Posted by: sarahhansenweb | June 7, 2016

May 2016

 

Geraets, Ryan D., Koh Seung yon, Michelle L. Hastings, Tammy Kielian, David A. Pearce, & Jill M. Weimer. (2016). Moving towards effective therapeutic strategies for Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, 11, 1-13.
 
The Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a family of autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorders that annually affect 1:100,000 live births worldwide. This family of diseases results from mutations in one of 14 different genes that share common clinical and pathological etiologies. Clinically, the diseases are subcategorized into infantile, late-infantile, juvenile and adult forms based on their age of onset. Though the disease phenotypes may vary in their age and order of presentation, all typically include progressive visual deterioration and blindness, cognitive impairment, motor deficits and seizures. Pathological hallmarks of NCLs include the accumulation of storage material or ceroid in the lysosome, progressive neuronal degeneration and massive glial activation. Advances have been made in genetic diagnosis and counseling for families. However, comprehensive treatment programs that delay or halt disease progression have been elusive. Current disease management is primarily targeted at controlling the symptoms rather than “curing” the disease. Recognizing the growing need for transparency and synergistic efforts to move the field forward, this review will provide an overview of the therapeutic approaches currently being pursued in preclinical and clinical trials to treat different forms of NCL as well as provide insight to novel therapeutic approaches in development for the NCLs.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Stelloh, Cary, Michael H. Reimer, Kirthi Pulakanti, …., Samuel Milanovich, Yuan Guo Cheng, & Sridhar Rao. (2016). The cohesin-associated protein Wapal is required for proper Polycomb-mediated gene silencing. Epigenetics & Chromatin, 9, 1-18.
 
Background: The cohesin complex consists of multiple core subunits that play critical roles in mitosis and transcriptional regulation. The cohesin-associated protein Wapal plays a central role in off-loading cohesin to facilitate sister chromatid separation, but its role in regulating mammalian gene expression is not understood. We used embryonic stem cells as a model, given that the well-defined transcriptional regulatory circuits were established through master transcription factors and epigenetic pathways that regulate their ability to maintain a pluripotent state. Results: RNAi-mediated depletion of Wapal causes a loss of pluripotency, phenocopying loss of core cohesin subunits. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq), we determine that Wapal occupies genomic sites distal to genes in combination with CTCF and core cohesin subunits such as Rad21. Interestingly, genomic sites occupied by Wapal appear enriched for cohesin, implying that Wapal does not off-load cohesin at regions it occupies. Wapal depletion induces derepression of Polycomb group (PcG) target genes without altering total levels of Polycomb-mediated histone modifications, implying that PcG enzymatic activity is preserved. By integrating ChIP-seq and gene expression changes data, we identify that Wapal binding is enriched at the promoters of PcG-silenced genes and is required for proper Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) recruitment. Lastly, we demonstrate that Wapal is required for the interaction of a distal cis-regulatory element (CRE) with the c-Fos promoter. Conclusions: Collectively, this work indicates that Wapal plays a critical role in silencing of PcG target genes through the interaction of distal CREs with promoters.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Chen, H. H., Lisa A. NewlandYi-Ching Liang, & Jarod T. Giger. (2016). Mother educational involvement as a mediator between beliefs, perceptions, attachment, and children’s school success in Taiwan. Journal of Family Studies, 22(1), 1-19.
 
This study was designed to examine possible direct and indirect pathways from mothers’ beliefs, mothers’ perceptions, mother-child attachment, and mothers’ involvement to children’s school success. Mothers and their 8- to 11-year-old children (n = 100) in urban central Taiwan participated in this study. Mothers completed questionnaires regarding their beliefs, perceptions, educational involvement, and their child’s school achievement. Children completed an attachment measure and standardized assessments of school adjustment and academic self-concept. Findings revealed that mother involvement was related to mother beliefs and perceptions, but not to efficacy or attachment. Children’s school success indicators were related to mothers’ motivation, beliefs about teachers, perceived invitations for involvement, mother-child avoidant attachment, and mothers’ involvement. Path analysis revealed that mothers’ involvement completely mediated pathways from mother beliefs and perceptions to child school success. Findings suggest that the model is useful within a Taiwanese population, but should be further tested.
 
School of Education.
School of Health Sciences.
 
 
Jordre, Becca D.William E. Schweinle, S. Oetjen, N. Dybsetter, & M. Braun. (2016). Fall History and Associated Physical Performance Measures in Competitive Senior Athletes. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, 32(1), 6.
 
