Posted by: princekhaled | April 8, 2010

April 2010

Darling, W. G., Pizzimenti, M. A., Rotella, D. L., Hynes, S. M., Ge, Jizhi Z., Stilwell-Morecraft, Kimberly S., et al. (2010).
Minimal forced use without constraint stimulates spontaneous use of the impaired upper extremity following motor cortex injury. Experimental Brain Research, 202(3), 529-542.

The purpose of this study was to determine if recovery of neurologically impaired hand function following isolated motor cortex injury would occur without constraint of the non-impaired limb, and without daily forced use of the impaired limb. Nine monkeys (Macaca mulatta) received neurosurgical lesions of various extents to arm representations of motor cortex in the hemisphere contralateral to the preferred hand. After the lesion, no physical constraints were placed on the ipsilesional arm/hand and motor testing was carried out weekly with a maximum of 40 attempts in two fine motor tasks that required use of the contralesional hand for successful food acquisition. These motor tests were the only “forced use” of the contralesional hand. We also tested regularly for spontaneous use of the contralesional hand in a fine motor task in which either hand could be used for successful performance. This minimal intervention was sufficient to induce recovery of the contralesional hand to such a functional level that eight of the monkeys chose to use that hand on some trials when either hand could be used. Percentage use of the contralesional hand (in the task when either hand could be used) varied considerably among monkeys and was not related to lesion volume or recovery of motor skill. These data demonstrate a remarkable capacity for recovery of spontaneous use of the impaired hand following localized frontal lobe lesions. Clinically, these observations underscore the importance of therapeutic intervention to inhibit the induction of the learned nonuse phenomenon after neurological injury.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus
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Erkina, T. Y., Zou, Y., Freeling, S., Vorobyev, V. I., & Erkine, A. M. (2010).
Functional interplay between chromatin remodeling complexes RSC, SWI/SNF and ISWI in regulation of yeast heat shock genes. Nucleic Acids Research, 38(5), 1441-1449.

Chromatin remodeling is an essential part of transcription initiation. We show that at heat shock gene promoters functional interactions between individual ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes play critical role in both nucleosome displacement and Pol II recruitment. Using HSP12, HSP82 and SSA4 gene promoters as reporters, we demonstrated that while inactivation of SNF2, a critical ATPase of the SWI/SNF complex, primarily affects the HSP12 promoter, depletion of STH1- a SNF2 homolog from the RSC complex reduces histone displacement and abolishes the Pol II recruitment at all three promoters. From these results, we conclude that redundancy between SWI/SNF and RSC complexes is only partial and likely is affecting different chromatin remodeling steps. While inactivation of other individual ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes negligibly affects reporter promoters, combinatorial inactivation of SNF2 and ISW1 has a synergistic effect by diminishing histone loss during heat induction and eliminating Pol II recruitment. Importantly, it also eliminates preloading of HSF on HSP82 and SSA4 promoters before heat shock and diminishes HSF binding during heat shock. These observations suggest that prior action of chromatin remodeling complexes is necessary for the activator binding.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus
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Hofkamp, Luke E., Bradley, Sarahann, Geliebter, Jan, & Timms, Barry G. (2010).
Atypical Fetal Prostate Development is Associated with Ipsilateral Hypoplasia of the Wolffian Ducts in the ACI Rat. The Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology, 293(5), spc1.

Serial section reconstruction images of the male ACI rat urogenital sinus shown from a dorso-cranial view. The image in the lower right illustrates the normal late gestation appearance of the accessory gland development, compared to the Wolffian duct ipsilateral abnormality observed in 25% of the male offspring (upper left). See Potok et al., Anatomical Record 239:747-753.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus
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Nagamoto-Combs, K., Morecraft, Robert J., Darling, W. G., & Combs, C. K. (2010).
Long-Term Gliosis and Molecular Changes in the Cervical Spinal Cord of the Rhesus Monkey after Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 27(3), 565-585.

