Posted by: reganenosusd | September 10, 2014

September 2014

Klonoski, Joshua M., Hurtig, Heather R., Juber, Brian A., Schuneman, Margaret J., Bickett, Thomas E.,Svendsen, Joshua M., Burum, Brandon, Penfound, Thomas A., Sereda, Grigoriy,Dale, James B., Chaussee, Michael S., & Huber, Victor C. (2014). Vaccination against the M protein of Streptococcus pyogenes prevents death after influenza virus:S. pyogenes super-infection. Vaccine, 32(40), 5241-5249.

Influenza virus infections are associated with a significant number of illnesses and deaths on an annual basis. Many of the deaths are due to complications from secondary bacterial invaders, including Streptococcus pneumoniae , Staphylococcus aureus , Haemophilus influenzae , and Streptococcus pyogenes . The β-hemolytic bacteria S. pyogenes colonizes both skin and respiratory surfaces, and frequently presents clinically as strep throat or impetigo. However, when these bacteria gain access to normally sterile sites, they can cause deadly diseases including sepsis, necrotizing fasciitis, and pneumonia. We previously developed a model of influenza virus: S. pyogenes super-infection, which we used to demonstrate that vaccination against influenza virus can limit deaths associated with a secondary bacterial infection, but this protection was not complete. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of a vaccine that targets the M protein of S. pyogenes to determine whether immunity toward the bacteria alone would allow the host to survive an influenza virus: S. pyogenes super-infection. Our data demonstrate that vaccination against the M protein induces IgG antibodies, in particular those of the IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes, and that these antibodies can interact with macrophages. Ultimately, this vaccine-induced immunity eliminated death within our influenza virus: S. pyogenes super-infection model, despite the fact that all M protein-vaccinated mice showed signs of illness following influenza virus inoculation. These findings identify immunity against bacteria as an important component of protection against influenza virus:bacteria super-infection.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus [Everyone whose underlined except Sereda and Burum].

Chemistry Department [Sereda and Burum].

Barr, Jeffrey L., Forster, Gina L., & Unterwald, Ellen M. (2014). Repeated cocaine enhances ventral hippocampal-stimulated dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens and alters ventral hippocampal NMDA receptor subunit expression. Journal of Neurochemistry, 130(4), 583-590.

Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens is important for various reward-related cognitive processes including reinforcement learning. Repeated cocaine enhances hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and phasic elevations of accumbal dopamine evoked by unconditioned stimuli are dependent on impulse flow from the ventral hippocampus. Therefore, sensitized hippocampal activity may be one mechanism by which drugs of abuse enhance limbic dopaminergic activity. In this study, in vivo microdialysis in freely moving adult male Sprague-Dawley rats was used to investigate the effect of repeated cocaine on ventral hippocampus-mediated dopaminergic transmission within the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens. Following seven daily injections of saline or cocaine (20 mg/kg, ip), unilateral infusion of N-methyl- d-aspartate ( NMDA, 0.5 μg) into the ventral hippocampus transiently increased both motoric activity and ipsilateral dopamine efflux in the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens, and this effect was greater in rats that received repeated cocaine compared to controls that received repeated saline. In addition, repeated cocaine altered NMDA receptor subunit expression in the ventral hippocampus, reducing the NR2A : NR2B subunit ratio. Together, these results suggest that repeated exposure to cocaine produces maladaptive ventral hippocampal-nucleus accumbens communication, in part through changes in glutamate receptor composition.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Tian, Zongwen, Wang, Changhua,Hu, Chengjun, Tian, Yihao, Liu, J. B., & Wang, Xuejun. (2014). Autophagic-Lysosomal Inhibition Compromises Ubiquitin-Proteasome System Performance in a p62 Dependent Manner in Cardiomyocytes. Plos One, 9(6).

