Posted by: katybug23 | November 5, 2010

October 2010

Bao, Ying, Quoc Anh  N. Luu, Cuikun K. Lin, John M. Schloss, P. Stanley May, and Chaoyang Y. Jiang. (2010).  “Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Freestanding Thin Films with Homogeneously Distributed Upconversion Nanocrystals.” Journal of Materials Chemistry. 208356-61.

We report a facile and highly-controlled approach to fabricating freestanding upconversion multilayer thin films containing homogeneously distributed lanthanide-doped nanocrystals. Citrate-coated NaYF4:17%Yb, 3%Er nanocrystals were synthesized using a single-phase high-boiling-point-solvent method, followed by ligand exchange. These hydrophilic upconversion nanocrystals were dispersed in freestanding multilayer polyelectrolyte thin films by layer-by-layer assembly over a sacrificial layer. We found that the nanocomposite multilayer thin films possess outstanding mechanical stability and exhibit NIR-to-visible upconversion luminescence. The effect of the hydrophilic ligand exchange on the upconversion properties of these nanocrystals was explored by characterizing the time evolution of upconversion emission following pulsed NIR excitation. It is found that the ligand-exchange process modestly reduces the intrinsic upconversion efficiency of the nanocrystals relative to the as-synthesized oleic acid coated product. Thin films with NIR-to-visible upconversion properties may be suitable for a variety of optical-device and sensing applications.

Chemistry Department.

 Barr, Jeffrey L., Kenneth J. Renner, and Gina L. Forster. (2010).  “Withdrawal from Chronic Amphetamine Produces Persistent Anxiety-Like Behavior but Temporally-Limited Reductions in Monoamines and Neurogenesis in the Adult Rat Dentate Gyrus.” Neuropharmacology. 59395-405.

 Abstract: Acute amphetamine administration activates monoaminergic pathways and increases systemic corticosterone, both of which influence anxiety states and adult dentate gyrus neurogenesis. Chronic amphetamine increases anxiety states in rats when measured at 24 h and at 2 weeks of withdrawal. However, the effects of chronic amphetamine exposure and withdrawal on long term anxiety-like behavior and adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus are unknown. Adult male rats were administered amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, ip.) daily for two weeks. Anxiety-like behaviors were increased markedly in amphetamine-treated rats following four weeks of withdrawal from amphetamine. Plasma corticosterone level was unaltered by amphetamine treatment or withdrawal. However, norepinephrine and serotonin concentrations were selectively reduced in the dentate gyrus 20 h following amphetamine treatment. This effect did not persist through the four week withdrawal period. In separate experiments, rats received bromodeoxyuridine to label cells in S-phase, prior to or immediately following amphetamine treatment. Newly generated cells were quantified to measure extent of progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis following treatment or withdrawal. Progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis were not significantly affected by amphetamine exposure when measured 20 h following the last amphetamine treatment. However, neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus was reduced after four weeks of withdrawal when compared to saline-pretreated rats. Overall, our findings indicate that withdrawal from chronic amphetamine leads to persistent anxiety-like behavior which may be maintained by reduced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus at this protracted withdrawal time point. However, neurogenesis is unaffected at earlier withdrawal time points where anxiety states emerge, suggesting different mechanisms may underlie the emergence of anxiety states during amphetamine withdrawal.

 Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Baugher, Shannon N., J. D. Elhai, James R. Monroe, and M. J. Gray. (2010).  “Rape Myth Acceptance, Sexual Trauma History, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 25, no. (Nov): 2036-53.

 The prediction of false rape-related beliefs (rape myth acceptance [RMA]) was examined using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (Payne, Lonsway, & Fitzgerald, 1999) among a nonclinical sample of 258 male and female college students. Predictor variables included measures of attitudes toward women, gender role identity (GRI), sexual trauma history, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. Using linear regression and testing interaction effects, negative attitudes toward women significantly predicted greater RMA for individuals without a sexual trauma history. However, neither attitudes toward women nor GRI were significant predictors of RMA for individuals with a sexual trauma history. PTSD did not moderate RMA’s relationship with attitudes toward women and GRI. This study has clinical implications for treatment as well as for the development of rape myth-dispelling programs.

Psychology Department

Borrego, M., and Lynita K. Newswander. (2010).  “Definitions of Interdisciplinary Research: Toward Graduate-Level Interdisciplinary Learning Outcomes.” Review of Higher Education. 34, no. (Fal): 61-+.