Recovery of fine motor skills after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is variable, with some patients showing progressive improvements over time while others show poor recovery. We therefore studied possible cellular mechanisms accompanying the recovery process in a non-human primate model system, in which the lateral frontal motor cortex areas controlling the preferred upper limb were unilaterally lesioned, and the animals eventually regained fine hand motor function. Immunohistochemical staining of the cervical spinal cord, the site of compensatory sprouting and degeneration of corticospinal axons, showed profound increases in immunoreactivities for major histocompatibility complex class II molecule (MHC-II) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) up to 12 months post lesion, particularly within the lateral corticospinal tract (LCST). Double immunostaining demonstrated that phosphorylated ERK1/2 colocalized within the MCH-II+ microglia, suggesting a trophic role of long-term microglia activation after TBI at the site of compensatory sprouting. Active sprouting was observed in the LCST as well as in the spinal gray matter of the lesioned animals, as illustrated by increases in growth associated protein 43. Upregulation of Nogo receptor and glutamate transporter expression was also observed in this region after TBI, suggesting possible mechanisms for controlling aberrant sprouting and/or synaptic formation en route and interstitial glutamate concentration changes at the site of axon degeneration, respectively. Taken together, these changes in the non-human primate spinal cord support a long-term trophic/tropic role for reactive microglia, in particular, during functional and structural recovery after TBI.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus
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Bukovsky, A., Caudle, M. R., Carson, R. J., & Telleria, Carlos M. (2009).
Immune physiology in tissue regeneration and aging, tumor growth, and regenerative medicine. Aging-Us, 1(2), 157-181.

The immune system plays an important role in immunity (immune surveillance), but also in the regulation of tissue homeostasis (immune physiology). Lessons from the female reproductive tract indicate that immune system related cells, such as intraepithelial T cells and monocyte-derived cells (MDC) in stratified epithelium, interact amongst themselves and degenerate whereas epithelial cells proliferate and differentiate. In adult ovaries, MDC and T cells are present during oocyte renewal from ovarian stem cells. Activated MDC are also associated with follicular development and atresia, and corpus luteum differentiation. Corpus luteum demise resembles rejection of a graft since it is attended by a massive influx of MDC and T cells resulting in parenchymal and vascular regression. Vascular pericytes play important roles in immune physiology, and their activities (including secretion of the Thy-1 differentiation protein) can be regulated by vascular autonomic innervation. In tumors, MDC regulate proliferation of neoplastic cells and angiogenesis. Tumor infiltrating T cells die among malignant cells. Alterations of immune physiology can result in pathology, such as autoimmune, metabolic, and degenerative diseases, but also in infertility and intrauterine growth retardation, fetal morbidity and mortality. Animal experiments indicate that modification of tissue differentiation (retardation or acceleration) during immune adaptation can cause malfunction (persistent immaturity or premature aging) of such tissue during adulthood. Thus successful stem cell therapy will depend on immune physiology in targeted tissues. From this point of view, regenerative medicine is more likely to be successful in acute rather than chronic tissue disorders.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus
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Li, Yi-Fan, Lacroix, Carly, & Freeling, Jessica. (2010).
Cytisine induces autonomic cardiovascular responses via activations of different nicotinic receptors. Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical, 154(1/2), 14-19.

Abstract: Nicotinic cholinergic receptors mediate autonomic transmission at ganglia. However, whether different subtypes of nicotinic cholinergic receptors expressed in autonomic ganglia elicit distinct roles in mediating sympathetic and parasympathetic regulations remain to be defined. In this study, we observed that different subtypes of nicotinic receptors were responsible for the sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiovascular responses. In urethane anesthetized mice, intravenous injection with cytisine, a non-selective nicotinic agonist, induced a brief but pronounced decrease in heart rate, followed by increases in heart rate and arterial blood pressure. The bradycardic response was blocked by atropine, and the pressor response was blocked by prazosin, confirming that these responses were parasympathetic and sympathetic activities, respectively. Hexamethonium, a ganglionic blocker, blocked both sympathetic and parasympathetic responses. Pretreatment with methyllycaconitine citrate, a selective α7 nicotinic receptor antagonist, significantly attenuated cytisine-induced sympathetic response with little effect on the parasympathetic response. In contrast, pretreatment with dihydro-β-erythroidine hydrobromide, a selective α4β2 nicotinic receptor antagonist, blocked cytisine-induced parasympathetic response but not the sympathetic response. Pretreatment with dihydro-β-erythroidine hydrobromide also blocked baroreflex associated parasympathetic bradycardic response. Moreover, treatment with nicotine induced a bradycardic response without a significant pressor response, which was also attenuated by dihydro-β-erythroidine hydrobromide. Collectively, these data suggest that different nicotinic receptors play distinct roles in sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia. Specifically, activations of α7 and α4β2 nicotinic receptors are involved in cytisine-induced cardiovascular sympathetic and parasympathetic responses, respectively.

