Posted by: princekhaled | December 8, 2009

December 2009

Bailey, Craig J., and Karen A. Card.
Effective Pedagogical Practices for Online Teaching: Perception of Experienced Instructors.
Internet & Higher Education, 12.3/4 (2009): 152-155.

Abstract: Institutions have focused on providing faculty with technological training to enhance their online teaching, but many online instructors would like to learn more effective pedagogical practices. This phenomenological study determines what experienced, award-winning South Dakota e-learning instructors perceive to be effective pedagogical practices. This study identified effective pedagogical practices for online teaching that are reflective of theories and practices referenced in the college teaching literature.

School of Education, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States

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Burden, Matthew J., Colin Andrew, H. Eugene Hoyme, and et. al.
The Effects of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome on Response Execution and Inhibition: An Event-Related Potential Study.
Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research 33.11 (2009): 1994-2004.

Background: Both executive function deficits and slower processing speed are characteristic of children with fetal alcohol exposure, but the temporal dynamics of neural activity underlying cognitive processing deficits in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder have rarely been studied. To this end, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to examine the nature of alcohol-related effects on response inhibition by identifying differences in neural activation during task performance. Methods: We recorded ERPs during a Go/No-go response inhibition task in 2 groups of children in Cape Town, South Africa ( M age = 11.7 years; range = 10 to 13)—one diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS (FAS/PFAS; n = 7); the other, a control group whose mothers abstained or drank only minimally during pregnancy ( n = 6). Children were instructed to press a “Go” response button to all letter stimuli presented except for the letter “X,” the “No-go” stimulus, which occurred relatively infrequently. Results: Task performance accuracy and reaction time did not differ between groups, but differences emerged for 3 ERP components—P2, N2, and P3. The FAS/PFAS group showed a slower latency to peak P2, suggesting less efficient processing of visual information at a relatively early stage (?200 ms after stimulus onset). Moreover, controls showed a larger P2 amplitude to Go versus No-go, indicating an early discrimination between conditions that was not seen in the FAS/PFAS group. Consistent with previous literature on tasks related to cognitive control, the control group showed a well-defined, larger N2 to No-go versus Go, which was not evident in the FAS/PFAS group. Both groups showed the expected larger P3 amplitude to No-go versus Go, but this condition difference persisted in a late slow wave for the FAS/PFAS group, suggesting increased cognitive effort. Conclusions: The timing and amplitude differences in the ERP measures suggest that slower, less efficient processing characterizes the FAS/PFAS group during initial stimulus identification. Moreover, the exposed children showed less sharply defined components throughout the stimulus and response evaluation processes involved in successful response inhibition. Although both groups were able to inhibit their responses equally well, the level of neural activation in the children with FAS/PFAS was greater, suggesting more cognitive effort. The specific deficits in response inhibition processing at discrete stages of neural activation may have implications for understanding the nature of alcohol-related deficits in other cognitive domains as well.

Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

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Carney, Robert M., Kenneth E. Freedland, William S. Harris, and et. al.
Omega-3 Augmentation of Sertraline in Treatment of Depression in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease.
JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association 302.15 (2009): 1651-57.

The article presents a study which determined whether omega-3 improves the efficacy of sertraline among patients with major depression and coronary heart disease (CHD). The study found no evidence that omega-3 augmentation of sertraline is superior to sertraline with placebo capsules in treating depressed patients with major depression and CHD. According to the article, it is still to be determined whether higher doses of omega-3 or sertraline, longer treatment, or omega-3 monotherapy can improve depression in patients with CHD.

Cardiovascular Health Research Center, Stanford Research, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls

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Gordon, Derrick M., Derek K. Iwamoto, Elizabeth Boyd, and et. al.
Mentoring Urban Black Middle School Male Students: Implications for Academic Achievement.
Journal of Negro Education 78.3 (2009): 277-89.

