Posted by: kelsijo97 | July 19, 2013

July 2013

Darling, Warren, Nicole Helle, Marc Pizzimenti, Diane Rotella, Stephanie Hynes, Jizhi Ge, Kimberly Stillwell-Morecraft Robert Morecraft. (2013). Laterality affects spontaneous recovery of contralateral hand motor function following motor cortex injury in rhesus monkeys. Experimental Brain Research, 228(1), 9-24.
The purpose of this study was to test whether brain laterality influences spontaneous recovery of hand motor function after controlled brain injuries to arm areas of M1 and lateral premotor cortex (LPMC) of the hemisphere contralateral to the preferred hand in rhesus monkeys. We hypothesized that monkeys with stronger hand preference would exhibit poorer recovery of skilled hand use after such brain injury. Degree of handedness was assessed using a standard dexterity board task in which subjects could use either hand to retrieve small food pellets. Fine hand/digit motor function was assessed using a modified dexterity board before and after the M1 and LPMC lesions in ten monkeys. We found a strong negative relationship between the degree of handedness and the recovery of manipulation skill, demonstrating that higher hand preference was associated with poorer recovery of hand fine motor function. We also observed that monkeys with larger lesions within M1 and LPMC had greater initial impairment of manipulation and poorer recovery of reaching skill. We conclude that monkeys with a stronger hand preference are likely to show poorer recovery of contralesional hand fine motor skill after isolated brain lesions affecting the lateral frontal motor areas. These data may be extended to suggest that humans who exhibit weak hand dominance, and perhaps individuals who use both hands for fine motor tasks, may have a more favorable potential for recovery after a unilateral stroke or brain injury affecting the lateral cortical motor areas than individuals with a high degree of hand dominance.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Sun, Z., S. Lawson, R. Langenhorst, Kara L. McCormick, Colin Brunick, T. Opriessnig, . . . Y. Fang. (2013). Construction and immunogenicity evaluation of an epitope-based antigen against swine influenza A virus using Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin B subunit as a carrier-adjuvant. Veterinary Microbiology, 164(3-4), 229-238.
Influenza A virus causes a highly contagious respiratory disease in a variety of avian and mammalian hosts, including humans and pigs. The primary means for preventing influenza epidemics is vaccination. Epitope-based vaccine represents a new approach to achieve protective immunity. The objective of this study was to construct and evaluate the immunogenicity of an epitope-based antigen for its potential application in future influenza vaccine development. The antigen, comprised of a set of consensus influenza A virus epitopes (IAVe), was genetically linked to a subunit of the bacterial heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB) as an adjuvant. Immunogenicity of this LTB-IAVe antigen was evaluated in a pig model. Despite an inability to detect neutralizing antibodies directed toward the whole virus, humoral immunity against the IAVe was demonstrated in both serum (IgA and IgG) and mucosal secretions (IgG) of immunized pigs. Specific cellular immunity was also induced after LTB-IAVe immunization, as evidenced by up-regulating of IL-1 beta, IL-8, and IL-4 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of vaccinated pigs. In comparison to the non-immunized pigs, pigs immunized with the LTB-IAVe showed improved protection against a pathogenic HI NI swine influenza virus challenge, with about 50% decrease of pneumonic lesions and 10-fold reduction of the viral load in lung and nasal secretion at five days post challenge. This study establishes a platform for future construction of epitope-based vaccines against influenza A virus infection. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Waters, R. P., R. B. Pringle, Gina L. Forster, Kenneth J. Renner, J. L. Malisch, T. Garland, & J. G. Swallow. (2013). Selection for increased voluntary wheel-running affects behavior and brain monoamines in mice. Brain Research, 1508, 9-22.
Selective-breeding of house mice for increased voluntary wheel-running has resulted in multiple physiological and behavioral changes. Characterizing these differences may lead to experimental models that can elucidate factors involved in human diseases and disorders associated with physical inactivity, or potentially treated by physical activity, such as diabetes, obesity, and depression. Herein, we present ethological data for adult males from a line of mice that has been selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel-running and from a non-selected control line, housed with or without wheels. Additionally, we present concentrations of central monoamines in limbic, striatal, and midbrain regions. We monitored wheel-running for 8 weeks, and observed home-cage behavior during the last 5 weeks of the study. Mice from the selected line accumulated more revolutions per day than controls due to increased speed and duration of running. Selected mice exhibited more active behaviors than controls, regardless of wheel access, and exhibited less inactivity and grooming than controls. Selective-breeding also influenced the longitudinal patterns of behavior. We found statistically significant differences in monoamine concentrations and associated metabolites in brain regions that influence exercise and motivational state. These results suggest underlying neurochemical differences between selected and control lines that may influence the observed differences in behavior. Our results bolster the argument that selected mice can provide a useful model of human psychological and physiological diseases and disorders. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Porter, Megan L., Daniel I. Speiser, Alexander K. Zaharoff, Roy L. Caldwell, Thomas W. Cronin, & Todd H. Oakley. (2013). The Evolution of Complexity in the Visual Systems of Stomatopods: Insights from Transcriptomics. Integrative & Comparative Biology, 53(1), 39-49.
Stomatopod crustaceans have complex visual systems containing up to 16 different spectral classes of photoreceptors, more than described for any other animal. A previous molecular study of this visual system focusing on the expression of opsin genes found many more transcripts than predicted on the basis of physiology, but was unable to fully document the expressed opsin genes responsible for this diversity. Furthermore, questions remain about how other components of phototransduction cascades are involved. This study continues prior investigations by examining the molecular function of stomatopods’ visual systems using new whole eye 454 transcriptome datasets from two species, Hemisquilla californiensis and Pseudosquilla ciliata. These two species represent taxonomic diversity within the order Stomatopoda, as well as variations in the anatomy and physiology of the visual system. Using an evolutionary placement algorithm to annotate the transcriptome, we identified the presence of nine components of the stomatopods’ G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) phototransduction cascade, including two visual arrestins, subunits of the heterotrimeric G-protein, phospholipase C, transient receptor potential channels, and opsin transcripts. The set of expressed transduction genes suggests that stomatopods utilize a Gq-mediated GPCR-signaling cascade. The most notable difference in expression between the phototransduction cascades of the two species was the number of opsin contigs recovered, with 18 contigs found in retinas of H. californiensis, and 49 contigs in those of P. ciliata. Based on phylogenetic placement and fragment overlap, these contigs were estimated to represent 14 and 33 expressed transcripts, respectively. These data expand the known opsin diversity in stomatopods to clades of arthropod opsins that are sensitive to short wavelengths and ultraviolet wavelengths and confirm the results of previous studies recovering more opsin transcripts than spectrally distinct types of photoreceptors. Many of the recovered transcripts were phylogenetically placed in an evolutionary clade of crustacean opsin sequences that is rapidly expanding as the visual systems from more species are investigated. We discuss these results in relation to the emerging pattern, particularly in crustacean visual systems, of the expression of multiple opsin transcripts in photoreceptors of the same spectral class, and even in single photoreceptor cells.
