Posted by: kelsijo97 | January 24, 2013

February 2013

Barker, D’ann, & Dongming Mei. (2012). Germanium detector response to nuclear recoils in searching for dark matter. Astroparticle Physics, 38, 1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2012.08.006
 
The discrepancies in claims of experimental evidence in the search for weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter necessitate a model for ionization efficiency (the quenching factor) at energies below 10 key. We have carefully studied the physics processes that contribute to the ionization efficiency through stopping power. The focus of this work is the construction of a model for the ionization efficiency in germanium by analyzing the components of stopping power, specifically that of the nuclear stopping power, at low energies. We find a fraction of the ZBL nuclear stopping power can contribute to ionization efficiency. We propose a model that corrects the missing contribution to ionization efficiency from the ZBL nuclear stopping power. The proposed model is compared to previous measurements of ionization efficiency in germanium as well as that of other theoretical models. Using this new model, the thresholds of both CDMS II and CoGeNT are analyzed and compared in terms of the nuclear recoil energy. Published by Elsevier B.V.
 
Physics Department.
 
Brinkman, Cassandra L., Roger Bumgarner, Weerayuth Kittichotirat, Paul M. Dunman, Lisa J. Kuechenmeister, & Keith E. Weaver. (2013). Characterization of the Effects of an rpoC Mutation That Confers Resistance to the Fst Peptide Toxin-Antitoxin System Toxin. Journal of bacteriology, 195(1), 156-166. doi: 10.1128/jb.01597-12
 
Overexpression of the Fst toxin in Enterococcus faecalis strain OG1X leads to defects in chromosome segregation, cell division and, eventually, membrane integrity. The M7 mutant derivative of OG1X is resistant to most of these effects but shows a slight growth defect in the absence of Fst. Full-genome sequencing revealed two differences between M7 and its OG1X parent. First, OG1X contains a frameshift mutation that inactivates the etaR response regulator gene, while M7 is a wild-type revertant for etaR. Second, the M7 mutant contains a missense mutation in the rpoC gene, which encodes the beta’ subunit of RNA polymerase. Mutagenesis experiments revealed that the rpoC mutation was primarily responsible for the resistance phenotype. Microarray analysis revealed that a number of transporters were induced in OG1X when Fst was overexpressed. These transporters were not induced in M7 in response to Fst, and further experiments indicated that this had a direct protective effect on the mutant cells. Therefore, exposure of cells to Fst appears to have a cascading effect, first causing membrane stress and then potentiation of these effects by overexpression of certain transporters.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
Cho, S., K. S. Bernstein, Soonhee Roh, & D. C. Chen. (2013). Logo-Autobiography and Its Effectiveness on Depressed Korean Immigrant Women. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 24(1), 33-42. doi: 10.1177/1043659612452005
 
This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of logo-autobiography (LA) as a therapeutic modality for Korean immigrant women suffering from depression and perceiving their lives as meaningless. A nonrandomized quasi-experimental study was conducted with pretest, posttest, and a 4-week follow-up test. Forty subjects-20 with antidepressants and 20 without-were divided quarterly and assigned to the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group reported a significant lower score on depressive symptoms (F = 6.832, p = .013; F = 19.800, p <= .001) and a higher score on meaning of life (F = 12.294, p = .001; F = 12.232, p = .001) than did the control group immediately after completing the LA and a 4-week follow-up. The LA was more effective for the subjects in the nonmedication group than in the medication group. In conclusion, LA is effective in reducing depressive symptoms and increasing a sense of meaning in life among Korean immigrant women suffering from depression.
 
School of Health Sciences.
 
Crotwell, Patricia L., & H. Eugene Hoyme. (2012). Advances in Whole-Genome Genetic Testing: From Chromosomes to Microarrays. Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care, 42(3), 47-73. doi: 10.1016/j.cppeds.2011.10.004
 
Whole-genome genetic diagnostics has changed the clinical landscape of pediatric and adolescent medicine. In this article, we review the history of clinical cytogenetics as the field has progressed from studying chromosomes prepared from cells squashed between 2 slides to the high-resolution, whole-genome technology in use today, which has allowed for the identification of numerous previously unrecognized microdeletion and microduplication syndromes. Types of arrays and the data they collect are addressed, as are the types of results that array comparative genomic hybridization studies may generate. Throughout the review, we present case stories to illustrate the familiar (Down syndrome) and the new (a never-before reported microdeletion on the long arm of chromosome 12). Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 2012;42:47-73
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
Dahdul, Wasila M., J. P. Balhoff, D. C. Blackburn, A. D. Diehl, M. A. Haendel, B. K. Hall, . . . Paula M. Mabee. (2012). A Unified Anatomy Ontology of the Vertebrate Skeletal System. Plos One, 7(12). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051070
 
The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.
 