Professor, Psychology Department, University of South Dakota in Vermilion

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Hong, Zheng, Li Yi-Fan, Wang Wei, and Kaushik P. Patel.
Enhanced Angiotensin-Mediated Excitation of Renal Sympathetic Nerve Activity within the Paraventricular Nucleus of Anesthetized Rats with Heart Failure.
American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative & Comparative Physiology 66.5 (2009): R1364-R74.</p>

<p>Chronic heart failure (HF) is characterized by increased sympathetic drive. Enhanced angiotensin II (ANG II) activity may contribute to the increased sympathoexcitation under HF condition. The present study examined sympathoexcitation by I) the effects of ANG II in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) on renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and 2) the altered ANG II type I (AT<sub>1</sub>) receptor expression during HF. Left coronary artery ligation was used to induce HF. In the anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, microinjection of ANG II(0.05-1 nmol) into the PVN increased RSNA, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) in both sham-operated and HF rats. The responses of RSNA and HR were significantly enhanced in rats with HF compared with sham rats (RSNA: 64 ± 8% vs. 33 ± 4%, P < 0.05). Microinjection of AT<sub>1</sub> receptor antagonist losartan into the PVN produced a decrease of RSNA, MAP, and HR in both sham and HF rats. The RSNA and HR responses to losartan in HF rats were significantly greater (RSNA: -25 ± 4% vs. 13 ± 1%, P < 0.05). Using RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, we found that there were significant increases in the AT<sub>1</sub> receptor mRNA (?186 ± 39%) and protein levels (?88 ± 20%) in the PVN of rats with HF (P < 0.05). The immunofluorescence of AT<sub>1</sub> receptors was significantly higher in the PVN of rats with HF. These data support the conclusion that an increased angiotensinergic activity on sympathetic regulation, due to the upregulation of ANG II AT<sub>1</sub> receptors within the PVN, may contribute to the elevated sympathoexcitation that is observed during HF.

Affiliation: 2: Division of Basic Biomedical Science, College of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Vermnillion, South Dakota

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Kappeler, Kyle V.
A Naturally Occurring Rgg Variant in Serotype M3 Streptococcus Pyogenes Does Not Activate Speb Expression Due to Altered Specificity of DNA Binding.
Infection and Immunity 77.12 (2009): 5411-17.

The transcriptional regulator Rgg of Streptococcus pyogenes is essential for expression of the secreted cysteine protease SpeB. Although all isolates of S. pyogenes possess the speB gene, not all of them produce the protein in vitro. In a murine model of infection, the absence of SpeB production is associated with invasive disease. We speculated that naturally occurring mutations in rgg, which would also abrogate SpeB production, may be present in invasive isolates of S. pyogenes. Examination of the inferred Rgg sequences available in public databases revealed that the rgg gene in strain MGAS315 (a serotype M3 strain associated with invasive disease) encodes a proline at amino acid position 103 (Rgg103P); in contrast, all other strains encode a serine at this position (Rgg103S). A caseinolytic assay and Western blotting indicated that strain MGAS315 does not produce SpeB in vitro. Gene-swapping experiments showed that the rgg gene of MGAS315 is solely responsible for the lack of SpeB expression. In contrast to Rgg103S, Rgg103Pdoes not bind to the speB promoter in gel shift assays, which correlates with a lack of speB expression. Despite its inability to activate speB expression, Rgg103Pretains the ability to bind to DNA upstream of norA and to influence its expression. Overall, this study illustrates how variation at the rgg locus may contribute to the phenotypic diversity of S. pyogenes.

Author Affiliations: 1: Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine of the University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota. Department of Molecular Microbiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, St. Petersburg, Russia. Immunology and Microbiology Department, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan

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Landau, Steven, Richard Milich, and Paul Whitten.
A Comparison of Teacher and Peer Assessment of Social Status.
Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 13.1 (1984): 44-49.