Intracellular protein degradation is primarily performed by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagic-lysosomal pathway (ALP). The interplay between these two pathways has been rarely examined in intact animals and the mechanism underlying the interplay remains unclear. Hence, we sought to test in vivo and in vitro the impact of inhibition of the ALP on UPS proteolytic performance in cardiomyocytes and to explore the underlying mechanism. Transgenic mice ubiquitously expressing a surrogate UPS substrate (GFPdgn) were treated with bafilomycin-A1 (BFA) to inhibit the ALP. Myocardial and renal GFPdgn protein levels but not mRNA levels were increased at 24 hours but not 3 hours after the first injection of BFA. Myocardial protein abundance of key proteasome subunits and the activities of proteasomal peptidases were not discernibly altered by the treatment. In cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs), the surrogate UPS substrate GFPu and a control red fluorescence protein (RFP) were co-expressed to probe UPS performance. At 12 hours or 24 hours after ALP inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or BFA, GFPu/RFP protein ratios and the protein half-life of GFPu were significantly increased, which is accompanied by increases in p62 proteins. Similar findings were obtained when ALP was inhibited genetically via silencing Atg7 or Rab7. ALP inhibition-induced increases in GFPu and p62 are co-localized in NRVMs. siRNA-mediated p62 knockdown prevented ALP inhibition from inducing GFPu accumulation in NRVMs. We conclude that in a p62-dependent fashion, ALP inhibition impairs cardiac UPS proteolytic performance in cardiomyocytes in vitro and in vivo.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Ghose, Sonia L., Donnelly, Maureen A., Kerby, Jacob,& Whitfield, Steven M. (2014). Acute toxicity tests and meta-analysis identify gaps in tropical ecotoxicology for amphibians. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry, 33(9), 2114-2119.

Amphibian populations are declining worldwide, particularly in tropical regions where amphibian diversity is highest. Pollutants, including agricultural pesticides, have been identified as a potential contributor to decline, yet toxicological studies of tropical amphibians are very rare. The present study assesses toxic effects on amphibians of 10 commonly used commercial pesticides in tropical agriculture using 2 approaches. First, the authors conducted 8-d toxicity assays with formulations of each pesticide using individually reared red-eyed tree frog ( Agalychnis callidryas) tadpoles. Second, they conducted a review of available data for the lethal concentration to kill 50% of test animals from the US Environmental Protection Agency’s ECOTOX database to allow comparison with their findings. Lethal concentration estimates from the assays ranged over several orders of magnitude. The nematicides terbufos and ethoprophos and the fungicide chlorothalonil were very highly toxic, with evident effects within an order of magnitude of environmental concentrations. Acute toxicity assays and meta-analysis show that nematicides and fungicides are generally more toxic than herbicides yet receive far less research attention than less toxic herbicides. Given that the tropics have a high diversity of amphibians, the findings emphasize the need for research into the effects of commonly used pesticides in tropical countries and should help guide future ecotoxicological research in tropical regions.

Biology Department.

Monroe, E. M., & Britten, Hugh B. (2014). Conservation in Hine’s sight: the conservation genetics of the federally endangered Hine’s emerald dragonfly, Somatochlora hineana. Journal of Insect Conservation, 18(3), 353-363.

Hine’s emerald dragonfly (Somatochlora hineana) is distributed in discrete fen and wet meadow habitats over its range from Ontario, Canada, to Missouri, USA. Habitat destruction in the vicinity of Chicago, IL, and other areas lead to its designation as an US federal endangered species in 1995. Our main goal was to delineate the population genetic structure of the species within the northern recovery unit centered on the Door Peninsula in Wisconsin and the southern recovery unit in the Des Plaines River Valley near Chicago, IL. Sites on the Door Peninsula, WI, are in a matrix of agricultural development and second-growth forest and were used as a best available approximation of a pristine system for the dragonfly. We nondestructively sampled 557 adults and larvae from 16 sites in Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin from 2008 through 2011 and used ten microsatellite markers to estimate levels of genetic variability, and genetic structure. Mean allelic richness across all sites and years was 5.03 (+/- 0.64) and expected heterozygosity was 0.52 (+/- 0.032). Northern and southern recovery units as designated in the original recovery plan were genetically distinct. We delineated two genetic populations in the northern unit and three within the southern including two disjunct sites.

Biology Department.

Qiu, Chao, Bao, Ying,Netzer, Nathan L., & Jiang, Chaoyang. (2014). Environment-dependent optical scattering of cuprous oxide microcrystals in liquid dispersions and Langmuir-Blodgett films. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 2(29), 5910-5915.

Optical properties of semiconductor materials are important for their broad applications, especially when the materials are nano-and micrometer crystals. Here we show that cuprous oxide microcrystals have three extinction peaks that are environment sensitive in the visible-near infrared region. The extinction peaks show a linear blue shift with the increase in refractive index of the surrounding medium. The environment-dependent shift of extinction spectra can also be observed for cuprous oxide in cast films and Langmuir-Blodgett films. The sensitivity of environment-dependent optical behavior depends on the energy of the extinction peaks. Both experimental work and theoretical calculation on the environment-dependent spectra of cuprous oxide microcrystals provide valuable knowledge on these functional semiconductor materials for various applications.