Biology Department.
Swanson, David L., Zhang Yufeng, & Marisa O. King. (2013). Individual Variation in Thermogenic Capacity Is Correlated with Flight Muscle Size but Not Cellular Metabolic Capacity in American Goldfinches (Spinus tristis). Physiological & Biochemical Zoology, 86(4), 421-431.
Cold tolerance and overwinter survival are positively correlated with organismal thermogenic capacity (=summit metabolic rate [Msum]) in endotherms. Msum varies seasonally in small-bird populations and may be mechanistically associated with variation in flight muscle size or cellular metabolic capacity, but the relative roles of these traits as drivers of individual variation in thermogenic performance are poorly known. We measured flight muscle size by ultrasonography, pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscle masses, and muscular activities of key aerobic enzymes (citrate synthase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) and correlated these measurements with Msum for individual American goldfinches (Spinus tristis) to test the hypotheses that muscle size and/or cellular metabolic capacity serve as prominent drivers of individual variation in organismal metabolic capacity. Ultrasonographic flight muscle size was weakly positively correlated with Msum (P = 0.054). Both log10-transformed Msum and flight muscle mass were significantly correlated with log10 body mass, so we calculated allometric residuals for log Msum and for log flight muscle mass to test their correlation independent of body mass. Flight muscle mass residuals were significantly positively correlated with Msum residuals, and this correlation was primarily driven by variation in pectoralis muscle mass. In contrast, none of the mass-specific activities of any enzyme in any muscle were significantly correlated with Msum. These data suggest that flight muscle size, not cellular metabolic capacity, is the primary driver of individual variation in thermogenic performance in goldfinches. This is consistent with the idea that phenotypic flexibility of flight muscle mass is a general mechanism mediating variation in metabolic performance in response to changing energy.
Biology Department.
Welton, L. J., Cameron D. Siler, J. R. Oaks, A. C. Diesmos, & R. M. Brown. (2013). Multilocus phylogeny and Bayesian estimates of species boundaries reveal hidden evolutionary relationships and cryptic diversity in Southeast Asian monitor lizards. Molecular Ecology, 22(13), 3495-3510.
Recent conceptual, technological and methodological advances in phylogenetics have enabled increasingly robust statistical species delimitation in studies of biodiversity. As the variety of evidence purporting species diversity has increased, so too have the kinds of tools and inferential power of methods for delimiting species. Here, we showcase an organismal system for a data-rich, comparative molecular approach to evaluating strategies of species delimitation among monitor lizards of the genus Varanus. The water monitors ( Varanus salvator Complex), a widespread group distributed throughout Southeast Asia and southern India, have been the subject of numerous taxonomic treatments, which have drawn recent attention due to the possibility of undocumented species diversity. To date, studies of this group have relied on purportedly diagnostic morphological characters, with no attention given to the genetic underpinnings of species diversity. Using a 5-gene data set, we estimated phylogeny and used multilocus genetic networks, analysis of population structure and a Bayesian coalescent approach to infer species boundaries. Our results contradict previous systematic hypotheses, reveal surprising relationships between island and mainland lineages and uncover novel, cryptic evolutionary lineages (i.e. new putative species). Our study contributes to a growing body of literature suggesting that, used in concert with other sources of data (e.g. morphology, ecology, biogeography), multilocus genetic data can be highly informative to systematists and biodiversity specialists when attempting to estimate species diversity and identify conservation priorities. We recommend holding in abeyance taxonomic decisions until multiple, converging lines of evidence are available to best inform taxonomists, evolutionary biologists and conservationists.
Biology Department.
Whitfield, Steven M., Erica Geerdes, I. Chacon, E. B. Rodriguez, R. R. Jimenez, M. A. Donnelly, & Jacob L. Kerby. (2013). Infection and co-infection by the amphibian chytrid fungus and ranavirus in wild Costa Rican frogs. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 104(2), 173-178.
Amphibian populations are globally threatened by emerging infectious diseases, and 2 pathogens in particular are recognized as major threats: the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and ranaviruses. Here, we evaluated the prevalence of infection by Bd and ranavirus in an assemblage of frogs from a lowland wet forest in Costa Rica. We found an overall prevalence of 21.3% for Bd and 16.6% for ranavirus, and detected both pathogens widely among our 20 sampled species. We found a positive association between ranavirus and Bd infection in one of our 4 most commonly sampled species. We also found a positive but non-significant association be tween infection by ranavirus and infection by Bd among species overall. Our study is among the first detailed evaluations of ranavirus prevalence in the American tropics, and to our knowledge is the first to detect a positive association between Bd and ranavirus in any species. Considerable research attention has focused on the ecology of Bd in tropical regions, yet we argue that greater research focus is necessary to understand the ecology and conservation impact of ranaviruses on amphibian populations already decimated by the emergence of Bd.
Biology Department.
Simpson, K. J., Jae P. Yom, Y. C. Fu, S. W. Arnett, S. O’Rourke, & C. N. Brown. (2013). Does Wearing a Prophylactic Ankle Brace During Drop Landings Affect Lower Extremity Kinematics and Ground Reaction Forces? Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 29(2), 205-213.
The objective of the study was to determine if prophylactic ankle bracing worn by females during landings produces abnormal lower extremity mechanics. Angular kinematic and ground reaction force (GRF) data were obtained for 16 athletically experienced females who performed brace and no-brace drop landings. The brace condition displayed reduced in/external rotation and flexion displacements about the ankle and knee joints and increased vertical and mediolateral GRF peak magnitudes and rate of vertical GRF application (paired t test, P < .05). The ankle and knee joints landed in a less plantar flexed and more flexed position, respectively. No significant ab/adduction outcomes may have occurred due to interparticipant variability and/or a lack of brace restriction. Conclusion: During typical landings, this lace-up brace increases vertical GRF, decreases ankle and knee joint displacements of flexion and int/external rotation, but minimally affects ab/adduction displacements.
Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls.
Bao, Ying, C. L. Lai, Z. T. Zhu, H. Fong, & Chaoyang Jiang. (2013). SERS-active silver nanoparticles on electrospun nanofibers facilitated via oxygen plasma etching. Rsc Advances, 3(23), 8998-9004.
Manipulating the interaction between inorganic building blocks and polymeric supporting materials is crucial in the fabrication and optimization of hybrid hierarchical nanostructures. Herein, oxygen plasma etching was used to modify electrospun nanofibers of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for facilitating the growth of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The PMMA nanofibers in the form of overlaid films, surface-decorated with Ag NPs, were explored as active substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Strong SERS enhancement was observed from the Ag NP-PMMA films, as well as individual nanofibers. Our work not only fabricated nanocomposite materials with controlled hierarchical structures and remarkable SERS performances, but also provided a versatile method in tuning interfacial interactions within nanostructured materials.
Chemistry Department.
Kilina, S. V., A. J. Neukirch, B. F. Habenicht, Dmitri S. Kilin, & O. V. Prezhdo. (2013). Quantum Zeno Effect Rationalizes the Phonon Bottleneck in Semiconductor Quantum Dots. Physical Review Letters, 110(18).
Quantum confinement can dramatically slow down electron-phonon relaxation in nanoclusters. Known as the phonon bottleneck, the effect remains elusive. Using a state-of-the-art time-domain ab initio approach, we model the observed bottleneck in CdSe quantum dots and show that it occurs under quantum Zeno conditions. Decoherence in the electronic subsystem, induced by elastic electron-phonon scattering, should be significantly faster than inelastic scattering. Achieved with multiphonon relaxation, the phonon bottleneck is broken by Auger processes and structural defects, rationalizing experimental difficulties.
Chemistry Department.
Koodali, Ranjit T., T. Mokhtari, C. M. Sorensen, & K. J. Klabunde. (2013). Role of solvents in the gelation process: can light scattering studies shed some light? Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 66(1), 43-49.
Sol-gel reactions continue to be of interest for the preparation of nanostructured materials. Two chemical reactions that are important in the sol-gel process are the hydrolysis and condensation reactions. The rate of the these two reactions are affected by a number of factors such as reaction pH, temperature, humidity, amount of water, type of alkoxide, molar ratio of alkoxide to water, and nature of solvent. Moreover, there is a physical process, that of particle aggregation that is also important in the overall gelation process. The role of solvents in these chemical and physical processes is still not very clear. In order to clarify the role of solvents in the gelation process, small angle light scattering studies (SALS) were carried out. A model system chosen was a colloidal silica solution that contained preformed silica particles of 10-15 nm in diameter. SALS studies indicate that gelation times are independent of the nature of solvent.
Chemistry Department.
Mariappan, Kadarkaraisamy, Prem Nath Basa, Vinothini Balasubramanian, Sarah Fuoss, & Andrew G. Sykes. (2013). Synthesis, reactivity, catenation and X-ray crystallography of Ag+ and Cu+ complexes of anthraquinone-based selenoethers: A luminescent chemodosimeter for Cu2+ and Fe3+. Polyhedron, 55, 144-154.
Abstract: Reaction of the PhSe− anion with 1,8-bis(2-bromoethoxy)anthracene-9,10-dione, 1,5-bis(2-bromoethoxy)anthracene-9,10-dione, 1,8-bis(2-bromoethylethyleneoxy)anthracene-9,10-dione in 1:1 ratio generates 1,8-bis(2-phenylselenoethoxy)anthracene-9,10-dione (2), 1,5-bis(2-phenylselenoethoxy)anthracene-9,10-dione (3) and 1,8-bis(2-phenylselenoethylethyleneoxy)anthracene-9,10-dione (4). The reaction of 2 with a methanolic solution of Ag(CH3CN)4BF4 and Cu(CH3CN)4BF4, yielded metal complexes 5 and 6, respectively. 3 formed a 1D coordination polymer (7) with Ag(CH3CN)4BF4 in a 1:2 ratio. The anthraquinone in 3 exhibits π–π interactions with distances in a range of 3.512–3.840Å. 2 acts as a chemodosimeter for Cu2+ and Fe3+ as it undergoes an aryl ether cleavage with Cu2+ and Fe3+, and produces the luminescent 1-hydroxy-8-(2-phenylselenoethoxy)anthracene-9,10-dione (8). Intramolecular hydrogen bonding in 8 is responsible for the red–orange (λ max 595nm) emission. The X-ray structures of 5, 6, 7, and 8 are reported along with cyclic voltammetric analyses of new organoselenium compounds.
Chemistry Department.
Mormer, Elaine, Catherine Palmer, Cheryl Messick, & Lindsey Jorgensen. (2013). An Evidence-Based Guide to Clinical Instruction in Audiology. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 24(5), 393-406.
Background: A significant portion of the AuD curriculum occurs in clinical settings outside the classroom. Expert clinicians, employed within and outside of the university, are called upon to provide this clinical education. Most have had little or no formal training in clinical teaching yet face pedagogical and logistical challenges when simultaneously providing clinical service and teaching. Training to provide optimal methods and approaches to clinical instruction should be based on research evidence; however, there is a paucity of research in this area within the audiology discipline. Purpose: This article provides a review of literature supplying evidence for important concepts, elements, and approaches to the clinical instruction process. Additionally, we provide readers with some practical tools with which to facilitate application of optimal clinical teaching principles. Research Design: We conducted a systematic review of literature on clinical education in audiology and across a wide array of health professions. Through the use of content analysis we identified four elements of the clinical teaching process most critical in examining optimal practices. Results: The elements identified as critical to positive clinical learning outcomes include the establishment of mutual expectations and goals; structured content and delivery of feedback; establishment of a positive instructor/student relationship; and questioning strategies that lead to the development of critical thinking skills. Conclusions: Many disciplines outside of audiology demonstrate robust research activity related to understanding and optimizing the clinical education process. The application of a number of evidence- based clinical teaching principles should allow us to improve student outcomes in audiology. Researchers in our field might consider if and how we should develop our own research literature in clinical education.
Communication Disorders Department.
