Posted by: katybug23 | April 4, 2011

February 2011

Aarsetoey, H., R. Aarsetoey, T. Lindner, H. Staines, William S. Harris, and D. W. T. Nilsen. (2011).  “Low Levels of the Omega-3 Index Are Associated with Sudden Cardiac Arrest and Remain Stable in Survivors in the Subacute Phase.” Lipids. 46, no. (Feb): 151-61.

In previous studies, low blood levels of n-3 fatty acids (FA) have been associated with increased risk of cardiac death, and the omega-3 index (red blood cell (RBC) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) expressed as weight percentage of total FA) has recently been proposed as a new risk factor for death from coronary artery disease, especially following sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). As blood samples often haven been harvested after the event, the aim of our study was to evaluate the stability of RBC fatty acids following SCA. The total FA profile, including the omega-3 index, was measured three times during the first 48 h in 25 survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), in 15 patients with a myocardial infarction (MI) without SCA and in 5 healthy subjects. We could not demonstrate significant changes in the FA measurements in any of the groups, this also applied to the omega-6/omega-3 ratio and the arachidonic acid (AA)/EPA ratio. Furthermore, we compared the omega-3 index in 14 OHCA-patients suffering their first MI with that of 185 first-time MI-patients without SCA; mean values being 4.59% and 6.48%, respectively (p = 0.002). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, a 1% increase of the omega-3 index was associated with a 58% (95% CI: 0.25-0.76%) reduction in risk of ventricular fibrillation (VF). In conclusion, the omega-3 index remained stable after an event of SCA and predicted the risk of VF.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

 Billiet, Cassandra R., and Teri James Bellis. (2011).  “The Relationship between Brainstem Temporal Processing and Performance on Tests of Central Auditory Function in Children with Reading Disorders.” Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research. 54228-42.

Purpose: Studies using speech stimuli to elicit electrophysiologic responses have found approximately 30% of children with language-based learning problems demonstrate abnormal brainstem timing. Research is needed regarding how these responses relate to performance on behavioral tests of central auditory function. The purpose of the study was to investigate performance of children with dyslexia with and without abnormal brainstem timing and children with no history of learning or related disorders on behavioral tests of central auditory function. Method: Performance of 30 school-age children on behavioral central auditory tests in common clinical use was examined: Group 1 (n = 10): dyslexia, abnormal brainstem timing; Group 2 (n = 10): dyslexia, normal brainstem timing; Group 3 (n = 10): typical controls. Results: Results indicated that all participants in Group 2 met diagnostic criteria for (central) auditory processing disorder [(C)APD], whereas only 4 participants in Group 1 met criteria. The Biological Marker of Auditory Processing (BioMARK) identified 6 children in Group 1 who did not meet diagnostic criteria for (C)APD but displayed abnormal brainstem timing. Conclusions: Results underscore the importance of central auditory assessment for children with dyslexia. Furthermore, the BioMARK may be useful in identifying children with central auditory dysfunction who would not have been identified using behavioral methods of (C)APD assessment.

Communication Disorders

 Brand, L. A., J. C. Stromberg, D. C. Goodrich, Mark. D. Dixon, K. Lansey, D. Kang, D. S. Brookshire, and D. J. Cerasale. (2011).  “Projecting Avian Response to Linked Changes in Groundwater and Riparian Floodplain Vegetation Along a Dryland River: A Scenario Analysis.” Ecohydrology. 4, no. (Jan): 130-42.

Groundwater is a key driver of riparian condition on dryland rivers but is in high demand for municipal, industrial, and agricultural uses. Approaches are needed to guide decisions that balance human water needs while conserving riparian ecosystems. We developed a space-for-time substitution model that links groundwater change scenarios implemented within a Decision Support System (DSS) with proportions of floodplain vegetation types and abundances of breeding and migratory birds along the upper San Pedro River, AZ, USA. We investigated nine scenarios ranging from groundwater depletion to recharge. In groundwater decline scenarios, relative proportions of tall-canopied obligate phreatophytes (Populus/Salix, cottonwood/willow) on the floodplain progressively decline, and shrubbier species less dependent on permanent water sources (e. g. Tamarix spp., saltcedar) increase. These scenarios result in broad shifts in the composition of the breeding bird community, with canopy-nesting and water-obligate birds declining but midstory nesting birds increasing in abundance as groundwater declines. For the most extreme draw-down scenario where all reaches undergo groundwater declines, models project that only 10% of the upper San Pedro floodplain would be comprised of cottonwood/willow (73% saltcedar and 18% mesquite), and abundances of canopy-nesting, water-obligate, and spring migrant birds would decline 48%, 72%, and 40%, respectively. Groundwater recharge scenarios were associated with increases in canopy-nesting birds particularly given the extreme recharge scenario (all reaches regain shallow water tables and perennial streamflow). Model outputs serve to assess the sensitivity of biotic groups to potential changes in groundwater and thus to rank scenarios based on their expected ecological impacts. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Biology Department

 Egge, Alison R., Yoni Brandt, and John G. Swallow. (2011).  “Sequential Analysis of Aggressive Interactions in the Stalk-Eyed Fly Teleopsis Dalmanni.” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 65369-79.