Biology Department.
 
Dennison, Evelyn A., B. Mahendri Raidoo, Robyn Cruz, & Deshandra Raidoo. (2013). A case of high-dose venlafaxine-related psychosis. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology, 33(1), 134-136. doi: 10.1097/01.jcp.0000426184.68487.d3
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
Flynn, Stephen V., Christine L. Chasek, Irene F. Harper, Katherine M. Murphy, & Maribeth F. Jorgensen. (2012). A Qualitative Inquiry of the Counseling Dissertation Process. Counselor Education & Supervision, 51(4), 242-255. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6978.2012.00018.x
 
The authors in this consensual qualitative research study explored the dissertation experiences of 42 graduates (27 counselor educators, 13 counselors, 2 administrators) from 4 midwestern states. Identified domains included impact of environment, competing influences, personality traits, chair influence, committee function, and barriers to completion. An emergent theory reflected the interconnectedness of the dissertation process across internal, relational, and professional factors. Implications related to motivation, personal traits, and identification of barriers in the dissertation process are provided.
 
School of Education
 
Haack, T. B., P. Hogarth, Michael C. Kruer, A. Gregory, & T. Wieland. (2012). Exome Sequencing Reveals De Novo WDR45 Mutations Causing a Phenotypically Distinct, X-Linked Dominant Form of NBIA. American Journal of Human Genetics, 91(6), 1144-1149. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.10.019
 
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is a group of genetic disorders characterized by abnormal iron deposition in the basal ganglia. We report that de novo mutations in WDR45, a gene located at Xp11.23 and encoding a beta-propeller scaffold protein with a putative role in autophagy, cause a distinctive NBIA phenotype. The clinical features include early-onset global developmental delay and further neurological deterioration (parkinsonism, dystonia, and dementia developing by early adulthood). Brain MRI revealed evidence of iron deposition in the substantia nigra and globus pallidus. Males and females are phenotypically similar, an observation that might be explained by somatic mosaicism in surviving males and germline or somatic mutations in females, as well as skewing of X chromosome inactivation. This clinically recognizable disorder is among the more common forms of NBIA, and we suggest that it be named accordingly as beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
Hellwig, Thaddaus, & Michael Gulseth. (2013). New oral therapies for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism. American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 70(2), 113-125. doi: 10.2146/ajhp110601
 
PURPOSE: Data comparing traditional and novel anticoagulants are reviewed, and the potential use of new oral agents for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is assessed.; SUMMARY: Practical challenges in using traditional anticoagulants are well established and have led to the search for new oral agents. Apixaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran etexilate are new oral anticoagulants that may offer simpler, more effective, and safer treatment and prevention of VTE, which may increase adherence to such therapy, improve outcomes, and decrease overall health care costs. Their immediate onset of anticoagulant effect, ease of oral administration, and lack of needed regular anticoagulation monitoring are of interest in the medical and pharmacy communities. However, in the treatment and prevention of VTE, more data will be needed to determine their ultimate place in therapy. This review is intended to provide pharmacists with an objective overview of practical considerations that can help them understand the clinical data to facilitate their selection of anticoagulants.; CONCLUSION: Apixaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran etexilate are new oral agents for the prevention and treatment of VTE. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2013; 70:113-25.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
Higgins, Steven A., & David L. Swanson. (2013). Urea is not a universal cryoprotectant among hibernating anurans: Evidence from the freeze-tolerant boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata). Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 164(2), 344-350. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2012.11.002
 