Chemistry Department.

St. Louis, Kenneth O., Williams, Mandy J., Ware, Mercedes B., Guendouzi, Jacqueline, & Reichel, Isabella K. (2014). The Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S) and Bipolar Adjective Scale (BAS): Aspects of validity. Journal of Communication Disorders, 50, 36-50.

Purpose In order to estimate instrument validity, attitudes toward stuttering measured by the newly developed Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S) and the Woods and Williams (1976) semantic differential scale (referred to herein as the Bipolar Adjective Scale [BAS]) are compared in college students on one occasion as well as before and after coursework on fluency disorders. Method Undergraduate and graduate students (n = 321) from four universities filled out online versions of the POSHA-S and BAS. Two-thirds were speech-language pathology (SLP) majors; one-third were students in other majors. A subset of the SLP students (n = 35) filled out the two instruments again after 8-13 weeks of coursework on fluency disorders. Results Correlations between all ratings of the POSHA-S and BAS were run for the 321 students. Only 26% of the correlations were statistically significant (R ≥±0.129), and the large majority of these reflected small relationships. POSHA-S ratings were correlated with up to 77% of the items of the BAS while BAS items were correlated with up to 45% of the POSHA-S ratings. After coursework on stuttering, students’ attitudes improved on both instruments, but more on the POSHA-S than the BAS. Conclusions Greater evidence of discriminant validity than convergent validity characterized the POSHA-S and BAS. Both measures showed improved attitudes after fluency disorders coursework, but more so for the POSHA-S, confirming previous reports of construct validity. The POSHA-S taps relevant constructs not included in the BAS, which provide advantages for intracultural, international, and other comparisons of public attitudes toward stuttering. Learning outcomes: The reader will be able to: (1) describe differentiating characteristics of the POSHA-S and BAS as measures of public attitudes toward stuttering, (2) describe the overlap and lack of overlap in the constructs measured by POSHA-S and BAS, (3) describe discriminant versus convergent validity and (4) describe advantages of the POSHA-S and BAS in various types of comparative studies of stuttering attitudes.

Communications Disorders Department.

Ehsan, Md. Amimul, Khizar, M., Raja, M. Y. A., & Mei, Dongming. (2014). Numerical Analysis of a-Si/c-Si1-xGex/c-Si Heterostructures Based on Si and Ge Thin-Film Solar Cells. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 39(7), 5347-5353.

The electrical transport properties of a-Si/cSi(1-x)Ge(x)/c-Si heterostructure thin-film solar cells are described. A lattice mismatch of similar to 4.17 % between Si and Ge is always challenging when considering such material system. Numerical optimization of the layer by layer structure shows that Si absorber and p Si1-xGex strained layers play a critical role to improve the light absorption properties of a-Si/c-Si1-xGex/c-Si heterostructure for their infrared detection applications. For this study, a finite element analysis technique is used to solve the fully coupled two carrier semiconductor transport equations. Obtained results show a substantial enhancement in the conversion efficiency of the newly designed a-Si/c-Si1-xGex/c-Si heterostructure thin-film solar cell. Achieved enhancement in conversion efficiency is attributed due to a noticeable improvement in the open circuit voltage (V-OC) and a corresponding increase in the optical path lengths. Comparative study of the Si-and Ge-based thin-film solar cells shows that the conversion efficiency of Si-based heterostructures is better than germanium mainly due to the low thermal and lattice mismatch of Si to the design hetero-epitaxial structure. As much as a conversion efficiency of similar to 21.19 % was calculated for a-Si/cSi(1-x)Ge(x)/c-Si heterostructure thin-film solar cell.

Physics Department.

Messier, Erick C., Quevillon, Randal P., & Simons, Jeffrey S. (2014). The Effect of Perceived Parental Approval of Drinking on Alcohol Use and Problems. Journal of Alcohol& Drug Education, 58(1), 44-59.