Understanding the mechanisms and determinants of conflict resolution is of great theoretical and practical importance because the outcome of contests between males over limited resources such as mates, territories, and food has profound fitness consequences. Despite the large literature on the theory of conflict resolution, relatively few empirical studies explicitly test predictions related to contest structure for these models. In sexually dimorphic species of stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae), males engage in characteristic aggressive interactions over both females and food resources. We used sequential analysis of aggressive interactions between dyads of male stalk-eyed flies to investigate patterns of escalation, behavioral matching, and physical contact in order to distinguish between three common models of conflict resolution: the sequential assessment model, the cumulative assessment model, and the energetic war of attrition. Stalk-eyed flies were shown to engage in both low- and high-intensity behaviors during interactions with patterns of escalation and no de-escalation. Aggressive interactions did not demonstrate behavioral matching between winners and losers. Stalk-eyed flies also escalated to behaviors that included physical contact without injuries. Our results provide support for the sequential assessment model based on patterns of escalation with no de-escalation, behavioral mismatching, and behaviors which include physical contact but no injuries. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)

Biology Department

 Husak, Jerry F., and John G. Swallow. (2011).  “Compensatory Traits and the Evolution of Male Ornaments.” Behaviour. 148, no. (January): 1-29.

How ornaments that are used during mate choice and rival assessment remain reliable has been a source of contention for many years. Such signals are hypothesized to be costly (i.e., ‘handicaps’), but empirical studies testing for costs of sexually selected ornaments are equivocal at best, contradictory at worst. We review recent studies finding compensation for sexually selected ornaments, in both intra- and inter-specific studies, suggesting that other traits evolve to mitigate costs of ornaments. We synthesize these studies to elucidate the role of compensatory traits in the evolution of reliable ornaments and explain how selection to reduce ornament costs may influence aspects of the phenotype that are not subjected to direct sexual selection and may obscure our ability to directly measure ornament costs. Both intraspecific studies and comparative studies in a phylogenetic framework are important for our understanding of how the costs of signals may be reduced by compensation, but each approach answers different questions about ornament evolution. We also elaborate on a general theoretical model that can be useful when testing for costs of ornaments in correlational and experimental studies. We recommend that future investigators should consider compensatory traits when testing for ornament costs, especially when manipulating ornamentation.

Biology Department.

 Jacobson, Sandra W., Mark E. Stanton, Neil C. Dodge, H. Eugene Hoyme, Luther K. Robinson, Nathaniel Khaole, and Joseph L. Jacobson. (2011).  “Impaired Delay and Trace Eyeblink Conditioning in School-Age Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.” Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research. 35250-64.

Classical eyeblink conditioning (EBC) involves contingent temporal pairing of a conditioned stimulus (e.g., tone) with an unconditioned stimulus (e.g., air puff). Impairment of EBC has been demonstrated in studies of alcohol-exposed animals and in children exposed prenatally at heavy levels. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) was diagnosed by expert dysmorphologists in a large sample of Cape Coloured, South African children. Delay EBC was examined in a new sample of 63 children at 11.3 years, and trace conditioning in 32 of the same children at 12.8 years. At each age, 2 sessions of 50 trials each were administered on the same day; 2 more sessions the next day, for children not meeting criterion for conditioning. Six of 34 (17.6%) children born to heavy drinkers were diagnosed with FAS, 28 were heavily exposed nonsyndromal (HE), and 29 were nonexposed controls. Only 33.3% with FAS and 42.9% of HE met criterion for delay conditioning, compared with 79.3% of controls. The more difficult trace conditioning task was also highly sensitive to fetal alcohol exposure. Only 16.7% of the FAS and 21.4% of HE met criterion for trace conditioning, compared with 66.7% of controls. The magnitude of the effect of diagnostic group on trace conditioning was not greater than the effect on short delay conditioning, findings consistent with recent rat studies. Longer latency to onset and peak eyeblink CR in exposed children indicated poor timing and failure to blink in anticipation of the puff. Extended training resulted in some but not all of the children reaching criterion. These data showing alcohol-related delay and trace conditioning deficits extend our earlier findings of impaired EBC in 5-year-olds to school-age. Alcohol-related impairment in the cerebellar circuitry required for both forms of conditioning may be sufficient to account for the deficit in both tasks. Extended training was beneficial for some exposed children. EBC provides a well-characterized model system for assessment of degree of cerebellar-related learning and memory dysfunction in fetal alcohol exposed children.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

 Lee, Lance. (2011).  “Mechanisms of Mammalian Ciliary Motility: Insights from Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Genetics.” Gene. 47357-66.