Abstract: Freeze-tolerant organisms accumulate a diversity of low molecular weight compounds to combat negative effects of ice formation. Previous studies of anuran freeze tolerance have implicated urea as a cryoprotectant in the wood frog (Lithobates sylvatica). However, a cryoprotective role for urea has been identified only for wood frogs, though urea accumulation is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for coping with osmotic stress in amphibians. To identify whether multiple solutes are involved in freezing tolerance in the boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata), we examined seasonal and freezing-induced variation in several potential cryoprotectants. We further tested for a cryoprotective role for urea by comparing survival and recovery from freezing in control and urea-loaded chorus frogs. Tissue levels of glucose, urea, and glycerol did not vary significantly among seasons for heart, liver, or leg muscle. Furthermore, no changes in urea or glycerol levels were detected with exposure to freezing temperatures in these tissues. Urea-loading increased tissue urea concentrations, but failed to enhance freezing survival or facilitate recovery from freezing in chorus frogs in this study, suggesting little role for urea as a natural cryoprotectant in this species. These data suggest that urea may not universally serve as a primary cryoprotectant among freeze-tolerant, terrestrially hibernating anurans.
 
Biology Department.
 
Johnson, Stephen K. (2012). How Could I Be Missing So Many? A Quality Control Study of Campus Publications. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 52(2), 106-108.
The article discusses librarians at the University of South Dakota’s (USD) efforts to track and collect academic journal articles and other materials published by the university’s faculty, graduate students and researchers. The author discusses the rewarding nature of his work on the project and describes his method for collecting and managing the articles using EndNote software and EbscoHost databases. The results of a review of the research activity of 11 departments at USD are discussed in terms of published articles that the USD library was not aware of.
 
USD Library
 
Jordre, Becca, William Schweinle, Kate Beacom, Vashti Graphenteen, & Adam Ladwig. (2013). The Five Times Sit to Stand Test in Senior Athletes. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, 36(1), 47-50.
Background and Purpose: The Five Times Sit to Stand Test (FTSST) has been established as a valid and reliable functional measure for older adults. Norms have been clearly defined for community-dwelling older adults and can be useful in the identification of mobility decline and prediction of future disability. However, because of the high rates of inactivity in the population of community-dwelling older adults, it seems inappropriate to compare high-functioning older adults, for example, senior athletes, to these norms. With trends showing increased senior athlete participation, new norms may be necessary to appropriately evaluate this population of older adults. The purpose of this study was to (1) compare results of the FTSST in senior athletes older than 60 years to norms for community-dwelling adults of the same age (2) determine the effects of age, gender, and sport intensity on FTSST performance in senior athletes, and (3) establish norms appropriate for this population of interest. Methods: The FTSST was performed on 276 (104 men, 172 women) senior athletes age 50 to 91 years (mean age = 64.9, SD = 15) reporting an average of 4 hours of cardiovascular training and 1 hour of strength training each week. All were actively engaged in national or state senior game competitions. Results: All participants were able to complete the test. One hundred ninety-four participants between 60 and 89 years of age showed significantly faster times than currently reported norms. Performance was negatively associated with age, but did not differ significantly between genders. Participants in more physically demanding sports did show the best FTSST times, although athletes engaged in more leisure sports still outperformed norms for community-dwelling seniors. Conclusion: Senior athletes show significantly greater FTSST speed than norms derived from community-dwelling older adults. New normative guidelines are presented to assist the screening of these athletes on this functional performance measure.
 
School of Health Sciences.
 
Lee, R. Alton. (2012). FROM MOTHERS’ PENSIONS TO AID TO DEPENDENT CHILDREN IN THE GREAT PLAINS THE COURSE FROM CHARITY TO ENTITLEMENT. Great Plains Quarterly, 32(4), 261-271.
 
History Department [Emeritus]
 
Lv, Wei, Jie Luo, Ying Deng, & Yu Yu Sun. (2013). Biomaterials immobilized with chitosan for rechargeable antimicrobial drug delivery. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 101A(2), 447-455.
Microbial contamination on medical device material surfaces causes serious problems including device-related infections. Here we report a new strategy to produce rechargeable antimicrobial biomaterial surfaces to address the issue. Methacrylic acid (MAA) was grafted onto the surfaces of polyurethane (PU), a widely used biomaterial with excellent biological and mechanical properties. Chitosan was covalently bonded onto the MAA-grafted surfaces. The new chitosan-containing PU strongly bound and then slowed release anionic antibiotics (e.g., rifampin) for weeks to months to kill microbes. The released drug could be recharged with the same or a different class of drugs to further extend antimicrobial duration. Also, the new surfaces demonstrated good biocompatibility against mammal cells, pointing to great potentials for a wide range of biomedical applications. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.
 
