Posted by: tadeterman | January 15, 2017

November 2016

Abbott, A. G., T. Zhebentyayeva, Abdelali Barakat, & Z. R. Liu. (2015). The Genetic Control of Bud-Break in Trees. In C. Plomion & A. F. AdamBlondon (Eds.), Land Plants – Trees (Vol. 74, pp. 201-228). London: Academic Press Ltd-Elsevier Science Ltd.

To exploit ecogeographical niches of the temperate zone, trees and other perennial plant species optimize the timing of floral and vegetative bud break within the dynamic nature of the annual environmental cycle. This insures successful reproduction and continued growth over their lifespan. Adapting to the annual environmental cycle as well as more long-term environmental fluctuations, such as, global warming is critical to insuring survival of the species. Thus, the tree must utilize physiological systems to sense and respond in time and space to the appropriate environmental cues. Historically, many of the physiological players such as phytohormones and their actions have been well characterized, however, the underlying regulation of the genes and gene networks controlling these physiological systems remains relatively unknown. With advances in molecular genetics and genomics technologies, we are beginning to understand the genetic basis for a number of important phenological traits. It is the intent of this review to highlight our current state of knowledge for the genetics of the timing of bud-break in trees focusing on both fruit and forest trees to provide a framework to guide future efforts to understand how the tree coordinates annual growth, development and reproduction with the environmental cycle.

Biology Department.


Abdelrahman, Y., Scot P. Ouellette, R. J. Belland, & J. V. Cox. (2016). Polarized Cell Division of Chlamydia trachomatis. Plos Pathogens, 12(8), 20.

Bacterial cell division predominantly occurs by a highly conserved process, termed binary fission, that requires the bacterial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. Other mechanisms of bacterial cell division that are independent of FtsZ are rare. Although the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections and trachoma, lacks FtsZ, it has been assumed to divide by binary fission. We show here that Chlamydia divides by a polarized cell division process similar to the budding process of a subset of the Planctomycetes that also lack FtsZ. Prior to cell division, the major outer-membrane protein of Chlamydia is restricted to one pole of the cell, and the nascent daughter cell emerges from this pole by an asymmetric expansion of the membrane. Components of the chlamydial cell division machinery accumulate at the site of polar growth prior to the initiation of asymmetric membrane expansion and inhibitors that disrupt the polarity of C. trachomatis prevent cell division. The polarized cell division of C. trachomatis is the result of the unipolar growth and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid organism. This mechanism of cell division has not been documented in other human bacterial pathogens suggesting the potential for developing Chlamydia-specific therapeutic treatments.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.


Alomar, Fadhel, Jaipaul Singh, Hee-Seong Jang, …, William G. Mayhan, & Keshore R. Bidasee. (2016). Smooth muscle-generated methylglyoxal impairs endothelial cell-mediated vasodilatation of cerebral microvessels in type 1 diabetic rats. British Journal of Pharmacology, 173(23), 3307-3326.

<bold>Background and Purpose: </bold>Endothelial cell-mediated vasodilatation of cerebral arterioles is impaired in individuals with Type 1 diabetes (T1D). This defect compromises haemodynamics and can lead to hypoxia, microbleeds, inflammation and exaggerated ischaemia-reperfusion injuries. The molecular causes for dysregulation of cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (cECs) in T1D remains poorly defined. This study tests the hypothesis that cECs dysregulation in T1D is triggered by increased generation of the mitochondrial toxin, methylglyoxal, by smooth muscle cells in cerebral arterioles (cSMCs).<bold>Experimental Approach: </bold>Endothelial cell-mediated vasodilatation, vascular transcytosis inflammation, hypoxia and ischaemia-reperfusion injury were assessed in brains of male Sprague-Dawley rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and compared with those in diabetic rats with increased expression of methylglyoxal-degrading enzyme glyoxalase-I (Glo-I) in cSMCs.<bold>Key Results: </bold>After 7-8 weeks of T1D, endothelial cell-mediated vasodilatation of cerebral arterioles was impaired. Microvascular leakage, gliosis, macrophage/neutrophil infiltration, NF-κB activity and TNF-α levels were increased, and density of perfused microvessels was reduced. Transient occlusion of a mid-cerebral artery exacerbated ischaemia-reperfusion injury. In cSMCs, Glo-I protein was decreased, and the methylglyoxal-synthesizing enzyme, vascular adhesion protein 1 (VAP-1) and methylglyoxal were increased. Restoring Glo-I protein in cSMCs of diabetic rats to control levels via gene transfer, blunted VAP-1 and methylglyoxal increases, cECs dysfunction, microvascular leakage, inflammation, ischaemia-reperfusion injury and increased microvessel perfusion.<bold>Conclusions and Implications: </bold>Methylglyoxal generated by cSMCs induced cECs dysfunction, inflammation, hypoxia and exaggerated ischaemia-reperfusion injury in diabetic rats. Lowering methylglyoxal produced by cSMCs may be a viable therapeutic strategy to preserve cECs function and blunt deleterious downstream consequences in T1D.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.