Previous research has suggested that a simple teacher ranking of popularity can better predict observed social competence than a peer sociometric nomination procedure. This is an important finding as peer-generated sociometric data are difficult and time consuming to collect. In order to further asssess this issue, teacher popularity rankings and peer popularity and rejection nominations were collected on 49 kindergarten boys. Additionally, the social interaction behavior of these boys was observed during free play activities. When examining popularity, results were consistent in demonstrating that teachers and peers provide essentially redundant information. However, when peer nominations of rejection were considered, peers did significantly better than teachers in the prediction of observed social behaviors. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for an enhanced understanding of social status constructs.

Author Affiliations: 1: Division of Education Psychology, School of Education, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota

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Meng, Qingguo, Robert J. Witte, P. Stanley May, and Mary T. Berry.
Photodissociation and Photoionization Mechanisms in Lanthanide-based Fluorinated ß-Diketonate Metal-Organic Chemical-Vapor Deposition Precursors.
Chemistry of Materials 21.24 (2009): 5801–5808.

<p>A detailed photodissociation mechanism for the fluorinated lanthanide (Ln) ?-diketonate metal?organic chemical-vapor deposition (MOCVD) precursors Ln(fod)3, Ln(hfac)3, and Ln(hfac)3diglyme was elucidated using photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The collisionless environment of the molecular beam source revealed a series of unimolecular steps, starting with dissociation of an intact ?-diketonate ligand. Dissociation steps for the second and third ligands are associated with the attachment of a fluoride to the metal ion, leading to one of three ultimate products: Ln, LnF, or LnF2. Except in the case of Pr, no LnO is observed. The pattern of ligand fragmentation strongly supports a mechanism for the fluoride-attachment step which is similar to one previously proposed for the thermally activated decomposition of Ce(hfac)3glyme.(1) The detailed mechanistic understanding of the step-by-step fluorination will provide a basis for new ligand design, which maintains the advantageous mass-transport properties of the fluorinated precursors while controlling LnFxformation.

Author Affiliations: 1: Department of Chemistry, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069

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Ribak, G. A. L., Marie L. Pitts, Gerald S. Wilkinson, and John G. Swallow.
Wing Shape, Wing Size, and Sexual Dimorphism in Eye-Span in Stalk-Eyed Flies (Diopsidae).
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 98.4 (2009): 860-71.

The eyes of stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae) are positioned at the end of rigid peduncles (‘stalks’) protruding laterally from the head. Eye-stalk length varies within the family and, in some species, varies between males and females. Larger eye-stalks in males result from sexual selection for longer stalks, a trait that increases male reproductive success. In the present study, we examined whether an increase in eye-stalk length results in an adjustment of wing size and shape to deal with the burden of bearing an exaggerated ‘ornament’. We compared wing morphology among ten species of stalk-eyed flies that differ in eye-span and the degree of sexual dimorphism. Mass-specific wing length differed between males and females in seven out of the ten species. Nondimensional wing shape parameters differed between the species ( P < 0.001), but mostly did not differ between males and females of the same species. Dimorphism in eye-span closely correlated with dimorphism in wing length ( r = 0.89, P < 0.001) and the correlation remained significant (r = 0.81, P = 0.006) after correcting for phylogenetic relationships. Once corrected for phylogenetic relatedness, the mass-specific wing length of males (but not females) was weakly correlated with mass-specific eye-span ( r = 0.66, P = 0.042). We propose that the observed proportional increase in wing length associated with increased eye-span can facilitate aerial manoeuverability, which would otherwise be handicapped by the elevated moment of inertia imposed by the wider head.

Affiliation: 1: Department of Biology, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA

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Schulenberg, Stefan, and Barbara Yutrzenka.
Equivalence of Computerized and Conventional Versions of the Beck Depression Inventory-Ii (Bdi-Ii).
Current Psychology 20.3 (2001): 216-30.