Sternadori, Miglena. (2013). Heroines Under Control: Unexpected Portrayals of Women in the Organ of the Bulgarian Communist Party, 1944–1989. Women’s Studies in Communication, 36(2), 142-166.
This is a framing analysis of the news coverage of women’s issues in the official newspaper of the Bulgarian Communist Party over three nonconsecutive years. At the start of the Communist regime, women were ideologically constructed as warriors and tearless mothers of lost sons, deserving of complete equality. In the 1960s, the emphasis unexpectedly shifted to fashion and beauty as part of the Party’s pronatalist propaganda. The age of perestroika in the late 1980s deconstructed the “double burden” faced by women and suggested social policies to relieve it, while still maintaining that chores were women’s work only. Throughout the decades, the ideal Bulgarian woman was seen as androgynous, combining masculine and feminine traits to both contribute to the country’s industrialization and birth the next generation of male elites. The analysis shows how quasi-feminist policies offered women limited career fulfillment while maintaining oppressive expectations, such as having sons over daughters, being attractive, and shouldering all household chores.
Contemporary Media Department.
Dutkay, D. E., D. G. Han, P. E. T. Jorgensen, & Gabriel Picioroaga. (2013). On common fundamental domains. Advances in Mathematics, 239, 109-127.
We find conditions under which two measure preserving actions of two groups on the same space have a common fundamental domain. Our results apply to commuting actions with separate fundamental domains, lattices in groups of polynomial growth, and some semidirect products. We prove that two lattices of equal co-volume in a group of polynomial growth, one acting on the left, the other on the right, have a common fundamental domain. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Mathematics Department.
Valdovinos, F. S., P. M. de Espanes, Jose D. Flores, & R. Ramos-Jiliberto. (2013). Adaptive foraging allows the maintenance of biodiversity of pollination networks. Oikos, 122(6), 907-917.
Pollination systems are recognized as critical for the maintenance of biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems. Therefore, the understanding of mechanisms that promote the integrity of those mutualistic assemblages is an important issue for the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem function. In this study we present a new population dynamics model for plantpollinator interactions that is based on the consumerresource approach and incorporates a few essential features of pollination ecology. The model was used to project the temporal dynamics of three empirical pollination network, in order to analyze how adaptive foraging of pollinators (AF) shapes the outcome of community dynamics in terms of biodiversity and network robustness to species loss. We found that the incorporation of AF into the dynamics of the pollination networks increased the persistence and diversity of its constituent species, and reduced secondary extinctions of both plants and animals. These findings were best explained by the following underlying processes: 1) AF increased the amount of floral resources extracted by specialist pollinators, and 2) AF raised the visitation rates received by specialist plants. We propose that the main mechanism by which AF enhanced those processes is (trophic) niche partitioning among animals, which in turn generates (pollen vector) niche partitioning among plants. Our results suggest that pollination networks can maintain their stability and diversity by the adaptive foraging of generalist pollinators.
Mathematics Department.
Gaher, Raluca M., Nicole L. Hofman, Jeffrey S. Simons, & Ryan Hunsaker. (2013). Emotion Regulation Deficits as Mediators Between Trauma Exposure and Borderline Symptoms. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 37(3), 466-475.
We tested a model of mechanisms linking the experience of trauma exposure with borderline personality symptoms via deficits in core aspects of emotion regulation. Participants were college students (N = 579). History of traumatic exposure and negative affectivity were positively and emotional intelligence inversely associated with borderline symptoms. These effects were mediated via alexithymia. Deficits in identifying and describing emotions, in turn, were associated with poor tolerance for emotional distress and an increase in acting rashly when negatively aroused. Finally, distress tolerance exhibited both direct, and indirect (via urgency), associations with borderline personality symptoms. Deficits in the ability to identify, describe, and understand emotion are related to intolerance for distress and impulsive behavior when negatively aroused. The effects of distress tolerance are consistent with theoretical models that posit that intolerance for distress contributes to deficits in behavioral regulation. Borderline personality symptoms reflect deficits in behavioral control when negatively aroused as well as a pattern of negative evaluations, poor self-efficacy, and emotional absorption contributing to marked interference with adaptive goal directed activity when distressed.
Psychology Department.
Chen, S. Y., N. Wu, Michael Gulseth, J. LaMori, B. K. Bookhart, L. Boulanger, . . . J. Schein. (2013). One-Year Adherence to Warfarin Treatment for Venous Thromboembolism in High-Risk Patients and Its Association with Long-term Risk of Recurrent Events. Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy, 19(4), 291-301.
BACKGROUND: Warfarin is the predominant oral anticoagulant used for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) events. However, its long-term use is complicated by the need to manage the drug within a narrow therapeutic range and by possible food and drug interactions. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between 1-year adherence, measured through compliance with and persistence on warfarin treatment for VTE, and long-term risk of recurrent events among patients at high risk. METHODS: Medical and pharmacy claims for patients with commercial or Medicare supplemental insurance in the Thomson Reuters Market Scan database were analyzed. Adult patients with medical claims with an associated VIE diagnosis between January 1, 2006, and March 31, 2008, were identified. The index date was defined as the date of the first observed VIE claim or the date of discharge if the index event was a hospital stay. High-risk patients (patients with cancer, or noncancer patients who did not have reversible risk factors during the 3-month period prior to the index date) who filled a warfarin prescription within 2 weeks of the index date were included. Persistence was evaluated in terms of discontinuation, defined as a 90-day gap in warfarin supply during a 1-year assessment period following the index date. Compliance was measured by the proportion of days covered (PDC) over the 1-year assessment period, with PDC <0.8 defined as noncompliance. Recurrent VIE events were identified as hospitalizations where VIE was the primary diagnosis after the 1-year assessment period and until patients were lost to follow-up. The association between adherence to warfarin therapy and VTE recurrence was evaluated descriptively via Kaplan-Meier curves and a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusted for patient demographic and clinical characteristics. A similar analysis using the medication possession ratio (MPR) as a measure of compliance was also performed in a subset of patients who had filled at least 2 warfarin prescriptions. RESULTS: The study included 8,040 VIE patients identified as being at high risk of recurrence (mean age 61 years, 59.4% male), of whom 76.9% were not compliant with warfarin therapy based on PDC, and 51.5% discontinued therapy. Among those with at least 2 warfarin prescriptions (n=7612), 34.1% of high-risk patients were not compliant with warfarin therapy between the first and last refills based on MPR. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that patients who were compliant or continued warfarin therapy were less likely to experience a VTE event (all P<0.05). Noncompliant patients had a 3 times greater risk of VTE recurrence than compliant patients, based on PDC (hazard ratio [HR]=3.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28-4.97). Among the subpopulation who filled at least 2 warfarin prescriptions, noncompliant patients (based on MPR) were also found to be more likely to have recurrent VIE events, compared with compliant patients (HR=1.60, 95% CI: 1.18-2.16). Patients who discontinued warfarin were more likely to have recurrent VTE events compared with patients who did not discontinue on warfarin treatment (HR=1.48, 95% CI: 1.09-2.01). CONCLUSION: Adherence to a year of therapy was low in patients at high risk of recurrent VIE, even though long-term therapy should be considered in this population. Noncompliance and discontinuation of warfarin treatment over a 1-year period was associated with a higher risk of recurrent VIE. Future research should investigate and differentiate between patient and provider discontinuation to develop strategies to improve compliance and persistence with appropriate anticoagulation therapy that may potentially reduce recurrent VTE. Copyright (C) 2013, Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy. All rights reserved.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Coppock, Joseph D., Bryant G. Wieking, Alfredo A. Molinolo, J. Silvio Gutkind, W. Keith Miskimins, & John H. Lee. (2013). Improved Clearance during Treatment of HPV-Positive Head and Neck Cancer through mTOR Inhibition. Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.), 15(6), 620-630.