Basic Biomedical Sciences.  Vermillion campus
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Song, Jin, Eyster, Kathleen M., Kost Jr, Curtis K., Kjellsen, Barton, & Martin, Douglas S. (2010).
Involvement of protein kinase C-CPI-17 in androgen modulation of angiotensin II-renal vasoconstriction. Cardiovascular Research, 85(3), 614-621.

Aims: Previous studies suggested that androgens augmented renal vascular responses to angiotensin II (Ang II). The protein kinase C (PKC)-CPI-17 pathway is involved in vascular constriction. We tested the hypothesis that this pathway may contribute to androgenic amplification of Ang II-renal vasoconstriction in the New Zealand genetically hypertensive (NZGH) rat.

Basic Biomedical Sciences.  Vermillion Campus
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Jones, Philip H. , & Britten, Hugh B. . (2010).
The absence of concordant population genetic structure in the black-tailed prairie dog and the flea, <i>Oropsylla hirsuta</i>, with implications for the spread of Yersinia pestis. Molecular Ecology, 19(10), 2038-2049.

The black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) is a keystone species on the mid- and short-grass prairies of North America. The species has suffered extensive colony extirpations and isolation as a result of human activity including the introduction of an exotic pathogen, Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of sylvatic plague. The prairie dog flea, Oropsylla hirsuta, is the most common flea on our study colonies in north-central Montana and it has been shown to carry Y. pestis. We used microsatellite markers to estimate the level of population genetic concordance between black-tailed prairie dogs and O. hirsuta in order to determine the extent to which prairie dogs are responsible for dispersing this potential plague vector among prairie dog colonies. We sampled fleas and prairie dogs from six prairie dog colonies in two regions separated by about 46 km. These colonies were extirpated by a plague epizootic that began months after our sampling was completed in 2005. Prairie dogs showed significant isolation-by-distance and a tendency toward genetic structure on the regional scale that the fleas did not. Fleas exhibited higher estimated rates of gene flow among prairie dog colonies than the prairie dogs sampled from the same colonies. While the findings suggested black-tailed prairie dogs may have contributed to flea dispersal, we attributed the lack of concordance between the population genetic structures of host and ectoparasite to additional flea dispersal that was mediated by mammals other than prairie dogs that were present in the prairie system.

Biology Department
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Sereda, Grigoriy, Pothula, Swetha, & Dreessen, James. (2010).
Sodium Borohydride-Mediated Transesterification. Synthetic Communications, 40(9), 1312-1321.

In the presence of sodium borohydride, esters react with alcohols with formation of the corresponding esters. The reaction is sensitive to the solvent, structure of the ester, and is often concurrent with reduction. Thioesters containing an ester group can be selectively cleaved by the reagent. Both esters and thioesters attached to solid support are resistant toward sodium borohydride. The in situ prepared sodium tetraalkoxyborate is introduced as an efficient reagent and catalyst for transesterification.

Chemistry Department
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Pfau, Michael, Banas, John, Semmler, Shane M., Deatrick, Leslie, Lane, Lindsay, Mason, Alicia, et al. (2010).
Role and Impact of Involvement and Enhanced Threat in Resistance. Communication Quarterly, 58(1), 1-18.

This study examined the relative impact of outcome-relevant (OR), value-relevant (VR), and impression-relevant (IR) involvement on resistance to influence and whether it is possible to enhance elicited threat levels and, if so, to what effect on resistance to counterattitudinal attacks. An experiment was conducted featuring 281 participants. Results indicated that both OR and VR involvement functioned similarly. They both bypassed threat and counterarguing, instead exerting direct impacts on elicited anger, attitude strength, and resistance. There were no statistically significant results for IR involvement. Results concerning standard and enhanced threat revealed that both manipulations functioned similarly: They enhanced elicited threat, boosted the number and strength of cognitive responses to counterarguments, increased elicited anger, enhanced attitude strength, and contributed to resistance. However, the only booster effect for enhanced threat involved greater attitude certainty.