This study examined the equivalence of the conventional and computerized versions of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), taking into account that computer aver-sion may negatively impact computer-administered BDI-II scores by elevating them. Participants were 180 psychology undergraduate students from a medium-sized midwestern university. Participants were divided into four experimental groups. Each group was administered the BDI-II twice in various combinations (conventional only, computerized only, conventional and computerized and vice versa). All participants completed measures of computer aversion and computer experience. Participants who received both versions of the BDI-II were also asked to specify their preference for method of administration. Independent samples t-test results indicated that the com-puterized and paper-and-pencil versions of the BDI-II may be considered equivalent in terms of measurement validity. Implications for future research are discussed.

Author Affiliations: 1: USA 2: University of South Dakota Department of Psychology 414 E. Clark Street 57069 Vermillion South Dakota

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Sternadori, Miglena Mantcheva, and Esther Thorson.
Anonymous Sources Harm Credibility of All Stories.
Newspaper Research Journal 30.4 (2009): 54-66.

Findings confirm the use of anonymous sources has a negative effect on readers’ perceptions of story credibility. Stories of presumably higher quality elicited more believability toward sources who disagree with the main findings of the story.

Affiliation: 1: Assistant professor, Department of Contemporary Media and Journalism, University of South Dakota

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Timms, Barry G.
Prostate Development: A Historical Perspective.
Differentiation 76.6 (2008): 565-77

The regional anatomy of the human prostate has been debated periodically over the last century with various levels of controversy and agreement, beginning with the concept of lobes and replaced by the current model of zones. During this period a variety of classifications have been proposed, based upon the studies of glandular morphogenesis, responses to hormones or histopathology. The current paradigm suggests that the regional differences seen in the prostate of both animal models and the human are a consequence of specific epithelial–mesenchymal interactions along the cranial–caudal axis of the urogenital sinus. The distinctive regional patterns seen in the rodent prostate and the histological heterogeneity of the human adult gland all point to the modification of the distal portion of the ducts, while the proximal segments retain their spatial relationship to the urethra that was formed during fetal development. This suggests that the early epithelial budding that occurs in utero represents a common, fairly symmetrical pattern of growth in many species, while the regional differences in branching morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation are controlled by the instructional influences of mesenchyme and temporal expression of growth factors. Perturbation of the normal processes involved during critical periods of fetal development during reproductive organ development may also play a role in the susceptibility of the prostate to disease in adulthood. Past descriptions of detailed anatomical studies, which span over a century, have provided much insight into the architecture and processes that form a complex tubulo-alveolar gland. New insights into the ductal detail and the advent of sophisticated analyses of cell–cell interactions and molecular mechanisms controlling pathways of cellular growth, differentiation, and apoptosis will likely lead to new approaches for prevention and therapy of prostatic diseases.

Author Affiliations: 1: Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences Sanford School of Medicine University of South Dakota 414 E. Clark St. Vermillion SD 57069, USA.

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Zheng, Hong.
Enhanced Angiotensin-Mediated Excitation of Renal Sympathetic Nerve Activity within the Paraventricular Nucleus of Anesthetized Rats with Heart Failure.
American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 297.5 (2009): R1364-R74.

Chronic heart failure (HF) is characterized by increased sympathetic drive. Enhanced angiotensin II (ANG II) activity may contribute to the increased sympathoexcitation under HF condition. The present study examined sympathoexcitation by 1) the effects of ANG II in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) on renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and 2) the altered ANG II type 1 (AT1) receptor expression during HF. Left coronary artery ligation was used to induce HF. In the anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, microinjection of ANG II (0.05–1 nmol) into the PVN increased RSNA, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) in both sham-operated and HF rats. The responses of RSNA and HR were significantly enhanced in rats with HF compared with sham rats (RSNA: 64 ± 8% vs. 33 ± 4%, P < 0.05). Microinjection of AT1receptor antagonist losartan into the PVN produced a decrease of RSNA, MAP, and HR in both sham and HF rats. The RSNA and HR responses to losartan in HF rats were significantly greater (RSNA: –25 ± 4% vs. –13 ± 1%, P < 0.05). Using RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, we found that there were significant increases in the AT1receptor mRNA (?186 ± 39%) and protein levels (?88 ± 20%) in the PVN of rats with HF (P < 0.05). The immunofluorescence of AT1receptors was significantly higher in the PVN of rats with HF. These data support the conclusion that an increased angiotensinergic activity on sympathetic regulation, due to the upregulation of ANG II AT1receptors within the PVN, may contribute to the elevated sympathoexcitation that is observed during HF.