Topic Investigated: Physical performance measure outcomes most associated with falls in senior athletes. Subjects: A total of 928 senior athletes. Variables: Fall history, Single Leg Stance Eyes Open, Single Leg Stance Eyes Closed, Single Leg Stance on Foam, Functional Reach, Usual and Fast Gait Speed, Five Times Sit-to-Stand Test, and Grip Strength. Data were analyzed with logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. Results and Conclusions: Combined failure, as determined by cut scores, on Single Leg Stance Eyes Closed and on Foam was most associated with a recent history of falls. Performance on the Five Times Sit-to-Stand Test was also highly associated.
 
School of Health Sciences.
 
 
Herrera, Andrea L.Victor C. Huber, & Michael S. Chaussee. (2016). The Association between Invasive Group A Streptococcal Diseases and Viral Respiratory Tract Infections. Frontiers in Microbiology, 7, 7.
 
Viral infections of the upper respiratory tract are associated with a variety of invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, the group A streptococcus, including pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, toxic shock syndrome, and bacteremia. While these polymicrobial infections, or superinfections, are complex, progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of disease. Areas of investigation have included the characterization of virus-induced changes in innate immunity, differences in bacterial adherence and internalization following viral infection, and the efficacy of vaccines in mitigating the morbidity and mortality of superinfections. Here, we briefly summarize viral-S. pyogenes superinfections with an emphasis on those affiliated with influenza viruses.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Liu, B. Q., C. Zhou, G. J. Li, H. Y. Zhang, Erliang Zeng, Q. Liu, & Q. Ma. (2016). Bacterial regulon modeling and prediction based on systematic cis regulatory motif analyses. Scientific Reports, 6, 11.
 
Regulons are the basic units of the response system in a bacterial cell, and each consists of a set of transcriptionally co-regulated operons. Regulon elucidation is the basis for studying the bacterial global transcriptional regulation network. In this study, we designed a novel co-regulation score between a pair of operons based on accurate operon identification and cis regulatory motif analyses, which can capture their co-regulation relationship much better than other scores. Taking full advantage of this discovery, we developed a new computational framework and built a novel graph model for regulon prediction. This model integrates the motif comparison and clustering and makes the regulon prediction problem substantially more solvable and accurate. To evaluate our prediction, a regulon coverage score was designed based on the documented regulons and their overlap with our prediction; and a modified Fisher Exact test was implemented to measure how well our predictions match the co-expressed modules derived from E. coli microarray gene-expression datasets collected under 466 conditions. The results indicate that our program consistently performed better than others in terms of the prediction accuracy. This suggests that our algorithms substantially improve the state-of-the-art, leading to a computational capability to reliably predict regulons for any bacteria.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Schlenker, Evelyn H. (2016). Muscimol microinjected in the arcuate nucleus affects metabolism, body temperature & ventilation. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 227, 34-40.
 
Effects of microinjection of 2 doses of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor agonist, muscimol (M), into the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus on oxygen consumption and control of ventilation over time and body temperature (BT) at the end of the experiment were compared in adult male and female rats. Relative to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, 0 nmol), BT was decreased only in male rats with both doses of M, while in female rats, the 5 nmol dose depressed oxygen consumption. Ventilation was depressed by 5 nmol M in male and 10 nmol M in female rats by decreasing tidal volume. M did not affect the ventilatory response of male or female rats to hypoxia, whereas in females 5 and 10 nmol M and in males 10 nmol M depressed the ventilatory response to hypercapnia. Thus, in rats GABA A receptors in the arcuate nucleus modulate BT, oxygen consumption, and ventilation in air and in response to hypercapnia in a sexually dimorphic manner.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Diamond-Welch, Bridget K., M. D. Hetzel-Riggin, & J. A. Hemingway. (2016). The Willingness of College Students to Intervene in Sexual Assault Situations: Attitude and Behavior Differences by Gender, Race, Age, and Community of Origin. Violence and Gender, 3(1), 49-54.
 
