Posted by: reganenosusd | August 31, 2015

Fall 2015

Ghersa, F., J. Burdisso, S. S. Vallcaneras, …., Carlos M. Telleria, & M. Casais. (2015). Neuromodulation of the luteal regression: presence of progesterone receptors in coeliac ganglion. Experimental Physiology, 100(8), 935-946.

New Findings What is the central question of this study? The processes involved in luteal involution have not yet been clarified and, in general, have been studied only from a hormonal point of view. We investigated whether progesterone, from the coeliac ganglion through the superior ovarian nerve, is able to modify the luteal regression of late pregnancy in the rat. What is the main finding and its importance? We showed that the luteal regression might be reversed by the neural effect of progesterone and demonstrated the presence of its receptors in the coeliac ganglion. This suggests that the peripheral neural pathway, through neuron-hormone interaction, represents an additional mechanism to control luteal function in addition to the classical endocrine regulation. The corpus luteum (CL) is a transitory endocrine gland that produces progesterone (P). At the end of its useful life, it suffers a process of functional and structural regression until its complete disappearance from the ovary. To investigate whether P is able to regulate the process of luteal regression through the peripheral neural pathway, we used the coeliac ganglion (CG)-superior ovarian nerve-ovary system from rats on day21 of pregnancy. We stimulated the CG with P and analysed the functional regression through ovarian P release measured by radioimmunoassay, expression by RT-PCR and activity of luteal 3- and 20-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (anabolic and catabolic P enzymes, respectively). The luteal structural regression was evaluated through a study of apoptosis measured by TUNEL assay and the expression of apoptotic factors, such as Bcl-2, Bax, Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) by RT-PCR. To explore whether the effects mediated by P on the CL may be associated with P receptors, their presence in the CG was investigated by immunohistochemistry. In the group stimulated with P in the CG, the ovarian P release and the 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity increased, whereas the expression and activity of 20-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase decreased. In addition, a decrease in the number of apoptotic nuclei and a decrease of the expression of FasL were observed. We demonstrated the presence of P receptors in the CG. Overall, our results suggest that the regression of the CL of late pregnancy may be reprogrammed through the peripheral neural pathway, and this effect might be mediated by P bound to its receptor in the CG.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Halaby, M. J., Y. Li, B. R. Harris, S. X. Jiang, W. Keith Miskimins, M. P. Cleary, & D. Q. Yang. (2015). Translational Control Protein 80 Stimulates IRES-Mediated Translation of p53 mRNA in Response to DNA Damage. Biomed Research International, 9.

Synthesis of the p53 tumor suppressor increases following DNA damage. This increase and subsequent activation of p53 are essential for the protection of normal cells against tumorigenesis. We previously discovered an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that is located at the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of p53 mRNA and found that the IRES activity increases following DNA damage. However, the mechanism underlying IRES-mediated p53 translation in response to DNA damage is still poorly understood. In this study, we discovered that translational control protein 80 (TCP80) has increased binding to the p53 mRNA in vivo following DNA damage. Overexpression of TCP80 also leads to increased p53 IRES activity in response to DNA damage. TCP80 has increased association with RNA helicase A (RHA) following DNA damage and overexpression of TCP80, along with RHA, leads to enhanced expression of p53. Moreover, we found that MCF-7 breast cancer cells with decreased expression of TCP80 and RHA exhibit defective p53 induction following DNA damage and diminished expression of its downstream target PUMA, a proapoptotic protein. Taken together, our discovery of the function of TCP80 and RHA in regulating p53 IRES and p53 induction following DNA damage provides a better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate IRES-mediated p53 translation in response to genotoxic stress.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Novick, Andrew M., Gina L. Forster, James E. Hassell, Daniel R. Davies, Jamie L. Scholl, Kenneth J. Renner,& Michael J. Watt. (2015). Increased dopamine transporter function as a mechanism for dopamine hypoactivity in the adult infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex following adolescent social stress. Neuropharmacology, 97, 194-200.