Author Affiliations: 1: College of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota

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Banerjee, Subhash, and Grigory Sered.
One-Step, Three-Component Synthesis of Highly Substituted Pyridines Using Silica Nanoparticle as Reusable Catalyst.
Tetrahedron Letters. 50,(2009): 6959-6962.

One-step synthesis Of ‘privileged medicinal scaffolds’, 2-amino-3,5-dicarbonitrile- 6-sulfanylpyridines, has been demonstrated via a multicomponent reaction of aldehydes, malononitrile, and thiols using silica nanoparticle (NP) as catalysts. The silica NP catalysts are very mild (nearly neutral in nature), effective, environmentally benign, and retain most of their activities after being reused for three times. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department

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Elhai, Jon D., R. M. Engdahl, P. A. Palmieri, James A. Naifeh, Amy Schweinle, and Gerard A. Jacobs.
Assessing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with or without Reference to a Single, Worst Traumatic Event: Examining Differences in Factor Structure.
Psychological Assessment, 21 (2009): 629-34.

The authors examined the effects of a methodological manipulation on the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist’s factor structure: specifically, whether respondents were instructed to reference a single worst traumatic event when rating PTSD symptoms. Nonclinical, trauma-exposed participants were randomly assigned to I of 2 PTSD assessment conditions: referencing PTSD symptoms to their worst trauma (trauma-specific group, n = 218) or to their overall trauma history in general (trauma-general group, n = 234). A 3rd group of non-trauma-exposed participants (n = 464) rated PTSD symptoms globally from any stressful event. Using confirmatory factor analysis, the authors show that the 4-factor PTSD model proposed by D. W. King, G. A. Leskin, L. A. King, and F. W. Weathers (1998; separating effortful avoidance and emotional numbing) demonstrated the best model fit for trauma-general and non-trauma-exposed participants. The 4-factor PTSD model proposed by L. J. Simms, D. Watson, and B. N. Doebbeling (2002; emphasizing a general dysphoria factor) demonstrated the best model fit for trauma-specific participants. Measurement invariance testing revealed that non-trauma-exposed participants were different from both trauma-exposed groups on factor structure parameters, but trauma groups were not substantially different from each other.

Psychology Department
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Elhai, Jon D., J. D. Ford, K. J. Ruggiero, and B. C. Frueh.
Diagnostic Alterations for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Examining Data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication and National Survey of Adolescents.
Psychological Medicine, 39 (2009): 1957-66.

Background. Two alternative models of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appear to represent the disorder’s latent structure better than the traditional Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) three-factor PTSD model. The present study examines the impact of using these structural models for the diagnosis of lifetime PTSD while retaining the DSM-IV PTSD’s six-symptom diagnostic requirement. Method. Data were gathered from large-scale, epidemiological datasets collected with adults (National Comorbidity Survey Replication) and adolescents (National Survey of Adolescents). Two alternative, empirically supported four-factor models of PTSD were compared with the DSM-IV three-factor PTSD diagnostic model. Results. Results indicated that the diagnostic alterations resulted in substantially improved structural validity, downward adjustments of PTSD’s lifetime prevalence (roughly 1 percentage point decreases in adults, 1-2.5 percentage point decreases in adolescents), and equivalent psychiatric co-morbidity and sociodemographic associations. Conclusions. Implications for modifying PTSD diagnostic criteria in future editions of DSM are discussed.