Communications Studies Department
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Liu, Yunkai, Ye, Sujuan, & Erkine, Alexandre M. (2009).
Analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genome for the Distributions of Stress-Response Elements Potentially Affecting Gene Expression by Transcriptional Interference. In Silico Biology, 9(5/6), 379-389.

Cellular stress responses are characterized by coordinated transcriptional induction of genes encoding a group of conserved proteins known as molecular chaperones, most of which are also known as heat shock proteins (HSPs). In S. cerevisiae, transcriptional responses to stress are mediated via two trans-regulatory activators: heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) that bind to heat shock elements (HSEs), and the Msn2 and Msn4 transcription factors that bind to stress response elements (STREs). Recent studies in S. cerevisiae demonstrated that a significant portion of the non-coding region in the genome is transcribed and this intergenic transcription could regulate the transcription of adjacent genes by transcription interference. The goal of this study was to analyze the genomic distribution of HSF and Msn2/4 binding sites and to study the potential for transcription interference regulated by stress response systems. Our genome-wide analysis revealed that 297 genes have STREs in their promoter region, whereas 310 genes contained HSEs. Twenty-five genes had both HSEs and STREs in their promoters. The first set of genes is potentially regulated by the Msn2/Msn4/STRE interaction. For the second set of genes, regulation by heat shock could be mediated through HSF/HSE regulatory mechanisms. The overlap between these groups suggests a co-regulation by the two pathways. Our study yielded 239 candidate genes, whose regulation could potentially be affected by heat-shock via transcription interference directed both from upstream and downstream areas relative to the native promoters. In addition we have categorized 924 genes containing HSE and/or STRE elements within the Open Reading Frames (ORFs), which may also affect normal transcription. Our study revealed a widespread possibility for the regulation of genes via transcriptional interference initiated by stress response. We provided a categorization of genes potentially affected at the transcriptional level by known stress-response systems.

Computer Science Department
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Huckfeldt, Vance. (2010).
Normative Restrictions on Input to Practical Reflection. Philosophical Papers, 39(1), 29-52.

Procedural theories of practical reasoning provide rules according to which agents’ reasons for action are constructed. Those procedures operate on some given input (an agent’s desires, other mental states, and circumstances) to the reasoning process in a way that determines the output of an agent’s reasons for action. I argue that a procedural theory of practical reasoning must include a previously unrecognized normative restriction on what counts as acceptable input, roughly, that agents should take features of their own, but not others’, selves as input. Using Korsgaard’s The Sources of Normativity as a case study, I show that common features of procedural theories result in a threat to each person’s view of themselves as practically distinct from others. I then show that psychological claims are insufficient to defeat this threat, and that maintaining a practical distinction between ourselves and others requires a normative restriction on the input to practical reflection.

Languages, Linguistics and Philosophy Department
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Chen, D. G., & Lio, Y. L. (2010).
Parameter estimations for generalized exponential distribution under progressive type-I interval censoring. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 54(6), 1581-1591.

The estimates, via maximum likelihood, moment method and probability plot, of the parameters in the generalized exponential distribution under progressive type-I interval censoring are studied. A simulation is conducted to compare these estimates in terms of mean squared errors and biases. Finally, these estimate methods are applied to a real data set based on patients with plasma cell myeloma in order to demonstrate the applicabilities. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Mathematics Department
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Lio, Y. L., & Park, Chanseok. (2010).

A bootstrap control chart for inverse Gaussian percentiles. Journal of Statistical Computation & Simulation, 80(3), 287-299.

The conventional Shewhart-type control chart is developed essentially on the central limit theorem. Thus, the Shewhart-type control chart performs particularly well when the observed process data come from a near-normal distribution. On the other hand, when the underlying distribution is unknown or non-normal, the sampling distribution of a parameter estimator may not be available theoretically. In this case, the Shewhart-type charts are not available. Thus, in this paper, we propose a parametric bootstrap control chart for monitoring percentiles when process measurements have an inverse Gaussian distribution. Through extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate the behaviour and performance of the proposed bootstrap percentile charts. The average run lengths of the proposed percentage charts are investigated.