Being bullied during adolescence is associated with later mental illnesses characterized by deficits in cognitive tasks mediated by prefrontal cortex (PFC) dopamine (DA). Social defeat of adolescent male rats, as a model of teenage bullying victimization, results in medial PFC (mPFC) dopamine (DA) hypofunction in adulthood that is associated with increased drug seeking and working memory deficits. Increased expression of the DA transporter (DAT) is also seen in the adult infralimbic mPFC following adolescent defeat. We propose the functional consequence of this increased DAT expression is enhanced DA clearance and subsequently decreased infralimbic mPFC DA availability. To test this, in vivo chronoamperometry was used to measure changes in accumulation of the DA signal following DAT blockade, with increased DAT-mediated clearance being reflected by lower DA signal accumulation. Previously defeated rats and controls were pre-treated with the norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor desipramine (20 mg/kg, ip.) to isolate infralimbic mPFC DA clearance to DAT, then administered the selective DAT inhibitor GBR-12909 (20 or 40 mg/kg, sc.). Sole NET inhibition with desipramine produced no differences in DA signal accumulation between defeated rats and controls. However, rats exposed to adolescent social defeat demonstrated decreased DA signal accumulation compared to controls in response to both doses of GBR-12909, indicating greater DAT-mediated clearance of infralimbic mPFC DA. These results suggest that protracted increases in infralimbic mPFC DAT function represent a mechanism by which adolescent social defeat stress produces deficits in adult mPFC DA activity and corresponding behavioral and cognitive dysfunction.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Ranek, Mark J., Hanqiao Zheng, Wei Huang, Asangi R. Kumarapeli, Jie Li, Jinbao Liu, & Xuejun Wang. (2015). Genetically induced moderate inhibition of 20S proteasomes in cardiomyocytes facilitates heart failure in mice during systolic overload. Journal of Molecular & Cellular Cardiology, 85, 273-281.

The in vivo function status of the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) in pressure overloaded hearts remains undefined. Cardiotoxicity was observed during proteasome inhibitor chemotherapy, especially in those with preexisting cardiovascular conditions; however, proteasome inhibition (PsmI) was also suggested by some experimental studies as a potential therapeutic strategy to curtail cardiac hypertrophy. Here we used genetic approaches to probe cardiac UPS performance and determine the impact of cardiomyocyte-restricted PsmI (CR-PsmI) on cardiac responses to systolic overload. Transgenic mice expressing an inverse reporter of the UPS (GFPdgn) were subject to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to probe myocardial UPS performance during systolic overload. Mice with or without moderate CR-PsmI were subject to TAC and temporally characterized for cardiac responses to moderate and severe systolic overload. After moderate TAC (pressure gradient: ~ 40 mm Hg), cardiac UPS function was upregulated during the first two weeks but turned to functional insufficiency between 6 and 12 weeks as evidenced by the dynamic changes in GFPdgn protein levels, proteasome peptidase activities, and total ubiquitin conjugates. Severe TAC (pressure gradients > 60 mm Hg) led to UPS functional insufficiency within a week. Moderate TAC elicited comparable hypertrophic responses between mice with and without genetic CR-PsmI but caused cardiac malfunction in CR-PsmI mice significantly earlier than those without CR-PsmI. In mice subject to severe TAC, CR-PsmI inhibited cardiac hypertrophy but led to rapidly progressed heart failure and premature death, associated with a pronounced increase in cardiomyocyte death. It is concluded that cardiac UPS function is dynamically altered, with the initial brief upregulation of proteasome function being adaptive; and CR-PsmI facilitates cardiac malfunction during systolic overload.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Broadbent, C. D., D. S. Brookshire, Mark D. Dixon, & …. (2015). Valuing preservation and restoration alternatives for ecosystem services in the southwestern USA. Ecohydrology, 8(5), 851-862.