Recent research has examined how university students’ characteristics affect their bystander intervention attitudes in sexual assault situations. This article examines how gender, age, and race interact to affect violence myths acceptance, empathy, bystander efficacy, intention to intervene, and bystander behaviors. We add to this literature a consideration of the effect of a student’s community of origin-either rural or urban. Similar to previous research, we found a direct effect of gender on violence myths and empathy as well as bystander attitudes. Unlike previous research, we found that older students (over age 21 years) endorsed fewer rape myths, had more empathy, perceived benefits to intervention outweighing the costs, and had better bystander attitudes. Although there was no direct effect of race and community of origin on these outcomes, there were several interesting interactions. Age and gender interacted such that traditional-aged female students reported more bystander behaviors than traditional-aged male students. However, this pattern flipped for older group males reporting more behaviors than female students. It could be because older males were significantly more likely to believe that bystander methods are effective than older female students. Although older males had better attitudes toward intervention, males from both age groups lagged behind in positive attitudes compared with women. Race further complicated this picture. White men, both older and traditional-aged, had the lowest empathy among all groups. Traditional-aged white males had the lowest belief in the efficacy of bystander methods. Interestingly, older white males endorsed fewer rape myths than younger white males, but older minority males accepted more myths than traditional-aged students. The most interesting patterns develop when community of origin is added to the mix. Traditional-aged minority females from rural areas had the lowest rape myth acceptance and the best bystander attitudes. Meanwhile, traditional-aged white males from urban areas had the highest rape myth acceptance and, while all traditional-aged men had poor bystander attitudes, these male students had the poorest attitudes. Community background also impacted actual bystander behaviors, with traditional-aged minorities from rural areas reporting significantly more than comparative whites and, interestingly, more than older minority students from rural areas.
 
Political Science and Criminal Justice Department.
 
 
Bardhoshi, G., Becca D. JordreWilliam E. Schweinle, & Sarah Wollersheim-Shervey. (2016). Understanding Exercise Practices and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Senior Games Athletes A Mixed-Methods Exploration. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, 32(1), 63-71.
 
This mixed-methods study investigated depression, anxiety, and stress rates, measured by the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21), and exercise practices in a national sample of Senior Games Athletes (N = 383). Results demonstrated significantly lower DASS-21 scores for Senior Games Athletes compared with nonclinical normative data and no strong relationships between DASS-21 scores and demographic variables, exercise practices, and comorbidity. Senior Games Athletes reported high exercise volume and notably low comorbidity rates. Qualitative analysis of written responses revealed that participants related a healthy lifestyle with practicing healthy behaviors, experiencing optimal physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being, living life to the fullest, and social engagement.
 
School of Health Sciences.
School of Education.
 
 
Cho, Chan Ho, & T. Mooney. (2015). Stock return comovement and Korean business groups. Review of Development Finance, 5(2), 71-81.
 
This paper explores whether business group affiliations affect the covariance structure of stock returns in Korea. We find that the stock returns of firms belonging to the same business group show positive and significant comovement. The strong comovement between group returns and firm returns is explained by correlated fundamentals. We find strong comovement among business group affiliate earnings. Moreover, variance decomposition of returns shows that cash flow news plays a relatively more important role in explaining group comovement than discount rate news, suggesting a link between stock return comovement and the “tunneling” and “propping” behaviors of business groups. Finally, return comovement increases when a firm joins a business group. 
 
IBeacom School of Business.
 
 
Munson, Patrick D. (2016). Recurrent croup and persistent laryngomalacia: Clinical resolution after supraglottoplasty. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 84, 94-96.
 
Objectives To determine if children with recurrent croup (RC) and persistent laryngomalacia (LM) clinically improve after supraglottoplasty (SGP). Material and methods Retrospective chart review cohort at tertiary care children’s hospital consisting of patients diagnosed with LM and RC that underwent SGP from July 2011 to August 2014. Clinical history, demographics, clinical outcomes, and operative complications were reviewed. Specifically, the episodes of croup requiring systemic steroids were compared pre- and post-SGP with statistical analysis. Results Out of 107 patients undergoing SGP for LM, 6 patients (5.6%) were diagnosed with RC. Mean age at first croup episode was 11.5 months. Mean age at SGP was 4.3 years. Mean number of emergency department visits was 3.2 (range 2–6 visits) prior to SGP. Mean number of episodes of croup requiring systemic steroids before and after SGP was 9.8 vs. 0.2 ( p = 0.003). Mean length of followup after SGP was 30.5 months (range 18–46 months). There were no surgical postoperative complications. Conclusions This is the first series to describe the clinical resolution of croup episodes in children with LM corrected by SGP. Recurrent croup should be added among other conditions associated with late-onset or persistent laryngomalacia.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Villagómez, Amanda A., Donald Easton-Brooks, Karyn Gomez, Tawnya Lubbes, & Kristin Johnson. (2016). Oregon Teacher Pathway: Responding to National Trends. Equity & Excellence in Education, 49(1), 100-114.
 
National population trends demonstrate a shift in the U.S. ethnic population, similar to changes in the ethnic landscape of U.S. public schools. However, the teaching landscape has not adjusted to align with student demographics. Research highlights the academic and social/emotional benefit for students of color who experience having a teacher of color during their education. Therefore, it is valuable to consider frameworks for increasing the number of teachers of color in the educational landscape. Although there are initiatives for supporting these efforts in urban communities, rural communities often are not seen as having much need in this area. The authors of this article present literature and findings on the impact and needs for diversifying teacher education, and then outline a self-study of the Oregon Teacher Pathway (OTP) as a framework that takes into consideration promising practices for recruiting and supporting preservice teachers of color in rural eastern Oregon and other rural and urban communities.
 