Biomedical Engineering Program, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
MacMullin, S., M. Boswell, M. Devlin, S. R. Elliott, N. Fotiades, V. E. Guiseppe, . . . J. M. O’Donnell. (2012). Neutron-induced gamma-ray production cross sections for the first excited-state transitions in (20)Ne and (22)Ne. Physical Review C, 86(6), 7601-7601.
Background: Neutron-induced reactions are a significant concern for experiments that require extremely low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Measurements of gamma-ray production cross sections over a wide energy range help to predict and identify neutron backgrounds in these experiments. Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to determine partial gamma-ray production cross sections for neutron-induced reactions in natural neon. Methods: The broad spectrum neutron beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) was used for the measurement. Gamma rays from neutron-induced reactions were detected using the GErmanium Array for Neutron Induced Excitations (GEANIE). Results: Partial gamma-ray cross sections were measured for the first excited-state transitions in (20)Ne and (22)Ne. The measured cross sections were compared to the TALYS and CoH(3) nuclear reaction codes. Conclusions: These are the first experimental data for (n, n’) reactions in neon. In addition to providing data to aid in the prediction and identification of neutron backgrounds in low-background experiments, these new measurements will help refine cross-section predictions in a mass region where models are not well constrained. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.86.067601
 
Physics Department.
 
Mroch, Amelia R., Jason D. Flanagan, & Quinn P. Stein. (2012). Solving the Puzzle: Case Examples of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization as a Tool to End the Diagnostic Odyssey. Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care, 42(3), 74-78. doi: 10.1016/j.cppeds.2011.10.003
 
We review 3 cases where array comparative genomic hybridization made a difference in the medical management of the patient, ended the diagnostic odyssey, predicted prognosis for the patient, and/or provided closure to the family. Comparative genomic hybridization is a useful tool for testing individuals with clinical examinations suggestive of a genetic syndrome but in which a specific syndrome may be difficul pinpoint. The cost is similar to that of a standard karyotype there is a higher yield in children and adults with clinical si, of a genetic syndrome. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 2012;42:74-78
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
Newswander, Chad B. (2012). Chaos and Reordering. Administrative Theory & Praxis (M.E. Sharpe), 34(4), 557-577.
Crisis situations disrupt the status quo, create dilemmas, and produce a fluid environment in which power relations can be recodified. Disruption of the status quo creates a space for agency, thereby enabling individuals to respond to dilemmas as subjects, and thus a problematic event can be an opportunity for enhanced agency-a momentary break in time during which administrators can become creators by severing past relations and establishing new meaning and practices. A modified Foucauldian framework focused on power illuminates certain aspects of crisis situations. Administrators in these spaces are in a unique position to establish new power relations that simultaneously create and constrict. They have the capacity to produce meaning by constituting governance values and practices that bind.
 
Political Science Department.
 
Parayil, Sreenivasan K., Harrison S. Kibombo, & Ranjit T. Koodali. (2013). Naphthalene derivatized TiO2-carbon hybrid materials for efficient photocatalytic splitting of water. Catalysis Today, 199, 8-14. doi: 10.1016/j.cattod.2012.02.010
 
We report a facile approach for the synthesis of TiO2-Carbon (C) hybrid formed by a ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) complexation between a small organic molecule precursor, 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene (DN) and TiO2 nanomaterial. The resultant photocatalysts were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area and porosity analysis, Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Carbonization by N-2 pyrolysis at 800 degrees C altered the physical properties of the TiO2 as evidenced by the increase in the surface area of TiO2 from 6.5 m(2) g(-1) to 12.5 m(2) g(-1) and fluorescence quenching of TiO2 emission. The photocatalytic performances of these TiO2-C hybrid materials were evaluated by calculating the amount of hydrogen evolved from the decomposition of water under solar simulated illumination. A marked improvement was observed from similar to 0 to 2.6 mu mol/g(TiO2)/h evolved from the bare TiO2-0 and TiO2-C-240 composites, respectively. These results suggested that anchoring of C onto the TiO2 surface can harness effective transfer of electrons through the TiO2-C hetero junction, and promote the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
Rasalingam, Shivatharsiny, Harrison S. Kibombo, Chia-Ming Wu, Sridhar Budhi, Rui Peng, Jonas Baltrusaitis, & Ranjit T. Koodali. (2013). Influence of Ti–O–Si hetero-linkages in the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B. Catalysis Communications, 31, 66-70. doi: 10.1016/j.catcom.2012.11.016
 