Conservation of freshwater ecosystems in the semi-arid southwestern USA is a critical issue as these systems support habitat for wildlife and provide consumptive use for humankind. Economists have utilized stated preference techniques to value non-marketed goods and services such as freshwater ecosystems for much of the last four decades. Recently, Boyd and Banzhaf (2007) have advocated for ecosystem accounting units to be created in valuing ecosystem services such as freshwater ecosystems. Working collectively, a team of physical and social scientists developed a set of ecological endpoints for two river regions in the southwestern USA and used these ecological endpoints in a contingent valuation survey to obtain willingness to pay values for restoration and preservation alternatives. The results demonstrate statistically significant preservation and restoration estimates for the Upper San Pedro and restoration estimates for the Middle Rio Grande ecosystems. Copyright (c) 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Biology Department.

Dixon, Mark D., Christopher J. Boever, Victoria L. Danzeisen, Christopher L. Merkord, Eszter C. Munes, Michael L. Scott, . . . Tim C. Cowman. (2015). Effects of a “natural’ flood event on the riparian ecosystem of a regulated large-river system: the 2011 flood on the Missouri River, USA. Ecohydrology, 8(5), 812-824.

Flow regulation has significantly altered hydrological, geomorphic, and ecological processes on the Missouri River. Cumulative effects are evident in declines in cottonwood (Populus deltoides) recruitment and in altered forest age structure and composition. Record runoff in 2011 exceeded reservoir capacity on the Upper and Middle Missouri, leading to a 500-year recurrence interval flood in terms of volume, with the highest peak discharge in 59years and flood durations of up to 3months. We assessed the effects of this large infrequent disturbance’ by comparing pre-flood (2006-2009) to post-flood (2012) changes in riparian forests along two unchannelized segments of the Missouri River. Live shrub and tree density declined sharply within young forest stands (<30years). Higher proportions of non-native (Elaeagnus angustifolia) and upland (Juniperus virginiana) trees showed evidence of recent mortality than did the native cottonwood. Sandbar area increased sharply from 2006 to 2012 and area of young forests declined, with particularly sharp declines in sapling stands that had established following the previous post-dam record flow releases in 1997. Cottonwood recruitment was widespread in 2012, but nearly all seedling patches occurred on sandbars in the active channel rather than on overbank sites, with moderately high (61-77%) seedling mortality over 2012-2013. Physical and operational constraints within the regulated Missouri River limited the restorative effects of the 2011 flood and will likely limit future forest recovery. Process-based riparian restoration would require restoring flow and sediment regimes that more closely mimic historical conditions, as well as overcoming the physical legacies of decades of flow regulation. Copyright (c) 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Biology Department.

Harmon, Erin, Marisa O. King, Zhang Yufeng,& David L. Swanson. (2015). Summer-to-Winter Phenotypic Flexibility of Fatty Acid Transport and Catabolism in Skeletal Muscle and Heart of Small Birds. Physiological& Biochemical Zoology, 88(5), 535-549.

Prolonged shivering in birds is mainly fueled by lipids. Consequently, lipid transport and catabolism are vital for thermogenic performance and could be upregulated along with thermogenic capacity as part of the winter phenotype. We investigated summer-to-winter variation in lipid transport and catabolism by measuring mRNA expression, protein levels, and enzyme activities for several key steps of lipid transport and catabolic pathways in pectoralis muscle and heart in two small temperate-zone resident birds, American goldfinches (Spinus tristis) and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Cytosolic fatty acid binding protein (FABPc; a key component of intramyocyte lipid transport) mRNA and/or protein levels were generally higher in winter for pectoralis muscle and heart for both species. However, seasonal variation in plasma membrane lipid transporters, fatty acyl translocase, and plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein in pectoralis and heart differed between the two species, with winter increases for chickadees and seasonal stability or summer increases for goldfinches. Catabolic enzyme activities generally showed limited seasonal differences for both tissues and both species. These data suggest that FABPc is an important target of upregulation for the winter phenotype in pectoralis and heart of both species. Plasma membrane lipid transporters and lipid catabolic capacity were also elevated in winter for chickadees but not for goldfinches. Because the two species show differential regulation of distinct aspects of lipid transport and catabolism, these data are consistent with other recent studies documenting that different bird species or populations employ a variety of strategies to promote elevated winter thermogenic capacity.