 Combining the interdisciplinary studies (primarily humanities) literature with the content analysis of 129 successful National Science Foundation proposals written predominantly by science and engineering faculty members, the authors identify five categories of learning outcomes for interdisciplinary graduate education: disciplinary grounding, integration, teamwork, communication, and critical awareness. They identify important parallels between humanities-based descriptions of interdisciplinary integration and implicit graduate learning outcomes hinted at by engineering and science faculty who more frequently work in teams. Applying the lens of interdisciplinary studies (humanities) to science and engineering provides important depth and focus to engineering and science interdisciplinary learning outcomes, particularly in detailing integration processes.

 Political Science Department.

 Bruening, M., M. Y. Kubik, Denyelle Kenyon, C. Davey, and M. Story. (2010).  “Perceived Barriers Mediate the Association between Self-Efficacy and Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Students Attending Alternative High Schools.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 110, no. (Oct): 1542-46.

Compared to students attending regular high schools, alternative high school students are more likely to be racial/ethnic minorities, have higher levels of poverty, and higher rates of risky and poor health behaviors, including weight-related behaviors like limited fruit and vegetable intake. However, little is known about fruit/vegetable intake among alternative high school students. This study examined whether perceived barriers to healthy eating mediated the association between self-efficacy to eat healthy foods and fruit/vegetable consumption among alternative high school students. The cross-sectional study population consisted of students (N=145) attending six alternative high schools in the St Paul-Minneap-olis, MN, area who were participants in an obesity prevention pilot study and completed a baseline survey during fall 2006. Mixed model linear regression, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, was used to test a series of regression models performed according to mediation analysis procedures. Students’ mean age was 17.3 years; 52% were male, 63% were low-income, and 61% were from racial/ethnic minorities. Students reported a mean fruit/vegetable intake of 3.6 servings per day, mean self-efficacy to eat healthy score of 22.2 (range 3 to 35), and mean barriers to eating healthy score of 6.9 (range 3 to 13). Perceived barriers to healthy eating fully mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and fruit/vegetable consumption (Sobel test statistic 2.7, P=0.007). Interventions targeting the dietary practices of alternative high school students should include components to decrease perceived barriers as a way to increase self-efficacy and ultimately fruit/vegetable intake. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110:1542-1546.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Chalpe, A. J., C. Law, K. A. Hansen, and K. M. Eyster. (2010).  “Interleukin 1 Beta (Il1 Beta) and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (Tnf Alpha) Partially Recapitulate Effects of Macrophage Conditioned Medium on Cultured Endometrial Stromal Cells.” Fertility and Sterility. 94, no. (Sep): S204-S04.

 Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus

 Chalpe, Abha J., Maneeshi Prasad, Amanda J. Henke, and Alicia F. Paulson. (2010).  “Regulation of Cadherin Expression in the Chicken Neural Crest by the Wnt/B-Catenin Signaling Pathway.” Cell Adh Migr. 4, no. (2010 Jul-Sep (Epub 2010 Jul): 431-8.

 In neural crest cell development, the expression of the cell adhesion proteins cadherin-7 and cadherin-11 commences after delamination of the neural crest cells from the neuroepithelium. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is known to drive this delamination step and is a candidate for inducing expression of these cadherins at this time. This project was initiated to investigate the role of canonical Wnt signaling in the expression of cadherin-7 and cadherin-11 by treating neural crest cells with Wnt3a ligand. Expression of cadherin-11 was first confirmed in the neural crest cells for the chicken embryo. The changes in the expression level of cadherin-7 and -11 following the treatment with Wnt3a were studied using real-time RT-PCR and immunostaining. Statistically significant upregulation in the mRNA expression of cadherin-7 and cadherin-11 and in the amount of cadherin-7 and cadherin-11 protein found in cell-cell interfaces between neural crest cells was observed in response to Wnt, demonstrating that cadherin-7 and cadherin-11 expressed by the migrating neural crest cells can be regulated by the canonical Wnt pathway.

 Biology Department.

 Chen, Quanhai, Roy Williams, Chastity L. Healy, Casey D. Wright, Steven C. Wu, and Timothy D. O’Connell. (2010).  “An Association between Gene Expression and Better Survival in Female Mice Following Myocardial Infarction.” J Mol Cell Cardiol. 49, no. (2010 Nov (Epub 2010 Aug): 801-11.