Psychology Department, Former Faculty Member
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Gao, X. F., F. Y. Wan, K. Mateo, Michael. S. Chaussee, B. B. Finlay, M. J. Lenardo, and P. R. Hardwidge.
Bacterial Effector Binding to Ribosomal Protein S3 Subverts Nf-Kappa B Function.
Plos Pathogens, 5 (2009)

Enteric bacterial pathogens cause food borne disease, which constitutes an enormous economic and health burden. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) causes a severe bloody diarrhea following transmission to humans through various means, including contaminated beef and vegetable products, water, or through contact with animals. EHEC also causes a potentially fatal kidney disease (hemolytic uremic syndrome) for which there is no effective treatment or prophylaxis. EHEC and other enteric pathogens (e. g., enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia) utilize a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject virulence proteins (effectors) into host cells. While it is known that T3SS effectors subvert host cell function to promote diarrheal disease and bacterial transmission, in many cases, the mechanisms by which these effectors bind to host proteins and disrupt the normal function of intestinal epithelial cells have not been completely characterized. In this study, we present evidence that the E. coli O157:H7 nleH1 and nleH2 genes encode T3SS effectors that bind to the human ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3), a subunit of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kappa B) transcriptional complexes. NleH1 and NleH2 co-localized with RPS3 in the cytoplasm, but not in cell nuclei. The N-terminal region of both NleH1 and NleH2 was required for binding to the N-terminus of RPS3. NleH1 and NleH2 are autophosphorylated Ser/Thr protein kinases, but their binding to RPS3 is independent of kinase activity. NleH1, but not NleH2, reduced the nuclear abundance of RPS3 without altering the p50 or p65 NF-kappa B subunits or affecting the phosphorylation state or abundance of the inhibitory NF-kappa B chaperone I kappa B alpha NleH1 repressed the transcription of a RPS3/NF-kappa B-dependent reporter plasmid, but did not inhibit the transcription of RPS3-independent reporters. In contrast, NleH2 stimulated RPS3-dependent transcription, as well as an AP-1-dependent reporter. We identified a region of NleH1 (N40-K45) that is at least partially responsible for the inhibitory activity of NleH1 toward RPS3. Deleting nleH1 from E. coli O157: H7 produced a hypervirulent phenotype in a gnotobiotic piglet model of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli infection. We suggest that NleH may disrupt host innate immune responses by binding to a cofactor of host transcriptional complexes.

Basic Biomedical Sciences.  Vermillion
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Kappeler, Kyle V., Srivishnupriya Anbalagan, Alexander V. Dmitriev, Emily J. McDowell, M. N. Neely, and Michael S. Chaussee.
A Naturally Occurring Rgg Variant in Serotype M3 Streptococcus Pyogenes Does Not Activate Speb Expression Due to Altered Specificity of DNA Binding.
Infection and Immunity, 77 (2009): 5411-17.

The transcriptional regulator Rgg of Streptococcus pyogenes is essential for expression of the secreted cysteine protease SpeB. Although all isolates of S. pyogenes possess the speB gene, not all of them produce the protein in vitro. In a murine model of infection, the absence of SpeB production is associated with invasive disease. We speculated that naturally occurring mutations in rgg, which would also abrogate SpeB production, may be present in invasive isolates of S. pyogenes. Examination of the inferred Rgg sequences available in public databases revealed that the rgg gene in strain MGAS315 (a serotype M3 strain associated with invasive disease) encodes a proline at amino acid position 103 (Rgg(103P)); in contrast, all other strains encode a serine at this position (Rgg(103S)). A caseinolytic assay and Western blotting indicated that strain MGAS315 does not produce SpeB in vitro. Gene-swapping experiments showed that the rgg gene of MGAS315 is solely responsible for the lack of SpeB expression. In contrast to Rgg(103S), Rgg(103P) does not bind to the speB promoter in gel shift assays, which correlates with a lack of speB expression. Despite its inability to activate speB expression, Rgg(103P) retains the ability to bind to DNA upstream of norA and to influence its expression. Overall, this study illustrates how variation at the rgg locus may contribute to the phenotypic diversity of S. pyogenes.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States
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Meng, Qinggu G., Robert J. Witte, P. Stanley May, and Mary T. Berry.
Photodissociation and Photoionization Mechanisms in Lanthanide-Based Fluorinated Beta-Diketonate Metal-Organic Chemical-Vapor Deposition Precursors.
Chemistry of Materials, 21 (2009): 5801-08.