Biology Department.

Johnson, W. C., M. A. Volke, Michael L. Scott, & Mark D. Dixon. (2015). The dammed Missouri: prospects for recovering Lewis and Clark’s River. Ecohydrology, 8(5), 765-771.

The world’s dams and reservoirs are aging. The ecological effects of a half-century or more of flow regulation and sediment alteration are becoming apparent. What remains of the highly dynamic channel and riparian ecosystem of the Missouri River described by Lewis and Clark has become static. Recent long-term studies have determined that some of the impacts on the Missouri River ecosystem turned out as predicted, such as the failure of cottonwood-dominated riparian forests to successfully establish and survive on a broad scale. Other changes were surprises, such as the effect of disease eliminating a formerly dominant tree species and the appearance of mainstem and tributary deltas affecting channel slope, floodplain hydrology, and vegetation. Restoration of the river’s hydrologic and sediment regime has been delayed long enough that the chances of functional ecosystem restoration have been greatly reduced and complicated. Two phases are now needed to attempt to restore the riparian ecosystem: one to repair the effects of post-dam changes (channel incision, bank stabilization) and another to reestablish pre-dam flow and sediment regimes. The prospects for restoration of this valuable ecosystem, rich in history and in goods and services provided to the public, are dim. Time has diminished the chances that restoration or even rehabilitation can be achieved. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Biology Department.

Zhang, Yufeng F., Kathy Eyster, J. S. Liu, & David L. Swanson. (2015). Cross-training in birds: cold and exercise training produce similar changes in maximal metabolic output, muscle masses and myostatin expression in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Journal of Experimental Biology, 218(14), 2190-2200.

Maximal metabolic outputs for exercise and thermogenesis in birds presumably influence fitness through effects on flight and shivering performance. Because both summit (M-sum, maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate) and maximum (MMR, maximum exercise metabolic rate) metabolic rates are functions of skeletal muscle activity, correlations between these measurements and their mechanistic underpinnings might occur. To examine whether such correlations occur, we measured the effects of experimental cold and exercise training protocols for 3 weeks on body (M-b) and muscle (M-pec) masses, basalmetabolic rate(BMR), M-sum, MMR, pectoralism RNA and protein expression for myostatin, and mRNA expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2 (metalloproteinase activators of myostatin) in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Both training protocols increased M-sum, MMR, M-b and M-pec, but BMR increased with cold training and decreased with exercise training. No significant differences occurred for pectoralis myostatin mRNA expression, but cold and exercise increased the expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2. Pectoralis myostatin protein levels were generally reduced for both training groups. These data clearly demonstrate cross-training effects of cold and exercise in birds, and are consistent with a role for myostatin in increasing pectoralis muscle mass and driving organismal increases in metabolic capacities.

Biology Department.

Zhang, Yufeng F., Marissa O. King, Erin Harmon, & David L. Swanson. (2015). Summer-to-Winter Phenotypic Flexibility of Fatty Acid Transport and Catabolism in Skeletal Muscle and Heart of Small Birds. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 88(5), 535-549.

Prolonged shivering in birds is mainly fueled by lipids. Consequently, lipid transport and catabolism are vital for thermogenic performance and could be upregulated along with thermogenic capacity as part of the winter phenotype. We investigated summer-to-winter variation in lipid transport and catabolism by measuring mRNA expression, protein levels, and enzyme activities for several key steps of lipid transport and catabolic pathways in pectoralis muscle and heart in two small temperate-zone resident birds, American goldfinches (Spinus tristis) and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Cytosolic fatty acid binding protein (FABP(c); a key component of intramyocyte lipid transport) mRNA and/or protein levels were generally higher in winter for pectoralis muscle and heart for both species. However, seasonal variation in plasma membrane lipid transporters, fatty acyl translocase, and plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein in pectoralis and heart differed between the two species, with winter increases for chickadees and seasonal stability or summer increases for goldfinches. Catabolic enzyme activities generally showed limited seasonal differences for both tissues and both species. These data suggest that FABP(c) is an important target of upregulation for the winter phenotype in pectoralis and heart of both species. Plasma membrane lipid transporters and lipid catabolic capacity were also elevated in winter for chickadees but not for goldfinches. Because the two species show differential regulation of distinct aspects of lipid transport and catabolism, these data are consistent with other recent studies documenting that different bird species or populations employ a variety of strategies to promote elevated winter thermogenic capacity.