 
 
Ikiugu, Moses N., & Ranelle M. Nissen. (2016). Intervention Strategies Used by Occupational Therapists Working in Mental Health and Their Theoretical Basis. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 32(2), 109-129.
 
The article focuses on a study based on theoretical basis of occupational therapy interventions, investigated in two mental health facilities in the Midwestern U.S. Topics discussed include behavioural/cognitive-behavioural model, client-centered models, and the model of human occupation as most frequently used theories; implications related to lack of documentation on value accorded to occupational therapy skills in health care; and clinical practice by occupational therapists.
 
School of Health Sciences.
 
 
Jones, Nick, & Matthew Moffitt. (2016). Ethical Guidelines for Mobile App Development Within Health and Mental Health Fields. Professional Psychology-Research and Practice, 47(2), 155-162.
 
Currently there are no ethical guidelines for mobile health (mHealth) applications (apps) despite the rapid innovation and use of mobile technologies in the health care field. As such, we address existing policies from the federal government, development guidelines from the mobile industry, and ethical guidelines from the American Psychological Association that apply to the development of mHealth apps intended for psychological use. Privacy and confidentiality are of primary concerns when developing and using mHealth apps for the purpose of research, assessment, and ongoing therapy. Specifically, the use of app notifications and widgets can put app user’s privacy at risk unless used properly. Methods in which app developers and providers can safeguard against violations of privacy and confidentiality are examined. In addition, special considerations are made for the use of apps with inpatient and rural populations and for those with cognitive impairments. This discussion serves to inform those who develop and utilize mHealth apps of the ethical guidelines that should be followed when creating and using such apps.
 
Psychology Department.
 
 
Wesner, Jeff S., & Mark C. Belk. (2015). Variation in the trophic position of common stream fishes and its relationship to the presence of a rare fish, northern leatherside chub ( Lepidomeda copei). Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 24(2), 234-241.
 
Variation in trophic position can be caused by structural changes in food webs that may affect the presence of, or be affected by the presence of, individual species. We examined variation in the trophic position of fishes across 14 stream sites in the Bear River drainage, WY, USA. This drainage is the focus of ongoing conservation of northern leatherside chub ( Lepidomeda copei). Our goals were (i) to describe variation in trophic position of individual species and (ii) to determine whether these measures differed between sites with and without northern leatherside chub. Mean trophic position of individual fish species varied between 0 and 3 trophic positions across sites. For two of these species, trophic position declined at sites without northern leatherside chub. Importantly, habitat surveys from a previous study at 10 of these sites revealed no differences in habitat suitability for northern leatherside chub. This suggests that trophic position revealed systematic differences among sites that were not apparent based on traditional species-habitat modelling. We outline possible mechanisms behind these patterns and argue that monitoring variation in trophic position can complement traditional, habitat-based methods for understanding species distributions.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Kryjevski, Andrei, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2016). Enhanced multiple exciton generation in amorphous silicon nanowires and films. Molecular Physics, 114(3-4), 365-379.
 
Multiple exciton generation (MEG) in nanometer-sized hydrogen-passivated silicon nanowires (NWs), and quasi two-dimensional nanofilms depends strongly on the degree of the core structural disorder as shown by the perturbative many-body quantum mechanics calculations based on the density functional theory simulations. Working to the second order in the electron-photon coupling and in the screened Coulomb interaction, we calculate quantum efficiency (QE), the average number of excitons created by a single absorbed photon, in the Si29H36 quantum dots (QDs) with crystalline and amorphous core structures, simple cubic three-dimensional arrays constructed from these QDs, crystalline and amorphous NWs, and quasi two-dimensional silicon nanofilms, also both crystalline and amorphous. Efficient MEG with QE ranging from 1.3 up to 1.8 at the photon energy of about 3E(g), where E-g is the electronic gap, is predicted in these nanoparticles except for the crystalline NW and crystalline film where QE similar or equal to 1. MEG in the amorphous nanoparticles is enhanced by the electron localisation due to structural disorder. Combined with the lower gaps, the nanometer-sized amorphous silicon NWs and films are predicted to have effective carrier multiplication within the solar spectrum range.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Li, L., K. B. Grausam, J. Wang, M. P. Lun, J. Ohli, H. G. W. Lidov, . . . H. T. Zhao. (2016). Sonic Hedgehog promotes proliferation of Notch-dependent monociliated choroid plexus tumour cells. Nature Cell Biology, 18(4), 418-+.
 