Mathematics Department
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Lio, Y. L., Tzong-Ru, Tsai, & Shuo-Jye, Wu. (2010).
Acceptance Sampling Plans from Truncated Life Tests Based on the Birnbaum-Saunders Distribution for Percentiles. Communications in Statistics: Simulation & Computation, 39(1), 119-136.

Time to failure due to fatigue is one of the common quality characteristics in material engineering applications. In this article, acceptance sampling plans are developed for the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution percentiles when the life test is truncated at a pre-specified time. The minimum sample size necessary to ensure the specified life percentile is obtained under a given customer’s risk. The operating characteristic values (and curves) of the sampling plans as well as the producer’s risk are presented. The R package named spbsq is developed to implement the developed sampling plans. Two examples with real data sets are also given as illustration.

Mathematics Department
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Gehman, V. M., Elliott, S. R., & Mei, Dongming M. (2010).
Systematic effects in pulse shape analysis of HPGe detector signals for 0 nu beta beta. Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section a-Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment, 615(1), 83-92.

Pulse shape analysis is an important background reduction and signal identification technique for next generation of Ge-76 0 nu beta beta experiments. We present a study of the systematic uncertainties in one such parametric pulse-shape analysis technique for separating multi-site background from single-site signal events. We examined systematic uncertainties for events in full-energy gamma peaks (predominantly multi-site), double-escape peaks (predominantly single-site) and the Compton continuum near Q(beta beta) (which will be the dominant background for most 0 nu beta beta searches). In short, we find total (statistical plus systematic) fractional uncertainties in the pulse shape cut survival probabilities of: 6.6%, 1.5% and 3.8% for double-escape, continuum and gamma-ray events. respectively. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Physics Department
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Mei, Dongming. (2010).
Probing the Underground Science beyond the Standard Model with Ultra-Low Background Experiments at Sanford Lab/DUSEL. Nuclear Physics A, 834(1-4), 809C-812C.

We show that an improved sensitivity on effective neutrino mass to the atmospheric neutrino mass scale with the next generation germanium-based double-beta decay experiment together with results from cosmology survey, theta(13) measurements and neutrino oscillation experiments may be able to determine the absolute mass scale of the neutrino, and answer the question of the neutrino nature. To achieve such a sensitivity of 45 meV, the next generation germanium experiment must reduce background by a factor of 440 comparing to the existing results. The planned germanium experiment at the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) in western South Dakota aims at achieving such a sensitivity. Sanford Lab Supported by the state of South Dakota and a, Private donor, Mr. T. Denny Sanford, will be LIP and running within the next year to pave the way for the creation of DUSEL in five years.

Physics Department
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Simons, Jeffrey S., Maisto, Stephen A., & Wray, Tyler B. (2010).
Sexual risk taking among young adult dual alcohol and marijuana users. Addictive Behaviors, 35(5), 533-536.

Use of alcohol and marijuana among college students is common and use of these substances may increase the likelihood of risky sexual behavior. The present study found significant associations between risky sexual behavior and both mean BAC per drinking day and marijuana use intensity. However, hypothesized interactions between marijuana use and BAC were not supported. In addition, positive and negative urgency and premeditation were each significantly associated with the likelihood of risky sex. Substance use and facets of impulsivity and self-control exhibited direct associations with risky sexual behavior but hypothesized moderation effects were not supported. Associations between urgency and risky sexual behavior varied as a function of gender and trait positive affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)

Psychology Department
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Billman, George E., Nishijima, Yoshinori, Belevych, Andriy E., & Harris, William S. (2010).
Effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on ventricular function in dogs with healed myocardial infarctions: in vivo and in vitro studies. American Journal of Physiology: Heart & Circulatory Physiology, 67(4), 1219-1228.