Abstract: The influence of Ti–O–Si hetero-linkages in the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) dye over TiO2–SiO2 xerogels is exemplified by XPS analysis. We demonstrate a relationship between the percentage surface content of Ti–O–Si and the rate of photocatalytic degradation of RhB. Our detailed surface investigation revealed that the overall degradation of RhB is enhanced due to the high surface percentage content of Ti–O–Si species, high crystallinity of titania phase, and its effective dispersion on a high surface area porous silica support.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
Scheet, P., Erik A. Ehli, X. J. Xiao, C. E. M. van Beijsterveldt, A. Abdellaoui, R. R. Althoff, . . . D. I. Boomsma. (2012). Twins, Tissue, and Time: An Assessment of SNPs and CNVs. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 15(6), 737-745.
With the desire to assess genetic variation across the lifespan in large-scale collaborative projects, one question is whether inference of copy number (CN) is sensitive to the source of material for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis (e. g., blood and buccal) and another question is whether CN is stable as individuals age. Here, we address these questions by applying Affymetrix 6.0 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) micro-arrays to 1,472 DNA samples from 710 individuals from the Netherlands Twin Register, including twin and non-twin individuals (372 with buccal and blood derived DNA and 388 with longitudinal data). Similar concordance for CN and genotype inference between samples from the same individual [ or from the monozygotic (MZ) co-twins] was found for blood and buccal tissues. There was a small but statistically significant decrease in across-tissue concordance compared with concordance of samples from the same tissue type. No temporal effect was seen on CN variation from the 388 individuals sampled at two time points ranging from 1 to 12 years apart. The majority of our individuals were sampled at age younger than 20 years. Genotype concordance was very high (R(2) > 99%) between co-twins from 43 MZ pairs. For 75 dizygotic (DZ) pairs, R(2) was approximate to 65%. CN estimates were highly consistent between co-twins from MZ pairs for both deletions (R(2) approximate to 90%) and duplications (R(2) approximate to 86%). For DZ, these were similar for within-individual comparisons, but naturally lower between co-twins (R(2) approximate to 50-60%). These results suggest that DNA from buccal samples perform as well as DNA from blood samples on the current generation of micro-array technologies.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
Schumacher, Bette, Mary Askew, & Kathy Otten. (2013). Development of a pressure ulcer trigger tool for the neonatal population. Journal of wound, ostomy, and continence nursing : official publication of The Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society / WOCN, 40(1), 46-50. doi: 10.1097/WON.0b013e31826a4d99
 
A large Midwest level IIIb neonatal intensive care unit located in a 500-bed teaching hospital implemented quarterly skin prevalence surveys to monitor prevalence of altered skin integrity including pressure ulcers, diaper dermatitis (incontinence-associated dermatitis), and skin damage as a result of intravenous therapy, adhesive, or medical devices. Pressure ulcer prevalence varied from 0% to 1% per quarter, and no pressure ulcer risk assessment tool was regularly implemented. Therefore, a working group was formed to identify a risk assessment. The Iowa Model for Evidence-Based Practice was used to guide the project. A literature review was completed to identify validated instruments, but available tools were judged lengthy for routine clinical use. Therefore, we developed a short trigger tool comprising 3 questions to identify infants at risk for pressure ulcer development.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
Sykora, Cory, Mitch Amor, & Evelyn Schlenker. (2013). Age and hypothyroidism affect dopamine modulation of breathing and D2 receptor levels. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 185(2), 257-264. doi: 10.1016/j.resp.2012.10.004
 
