that human steroid use enhances endurance performance or muscle fatigability or recovery. The effects of steroids on human morphology and performance are in general consistent with results found for nonhuman animals, though there are notable discrepancies. However, some of the discrepancies may be due to a paucity of comparative data on how testosterone affects muscle physiology and subsequent performance across different regions of the body and across vertebrate taxa. Therefore, we advocate more research on the basic relationships among hormones, morphology, and performance. Based on results from human studies, we recommend that integrative biologists interested in studying hormone regulation of performance should take into account training, timing of administration, and dosage administered when designing experiments or field studies. We also argue that more information is needed on the long-term effects of hormone manipulation on performance and fitness.

School of Education, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States
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Husak, Jerry F., D. J. Irschick, S. D. McCormick, and I. T. Moore.
Hormonal Regulation of Whole-Animal Performance: Implications for Selection.
Integrative and Comparative Biology, 49 (2009): 349-53.

Biology Department, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States
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