Since omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) can alter ventricular myocyte calcium handling, these fatty acids could adversely affect cardiac contractile function, particularly following myocardial infarction. Therefore, 4 wk after myocardial infarction, dogs were randomly assigned to either placebo (corn oil, 1 g/day, n = 16) or n-3 PUFAs supplement [docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ethyl esters; 1, 2, or 4 g/day; n = 7, 8, and 12, respectively] groups. In vivo, ventricular function was evaluated by echocardiography before and after 3 mo of treatment. At the end of the 3-mo period, hearts were removed and in vitro function was evaluated using right ventricular trabeculae and isolated left ventricular myocytes. The treatment elicited significant (P < 0.0001) dose-dependent increases (16.4-fold increase with 4 g/day) in left ventricular tissue and red blood cell n-3 PUFA levels (EPA + DHA, placebo, 0.42 ± 0.04; 1 g/day, 3.02 ± 0.23; 2 g/day, 3.63 ± 0.17; and 4 g/day, 6.97 ± 0.33%). Regardless of the dose, n-3 PUFA treatment did not alter ventricular function in the intact animal (e.g., 4 g/day, fractional shortening: pre, 42.9 ± 1.6 vs. post, 40.1 ± 1.7%; placebo: pre, 39.2 ± 1.3 vs. post, 38.4 ± 1.6%). The developed force per cross-sectional area, changes in length- and frequency-dependent behavior in contractile force, and the inotropic response to β-adrenoceptor activation were also similar for trabeculae obtained from placebo- or n-3 PUFA-treated dogs. Finally, calcium currents and calcium transients were the same in myocytes from n-3 PUFA- and placebo-treated dogs. Thus dietary n-3 PUFAs did not adversely alter either in vitro or in vivo ventricular contractile function in dogs with healed infarctions.

Sanford Medical School.  Sioux Falls Campus

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Chen, D. G. (2010).
Incorporating historical control information into quantal bioassay with Bayesian approach. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 54(6), 1646-1656.

A Bayesian approach with an iterative reweighted least squares is used to incorporate historical control information into quantal bioassays to estimate the dose-response relationship, where the logit of the historical control responses are assumed to have a normal distribution. The parameters from this normal distribution are estimated from both empirical and full Bayesian approaches with a marginal likelihood function being approximated by Laplace’s Method. A comparison is made using real data between estimates that include the historical control information and those that do not. It was found that the inclusion of the historical control information improves the efficiency of the estimators. In addition, this logit-normal formulation is compared with the traditional beta-binomial for its improvement in parameter estimates. Consequently the estimated dose-response relationship is used to formulate the point estimator and confidence bands for ED( 100p) for various values of risk rate p and the potency for any dose level. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus
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Dalchow, Jami L., Niewoehner, P. M., Henderson, R. R., & Carr, D. B. (2010).
Test Acceptability and Confidence Levels in Older Adults Referred for Fitness-to-Drive Evaluations. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 64(2), 252-258.

In this study, we examined confidence and face validity or client acceptability of tests used in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center driving clinic. The clinic used evidence-based off-road tests and adopted the Washington University Road Test (WURT) as a performance-based on-road examination. Forty-three clients consented to participate in the study; most were male with an average age of 78.2 years (standard deviation = 12.6). In general, a trend existed toward higher client acceptability of tests adopted from the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (Stern & White, 2003) and the WURT than of other off-road measures. Confidence decreased after administration of the psychometric test battery, yet it increased after the on-road evaluations despite a 47% failure rate in the sample. Additional study is needed on test acceptability because it may have the potential to increase understanding, compliance, or both with driving recommendations. Additional research is also needed to examine client confidence levels and their potential impact on performance during the driving evaluation process.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus
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Ellis, Z. M., Jassim, Ali D., & Wick, M. R. (2010).
Anorectal melanoma in childhood and adolescence. Annals of Diagnostic Pathology, 14(2), 69-73.

The mucosal surfaces represent the third most common site of origin for melanoma, after the skin and ocular uveal tract. However, anorectal mucosal melanoma is a rare neoplasm, usually occurring in the sixth and seventh decades of life. It may often be confused clinically with other pathologic entities, such as prolapsed rectal polyps and hemorrhoids. The prognosis of anorectal melanoma is poor; this is at least in part attributable to the relatively large size that such tumors have frequently achieved at presentation, as well as their rich vascular network. In particular, anorectal melanoma in children and adolescents is extraordinarily uncommon. The authors herein report 2 examples of that tumor in 11-year-old and 19-year-old patients; one was alive and tumor-free after 6 years, whereas the other died with osseous and hepatic metastasis at the same time point. The authors emphasize the need for differential diagnostic inclusion of melanocytic malignancies when considering anorectal masses in pediatric individuals. Systematic collation and evaluation of pediatric melanomas of the anus and rectum are needed, to better define the biologic attributes of those neoplasms. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus
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Gleason, K. M., Mcdaniel, Molly R., Feinglass, J., Baker, D. W., Lindquist, L., Liss, D., et al. (2010).
Results of the Medications At Transitions and Clinical Handoffs (MATCH) Study: An Analysis of Medication Reconciliation Errors and Risk Factors at Hospital Admission. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25(5), 441-447.