 Following myocardial infarction, the prognosis for females is better than males. Estrogen is thought to be protective, but clinical trials with hormone replacement failed to show protection. Here, we sought to identify novel mechanisms that might explain this sex-based difference. By diverging from the traditional focus on sex hormones, we employed a conceptually novel approach to this question by using a non-biased approach to measure global changes in gene expression following infarction. We hypothesized that specific gene programs are initiated in the heart following infarction that might account for this sex-based difference. We induced small, medium, and large infarcts in male and female mice and measured changes in gene expression by microarray following infarction. Regardless of infarct size, survival was better in females, while mortality occurred 3-10 days following infarction in males. Two days following infarction, males developed significant ventricular dilation, the best predictor of mortality in humans. Three days following infarction, we measured gene expression by microarray, comparing male versus female and sham versus surgery/infarction. In general, our results indicate a higher relative level of gene induction in females versus males and identified programs for angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodeling, and immune response. This pattern of gene expression was linked to less pathologic remodeling in female hearts, including increased capillary density and decreased fibrosis. In summary, our results suggest an association between improved survival and less pathologic remodeling and the relative induction of gene expression in females following myocardial infarction. Copyright @ 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

 Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

Guo, Lili, Tamar Eviatar-Ribak, and Robin Miskimins. (2010).  “Sp1 Phosphorylation Is Involved in Myelin Basic Protein Gene Transcription.” J Neurosci Res. 88, no. (2010 Nov): 3233-42.

 Myelin basic protein (MBP), which helps form compact myelin sheets, is a major protein expressed during oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation. Myelin basic protein expression is regulated mainly at the transcriptional level. Previous studies showed that the transcription factor Sp1 can activate the MBP promoter. Data from the laboratory also indicate that Sp1 is expressed highly in both growing and differentiated cells. Because this is true, we wanted to understand how Sp1 activity is regulated such that it increases MBP gene transcription only in differentiating cells. Phosphorylation is one major way to regulate transcription factor activity. Our results show that there is more Sp1 binding to the MBP promoter in differentiating OLs. Sp1 is also more phosphorylated in differentiating OLs than in precursor cells. Using inhibitors of different pathways, we found that the protein kinase C (PKC) modulator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) can increase Sp1 phosphorylation when the cells are treated for 1 hr and can decrease Sp1 phosphorylation with long treatment (12 hr). The increased phosphorylation of Sp1 induced by PMA in short treatments could be abolished by the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) pathway inhibitor PD98059. This indicates that PKC phosphorylates Sp1 through the ERK pathway. Mutation of Sp1 threonines 453 and 739, which are phosphorylated by ERK, decreased MBP transcriptional activity. Furthermore, we found that PKC regulates Sp1 phosphorylation only in differentiating OLs. In conclusion, our results indicate that, in OLs, Sp1 phosphorylation can be regulated by PKC-ERK pathways. This phosphorylation is important for MBP transcription and oligodendrocyte differentiation.

 Basic Biomedical Sciences.  Vermillion Campus

 Kindle, Peter A. (2010).  “Student Perceptions of Financial Literacy: Relevance to Practice.” Journal of Social Service Research. 36470-81.

 The relevance of financial literacy to social work has been framed almost exclusively in the context of poverty relief, but this study expands this framework to the evidence linking financial stress, not merely poverty, to adverse client outcomes. Using a new 15-item, quantitative instrument, student (N= 1,506) perceptions were collected. Respondents demonstrated a moderate awareness of the relevance of financial literacy in 11 of 15 problem issues commonly encountered in practice, indicating a moderate receptivity to financial education. Future research should clarify the contours of financial knowledge that is required to assist clients.

 School of Health Sciences.

 Lemke, S. L., J. L. Vicini, H. Su, and William S. Harris. (2010).  “Dietary Intake of Stearidonic Acid-Enriched Soybean Oil Increases the Omega-3 Index: Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Study of Efficacy and Safety.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 92, no. (Oct): 766-75.