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) incidence is increasing at a near epidemic rate. We investigated whether the mammalian (or mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, rapamycin, can be used as a concurrent agent to standard-of-care cisplatin/radiation therapy (CRT) to attenuate tumor lactate production, thus enhancing CRT-induced immune-mediated clearance of this antigenic tumor type. A C57Bl/6-derived mouse oropharyngeal epithelial cell line retrovirally transduced with HPV type 16 E6/E7 and human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were evaluated for their response to rapamycin in vitro with proliferation assays, Western blots, and lactate assays. Clonogenic assays and a preclinical mouse model were used to assess rapamycin as a concurrent agent to CRT. The potential of rapamycin to enhance immune response through lactate attenuation was assessed using quantitative tumor lactate bioluminescence and assessment of cell-mediated immunity using E6/E7-vaccinated mouse splenocytes. Rapamycin alone inhibited mTOR signaling of all cancer cell lines tested in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, rapamycin administered alone significantly prolonged survival in vivo but did not result in any long-term cures. Given concurrently, CRT/rapamycin significantly enhanced direct cell killing in clonogenic assays and prolonged survival in immunocompromised mice. However, in immunocompetent mice, concurrent CRT/rapamycin increased long-term cures by 21%. Preliminary findings suggest that improved survival involves increased cell killing and enhanced immune-mediated clearance in part due to decreased lactate production. The results may provide rationale for the clinical evaluation of mTOR inhibitors concurrent with standard-of-care CRT for treatment of HPV-positive HNSCC.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Franco, A., B. Damdinsuren, Tomoko Ise, J. Dement-Brown, H. F. Li, Satoshi Nagata, & M. Tolnay. (2013). Human Fc Receptor-Like 5 Binds Intact IgG via Mechanisms Distinct from Those of Fc Receptors. Journal of Immunology, 190(11), 5739-5746.
Fc receptor-like (FCRL) 5 regulates B cell Ag receptor signaling and has been reported to bind aggregated IgG. Using surface plasmon resonance, we analyzed the interaction of native IgG samples with FCRL5, revealing a complex binding mechanism, where isotype is just one factor. FCRL5 bound IgG1 and IgG4 with similar to 1 mu M K-D, whereas the interaction with IgG3 was a magnitude weaker. However, IgG2 samples displayed a wide range of affinities, indicating that additional factors affect binding. We used a panel of 19 anti-FCRL5 mAbs with defined reactivity to identify domains involved in ligand binding. Six mAbs blocked IgG binding, indicating critical roles of FCRL5 domains 1 and 3, as well as epitopes at the domain 1/2 and domain 2/3 boundaries. We found that only glycosylated IgG containing both Fab arms and the Fc region bound with high affinity. Furthermore, the presence of sialic acid in the IgG carbohydrate altered FCRL5 binding. The interaction of IgG and FCRL5 consisted of two kinetic components, suggesting a complex binding mechanism. We established that the IgG-Fc and IgG-F(ab ‘)(2) fragments bind FCRL5 independently but with low affinity, revealing the mechanism behind the two-step binding of whole IgG. This complex binding mechanism is distinct from that of Fc receptors, which bind through the Fc. We propose that FCRL5 is a new type of receptor that recognizes intact IgG, possibly enabling B cells to sense Ig quality. Recognition of undamaged IgG molecules by FCRL5 could allow B cells to engage recently produced Abs.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Hayflick, Susan J., Michael C. Kruer, Allison Gregory, Tobias B. Haack, Manju A. Kurian, Henry H. Houlden, . . . Connie Schrander-Stumpel. (2013). Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration: a new X-linked dominant disorder with brain iron accumulation. Brain: A Journal of Neurology, 136(6), 1708-1717.
Neurodegenerative disorders with high iron in the basal ganglia encompass an expanding collection of single gene disorders collectively known as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. These disorders can largely be distinguished from one another by their associated clinical and neuroimaging features. The aim of this study was to define the phenotype that is associated with mutations in WDR45, a new causative gene for neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation located on the X chromosome. The study subjects consisted of WDR45 mutation-positive individuals identified after screening a large international cohort of patients with idiopathic neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. Their records were reviewed, including longitudinal clinical, laboratory and imaging data. Twenty-three mutation-positive subjects were identified (20 females). The natural history of their disease was remarkably uniform: global developmental delay in childhood and further regression in early adulthood with progressive dystonia, parkinsonism and dementia. Common early comorbidities included seizures, spasticity and disordered sleep. The symptoms of parkinsonism improved with l-DOPA; however, nearly all patients experienced early motor fluctuations that quickly progressed to disabling dyskinesias, warranting discontinuation of l-DOPA. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed iron in the substantia nigra and globus pallidus, with a ‘halo’ of T1 hyperintense signal in the substantia nigra. All patients harboured de novo mutations in WDR45, encoding a beta-propeller protein postulated to play a role in autophagy. Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration, the only X-linked disorder of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, is associated with de novo mutations in WDR45 and is recognizable by a unique combination of clinical, natural history and neuroimaging features.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Higgins, Alexandra, Sharleen Yuan, Yanqing Wang, & Brian D. Burrell. (2013). Differential modulation of nociceptive versus non-nociceptive synapses by endocannabinoids. Molecular pain, 9(1), 26.