Anderson, Jordan A.Sujan Lamichhane, & Gopinath Mani. (2016). Macrophage responses to 316L stainless steel and cobalt chromium alloys with different surface topographies. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 104(11), 2658-2672.

The surface topography of a biomaterial plays a vital role in determining macrophage interactions and influencing immune response. In this study, we investigated the effect of smooth and microrough topographies of commonly used metallic biomaterials such as 316 L stainless steel (SS) and cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloys on macrophage interactions. The macrophage adhesion was greater on CoCr compared to SS, irrespective of their topographies. The macrophage activation and the secretion of most pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IP-10) were greater on microrough surfaces than on smooth surfaces by day-1. However, by day-2, the macrophage activation on smooth surfaces was also significantly increased up to the same level as observed on the microrough surfaces, with more amount of cytokines secreted. The secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) was significantly increased from day-1 to day-2 on all the alloy surfaces with the effect most prominently observed on microrough surfaces. The production of nitric oxide by the macrophages did not show any major substrate-dependent effect. The foreign body giant cells formed by macrophages were least observed on the microrough surfaces of CoCr. Thus, this study demonstrated that the nature of material (SS or CoCr) and their surface topographies (smooth or microrough) strongly influence the macrophage responses. (C) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Biomedical Engineering Department, Sioux Falls Campus.


Anuwatworn, AmornpolMaheedhar GedelaEdgard BendalyJulia A. Prescott-FochtJimmy YeeRichard Clark, & Orvar Jonsson. (2016). Sinus Venosus Atrial Septal Defect Complicated by Eisenmenger Syndrome and the Role of Vasodilator Therapy. Case Reports in Cardiology, 1-5.

Sinus venosus atrial septal defect is a rare congenital, interatrial communication defect at the junction of the right atrium and the vena cava. It accounts for 5–10% of cases of all atrial septal defects. Due to the rare prevalence and anatomical complexity, diagnosing sinus venous atrial septal defects poses clinical challenges which may delay diagnosis and treatment. Advanced cardiac imaging studies are useful tools to diagnose this clinical entity and to delineate the anatomy and any associated communications. Surgical correction of the anomaly is the primary treatment. We discuss a 43-year-old Hispanic female patient who presented with dyspnea and hypoxia following a laparoscopic myomectomy. She had been diagnosed with peripartum cardiomyopathy nine years ago at another hospital. Transesophageal echocardiography and computed tomographic angiography of the chest confirmed a diagnosis of sinus venosus atrial septal defect. She was also found to have pulmonary arterial hypertension and Eisenmenger syndrome. During a hemodynamic study, she responded to vasodilator and she was treated with Ambrisentan and Tadalafil. After six months, her symptoms improved and her pulmonary arterial hypertension decreased. We also observed progressive reversal of the right-to-left shunt. This case illustrates the potential benefit of vasodilator therapy in reversing Eisenmenger physiology, which may lead to surgical repair of the atrial septal defect as the primary treatment.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.


Arrick, Denise M., Chun Li, & William G. Mayhan. (2016). Sex-related differences in reactivity of cerebral arterioles during moderate exercise training.Microcirculation, 23(7), 549-557.