This study was designed to determine risk factors and potential harm associated with medication errors at hospital admission. Study pharmacist and hospital-physician medication histories were compared with medication orders to identify unexplained history and order discrepancies in 651 adult medicine service inpatients with 5,701 prescription medications. Discrepancies resulting in order changes were considered errors. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association of patient demographic and clinical characteristics including patients’ number of pre-admission prescription medications, pharmacies, prescribing physicians and medication changes; and presentation of medication bottles or lists. These factors were tested after controlling for patient demographics, admitting service and severity of illness. Over one-third of study patients (35.9%) experienced 309 order errors; 85% of patients had errors originate in medication histories, and almost half were omissions. Cardiovascular agents were commonly in error (29.1%). If undetected, 52.4% of order errors were rated as potentially requiring increased monitoring or intervention to preclude harm; 11.7% were rated as potentially harmful. In logistic regression analysis, patient’s age a parts per thousand yen65 [odds ratio (OR), 2.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-4.30] and number of prescription medications (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.14-1.29) were significantly associated with errors potentially requiring monitoring or causing harm. Presenting a medication list (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.19-0.63) or bottles (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.27-1.10) at admission was beneficial. Over one-third of the patients in our study had a medication error at admission, and of these patients, 85% had errors originate in their medication histories. Attempts to improve the accuracy of medication histories should focus on older patients with a large number of medications. Primary care physicians and other clinicians should help patients utilize and maintain complete, accurate and understandable medication lists.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus
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Henderson, R. C., Berglund, L. M., Johnson, Julie, Plotkin, H., Stevenson, R. D., Szalay, E., et al. (2010).
The Relationship Between Fractures and DXA Measures of BMD in the Distal Femur of Children and Adolescents With Cerebral Palsy or Muscular Dystrophy. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 25(3), 520-526.

Children with limited or no ability to ambulate frequently sustain fragility fractures. Joint contractures, scoliosis, hip dysplasia, and metallic implants often prevent reliable measures of bone mineral density (BMD) in the proximal femur and lumbar spine, where BMD is commonly measured. Further, the relevance of lumbar spine BMD to fracture risk in this population is questionable. In an effort to obtain bone density measures that are both technically feasible and clinically relevant, a technique was developed involving dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures of the distal femur projected in the lateral plane. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that these new measures of BMD correlate with fractures in children with limited or no ability to ambulate. The relationship between distal femur BMD Z-scores and fracture history was assessed in a cross-sectional study of 619 children aged 6 to 18 years with muscular dystrophy or moderate to severe cerebral palsy compiled from eight centers. There was a strong correlation between fracture history and BMD Z-scores in the distal femur; 35% to 42% of those with BMD Z-scores less than 5 had fractured compared with 13% to 15% of those with BMDZ-scores greater than -1. Risk ratios were 1.06 to 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.04-1.22), meaning a 6% to 15% increased risk of fracture with each 1.0 decrease in BMD Z-score. In clinical practice, DXA measure of BMD in the distal femur is the technique of choice for the assessment of children with impaired mobility. (C) 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus
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Mackenzie, C. D., Huntington, M. K., Wanji, S., Lovato, R. V., Eversole, R. R., & Geary, T. G. (2010).

The Association of Adult Onchocerca volvulus with Lymphatic Vessels. Journal of Parasitology, 96(1), 219-221.