Abstract: Motile cilia and flagella are organelles that, historically, have been poorly understood and inadequately investigated. However, cilia play critical roles in fluid clearance in the respiratory system and the brain, and flagella are required for sperm motility. Genetic studies involving human patients and mouse models of primary ciliary dyskinesia over the last decade have uncovered a number of important ciliary proteins and have begun to elucidate the mechanisms underlying ciliary motility. When combined with genetic, biochemical, and cell biological studies in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, these mammalian genetic analyses begin to reveal the mechanisms by which ciliary motility is regulated.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

 Luu, Quocanh N., Joshua M. Doorn, Mary T. Berry, Chaoyang Jiang, Cuikun Lin, and P. Stanley May. (2011).  “Preparation and Optical Properties of Silver Nanowires and Silver-Nanowire Thin Films.” Journal of Colloid & Interface Science. 356151-58.

Abstract: Silver nanowires and silver-nanowire thin films have attracted much attention due to their extensive applications in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) and Surface-Enhanced Fluorescence (SEF). Thin films of silver nanowires within polyelectrolyte layers of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) were fabricated by the Spin-Assisted Layer-by-Layer (SA-LbL) method. The surface coverage, thickness, and absorbance properties of the silver-nanowire films were controlled by the number of layers deposited. Both transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon (SP) modes of the silver-nanowires were observed in the absorbance spectra, as was evidence for nanowire interaction. Two-dimensional finite difference time-domain (2D FDTD) simulations predict that the maximum field enhancement occurs at the ends and cross-sectional edges of the wires for the longitudinal and transverse modes, respectively. Silver nanowires were synthesized by a facile, high-yield solvothermal approach, which can be easily manipulated to control the aspect ratio of the nanowires. The effects of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) concentration and molecular weight on the growth of the silver nanowires, which are not documented in the original procedure, are discussed. It is shown that the growth mechanism for silver nanowires in the solvothermal synthesis is similar to that reported for the polyol synthesis.

Chemistry Department

 Mariappan, Kardarkaraisamy, and Prem N. Basa. (2011).  “Coordination Polymers of 1,8-Bis(2-Methylthioethoxy)Anthraquinone and 1,5-Bis(2-Methylthioethoxy)Anthraquinone with Ag(I): Synthesis and X-Ray Crystallography.” Inorganica Chimica Acta. 366, no. (Jan): 344-49.

The reaction of 2-(methylthioethanol) with 1,8-dichloroanthraquinone and 1,5-dichloroanthraquinone in THF with base produces 1,8-bis(2-methylthioethoxy) anthraquinone (1) and 1,5-bis(2-methylthioethoxy)anthraquinone (2), respectively. Silver(I) complexes of 1 and 2 have been synthesized after combination with [Ag(CH3CN)(4)]BF4 in 1:1 M ratio to yield, [(1,8-bis(2-methylthioethoxy)anthraquinone)Ag]BF4, (3) and [(1,5-bis(2-methylthioethoxy)anthraquinone)Ag center dot CH3CN]BF4, (4). X-ray crystal structures of the free ligand (1) and the Ag(I) complexes (3 and 4) are reported. The intraannular carbonyl group forms a coordinate-covalent bond with Ag(I) and, in the solid state, both silver(I) complexes are found as coordination polymers. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Chemistry Department

McGinnis, Carol. (2011).  “The Feeding Tube Bridle: One Inexpensive, Safe, and Effective Method to Prevent Inadvertent Feeding Tube Dislodgement.” Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 26, no. (Feb): 70-77.

Nasally placed feeding tubes are heavily relied on in healthcare. Inadvertent tube removal not only poses safety hazards and discomfort for the patient, but also causes strain on valuable healthcare resources. Because use of restraints can agitate patients, increase safety hazards, and create a sense of depersonalization, alternative methods to prevent inadvertent tube removal are desirable. This article describes a feeding tube bridle constructed with supplies that are inexpensive and readily available to most patient care units. This method has been successfully utilized for patients at significant risk for self-initiated feeding tube removal in one Midwestern facility for many years without adverse effects. The method of bridling feeding tubes described here is effective, safe, and relatively comfortable as well as minimally noticeable to the patient and others. (Nutr Clin Pract. 2011;26:70-77).

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

 Seehafer, Sabrina S., D. Ramirez-Montealegre, A. M. S. Wong, C. H. Chan, J. Castaneda, M. Horak, S. M. Ahmadi, M. J. Lim, J. D. Cooper, and D. A. Pearce. (2011).  “Immunosuppression Alters Disease Severity in Juvenile Batten Disease Mice.” Journal of Neuroimmunology. 230, no. (Jan): 169-72.