A detailed photodissociation mechanism for the fluorinated lanthanide (Ln) beta-diketonate metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition (MOCVD) precursors Ln(fod)(3), Ln(hfaC)(3), and Ln(hfaC)(3) diglyme was elucidated using photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The collisionless environment of the molecular beam source revealed a series of unimolecular steps, starting with dissociation of an intact beta-diketonate ligand. Dissociation steps for the second and third ligands are associated with the attachment of a fluoride to the metal ion, leading to one of three ultimate products: Ln, LnF, or LnF(2). Except in the case of Pr, no LnO is observed. The pattern of ligand fragmentation strongly supports a mechanism for the fluoride-attachment step which is similar to one previously proposed for the thermally activated decomposition of Ce(hfaC)(3)glyme.(1) The detailed mechanistic understanding of the step-by-step fluorination will provide a basis for new ligand design, which maintains the advantageous mass-transport properties of the fluorinated precursors while controlling LnF(x) Formation.

Chemistry Department, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States
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Ranek, Mark J., and Xuejan J. Wang.
Activation of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in Doxorubicin Cardiomyopathy.
Current Hypertension Reports, 11 (2009): 389-95.

Doxorubicin (Dox) is a very potent anticancer agent, but its use is limited by its dose-dependent, irreversible cardiotoxicity. Despite intensive research efforts, the mechanism of Dox cardiotoxicity remains poorly understood, so very limited means are available for its prevention or effective management. Recent studies have revealed that a therapeutic dose of Dox can activate proteolysis in cardiomyocytes that is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), and that the UPS-mediated degradation of a number of pivotal cardiac transcription factors and/or survival factors is enhanced by Dox treatment. These findings suggest that Dox-induced UPS activation may represent a new mechanism underlying Dox cardiotoxicity. Notably, recent experimental studies suggest that proteasome activation promotes cardiac remodeling during hypertension. This review surveys the current literature on the impact of Dox on the UPS and the potential mechanisms by which UPS activation may compromise the heart during Dox therapy.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States
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Siddiqua, T., D. Easley, S. Thomas, Joseph A. Zenel, and J. F. Pohl.
A Small Bowel Obstruction Trichobezoar Obstructing an Ileal Stricture Caused by Crohn Disease.
Pediatrics in Review, 30 (2009): 486-90.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States
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Snyder, Jessica J., Jon D. Elhai, T. C. North, and C. J. Heaney.
Reliability and Validity of the Trauma Symptom Inventory with Veterans Evaluated for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.
Psychiatry Research, 170 (2009): 256-61.

The Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) is one of the most widely used instruments in the assessment of PTSD related symptoms [Elhai. J.D.. Gray, M.J., Kashdan, T.B., Franklin. L.C., 2005a. Which instruments are most commonly used to assess traumatic event exposure and posttraumatic effects? A survey of traumatic stress professionals. journal of Traumatic Stress 18, 541-545]. In spite of the fact that the TSI has demonstrated adequate psychometric qualities in past studies [Briere, J., 1995. Trauma Symptom Inventory professional manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, Psychological Assessment Resources; Briere, J., Elliott, D.M., Harris, K. Cotman, A.. 1995. Trauma Symptom Inventory: Psychometrics and association with childhood and adult victimization in clinical samples. journal of Interpersonal Violence 10, 387-401; McDevitt-Murphy, M. E.. Weathers, F.W., Adkins, J.W., 2005. The use of the trauma symptom inventory in the assessment of PTSD symptoms. journal of Traumatic Stress 18, 63-67] the measure’s psychometrics have only as of yet been examined among civilians. We examined the TSI’s psychometric properties using archival data from 221 treatment-seeking veterans evaluated for military-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Results demonstrated adequate internal consistency for the TSI’s clinical scales (alphas ranging from 0.73 to 0.91). Convergent validity was established for clinical scales tapping PTSD’s re-experiencing, avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms, and depression and irritability, against other similar measures. Structural validity was also supported in confirmatory factor analyses, with a three-factor model, and a similar model merging two of these three factors, best fitting the observed data. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Psychology Department Former Faculty Member, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States
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Swanson, David L., and J. S. Palmer.
Spring Migration Phenology of Birds in the Northern Prairie Region Is Correlated with Local Climate Change.
Journal of Field Ornithology, 80 (2009): 351-63.