BACKGROUND: Although a number of clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated analgesic effects of cannabinoid treatments, there are also instances when cannabinoids have had no effect or even exacerbated pain. The observed pro-nociceptive effects appear to be due to cannabinoid-induced disinhibition of afferent synaptic input to nociceptive circuits. To better understand how cannabinoid-mediated plasticity can have both pro- and anti-nociceptive effects, we examined the possibility that cannabinoids differentially modulate nociceptive vs. non-nociceptive synapses onto a shared postsynaptic target. These experiments were carried out in the central nervous system (CNS) of the medicinal leech, in which it is possible to intracellularly record from presynaptic nociceptive (N-cell) or pressure-sensitive (P-cell) neurons and their shared postsynaptic targets.; RESULTS: The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2AG) elicited significant long-lasting depression in nociceptive (N-cell) synapses. However, non-nociceptive (P-cell) synapses were potentiated following 2AG treatment. 2AG-induced potentiation of non-nociceptive synapses was blocked by the TRPV antagonist SB366791, suggesting involvement of the same TRPV-like receptor that has already been shown to mediate endocannabinoid-dependent depression in nociceptive inputs. Treatment with the GABA receptor antagonist bicuculline also blocked 2AG-induced potentiation, consistent with the idea that increased synaptic signaling was the result of endocannabinoid-mediated disinhibition. Interestingly, while bicuculline by itself increased non-nociceptive synaptic transmission, nociceptive synapses were depressed by this GABA receptor antagonist indicating that nociceptive synapses were actually excited by GABAergic input. Consistent with these observations, GABA application depolarized the nociceptive afferent and hyperpolarized the non-nociceptive afferent.; CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that endocannabinoids can differentially modulate nociceptive vs. non-nociceptive synapses and that GABAergic regulation of these synapses plays an important role in determining whether endocannabinoids have a potentiating or depressing effect.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Judd, Kyle T., L. K. Cannada, & W. Obremskey. (2013). Correlation of Orthopaedic Trauma Practice Opportunities and Number of Fellows Trained: Are Trauma-Specific Practice Opportunities Scarce? Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 27(6), 352-354.
Recent trauma fellows are concerned with difficulty finding a job. Our hypothesis was that the increased number of trauma fellows has led to a decrease in the number of jobs available and a subsequent decrease in advertised trauma positions. To determine the number of advertised positions, a review and tabulation of the advertised trauma specific orthopaedic surgery practice opportunities for the past 9 years (2003-2011) was completed. The number of trauma fellows has increased significantly in the last decade from 19 to 64. The number of Trauma fellowship positions available has increased from 58 to 81. We found that from 2003 to 2011 fewer advertised practice opportunities were present overall. The increase in number of orthopedic trauma fellows correlates closely with the decrease in advertised, trauma specific practice opportunities implying a relationship between the two.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
McMahon, Tracey, DenYelle Kenyon, & Jessica Carter. (2013). ‘My Culture, My Family, My School, Me’: Identifying Strengths and Challenges in the Lives and Communities of American Indian Youth. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 22(5), 694-706.
Historically, the majority of research with American Indian (AI) youth and communities has focused on vulnerabilities, problems, and needs rather than resilience, strengths, and assets. Adding to the limited research which has examined AI youth and communities using the strengths perspective, we examined community assets, personal strengths, community challenges, and personal hardships as perceived by reservation-based, Northern Plains AI youth via open-ended survey questions. The present study was conducted during the spring and fall of 2009 at a tribal school in the Northern Plains (N = 95; n = 37 males; n = 58 females; aged 14.4-20.95 years; M = 17.3, SD = 1.47 years). The majority of youth self-identified their ethnic background as solely AI (85.3 %), with small percentages reporting additional ethnic backgrounds. Analyses revealed that the people in their lives, especially their families, are significant sources of strength for AI youth. Findings also indicated that AI youth have a positive orientation toward themselves and their communities, which was evidenced by the fact that the youth identified more strengths than challenges in their lives. Somewhat unexpectedly, when asked what aspects of their lives and communities they would most like to change, a significant number of the youth identified they wanted to change ‘nothing’ about their personal lives or their communities. Reasons for these responses are explored.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Miller, Jake N., Chun-Hong Chan, & David A. Pearce. (2013). The role of nonsense-mediated decay in neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Human Molecular Genetics, 22(13), 2723-2734.
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), commonly referred to as Batten disease, is a group of autosomal recessive neurodegenerative diseases of childhood characterized by seizures, blindness, motor and cognitive decline and premature death. Currently, there are over 400 known mutations in 14 different genes, leading to five overlapping clinical variants of NCL. A large portion of these mutations lead to premature stop codons (PTCs) and are predicted to predispose mRNA transcripts to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). Nonsense-mediated decay is associated with a number of other genetic diseases and is an important regulator of disease pathogenesis. We contend that NMD targets PTCs in NCL gene transcripts for degradation. A number of PTC mutations in CLN1, CLN2 and CLN3 lead to a significant decrease in mRNA transcripts and a corresponding decrease in protein levels and function in patient-derived lymphoblast cell lines. Inhibiting NMD leads to an increased transcript level, and where protein function is known, increased activity. Treatment with read-through drugs also leads to increased protein function. Thus, NMD provides a promising therapeutic target that would allow read-through of transcripts to enhance protein function and possibly ameliorate Batten disease pathogenesis.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf, L. Frerichs, A. E. B. Bird, K. Workman, Mitchell Dobberpuhl, & S. Watanabe-Galloway. (2013). HPV Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Among Northern Plains American Indian Adolescents, Parents, Young Adults, and Health Professionals. Journal of Cancer Education, 28(2), 357-366.