Biology Department.

Eichler, B., J. Erickson, J. Keppen, Andrew Sykes, & Grigoriy Sereda. (2015). A non-planar crystal polymorph of 1,2-bis(9-anthracenyl)ethyne. Tetrahedron Letters, 56(31), 4574-4577.

1,2-Bis(9-anthracenyl)ethyne was synthesized and a new crystal polymorph was discovered. The previously reported structure was completely planar with a torsional angle between the two anthracenyl rings of 0.0 degrees, whereas the new polymorph had a torsional angle of 66.6 degrees. The new polymorph also stacks differently between molecules and has greater pi-electron overlap. In solution, the spectroscopic characteristics of both polymorphs were identical, but in the solid-state, results of red-shifted spectra for the co-planar polymorph indicate a strikingly simple example of the effect on UV-vis and fluorescence spectra of extending pi-conjugation wrapped up in one molecule with two polymorphs. It was also determined that the co-planar polymorph is favored with rapid crystallization, whereas the twisted polymorph prefers slow crystallization. This may indicate that the co-planar polymorph is kinetically favored and the twisted polymorph is thermodynamically favored. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

Kilina, Svetlana, Dmitri Kilin, & Sergei Tretiak. (2015). Light-Driven and Phonon-Assisted Dynamics in Organic and Semiconductor Nanostructures. Chemical Reviews, 115(12), 5929-5978.

The article discusses photophysical properties, sensitivity to the structural disorder and surface effects of semiconductor colloidal quantum dots (QD), single-walled carbon nanotubes and conjugated polymers also called organic semiconductors. It highlights the role of computational modeling to elucidate structure-function relationship in nanostructured materials and talks about geometry optimization and electronic structure calculation along with QD-ligand interactions.

Chemistry Department.

Mahoney, Luther, Rui Peng, Chia-Ming Wu, Jonas Baltrusaitis, & Ranjit T. Koodali. (2015). Solar simulated hydrogen evolution using cobalt oxide nanoclusters deposited on titanium dioxide mesoporous materials prepared by evaporation induced self-assembly process. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 40(34), 10795-10806.

Cobalt containing TiO 2 mesoporous materials were prepared by Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly (EISA) process. The resulting mesoporous materials were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen physisorption, Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The photocatalytic activities of the mesoporous materials were investigated for hydrogen production under solar simulated conditions. The non-modified TiO 2 sample produced only 4 μmole H 2 /g catalyst after 4 h of irradiation. In contrast, the Co containing mesoporous materials produced significantly higher amounts of hydrogen under identical conditions. The highest solar hydrogen evolution (634 μmole H 2 /g catalyst after 4 h of irradiation) was from the Co-TiO 2 -0.5 material. The physico-chemical characterization results indicate that the Co 2+ ions are dispersed as oxide species on the surface of the mesoporous titania. These cobalt surface species act as trap sites preventing recombination of the charge carriers as shown by PL measurements. The addition of Co 2+ ions to the synthesis mixture prevents the formation of anatase-to-rutile which favorably permits more solar hydrogen production.

Chemistry Department.

Chiang, Jyun-You, Tzong-Ru Tsai, Y. Lio Lio, Wanbo Lu, & Daimin Shi. (2015). An integrated approach for the optimization of tolerance design and quality cost. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 87, 186-192.