Objective Our goals were to determine the influence of sex on reactivity of cerebral arterioles and whether MExT could influence sex-related differences in reactivity of cerebral arterioles. Materials and Methods Responses of cerebral arterioles were measured in Sed and MExT adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats to eNOS-dependent (ADP), nNOS-dependent (NMDA), and NOS-independent (nitroglycerin) agonists before and following L-NMMA. In addition, protein expression for eNOS and nNOS was determined. Results NOS-dependent vasodilation was enhanced in Sed and MExT female rats compared to their male counterparts. L-NMMA produced a greater decrease in baseline diameter of arterioles in females compared to males, and produced less inhibition of NOS-dependent vasodilation in females. Expression of eNOS protein was significantly increased in Sed female when compared to Sed male rats; nNOS protein was similar in Sed males and females, but increased in MExT females. Conclusions The findings from this study indicate that while NOS-dependent vascular reactivity is increased in females, MExT does not alter vasodilation in males or females. These studies provide insights into the influence of sex and MExT on the cerebral microcirculation and may have implications regarding mechanisms that protect the brain in females compared to males.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.


Bardhoshi, Gerta, Kelly Duncan, & Amy Schweinle. (2016). Predictors of Parent Involvement and their Impact on Access of Postsecondary Education Facilitators among White and American Indian Parents. Journal of School Counseling, 14(4), 1-28.

This study examined demographic factors as predictors of parent involvement (engagement with school, support of learning, support of child) among parents of children that attended a school implementing a college access program. The authors also examined whether involvement predicted access of postsecondary education facilitators in parents, when accounting for demographic factors. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that parent race/ethnicity and income predicted involvement, while education level predicted access of postsecondary education facilitators. However, when including demographic factors, parent involvement was not predictive of access of postsecondary education facilitators.

School of Education.


Booze, Michelle L., Jason M. Hansen, & Peter F. Vitiello. (2016). A novel mouse model for the identification of thioredoxin-1 protein interactions. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 99, 533-543.

Thiol switches are important regulators of cellular signaling and are coordinated by several redox enzyme systems including thioredoxins, peroxiredoxins, and glutathione. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx1), in particular, is an important signaling molecule not only in response to redox perturbations, but also in cellular growth, regulation of gene expression, and apoptosis. The active site of this enzyme is a highly conserved C-G-P-C motif and the redox mechanism of Trx1 is rapid which presents a challenge in determining specific substrates. Numerous in vitro approaches have identified Trx1-dependent thiol switches; however, these findings may not be physiologically relevant and little is known about Trx1 interactions in vivo. In order to identify Trx1 targets in vivo , we generated a transgenic mouse with inducible expression of a mutant Trx1 transgene to stabilize intermolecular disulfides with protein substrates. Expression of the Trx1 “substrate trap” transgene did not interfere with endogenous thioredoxin or glutathione systems in brain, heart, lung, liver, and kidney. Following immunoprecipitation and proteomic analysis, we identified 41 homeostatic Trx1 interactions in perinatal lung, including previously described Trx1 substrates such as members of the peroxiredoxin family and collapsin response mediator protein 2. Using perinatal hyperoxia as a model of oxidative injury, we found 17 oxygen-induced interactions which included several cytoskeletal proteins which may be important to alveolar development. The data herein validates this novel mouse model for identification of tissue- and cell-specific Trx1-dependent pathways that regulate physiological signals in response to redox perturbations.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.


Bubak, Andrew N., Jazmine D. W. YaegerKenneth J. Renner, John G. Swallow, & Michael J. Greene. (2016). Neuromodulation of Nestmate Recognition Decisions by Pavement Ants. PLoS ONE, 11(11), 1-15.