Native American women in the Northern Plains have a high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and high incidence of cervical disease and cervical cancer. HPV vaccination coverage is shown to be lower among nonwhite populations and disparity populations. We assessed HPV knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs towards HPV and HPV vaccination during a community-based participatory research project among tribal youth, young adults, parents, and health professionals. In 2009, we recruited a total of 73 individuals to participate in four tribal focus groups: tribal health providers, (n = 10), Indian Health Service providers (n = 7), young adult women ages 19-26 (n = 22), girls (14-18) (n = 18), and parents (n = 16). Of these, 62 (84.93 %) completed a survey, which included 10 healthcare providers, 22 young adults, 14 teens, and 16 parents. We employed a qualitative thematic analysis of focus group transcript data and conducted frequency analysis of survey data, which were both reviewed and triangulated by a Community Advisory Board. Based on the results of this study, the tribal community advisory board identified local tribal settings for interventions to increase HPV vaccination coverage through health education classes and a school-based vaccination clinic. In addition to tribal community-wide education events to increase awareness of HPV disease, the HPV vaccine, provider-specific training was identified as a potential intervention. These community-based focus group findings underscore the importance of locally and cultural tailored educational interventions to further increase HPV knowledge and HPV vaccination among disparate populations like American Indian adolescent and young adult women.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Xu, Xianmin, Satoru Kobayashi, Kai Chen, Derek Timm, Paul Volden, Yuan Huang, . . . Qiangrong Liang. (2013). Diminished autophagy limits cardiac injury in mouse models of type 1 diabetes. The Journal of biological chemistry, 288(25), 18077-18092.
Cardiac autophagy is inhibited in type 1 diabetes. However, it remains unknown if the reduced autophagy contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. We addressed this question using mouse models with gain- and loss-of-autophagy. Autophagic flux was inhibited in diabetic hearts when measured at multiple time points after diabetes induction by streptozotocin as assessed by protein levels of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 form 2 (LC3-II) or GFP-LC3 puncta in the absence and presence of the lysosome inhibitor bafilomycin A1. Autophagy in diabetic hearts was further reduced in beclin 1- or Atg16-deficient mice but was restored partially or completely by overexpression of beclin 1 to different levels. Surprisingly, diabetes-induced cardiac damage was substantially attenuated in beclin 1- and Atg16-deficient mice as shown by improved cardiac function as well as reduced levels of oxidative stress, interstitial fibrosis, and myocyte apoptosis. In contrast, diabetic cardiac damage was dose-dependently exacerbated by beclin 1 overexpression. The cardioprotective effects of autophagy deficiency were reproduced in OVE26 diabetic mice. These effects were associated with partially restored mitophagy and increased expression and mitochondrial localization of Rab9, an essential regulator of a non-canonical alternative autophagic pathway. Together, these findings demonstrate that the diminished autophagy is an adaptive response that limits cardiac dysfunction in type 1 diabetes, presumably through up-regulation of alternative autophagy and mitophagy.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Avoseh, Mejai B. M. (2013). Proverbs as Theoretical Frameworks for Lifelong Learning in Indigenous African Education. Adult Education Quarterly, 63(3), 236-250.
Every aspect of a community’s life and values in indigenous Africa provide the theoretical framework for education. The holistic worldview of the traditional system places a strong emphasis on the centrality of the human element and orature in the symmetrical relationship between life and learning. This article focuses on proverbs and the words that form them as important sources of, and foundation for, indigenous African education. The article analyzes proverbs and the power of the spoken word in indigenous African pedagogy. The analysis is used to argue for an increased articulation of indigenous African knowledge into the dialogue on the inclusion of non-Western traditions in the theoretical frameworks for adult education. The article uses the traditional contexts of Ogu and Yoruba of West Africa but draws examples mostly from Yoruba proverbs to present their epistemological significance in traditional African education.
School of Education.
Flynn, Stephen V., Kelly J. Duncan, & Lori L. Evenson. (2013). An Emergent Phenomenon of American Indian Secondary Students’ Career Development Process. Career Development Quarterly, 61(2), 124-140.
Nine single-race American Indian secondary students’ career development experiences were examined through a phenomenological methodology. All 9 participants were in the transition period starting in late secondary school (age 18). Data sources included individual interviews and journal analysis. The phenomenon of American Indian secondary students’ career development process comprised 7 themes, which were integrated into 3 interacting dimensions: introspective, relational, and contextual. Findings reveal unique career development processes for American Indian secondary students living in tribal settings, including career decision process, career options, outcome expectations, and self-efficacy. Implications for school counselors and counselor educators are discussed.
School of Education.
Paquette, Daniel, Diana D. Coyl-Shepherd, & Lisa A. Newland. (2013). Fathers and development: new areas for exploration. Early Child Development & Care, 183(6), 735-745.
An introduction is presented in which the editor discusses various reports within the issue on topics including the key features of father child rough-and-tumble play, the link between rough-and-tumble play and the father-child activation relationship and the values of fathers and mothers in relation children’s social competence.
School of Education.
Youngbauer, Vincent W. (2013). Application of Media Literacy and Cultural Studies in K–12 Social Studies Curricula. Social Studies, 104(5), 183-189.
In 2009 the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) released a position statement calling for the implementation of media literacy in social studies education. NCSS argues that if today’s students are to become engaged citizens as adults, they must acquire the skills and knowledge associated with media literacy. Using this position statement as foundation, I developed a media literacy framework for use in the social studies classroom that applies prevailing theories on media and cultural studies. For consumers of media to engage in the practice of citizenship they need to acquire the tools needed to negotiate the waters of the many media texts that are produced. For a consumer of media texts to negotiate the meaning and influence of those texts, that consumer must use a framework that applies approaches that are historical, empirical, interpretive, and critical. As we shall see, these approaches are necessary if citizens are to engage effectively in a democracy that is flooded with such texts.
School of Education.
Beebe, Justin A., Roger W. Hines, Laura T. McDaniel, & Brenda L. Shelden. (2013). An isokinetic training program for reducing falls in a community-dwelling older adult: a case report. Journal of geriatric physical therapy (2001), 36(3), 146-153.