The relationship between perceived parental approval of drinking and alcohol use and problems was explored with undergraduate students in a small midwestern university. Participants completed a survey measuring demographic information, perceived approval of drinking, and alcohol use and problems. Results indicated perceived parental approval of drinking was significantly related to alcohol use and problems. Path analysis demonstrated perceived parental approval of drinking affected weekly drinking quantity, alcohol use frequency, and negative consequences of alcohol indirectly through perceived friends’ approval of drinking. There was also a significant direct effect from parental approval to alcohol use frequency. These findings suggest that parents may influence their children’s drinking by mechanisms such as affecting peer selection.

Psychology Department.

Simons, Jeffrey S., Wills, Thomas A., & Neal, Dan J. (2014). The Many Faces of Affect: A Multilevel Model of Drinking Frequency/Quantity and Alcohol Dependence Symptoms Among Young Adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 123(3), 676-694.

This research tested a multilevel structural equation model of associations between 3 aspects of affective functioning (state affect, trait affect, and affective lability) and 3 alcohol outcomes (likelihood of drinking, quantity on drinking days, and dependence symptoms) in a sample of 263 college students. Participants provided 49 days of experience sampling data over 1.3 years in a longitudinal burst design. Within-person results: At the daily level, positive affect was directly associated with greater likelihood and quantity of alcohol consumption. Daily negative affect was directly associated with higher consumption on drinking days and with higher dependence symptoms. Between-person direct effects: Affect lability was associated with higher trait negative, but not positive, affect. Trait positive affect was inversely associated with the proportion of drinking days, whereas negative affectivity predicted a greater proportion of drinking days. Affect lability exhibited a direct association with dependence symptoms. Between-person indirect effects: Trait positive affect was associated with fewer dependence symptoms via proportion of drinking days. Trait negative affect was associated with greater dependence symptoms via proportion of drinking days. The results distinguish relations of positive and negative affect to likelihood versus amount of drinking and state versus trait drinking outcomes, and highlight the importance of affect variability for predicting alcohol dependence symptoms.

Psychology Department.

Hansen, Keith A. (2014). What Is New in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome?Obstetrics & Gynecology, 124(3), 630-632s.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Harris, William S., Pottala, James V., Thiselton, D. L., Varvel, S. A., Baedke, A. M., Dayspring, T. D., Warnick, G. R., & McConnell, J. P. (2014). Does APOE Genotype Modify the Relations Between Serum Lipid and Erythrocyte Omega-3 Fatty Acid Levels? Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research, 7(5), 526-532.

Earlier reports indicated that patients with the apolipoprotein APOE epsilon 4 allele responded to fish oil supplementation with a rise in serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) compared to epsilon 3 homozygotes. In this study, we used clinical laboratory data to test the hypothesis that the cross-sectional relation between RBC omega-3 fatty acid status (the Omega-3 Index) and LDL-C was modified by APOE genotype. Data from 136,701 patients were available to compare lipid biomarker levels across Omega-3 Index categories associated with heart disease risk in all APOE genotypes. We found no adverse interactions between APOE genotype and the Omega-3 Index for LDL-C, LDL particle number, apoB, HDL-C, or triglycerides. However, we did find evidence that epsilon 2 homozygotes lack an association between omega-3 status and LDL-C, apoB, and LDL particle number. In summary, we found no evidence for a deleterious relationship between lipid biomarkers and the Omega-3 Index by APOE genotype.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Levin, S. W., Baker, E. H., Zein, W. M., Zhang, Z. J., …, Griffin, Kurt J., Bianconi, S., Chandra, G., Khan, O. I., Caruso, R. C., Liu, A. Y., & Mukherjee, A. B. (2014). Oral cysteamine bitartrate and N-acetylcysteine for patients with infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis: a pilot study.Lancet Neurology, 13(8), 777-787.