Aberrant Notch signalling has been linked to many cancers including choroid plexus (CP) tumours, a group of rare and predominantly paediatric brain neoplasms. We developed animal models of CP tumours, by inducing sustained expression of Notch1, that recapitulate properties of human CP tumours with aberrant NOTCH signalling. Whole-transcriptome and functional analyses showed that tumour cell proliferation is associated with Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) in the tumour microenvironment. Unlike CP epithelial cells, which have multiple primary cilia, tumour cells possess a solitary primary cilium as a result of Notch-mediated suppression of multiciliate differentiation. A Shh-driven signalling cascade in the primary cilium occurs in tumour cells but not in epithelial cells. Lineage studies show that CP tumours arise from monociliated progenitors in the roof plate characterized by elevated Notch signalling. Abnormal SHH signalling and distinct ciliogenesis are detected in human CP tumours, suggesting the SHH pathway and cilia differentiation as potential therapeutic avenues.
 
Biology Department.
Computer Sciences Department.
 
 
Allen, D. C., & Jeffrey S. Wesner. (2016). Synthesis: comparing effects of resource and consumer fluxes into recipient food webs using meta-analysis. Ecology, 97(3), 594-604.
 
Here we synthesize empirical research using meta-analysis to compare how consumer and resource fluxes affect recipient food webs. We tested the following hypotheses: (H-1) The direct effects of resource fluxes (bottom-up) should be stronger than the direct effects of consumer fluxes (top-down), because resource fluxes are permanent (do not return to the food web in which they were produced) but consumer fluxes may not be (consumers can leave). (H-2) Following H-1, the indirect effects should attenuate (weaken) more quickly for consumer fluxes than for resource fluxes due to their direct effects being weaker. (H-3) The effects of resource fluxes should be stronger when recipient food webs are in different ecosystems than donor food webs due to differences in elevation that accompany cross-ecosystem food web interfaces, often increasing flux quantity due to gravity, while the effects of consumer fluxes should be stronger when donor and recipient food webs are in the same ecosystem as they should more easily assimilate into the recipient food web. We found no differences in the magnitude of bottom-up and top-down direct effects for resource and consumer fluxes, but top-down direct effects were 122% stronger than top-down indirect effects. Indirect effects of prey and predator fluxes quickly attenuated while indirect effects of non-prey resource and herbivore fluxes did not, as the overall direct effects of prey and predator fluxes were 123% and 163% stronger than their indirect effects, respectively. This result suggests that the magnitude of indirect effects decrease as the trophic level of resource and consumer fluxes increases, and also contrasts with results from studies showing in situ top-down indirect effects are stronger than in situ bottom-up indirect effects. We found that resource and consumer flux effect sizes were similar when they occurred between ecosystems, but when they occurred within ecosystems predator flux effects were 107% stronger than nutrient flux effects. Finally, we found that observational studies had higher effect sizes than manipulative studies. Future research should focus on how resource and consumer fluxes might interact and generate feedbacks in empirical studies of natural food webs, and what ecological factors might affect their relative strength.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Roh, SoonheeKathleen Brown-Rice, Natalie D. Pope, Kyoung Hag Lee, Yeon-Shim Lee, & Lisa A. Newland. (2015). Depression Literacy Among American Indian Older Adults. Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work, 12(6), 614-627.
 
Older American Indians experience high rates of depression and other psychological disorders, yet little research exist on the depression literacy of this group. Depression literacy is fundamental for individuals seeking help for depression in a timely and appropriate manner. In the present study the authors examine levels and predictors of knowledge of depression symptoms in a sample of rural older American Indians (N = 227) living in the Midwestern United States. Data from self-administered questionnaires indicate limited knowledge of depression and negative attitudes toward seeking help for mental health problems. Additional findings and implications for social work practice and policy are discussed.
 
School of Health Sciences
School of Education
 
 
Bigornia, S. J., William S. Harris, L. M. Falcon, J. M. Ordovas, C. Q. Lai, & K. L. Tucker. (2016). The Omega-3 Index Is Inversely Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Individuals with Elevated Oxidative Stress Biomarkers. Journal of Nutrition, 146(4), 758-766.
 