Autoantibodies to brain proteins are present in Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (Batten disease) patients and in the Cln3(-/-) mouse model of this disease, suggesting an autoimmune component to pathogenesis. Using genetic or pharmaceutical approaches to attenuate this immune response in Cln3(-/-) mice, we demonstrate decreased neuroinflammation, decreased deposition of immunoglobulin G in the brain and protection of vulnerable neuron populations. Moreover, immune suppression results in a significant improvement in motor performance providing for the first plausible therapeutic approach for juvenile Batten disease. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

 Skulas-Ray, A. C., P. M. Kris-Etherton, William S. Harris, J. P. V. Heuvel, P. R. Wagner, and S. G. West. (2011).  “Dose-Response Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Triglycerides, Inflammation, and Endothelial Function in Healthy Persons with Moderate Hypertriglyceridemia.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 93, no. (Feb): 243-52.

Background: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been shown to reduce cardiovascular mortality at a dose of approximate to 1 g/d. Studies using higher doses have shown evidence of reduced inflammation and improved endothelial function. Few studies have compared these doses. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a nutritional dose of EPA+DHA (0.85 g/d) with those of a pharmaceutical dose (3.4 g/d) on serum triglycerides, inflammatory markers, and endothelial function in healthy subjects with moderately elevated triglycerides. Design: This was a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, 3-period crossover trial (8 wk of treatment, 6 wk of washout) that compared the effects of 0.85 and 3.4 g EPA+DHA/d in 23 men and 3 postmenopausal women with moderate hypertriglyceridemia (150-500 mg/dL). Results: The higher dose of EPA+DHA lowered triglycerides by 27% compared with placebo (mean +/- SEM: 173 +/- 17.5 compared with 237 +/- 17.5 mg/dL; P = 0.002), whereas no effect of the lower dose was observed on lipids. No effects on cholesterol (total, LDL, and HDL), endothelial function [as assessed by flow-mediated dilation, peripheral arterial tonometry/EndoPAT (Itamar Medical Ltd, Caesarea, Israel), or Doppler measures of hyperemia], inflammatory markers (interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein), or the expression of inflammatory cytokine genes in isolated lymphocytes were observed. Conclusion: The higher dose (3.4 g/d) of EPA+DHA significantly lowered triglycerides, but neither dose improved endothelial function or inflammatory status over 8 wk in healthy adults with moderate hypertriglyceridemia. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials. gov as NCT00504309. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93:243-52.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

Zhang, Lifeng, Jie Luo, Todd J. Menkhaus, Hemanthram Varadaraju, Yuyu Sun, and Hao Fong. (2011).  “Antimicrobial Nano-Fibrous Membranes Developed from Electrospun Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers.” Journal of Membrane Science. 369499-505.

Abstract: In this study, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nano-fibrous membranes with fiber diameters of ∼450nm were prepared by the technique of electrospinning; amidoxime nano-fibrous membranes were then prepared through treatment of PAN nano-fibrous membranes in hydroxylamine (NH<sub>2</sub>OH) aqueous solution. The –Con the surface of PAN nanofibers reacted with NH<sub>2</sub>OH molecules and led to the formation of –C(NH<sub>2</sub>)OH groups, which were used for coordination of Ag<sup>+</sup> ions. Subsequently, the coordinated Ag<sup>+</sup> ions were converted into silver nanoparticles (AgNP) with sizes being tens of nanometers. Morphologies, structures, and antimicrobial efficacies (against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) of the membranes of electrospun PAN (ESPAN) nanofibers, ESPAN surface functionalized with amidoxime groups (ASFPAN), ASFPAN coordinated with silver ions (ASFPAN–Ag<sup>+</sup>), and ASFPAN attached with silver nanoparticles (ASFPAN–AgNP) were investigated. The study revealed that, with treatment of ESPAN membranes in 1M NH<sub>2</sub>OH aqueous solution for 5min, the resulting ASFPAN membranes became antimicrobial without distinguishable morphological variations; further treatment of ASFPAN membranes in 0.1M AgNO<sub>3</sub> aqueous solution for 1h and the subsequent treatment in 0.01M KBr aqueous solution for 2h followed by photo-decomposition made the respective membranes of ASFPAN–Ag<sup>+</sup> and ASFPAN–AgNP highly antimicrobial, which were capable of killing the tested microorganisms in 30min. The water permeability test indicated that these membranes possessed adequate transport properties for filtration applications. This study demonstrated a convenient and cost-effective approach to develop antimicrobial nano-fibrous membranes that are particularly useful for the filtration of water and/or air.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus

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