Abstract: During and following hypoxic exposure young male hypothyroid hamsters treated with the dopamine D2 receptor agonist bromocriptine increased breathing, while ventilation was depressed in bromocriptine-treated euthyroid hamsters. Moreover, D2 receptor expression was increased in carotid bodies and striatum, but not in the nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS) of hypothyroid relative to euthyroid hamsters. Here ventilation was determined in older male hypothyroid and euthyroid hamsters given vehicle or bromocriptine, and exposed to baseline air, hypoxia, and then air. Bromocriptine without hypoxia served as a time control. Relative to vehicle, bromocriptine depressed ventilation in both groups exposed to air or to hypoxia, but hypothyroid bromocriptine-treated hamsters increased ventilatory responsiveness to hypoxia, while euthyroid hamsters decreased ventilatory responsiveness to hypoxia and exhibited post-hypoxic depression. Hypothyroidism had no effect on D2 receptor expression in carotid bodies or striatum, but increased it in the NTS. Thus, in hamsters bromocriptine modulates breathing and expression of D2 receptor depending on the length of hypothyroidism.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
Turek, Tyler, & A. Wigton. (2012). Calcitonin for phantom limb pain in a pregnant woman. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 69(24), 2149-2152. doi: 10.2146/ajhp110193
 
Purpose. The use of calcitonin to relieve severe, treatment-refractory phantom limb pain (PLP) is reported. Summary. After an above-knee leg amputation, a 29-year-old pregnant woman (at eight weeks gestation) reported severe PLP (consistent scores of 9 or 10 on a 10-point pain severity scale). The pain persisted for more than two weeks and was not relieved by multiple regimens of opioid and nonopioid medications, including extremely high doses of i.v. fentanyl. On postamputation day 16, a 30-minute i.v. infusion of 200 IU of calcitonin (salmon) was administered; the woman reported transient excruciating pain during the final 5 minutes of the infusion. There was little overall change in her pain status over the next three days. On postinfusion day 4, the patient reported reductions in the frequency and severity of PLP episodes, and a trend of improved PLP symptom control was noted over the next 48 hours, allowing the pain management team to begin tapering some medication dosages and thus reduce the woman’s overall narcotic exposure. The patient was discharged to a nursing facility several weeks later with relatively stable pain (scores of <7) on a regimen of carbamazepine, gabapentin, and oxycodone. She eventually delivered a healthy full-term baby. Conclusion. A reduction in the frequency of PLP attacks and a lessening of pain intensity were observed after administration of calcitonin (salmon) by i.v. infusion in a pregnant patient. Calcitonin therapy was not associated with any apparent long-term adverse effects to the patient or infant. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2012; 69:2149-52
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
Vazhappilly, T., Demtri S. Kilin, & D. A. Micha. (2012). Photoabsorbance and Photovoltage of Crystalline and Amorphous Silicon Slabs with Silver Adsorbates. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 116(48), 25525-25536. doi: 10.1021/jp306845g
 
The optical properties of silicon surfaces are affected by their atomic structure and in particular by whether their lattice is crystalline or amorphous. Silver atoms adsorbed on the Si surface enhance the absorption of light and electronic charge transfer at the surface, and the size and shape of the adsorbed Ag clusters play a big role in the photovoltaic properties of Si. We have modeled the photoabsorbance and photovoltage of a nanostructured Si(111) surface with a slab terminated with hydrogen (H) atoms on both surfaces to compensate for dangling bonds, without and with a periodic lattice of adsorbed Ag cluster. Similar structures were also constructed with amorphous lattices to compare the properties of the structures. The optical properties of these structures are investigated using density functional theory to generate a basis set of orbitals and to construct equations of motion for a reduced density matrix from which properties have been obtained in a unified way. Density of electronic states, band gap, and intensity of light absorption with and without silver adsorbates are presented. Light absorbance and surface photovoltages have been calculated in terms of the reduced density matrix. The absorbance in the region around visible light and surface photovoltage (SPV) created by steady light absorption and charge redistribution are calculated for Si slabs containing one, three, or four adsorbed Ag atoms. The ratio of averaged values of absorption flux densities over photon energies in the IR and visible region generally show an increase in absorption with increasing size of a Ag cluster. The changes of absorbance due to silver adsorbates were not large but should be observable. Crystalline Si slabs absorb light mainly at high photon energies, while amorphous Si structures show broader absorption with less intensity. In the case of SPVs, we found that addition of silver adsorbates enhances the SPV of both c-Si and a-Si slabs with a very large increase for c-Si and smaller ones for a-Si. The a-Si structures also show broader SPV spectra compared to the corresponding c-Si structures.
 
Chemistry Department.

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