Background: Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) consumption is thought to improve depressive symptoms. However, current evidence is limited, and whether this association exists among Puerto Ricans, a population burdened by depression, remains uncertain. Objectives: We examined the association between omega-3 FA biomarkers and depressive symptoms as well as the potential influence of oxidative stress. Methods: Baseline and longitudinal analyses were conducted in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (n = 787; participants aged 57 +/- 0.52 y, 73% women). Urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentration, a measure of oxidative stress, and erythrocyte FA composition were collected at baseline. We calculated the omega-3 index as the sum of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, expressed as a percentage of total FAs. Baseline and 2-y depressive symptoms were characterized by using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Statistical analyses included linear and logistic regression. Results: Urinary 8-OHdG concentration tended to modify the relation between the erythrocyte omega-3 index and baseline CES-D score (P-interaction = 0.10). In stratified analyses, the omega-3 index was inversely associated with CES-D score (beta = -1.74, SE = 0.88; P = 0.02) among those in the top quartile of 8-OHdG concentration but not among those in the lower quartiles. The relation between the omega-3 index and CES-D at 2 y was more clearly modified by 8-OHdG concentration (P-interaction = 0.04), where the omega-3 index was inversely associated with CES-D at 2 y, adjusted for baseline (beta = -1.66, SE = 0.66; P = 0.02), only among those with elevated 8-OHdG concentrations. Among individuals not taking antidepressant medications and in the top tertile of urinary 8-OHdG concentration, the omega-3 index was associated with significantly lower odds of a CES-D score >= 16 at baseline (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.96) but not at 2 y (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.60, 1.15). Conclusions: An inverse association between the omega-3 index and depressive symptoms was observed among participants with elevated oxidative stress biomarkers. These data suggest that oxidative stress status may identify those who might benefit from omega-3 FA consumption to improve depressive symptoms.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Sweeney, Mark R., H. Y. Lu, M. C. Cui, J. A. Mason, H. Feng, & Z. W. Xu. (2016). Sand dunes as potential sources of dust in northern China. Science China-Earth Sciences, 59(4), 760-769.
 
While saltation bombardment of sand grains on a fine substrate can produce considerable dust, the well-sorted nature of sand dunes tends to preclude them from consideration as major dust sources. Recent research, however, has revealed that sand dunes can, in some cases, be large sources of dust. We used the PI-SWERL (Portable In-Situ Wind Erosion Laboratory) to measure in the field the potential of sand dunes and other desert landforms to emit particulate matter < 10 mu m (PM-10) dust in the Tengger, Ulan Buh, and Mu Us deserts of northern China. Combined with high resolution particle size measurements of the dune sand, an assessment of sand dunes as a dust source can be made. Large active transverse dunes tend to contain little to no stored PM-10, yet they produce a low dust flux. Coppice dunes stabilized by vegetation contain appreciable PM-10 and have very high dust emission potential. There is a positive correlation between the amount of PM-10 stored in a dune and its potential dust flux. Saltation liberates loose fines stored in dunes, making them very efficient dust emitters compared to landforms such as dry lake beds and washes where dust particles are unavailable for aeolian transport due to protective crusts or sediment cohesion. In cases where large dunes do not store PM-10 yet emit dust when active, two hypotheses can be considered: (1) iron-oxide grain coatings are removed during saltation, creating dust, and (2) sand grains collide during saltation, abrading grains to create dust. Observations reveal that iron oxide coatings are present on some dune sands. PI-SWERL data suggests that low dust fluxes from dunes containing no stored dust may represent an estimate for the amount of PM-10 dust produced by removal of iron oxide coatings. These results are similar to results from dunes in the United States. In addition, PI-SWERL results suggest that dust-bearing coppice dunes, which cover vast areas of China’s sandy deserts, may become major sources of dust in the future if overgrazing, depletion of groundwater, or drought destabilizes the vegetation that now partially covers these dunes.
 
Earth Sciences Department.
 
 
Wesner, Jeff. (2016). Contrasting effects of fish predation on benthic versus emerging prey: a meta-analysis. Oecologia, 180(4), 1205-1211.
 
Predator-prey interactions are often studied entirely within the ecosystem of the predator. However, many prey transition between ecosystems during development, expanding the effects of predators across ecosystems. Prey are often vulnerable to predation during this transition, facing a predator gauntlet as they leave their source ecosystem. As a result of predation during this transition, predators may have stronger effects on prey fluxes to the neighboring ecosystem than on prey densities in the predator’s own ecosystem. I used meta-analysis of predator (fish) and prey (invertebrate) interactions in freshwater ecosystems to test the hypothesis that fish have stronger effects on prey flux to the terrestrial ecosystem, by reducing insect emergence biomass, than on prey densities in the aquatic ecosystem, by reducing benthic insect/invertebrate biomass. Fish reduced insect emergence by 39 % on average, more than twice as strong as their reductions of benthic prey (16 % reduction; averages are variance-weighted). In fact, fish effects on benthic prey were not significantly different from zero, but were significant for emergence. These results indicate that predator effects can not only cascade from one ecosystem to another but also that effects can be stronger outside than within the ecosystem of the predator. Failure to account for this may underestimate the effects of predators on prey.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
BaniKhaled, Mohammad O.John D. BeckerMiles Koppang, & Haoran Sun. (2016). Perfluoroalkylation of Square-Planar Transition Metal Complexes: A Strategy To Assemble Them into Solid State Materials with a pi-pi Stacked Lamellar Structure. Crystal Growth & Design, 16(4), 1869-1878.
 