Immunocytochemical examination of onchocercal nodule tissues containing adult Onchocerca volvulus using immuno-markers for blood and lymphatic vessels (vWF. D2-40, podoplanin, Prox-1. and Lyvel) shows a distinct pattern of distribution of these vessels within nodules. Blood vessels were commonly seen associated with organized lymphoid cellular aggregates in the both the Outer and inner areas of the nodules. In contrast, the majority of the lymphatic vessel positivity was seen in the central zone in close apposition to the adult parasites, and the remainder usually associated with microfilariae in the outer areas of the nodule. These findings suggest an intimate relationship between adult O. volvulus and lymphatic vessels, including the likely proliferation of lymphatic endothelial cells (lymphangectasia) akin to that seen with other filariae. These findings indicate that adult O. volvulus may migrate via the lymphatic system, and that clinical manifestations of this disease that involve tissue edema may be the result of the location of these worms in the lymphatic system.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus
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Benson, Nicholas, Hulac, David M., & Kranzler, J. H. (2010).
Independent Examination of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): What Does the WAIS-IV Measure? Psychological Assessment, 22(1), 121-130.

Published empirical evidence for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not address some essential questions pertaining to the applied practice of intellectual assessment. In this study, the structure and cross-age invariance of the latest WAIS-IV revision were examined to (a) elucidate the nature of the constructs measured and (b) determine whether the same constructs are measured across ages. Results suggest that a Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) inspired structure provides a better description of test performance than the published scoring structure does. Broad CHC abilities measured by the WAIS-IV include crystallized ability (Gc), fluid reasoning (Gf), visual processing (Gv), short-term memory (Gsm), and processing speed (Gs). although some of these abilities are measured inure comprehensively than are others. Additionally, the WAIS-IV provides a measure of quantitative reasoning (QR). Results also suggest a lack of cross-age invariance resulting from age-related differences in factor loadings. Formulas for calculating CHC indexes and suggestions for interpretation are provided.

School of Education
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Coyl, Diana D., Newland, Lisa A., & Freeman, Harry. (2010).
Predicting preschoolers’ attachment security from parenting behaviours, parents’ attachment relationships and their use of social support. Early Child Development & Care, 180(4), 499-512.

Associations between preschoolers’ attachment security, parenting behaviours (i.e. parent-child involvement, parenting consistency and co-parenting consistency) and parenting context (i.e. parents’ internal working models (IWMs) and use of social support) were examined in a sample of 235 culturally diverse families. The authors predicted that parenting behaviours would mediate associations between children’s attachment security and less proximal parenting context. Mothers and fathers completed questionnaires regarding their parenting behaviours, IWMs of adult relationships, their use of social support and an attachment Q-List to assess their children’s attachment security. Parenting behaviours mediated the relationship between parenting context and children’s attachment security. Findings support an ecological view of children’s attachment security within a multilayered system.

School of Education
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Larson, John P., & Choi, Hee-Sook. (2010).
The Effect of University Training and Educational Legislation on the Role and Function of School Psychologists. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 26(2), 97-114.

This study examined the effect of university training, training standards, and educational legislation on the role and function of school psychologists. A stratified random sample of 500 National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) members was surveyed using a 14-item questionnaire. A total of 204 questionnaires were completed and returned (return rate = 41%). Of those, 189 were completed by practicing school psychologists. The estimated amount of time devoted to traditional psychodiagnostic assessment significantly decreased, whereas the estimated time devoted to intervention, preventative services, and team collaboration slightly increased post-IDEA 2004. The NASP standards that were in place when the participants graduated were not associated with the estimated percentage of time spent on various roles except the role of direct counseling services. The greatest number of school psychologists felt that they need additional training in progress monitoring of intervention fidelity when selecting from an array of options concerning response to intervention. The authors discuss the implications of the findings and future research directions.

School of Education.
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Norris, Debra S., & Schwartz, Charles L. (2010).
Needs Assessments: An Integrated Assignment in Civic Service. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 29(4), 373-382, .

An undergraduate social work program developed a service-learning experience in partnership with a local United Way organization to complete a community needs assessment project. The experience integrated the curricula of a social work research methods course and a generalist-macro practice course with the principles and actions of experiential and service- learning, evidence based practice, and civic responsibility. This integrated curricula project yielded practical, “real world” outcomes for the local community and learning outcomes for the students. Needs assessments conducted by social students resulted in particular groups of community citizens receiving targeted services from agencies receiving funding from United Way. Evidence obtained from the students who participated in this experience indicates that two important learning outcomes were achieved; a heightened awareness of the local community’s resource system and a sense of connection to the local community, along with the enhancement of students ‘self-esteem and increased self-confidence in their abilities.

School of Health Sciences

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