 Background: The benefits of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to heart health are well established. Stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3) may contribute to these benefits. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the ability of SDA-containing soybean oil to increase the omega-3 index [erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid, as a percentage of total fatty acids] and to affect other cardiovascular disease risk markers compared with EPA and regular soy oil (control). Design: This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind multicenter study in which 252 overweight subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments for 12 wk: 1 g encapsulated soybean oil/d plus 14.7 g liquid soybean oil/d to be mixed in food (control group), 1 g encapsulated EPA/d plus 14.7 g liquid soybean oil/d (EPA group), and 1 g encapsulated soybean oil/d plus 14.7 g liquid SDA-enriched soybean oil/d, providing 4.2 g SDA (SDA group). Subjects consumed treatment oils in exchange for other oils in their diet. Results: The mean (+/- SE) baseline omega-3 index was similar between treatments, but after 12 wk of treatment values for this index were 4.15 +/- 0.12%, 4.84 +/- 0.13%, and 4.69 +/- 0.15% for control, EPA, and SDA groups, respectively. Values for the EPA and SDA groups were greater than those for control subjects in the intent-to-treat population (P < 0.001 and P = 0.006, respectively). No adverse treatment-related effects of SDA-enriched soybean oil were reported. Conclusions: SDA-enriched soybean oil increased the omega-3 index by raising erythrocyte EPA concentrations. SDA-enriched soybean oil is a land-based n-3 fatty acid that is a sustainable approach to increasing tissue concentrations of long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;92:766-75.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Mei, D. M., C. Zhang, K. Thomas, and F. Gray. (2010).  “Early Results on Radioactive Background Characterization for Sanford Laboratory and Dusel Experiments.” Astroparticle Physics. 34, no. (Aug): 33-39.

 Measuring external sources of background for a deep underground laboratory at the Homestake Mine is an important step for the planned low-background experiments. The naturally occurring gamma-ray fluxes at different levels in the Homestake Mine are studied using Nal detectors and Monte Carlo simulations. A simple algorithm is developed to convert the measured gamma-ray rates into gamma-ray fluxes. A good agreement between the measured and simulated gamma-ray fluxes is achieved with the knowledge of the chemical composition and radioactivity levels in the rock. The neutron fluxes and gamma-ray fluxes are predicted by Monte Carlo simulations for different levels including inaccessible levels that are under construction for the planned low-background experiments. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Physics Department.

 Petersen, Jason L., and Patrick J. Ronan. (2010).  “Critical Role of 7,8-Didemethyl-8-Hydroxy-5-Deazariboflavin for Photoreactivation in Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii.” Journal of Biological Chemistry. 285, no. (Oct): 32467-75.

 DNA photolyases use two noncovalently bound chromophores to catalyze photoreactivation, the blue light-dependent repair of DNA that has been damaged by ultraviolet light. FAD is the catalytic chromophore for all photolyases and is essential for photoreactivation. The identity of the second chromophore is often 7,8-didemethyl-8-hydroxy-5-deazariboflavin (FO). Under standard light conditions, the second chromophore is considered nonessential for photoreactivation because DNA photolyase bound to only FAD is sufficient to catalyze the repair of UV-damaged DNA. phr1 is a photoreactivation-deficient strain of Chlamydomonas. In this work, the PHR1 gene of Chlamydomonas was cloned through molecular mapping and shown to encode a protein similar to known FO synthases. Additional results revealed that the phr1 strain was deficient in an FO-like molecule and that this deficiency, as well as the phr1 photoreactivation deficiency, could be rescued by transformation with DNA constructs containing the PHR1 gene. Furthermore, expression of a PHR1 cDNA in Escherichia coli produced a protein that generated a molecule with characteristics similar to FO. Together, these results indicate that the Chlamydomonas PHR1 gene encodes an FO synthase and that optimal photoreactivation in Chlamydomonas requires FO, a molecule known to serve as a second chromophore for DNA photolyases.

 Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 Rajpara, Vikul, Subhash Banerjee, and Grigoriy Sereda. (2010).  “Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Grown on Carboxy-Functionalized Graphite: An Efficient Reusable Catalyst for Alkylation of Arenes.” Synthesis-Stuttgart. no. (Aug): 2835-40.

 Here we report a simple procedure for the synthesis of a novel hybrid catalyst by growing iron oxide nanoparticles on carboxy-functionalized graphite. This hybrid catalyst demonstrated superior catalytic activity towards the alkylation of arenes with alkyl halides in contrast to commercial graphite or unsupported iron oxide nanoparticles in terms of yields and general applicability. The catalyst can be reused up to five times with a minimal loss of catalytic activity.

 Chemistry Department.

 Simons, Jeffrey S., Robert D. Dvorak, Bryan D. Batien, and Tyler B. Wray. (2010).  “Event-Level Associations between Affect, Alcohol Intoxication, and Acute Dependence Symptoms: Effects of Urgency, Self-Control, and Drinking Experience.” Addictive Behaviors. 351045-53.