Formation of pi-pi stacked lamellar structure is important for high performance organic semiconductor materials. We previously demonstrated that perfluoroalkylation of aromatics and heteroaromatics was one of the strategies to design organic crystalline materials with pi-pi stacked lamellar structures while improving air stability as a result of the strong electron withdrawing ability of perfluoroalkyl substituents. Square-planar transition metal complexes with large pi-conjugated ligands are also an important category of semiconductor materials. We have perfluoroalkylated square-planar transition metal complexes, leading to the formation of a pi-pi stacked lamellar crystal packing motif in the solid state. Here we report six crystal structures of Pd and Pt complexes with bis-perfluorobutylated catechol ligand as one of the two ligands that bonds to the metal centers. This structural design possesses similar molecular topology when compared to perfluoroalkylated aromatics and heteroaromatics we have reported previously, again, demonstrating the steering power of the perfluoroalkyl substituents in engineering organic and organometallic ( solid state materials.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Jensen, Stephanie J.Talgat M. Inerbaev, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2016). Spin Unrestricted Excited State Relaxation Study of Vanadium(IV)-Doped Anatase. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 120(11), 5890-5905.
 
Atomistic modeling of light driven electron dynamics are important in studies of photoactive materials. Spin-resolved electronic structure calculations become necessary when dealing with transition metal, magnetic, and even some carbon materials, intermediates, and radicals. An approximate treatment can be pursued in the basis of spin-collinear density functional theory. Most transition-metal compounds exhibit open shell nonsinglet configurations, necessitating special treatment of electrons with alpha/beta spin projections. By separate treatment of electronic states with the alpha/beta spin components one is able to describe a broader range of materials, identify new channels of relaxation and charge transfer, and provide knowledge for rational design of new materials in solar energy harvesting and information storage. For this methodology, named spin-resolved electron dynamics, spin-polarized DFT is used as the basis to implement nonadiabatic molecular dynamics. At ambient temperatures, the thermal lattice vibrations results in orbital and energy fluctuations with time. Nonadiabatic couplings, are then calculated, which control the dissipative dynamics of the spin resolved density matrix. Different initial excitations are then analyzed and used to calculate relaxation dynamics. Spin-resolved electronic dynamics approach (SREDA) is applied to study vanadium(IV) substitutionally doped bulk anatase in a doublet ground state. The results show that a difference in the electronic structure for alpha and beta spin components determines consequences in optical excitations and electronic dynamics pathways experienced by electrons with alpha and beta spin projections. Specifically, the lone occupied V 3d alpha-orbital increases the range of absorption and defines the rates and pathways of relaxation for both holes and electrons with alpha-spin projection. Optical excitations involving occupied V 3d alpha-orbital are responsible for IR-range absorption, followed by nonradiative relaxation. Certain transitions involving orbitals of alpha-spin component occur in the visible range and induce localization of a negative charge on the V ion for an extended time period. The slower nonradiative relaxation rate of alpha-excitations is rationally explained as a consequence of difference of electronic structure for alpha and beta spin projections and specific pattern of energy levels contributed by doping. Specifically, excitations involving orbitals with alpha-projection of spin experience transitions through larger subgaps in the conduction band compared to the ones experienced by similar excitations involving orbitals with beta-projection of spin. It is anticipated that this methodology can be broadly implemented on multiple applications of transition metal based materials, including optoelectronics, information storage, laser crystals, dyes, photovoltaic materials, and metal oxides for photoelectrochemical water splitting.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Sharma, S., Chia-Ming WuRanjit T. Koodali, & N. Rajesh. (2016). An ionic liquid-mesoporous silica blend as a novel adsorbent for the adsorption and recovery of palladium ions, and its applications in continuous flow study and as an industrial catalyst. Rsc Advances, 6(32), 26668-26678.
 