BACKGROUND: With the population older than 65 years, projected to double by the year 2030, falls in older adults are a substantial health concern. Muscle strength deficits are one of the multifactorial components linked to increased fall risk, and decreasing these deficits has been one of the goals of interventions designed to decrease fall risk. These interventions have traditionally focused on improving peak torque; however, recent research suggests that exercise protocols that focus on the rate of torque development (RTD) may be more effective in decreasing fall risk.; PURPOSE: This case report examines clinical outcomes following implementation of an isokinetic strengthening protocol coupled with a balance program designed to reduce fall risk in a community-dwelling older adult.; METHODS: The individual was a 70-year-old woman with a history of 3 falls over the past 8 months and no related medical etiology who had self-limited her activities because of fear of another fall. She was classified as having substantial risk for future falls because of fall history, increased fear of falling, and below age norms on the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and the Timed Up and Go (TUG). The treatment program consisted of 12 weeks of high-intensity isokinetic knee extensor training, high challenge dynamic gait and balance activities, and core strengthening. The isokinetic protocol consisted of 4 sets of 10 concentric-only repetitions at speeds of 240°/sec and 300°/sec for a total of 8 work sets. Dynamic gait activities incorporating directional and obstacle drills, and rocker and balance boards were used for balance training activities. Progressive theraband exercises were used for core strengthening. As her home program, the participant was encouraged to return to line dancing twice per week. During the 12-week protocol, the participant completed two 90-minute therapy sessions and two 90-minute dance classes per week.; RESULTS: After the 12 weeks of treatment, knee extensor peak torque at 150 ms improved on the right from 67.8 N to 107.1 N (57.9% increase), and on the left from 65.1 N to 97.6 N (49.9% increase). The BBS score improved from 45 to 52; and the TUG improved from 14.0 to 8.6 seconds. Both final scores exceeded fall risk cutoffs (BBS = 48; TUG = 13.5 seconds) and the change score exceeded minimal detectable change (BBS = 7; TUG 5.4 seconds).; CONCLUSIONS: The treatment program produced improvements in knee extensor peak torque and RTD, but more importantly, the final scores on the clinical outcome measures placed the participant above established fall-risk cutoff scores. Although future research with increased numbers of participants and a control group should be conducted to confirm this study’s results, these findings support the use of isokinetic training to reduce fall risk in older adults.
School of Health Sciences.
Ferley, Derek D., Roy W. Osborn, & Matthew D. Vukovich. (2013). The Effects of Uphill Vs. Level-Grade High-Intensity Interval Training on Vo2max, Vmax, VLT, and Tmax in Well-Trained Distance Runners. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins), 27(6), 1549-1559.
The article discusses research on distance running, with a focus on uphill running and high-intensity interval training on maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max), running speed associated with lactate threshold (VLT), running speed associated with Vo2max (Vmax), and sustained Vmax (Tmax). Topics include incline running, sprinting, and analysis of variance.
School of Health Sciences.
Karges, Joy Renae, Patrick Stephen Cross, Patrick L. Hauer, Heather Blom, Jared Burcham, Amanda K. Myers, & Casey Grimsrud. (2013). Effectiveness of the emergency response course in improving student physical therapists’ and licensed physical therapists’ decision-making related to acute sports injuries and medical conditions. International journal of sports physical therapy, 8(3), 277-289.
PURPOSE: To analyze the effectiveness of the American Red Cross Emergency Response Course (ARC ERC) in improving decision-making skills of physical therapists (PTs) and third semester clinical doctorate student physical therapists (SPTs) when assessing acute sports injuries and medical conditions.; METHODS: An existing questionnaire was modified, with permission from the original authors of the instrument. The questionnaire was administered to PTs and SPTs before the start of and immediately after the completion of 5 different ARC ERCs. The overall percentages of “Appropriate” responses for the 17 case scenarios were calculated for each participant for the pre-and post-tests. Participants also rated their perceived level of preparedness for managing various conditions using a 5-point Likert Scale (ranging from Prepared to Unprepared). The overall percentage of “Prepared/Somewhat Prepared” responses for the 16 medical conditions was calculated for each participant for the pre-and post-tests. In addition, mean Likert scale scores were calculated for level of perceived preparedness for each of the 16 medical conditions. Paired t-tests, calculated with SPSS 20.0, were used to analyze the data.; RESULTS: 37 of 37 (100.0%) of eligible PTs and 45 of 48 (93.8%) of eligible SPTs completed the pre- and post-test questionnaires. The percentage of “Appropriate” responses for all 17 cases in the aggregate (PTs: 76.8% pre-test, 89.0% post-test; SPTs: 68.5%, 84.3%), as well as the percentage of “Prepared/Somewhat Prepared” responses for all conditions in the aggregate (PTs: 67.5%, 96.5%; SPTs: 37.1%, 90.6%) were significantly different from pre-test to post-test (P = .000). There was also a significant difference (P < .05) in the mean overall preparedness Likert scale scores from pre-test to post-test for each medical condition for the SPT’s, and 15 of the 16 medical conditions (muscle strains: P = .119) for the PTs.; CONCLUSIONS: The ARC ERC appears to be effective in improving both PTs’ and SPTs’ decision-making skills related to acute sports injuries and medical conditions, as both “Appropriate” responses and perceived level of preparedness improved.; LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3.
School of Health Sciences.
Kindle, Peter A. (2013). The Financial Literacy of Social Work Students. Journal of Social Work Education, 49(3), 397-407.
The financial literacy of social work students has become the focus of curriculum development and research, but no study to date has attempted to assess the financial knowledge possessed by social work students. This study addressed that gap by assessing the level of objective financial knowledge reported by social work student respondents (N = 1,506) to an Internet-based survey. Results indicated that the majority of social work student respondents scored more than 70% correct on a 48-item measure of financial literacy. Multiple regression analysis explained 33.7% of the variance and suggested that the dominant pathway to acquiring objective financial knowledge is through personal experience. Accordingly, financial education programs for social work students may be most appropriate for traditional undergraduates.
School of Health Sciences.
Ko, Eunjeong, Soonhee Roh, & Doreen Higgins. (2013). Do Older Korean Immigrants Engage in End-of-Life Communication? Educational Gerontology, 39(8), 613-622.
End-of-life communication is an important process as it allows individuals’ treatment preferences to be known, yet not every culture is receptive to such discussions. Planning for end-of-life care is not readily supported in Asian culture, and little is known about individuals’ communication with family and health care professionals among older Korean immigrants related to end-of-life care. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 195 older Korean immigrants on end-of-life communication. Measures include end-of-life communication, attitudes toward end-of-life communication, perceived burden, number of adult children in the United States, health status, and sociodemographic variables. Overall, 21.9% (n = 42) of participants reported to have discussed their end-of-life treatment preferences with others, primarily family members. Attitudes toward end-of-life discussions, perceived burden, religiosity, and the number of children in the U.S. significantly accounted for end-of-life communication. Culturally appropriate interventions are recommended to promote dialogue regarding treatment preferences among older adults, family, and health care professionals.
School of Health Sciences.

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