 This study used experience sampling to examine within-person associations between positive affect, anxiety, sadness, and hostility and two outcomes: alcohol intoxication and acute dependence symptoms. We examined the role of urgency, premeditation, and perseverance in predicting the alcohol outcomes and tested whether the affective associations varied as a function of urgency. Participants completed baseline assessments and 21 days of experience sampling on PDAs. Hypotheses were partially confirmed. Positive affect was positively, and sadness inversely, associated with intoxication. Hostility was associated with intoxication for men but not women. Negative urgency moderated the association between anxiety and intoxication, making it stronger. However, positive urgency did not moderate the effect of positive affect. Heavier drinkers exhibited the greatest number of symptoms, yet the association between intoxication and acute signs of alcohol disorder was attenuated among these individuals. Results support the use of experience sampling to study acute signs and symptoms of high risk drinking and dependence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)

 Psychology Department.

 Subramanian, Hariharaputhiran, Elizabeth G. Nettleton, Sridhar Budhi, and Ranjit T. Koodali. (2010).  “Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation of Cyclic Ketones Using Fe Containing Mcm-48 Cubic Mesoporous Materials.” Journal of Molecular Catalysis a-Chemical. 330, no. (Sep): 66-72.

 Iron containing cubic mesoporous MCM-48 materials were prepared by a modified Stober synthesis method. These materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). nitrogen isotherms, diffuse-reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. These materials exhibited high catalytic activity towards the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of cyclic ketones using benzaldehyde and molecular oxygen. The Fe-MCM-48 mesoporous materials showed excellent recyclability and the integrity of the cubic phase was preserved after the catalytic activity. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

Waters, R. Parrish, Kenneth J. Renner, Cliff H. Summers, Michael J. Watt, Gina L. Forster, Lauren G. Koch, Steven L. Britton, and John G. Swallow. (2010).  “Selection for Intrinsic Endurance Modifies Endocrine Stress Responsiveness.” Brain Research. 135753-61.

 Abstract: Physical exercise dampens an individual”s stress response and decreases symptoms of anxiety and depression disorders. While the extrinsic relationship of exercise and psychological state is established, their intrinsic relationship is unresolved. We investigated the potential intrinsic relationship of exercise with stress responsiveness using NIH rats bidirectionally selected for intrinsic endurance capacity. Selection resulted in two populations, one with high intrinsic endurance (high capacity runners; HCR) and one with low intrinsic endurance (low capacity runners; LCR). Animals from these populations were subjected to the elevated plus maze (EPM) and novel environment to assess levels of anxiety-like behavior, and to restraint stress to determine stress responsiveness. Pre-test plasma corticosterone levels and the response of plasma corticosterone to exposure to the EPM and restraint were analyzed using ELISA. A dexamethasone suppression test was performed to assess negative feedback tone of corticosterone release. Pre-test plasma corticosterone levels were similar between LCR and HCR, and these populations had similar behavioral and corticosterone responses to the EPM. Following restraint, HCR animals exhibited more anxiotypic behavior than LCR animals on the EPM, and exhibited an increase in plasma corticosterone following EPM and restraint that was not observed in LCR animals. HCR animals also exhibited more anxiotypic behavior in the novel environment compared to LCR animals. Plasma corticosterone levels were equally reduced in both populations following dexamethasone administration. Overall, our data suggest a positive genetic relationship between exercise endurance and stress responsiveness, which is at odds with the established extrinsic relationship of these traits.

Biology Department.

Wenchang, Xiang. (2010).  “Gluon Number Fluctuations in Diffractive Deep Inelastic Scattering.” European Physical Journal A — Hadrons & Nuclei. 4691-98.

 We studied the effect of the gluon number fluctuations (Pomeron loops) on the diffractive deep inelastic scattering in the fixed coupling case. We used a parameter-free method to describe the experimental data and found that the description of the diffractive structure function is improved with $ \chi^{2}_{}$/ d. o. f. = 1.031 once the fluctuations in the gluon number are included. This improvement indicates that the gluon number fluctuations would be relevant in the HERA data.

Physics Department.

Wolf, S. L., Paul A. Thompson, C. J. Winstein, J. P. Miller, S. R. Blanton, D. S. Nichols-Larsen, D. M. Morris, G. Uswatte, E. Taub, K. E. Light, and L. Sawaki. (2010).  “The Excite Stroke Trial Comparing Early and Delayed Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy.” Stroke. 41, no. (Oct): 2309-15.