Background Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is a devastating neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the gene (CLN1 or PPT1) encoding palmitoyl-protein thioesterase-1 (PPT1). We have previously reported that phosphocysteamine and N-acetylcysteine mediate ceroid depletion in culured cells from patients with this disease. We aimed to assess whether combination of oral cysteamine bitartrate and N-acetylcysteine is beneficial for patients with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Methods Children between 6 months and 3 years of age with infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis with any two of the seven most lethal PPT1 mutations were eligible for inclusion in this pilot study. All patients were recruited from physician referrals. Patients received oral cysteamine bitartrate (60 mg/kg per day) and N-acetylcysteine (60 mg/kg per day) and were assessed every 6-12 months until they had an isoelectric electroencephalogram (EEG, attesting to a vegetative state) or were too ill to travel. Patients were also assessed by electroretinography, brain MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and electron microscopic analyses of leukocytes for granular osmiophilic deposits (GRODs). Children also underwent physical and neurodevelopmental assessments on the Denver scale. Outcomes were compared with the reported natural history of infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and that of affected older siblings. Findings Between March 14, 2001, and June 30, 2012, we recruited ten children with infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis; one child was lost to follow-up after the first visit and nine patients (five girls and four boys) were followed up for 8 to 75 months. MRI showed abnormalities similar to those in previous reports; brain volume and N-acetyl aspartic acid (NAA) decreased steadily, but no published quantitative MRI or MRS studies were available for comparison. None of the children acquired new developmental skills, and their retinal function decreased progressively. Average time to isoelectric EEG (52 months, SD 13) was longer than reported previously (36 months). At the first follow-up visit, peripheral leukocytes in all nine patients showed virtually complete depletion of GRODs. Parents and physicians reported less irritability, improved alertness, or both in seven patients. No treatment-related adverse events occurred apart from mild gastrointestinal discomfort in two patients, which disappeared when liquid cysteamine bitartrate was replaced with capsules. Interpretation Our findings suggest that combination therapy with cysteamine bitartrate and N-acetylcysteine is associated with delay of isoelectric EEG, depletion of GRODs, and subjective benefits as reported by parents and physicians. Our systematic and quantitative report of the natural history of patients with infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis provides a guide for future assessment of experimental therapies.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Reindl, Bailey A., Lynch, Douglas W., & Jassim, Ali D. (2014). Aggressive Variant of a Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasm A Case Report and Literature Review. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 138(7), 974-978.

Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm, a lesion of uncertain cellular differentiation, is an unusual tumor of the pancreas with an indolent clinical course that typically arises in young females. We report a case of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm arising in a 17-year-old adolescent girl who presented with progressive abdominal pain. The patient underwent surgical resection of an 18 x 14 x 8-cm pancreatic mass that displayed the usual histologic features of a solid pseudopapillary neoplasm in addition to prominent nuclear atypia, increased proliferative index, and extensive necrosis. These unusual histologic findings are rare and are of particular interest owing to the dramatically decreased survival time displayed in this case. Although precise pathologic criteria suggesting a high risk for aggressive behavior of solid pseudopapillary neoplasms are uncertain, recognition of the unusual pathologic features displayed in this case may be useful in the prediction of potentially more aggressive neoplasms that portend a poorer prognosis.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Newland, Lisa A. (2014). Supportive family contexts: promoting child well-being and resilience. Early Child Development & Care, 184(9/10), 1336-1346.

Prevention and intervention programmes for children at risk aim to improve child well-being and resilience. They do so using both direct and indirect strategies, intervening with children but also considering broader contextual factors (such as family dynamics). Children’s subjective well-being comprises five main components (physical health, mental health, self-regulation, social competence, and cognitive competence) and is predicted by person, relationship, and contextual factors. Children’s resilience, or ability to beat the odds under adverse conditions, is predicted by similar protective factors. Family well-being (FWB) is one of the strongest and most consistent predictors of child well-being and resilience. Aspects of FWB (including adult health and well-being, family self-sufficiency, and family resiliency) have been shown to impact child well-being through positive parent–child interactions. However, risk factors (including poverty and living in geographic locales with limited resources or high levels of neighbourhood violence) can threaten both family and child well-being. Strategies are offered for promoting FWB as a means of supporting resilience and well-being in children at risk for violence, abuse, or neglect.

School of Education.

Biricocchi, Charlanne, Drake, JamieLynn,& Svien, Lana. (2014). Balance Outcomes Following a Tap Dance Program for a Child With Congenital Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 26(3), 360-365.

Purpose: This case report describes the effects of a 6-week progressive tap dance program on static and dynamic balance for a child with type 1 congenital myotonic muscular dystrophy (congenital MMD1). Summary of Key Points: A 6-year-old girl with congenital MMD1 participated in a 1-hour progressive tap dance program. Classes were held once a week for 6 consecutive weeks and included 3 children with adaptive needs and 1 peer with typical development. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2) balance subsection and the Pediatric Balance Scale were completed at the beginning of the first class and the sixth class. The participant’s BOT-2 score improved from 3 to 14. Her Pediatric Balance Scale score did not change. Conclusion: Participation in a progressive tap dance class by a child with congenital MMD1 may facilitate improvements in static and dynamic balance.

Scnool of Health Sciences.

 

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