In this work, we report the synthesis of Aliquat-336 (ionic liquid) impregnated SBA-15 mesoporous silica, showing its effective interaction and high adsorption capacity for palladium(II) ions. The physicochemical properties of the adsorbent prior to and after adsorption of palladium(II) ions were characterized extensively using FT-IR, XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX, surface area (BET), and pore size analysis. The plausible interaction envisaged between Aliquat-336 impregnated SBA-15 and Pd(II) could be charge and ion-pair interactions. Different isotherm models were utilized to obtain the sorption parameters and the experimental data fitted adequately with the Langmuir isotherm model, with an adsorption capacity of 212.76 mg g(-1). The kinetics of the adsorption process agreed well with the pseudo-second order kinetic model, and the exothermic nature of the adsorption process was revealed through thermodynamic parameters. The Aliquat-336 impregnated SBA-15 adsorbent was regenerated using thiourea. The continuous flow studies were carried out using the Thomas model and this gave an adsorption capacity of 453.89 mg g(-1) and 376.38 mg g(-1) at flow rates of 4 and 6 mL min(-1) respectively. Furthermore, the present scheme was tested for the adsorption of palladium recovered from a spent catalyst containing 5% Pd on activated carbon.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Mdaki, K. S., T. D. Larsen, A. L. Wachal, Michelle D. SchimelpfenigLucinda J. Weaver, …., & Michelle. L. Baack. (2016). Maternal high-fat diet impairs cardiac function in offspring of diabetic pregnancy through metabolic stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 310(6), H681-H692.
 
Offspring of diabetic pregnancies are at risk of cardiovascular disease at birth and throughout life, purportedly through fuel-mediated influences on the developing heart. Preventative measures focus on glycemic control, but the contribution of additional offenders, including lipids, is not understood. Cellular bioenergetics can be influenced by both diabetes and hyperlipidemia and play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of adult cardiovascular disease. This study investigated whether a maternal high-fat diet, independently or additively with diabetes, could impair fuel metabolism, mitochondrial function, and cardiac physiology in the developing offspring’s heart. Sprague-Dawley rats fed a control or high-fat diet were administered placebo or streptozotocin to induce diabetes during pregnancy and then delivered offspring from four groups: control, diabetes exposed, diet exposed, and combination exposed. Cardiac function, cellular bioenergetics (mitochondrial stress test, glycolytic stress test, and palmitate oxidation assay), lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial histology, and copy number were determined. Diabetes-exposed offspring had impaired glycolytic and respiratory capacity and a reduced proton leak. High-fat diet-exposed offspring had increased mitochondrial copy number, increased lipid peroxidation, and evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction. Combination- exposed pups were most severely affected and demonstrated cardiac lipid droplet accumulation and diastolic/systolic cardiac dysfunction that mimics that of adult diabetic cardiomyopathy. This study is the first to demonstrate that a maternal high-fat diet impairs cardiac function in offspring of diabetic pregnancies through metabolic stress and serves as a critical step in understanding the role of cellular bioenergetics in developmentally programmed cardiac disease.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Riebschleger, Joanne, Debra Norris, Barbara Pierce, Debora L. Pond, & Cristy Cummings. (2015). Preparing social work students for rural child welfare practice: Emerging curriculum competencies. Journal of Social Work Education, 51(Suppl 2), S209-S224.
 
Multiple issues that are unique to child welfare social work practice in rural areas markedly affect workforce recruitment and retention, yet little attention is given to the proficiencies needed to equip emerging social workers for this growing area of the field. Curriculum content is needed that provides students with the opportunity to master the skills needed to thrive as child welfare social workers in rural areas. Using an evidence-based practice critical thinking model as a guide, a systematic review of literature and documents addresses many of the competencies needed to prepare social work students for child welfare practice in rural areas. These competencies are identified. Suggestions for integration into the social work curriculum are offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)
 
School of Health Sciences.
 
 
Cross, Suzanne L., Virginia Drywater-Whitekiller, Lea Ann Holder, Debra Norris, James Caringi, & Ashley Trautman. (2015). NCWWI tribal traineeship programs: Promoting diversity in the child welfare workforce. Journal of Social Work Education, 51(Suppl 2), S225-S238.
 
Twelve universities and one American Indian (AI) tribal college were selected for the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute’s 5-year stipend traineeship program. These tribal traineeships were designed to provide social work child welfare education for tribal and nontribal students. Twenty-two AI students and 58 nontribal students completed a bachelor or master’s of social work degree. The students’ field placements were in tribal agencies or public agencies that served a segment of the AI population. These programs were enhanced through the use of valuable relationships (i.e., partnerships, mentorships, allies), and cultural competence was a key aspect of the students’ education. The students’ education was enriched with a specific child welfare curriculum, cultural teachings, tribal traineeship collaborations, and tribal community events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)
 
School of Health Sciences.
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