 Background and Purpose-Although constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) has been shown to improve upper extremity function in stroke survivors at both early and late stages after stroke, the comparison between participants within the same cohort but receiving the intervention at different time points has not been undertaken. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare functional improvements between stroke participants randomized to receive this intervention within 3 to 9 months (early group) to participants randomized on recruitment to receive the identical intervention 15 to 21 months after stroke (delayed group). Methods-Two weeks of CIMT was delivered to participants immediately after randomization (early group) or 1 year later (delayed group). Evaluators blinded to group designation administered primary (Wolf Motor Function Test, Motor Activity Log) and secondary (Stroke Impact Scale) outcome measures among the 106 early participants and 86 delayed participants before delivery of CIMT, 2 weeks thereafter, and 4, 8, and 12 months later. Results-Although both groups showed significant improvements from pretreatment to 12 months after treatment, the earlier CIMT group showed greater improvement than the delayed CIMT group in Wolf Motor Function Test Performance Time and the Motor Activity Log (P<0.0001), as well as in Stroke Impact Scale Hand and Activities domains (P<0.0009 and 0.0214, respectively). Early and delayed group comparison of scores on these measures 24 months after enrollment showed no statistically significant differences between groups. Conclusions-CIMT can be delivered to eligible patients 3 to 9 months or 15 to 21 months after stroke. Both patient groups achieved approximately the same level of significant arm motor function 24 months after enrollment. Clinical Trial Registration-

 Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 Xiang, Wenchang C. (2010).  “Gluon Number Fluctuations in Diffractive Deep Inelastic Scattering.” European Physical Journal A. 46, no. (Oct): 91-98.

 We studied the effect of the gluon number fluctuations (Pomeron loops) on the diffractive deep inelastic scattering in the fixed coupling case. We used a parameter-free method to describe the experimental data and found that the description of the diffractive structure function is improved with Chi(2)/d.o.f. = 1.031 once the fluctuations in the gluon number are included. This improvement indicates that the gluon number fluctuations would be relevant in the HERA data.

 Physics Department.

 Zheng, Hanqiao Q., Mngxin X. Tang, Qingwen W. Zheng, Asangi R.K. Kumarapeli, Kathleen M. Horak, Zongwen W. Tian, and Xuejun J. Wang. (2010).  “Doxycycline Attenuates Protein Aggregation in Cardiomyocytes and Improves Survival of a Mouse Model of Cardiac Proteinopathy.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 56, no. (Oct): 1418-26.

 Objectives The goal of this pre-clinical study was to assess the therapeutic efficacy of doxycycline (Doxy) for desmin-related cardiomyopathy (DRC) and to elucidate the potential mechanisms involved. Background DRC, exemplifying cardiac proteinopathy, is characterized by intrasarcoplasmic protein aggregation and cardiac insufficiency. No effective treatment for DRC is available presently. Doxy was shown to attenuate aberrant intranuclear aggregation and toxicity of misfolded proteins in noncardiac cells and animal models of other proteinopathies. Methods Mice and cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with transgenic (TG) expression of a human DRC-linked missense mutation R120G of alpha B-crystallin (CryAB(R120G)) were used for testing the effect of Doxy. Doxy was administered via drinking water (6 mg/ml) initiated at 8 or 16 weeks of age. Results Doxy treatment initiated at 16 weeks of age significantly delayed the premature death of CryAB(R120G) TG mice, with a median lifespan of 30.4 weeks (placebo group, 25 weeks; p < 0.01). In another cohort of CryAB(R120G) TG mice, Doxy treatment initiated at 8 weeks of age significantly attenuated cardiac hypertrophy in 1 month. Further investigation revealed that Doxy significantly reduced the abundance of CryAB-positive microscopic aggregates, detergent-resistant CryAB oligomers, and total ubiquitinated proteins in CryAB(R120G) TG hearts. In cell culture, Doxy treatment dose-dependently suppressed the formation of both microscopic protein aggregates and detergent-resistant soluble CryAB(R120G) oligomers and reversed the up-regulation of p62 protein induced by adenovirus-mediated CryAB(R120G) expression. Conclusions Doxy suppresses CryAB(R120G)-induced aberrant protein aggregation in cardiomyocytes and prolongs CryAB(R120G)-based DRC mouse survival. (J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;56:1418-26) (C) 2010 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus


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