In apparent response to recent periods of global warming, some migratory birds now arrive earlier at stopover sites and breeding grounds. However, the effects of this warming on arrival times vary among locations and species. Migration timing is generally correlated with temperature, with earlier arrival during warm years than during cold years, so local variation in climate change might produce different effects on migration phenology in different geographic regions. We examined trends in first spring arrival dates (FADs) for 44 species of common migrant birds in South Dakota (1971-2006) and Minnesota (1964-2005) using observations compiled by South Dakota and Minnesota Ornithologists’ Unions. We found significant trends in FAD over time for 20 species (18 arriving earlier and two later) in South Dakota and 16 species (all earlier) in Minnesota. Of these species, 10 showed similar significant trends for both states. All 10 of these species exhibited significantly earlier arrival, and all were early spring migrants, with median FADs before 10 April in both states. Eighteen of the 44 species showed significant negative correlations of FADs with either winter (December-February) or spring (arrival month plus previous month) temperatures in one or both states. Interestingly, spring temperatures in both South Dakota and Minnesota did not warm significantly from 1971-2006, but winter temperatures in both states warmed significantly over the same time period. This suggests that the warmer winters disproportionately affected early spring migrants, especially those associated with aquatic habitats (seven of the 10 species showing significantly earlier spring arrival in both states). The stronger response to climate change by early spring migrants in our study is consistent with the results of several other studies, and suggests that migrants, especially early migrants, are capable of responding to local temperature conditions experienced on wintering grounds or along the migration route.

Biology Department, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States

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Elgouhari, Hesham M., C. O. Zein, I. Hanouneh, A. E. Feldstein, and N. N. Zein.
Diabetes Mellitus Is Associated with Impaired Response to Antiviral Therapy in Chronic Hepatitis C Infection.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 54 (2010): 2699-2705.

Insulin resistance may promote hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C (HCV) and has emerged as a cofactor in failure to achieve sustained viral response (SVR). Aims (1) To assess the association of diabetes mellitus (DM) in HCV patients to the severity of hepatic fibrosis and to the response to antiviral treatment. (2) To assess the safety of pegylated interferon andribavirin combination therapy (Peg IFN/RBV) in diabetic HCV patients. Methods HCV diabetics (n = 61) were identified. A 2:1 matching control group was used to identify independent factors of advanced fibrosis and treatment failure. Results Compared to HCV non-diabetics, HCV diabetics were more likely to have steatosis (P < 0.0001) and advanced fibrosis (P = 0.003). Patients’ age, Caucasian ethnicity, obesity, and histologic activity index were independently associated with advanced fibrosis (P < 0.05). Only 23% of HCV diabetics achieved SVR compared to 46% of HCV non-diabetics (P = 0.003). DM, genotype 1, high baseline viral load, and African-American ethnicity were independently associated with less SVR (P < 0.05). Significant adverse events were more common in HCV diabetics compared to HCV non-diabetics (P = 0.001). Side effects did not increase in patients receiving PEG IFN/RBV and insulin sensitizers. Conclusion DM was associated with impaired virologicresponse to PEG IFN/RBV in HCV patients. Adverse events during therapy were more frequent in diabetic compared to non-diabetic HCV patients.

Medical School.  Sioux Falls
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