Different normality-based optimization strategy (NBOS) methods have been developed and used to perform quality improvement in the past few decays. Improving the quality of a production process using a NBOS method possibly incurs misleading results if the quality measurements follow a skewed distribution. An integrated model, with components of a tolerance cost model for the determinations of optimal tolerance limits and a quality investment model for the identification of optimal investment level, is applied to establish a new optimization strategy method for the skew normal distribution (SND), named SNDOS method. The SND generalizes the normal distribution to include skewed distributions as members, and hence the SNDOS method is applicable for quality improvement either the distribution of quality measurements follow a symmetric or skewed distribution. Two examples about car seat production process are used to illustrate the application of the SNDOS method. The sensitivity of the SNDOS method to the loss coefficient of the integrated model is evaluated for different inputs of the skewness parameter of the SND through a numerical study.

Mathematics Department.

Tsai, Tzong-Ru, Yuhlong Lio, Nan Jiang, Yu-Jau Lin, & Ya-Yen Fan. (2015). Economical sampling plans with warranty based on truncated data from Burr type XII distribution. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 66(9), 1511-1518.

Economical sampling plans to ensure the qualities of Burr type XII distributed lifetimes were established using a truncated life test. The Bayesian inference method was used to address the lot-to-lot variation of products. The sampling plan was characterized by the sample size and the acceptance number to minimize the expected total cost. A simple empirical Bayesian estimation method was provided to estimate the hyperparameters of prior distribution, and simulation studies were conducted to validate the proposed empirical Bayesian estimation method. Lastly, the application of this proposed method was illustrated using two examples.

Mathematics Department.

Bahar, A. N., S. Waheed, & Nazir Hossain. (2015). A new approach of presenting reversible logic gate in nanoscale. Springerplus, 4, 7.

Conventional lithography-based VLSI design technology deployed to optimize low-powered-computing and higher scale integration of semiconductor components. However, this downscaling trend confronts serious challenges of tunneling and leakage current increment to the Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology on nanoscale regimes. To resolve the physical restriction of the CMOS, Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) technology dedicates for the nanoscale technology that embrace a new information transformation technique. However, QCA is limited to the design of the sequential and combinational circuits only. This paper presents some highly scalable features reversible logic gate for the QCA technology. In addition, proposed layout compared with CMOS technology, offer a better reduction in size up to 233 times.

Physics Department.

Miller, Ross A., L. L. Waters, D. R. Mody, & Kimberlee C. Tams. (2015). Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix A Cytology-Histology-Human Papillomavirus Correlation in Clinical Practice. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 139(6), 776-781.

Context.-Cervical cancer mortality has declined by 74% in the United States since the implementation of the Papanicolaou (Pap) test. Nevertheless, more than 12 000 US women annually develop cervical cancer, and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCa) remains the predominant cervical malignancy. Objective.-To evaluate screening techniques used in the detection of SqCa of the cervix and provide insights regarding which technique(s) is (are) most efficacious in our study population. Design.-We retrospectively reviewed all available cytologic, human papillomavirus (HPV), and histologic malignancy burden data from patients diagnosed with SqCa. The clinical data were collected from 2 geographically and socioeconomically diverse hospital systems. Cases in which identified patients had a Pap test with a negative result/unsatisfactory specimen within 5 years of SqCa tissue diagnosis were considered Pap test screening failures. Cases in which patients were diagnosed with HPV-negative SqCa were considered HPV screening failures. Results.-Eighty-eight cases (patients’ ages ranging from 19 to 73 years) were identified. Of those, cytologic history was available for 64 cases present in our electronic medical history record. Three cases were cytology screening failures (one being an unsatisfactory specimen) and 3 cases were HPV screening failures (one being the cytologic unsatisfactory case). Although measuring sensitivity in practice has limitations, we calculated the SqCa detection sensitivity at 95.3% by Pap test alone and 97% when HPV DNA testing was incorporated. Conclusions.-Our results highlight the necessity of combining Pap and HPV testing. Although the number of cases identified is relatively small, our data suggest detection failures will decrease as the practice of combining HPV and Pap testing increases.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

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