Ant colonies are distributed systems that are regulated in a non-hierarchical manner. Without a central authority, individuals inform their decisions by comparing information in local cues to a set of inherent behavioral rules. Individual behavioral decisions collectively change colony behavior and lead to self-organization capable of solving complex problems such as the decision to engage in aggressive societal conflicts with neighbors. Despite the relevance to colony fitness, the mechanisms that drive individual decisions leading to cooperative behavior are not well understood. Here we show how sensory information, both tactile and chemical, and social context—isolation, nestmate interaction, or fighting non-nestmates—affects brain monoamine levels in pavement ants (Tetramorium caespitum). Our results provide evidence that changes in octopamine and serotonin in the brains of individuals are sufficient to alter the decision by pavement ants to be aggressive towards non-nestmate ants whereas increased brain levels of dopamine correlate to physical fighting. We propose a model in which the changes in brain states of many workers collectively lead to the self-organization of societal aggression between neighboring colonies of pavement ants.

Biology Department.


Dai, Shengchuan, Manoucher Manoucheri, Junhong Gui, …, Shenjing Li, Jason D’souza, Fnu Virkram, Aditya Chada, & Haibing Jiang. (2016). Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Utility in Prediction of 30-Day Readmission Rate in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure. Cardiology Research & Practice, 1-7.

Background. Heart failure (HF) is one of the most common diagnoses associated with hospital readmission. We designed this prospective study to evaluate whether Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) score is associated with 30-day readmission in patients hospitalized with decompensated HF. Methods and Results. We enrolled 240 patients who met the study criteria. Forty-eight (20%) patients were readmitted for decompensated HF within thirty days of hospital discharge, and 192 (80%) patients were not readmitted. Compared to readmitted patients, nonreadmitted patients had a higher average KCCQ score (40.8 versus 32.6, P = 0.019) before discharge. Multivariate analyses showed that a high KCCQ score was associated with low HF readmission rate (adjusted OR = 0.566, P = 0.022). The c-statistic for the base model (age + gender) was 0.617. The combination of home medication and lab tests on the base model resulted in an integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) increase of 3.9%. On that basis, the KCQQ further increased IDI of 2.7%. Conclusions. The KCCQ score determined before hospital discharge was significantly associated with 30-day readmission rate in patients with HF, which may provide a clinically useful measure and could significantly improve readmission prediction reliability when combined with other clinical components.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.


De, Pradip, J. H. Carlson, H. Wu, A. Marcus, Brian Leyland-Jones, & Nandini Dey. (2016). Wnt-beta-catenin pathway signals metastasis-associated tumor cell phenotypes in triple negative breast cancers. Oncotarget, 7(28), 43124-43149.

Tumor cells acquire metastasis-associated (MA) phenotypes following genetic alterations in them which cause deregulation of different signaling pathways. Earlier, we reported that an upregulation of the Wnt-beta-catenin pathway (WP) is one of the genetic salient features of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), and WP signaling is associated with metastasis in TNBC. Using cBioPortal, here we found that collective % of alteration(s) in WP genes, CTNNB1, APC and DVL1 among breast-invasive-carcinomas was 21% as compared to 56% in PAM50 Basal. To understand the functional relevance of WP in the biology of heterogeneous/metastasizing TNBC cells, we undertook this comprehensive study using 15 cell lines in which we examined the role of WP in the context of integrin-dependent MA-phenotypes. Directional movement of tumor cells was observed by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and quantitative confocal-video-microscopy while matrigel-invasion was studied by MMP7-specific casein-zymography. WntC59, XAV939, sulindac sulfide and beta-catenin siRNA (1) inhibited fibronectin-directed migration, (2) decreased podiaparameters and motility-descriptors, (3) altered filamentous-actin, (4) decreased matrigel-invasion and (5) inhibited cell proliferation as well as 3D clonogenic growth. Sulindac sulfide and beta-catenin siRNA decreased beta-catenin/active-beta-catenin and MMP7. LWnt3ACM-stimulated proliferation, clonogenicity, fibronection-directed migration and matrigel-invasion were perturbed by WP-modulators, sulindac sulfide and GDC-0941. We studied a direct involvement of WP in metastasis by stimulating brain-metastasis-specific MDA-MB231BR cells to demonstrate that LWnt3ACM-stimulated proliferation, clonogenicity and migration were blocked following sulindac sulfide, GDC-0941 and beta-catenin knockdown. We present the first evidence showing a direct functional relationship between WP activation and integrin-dependent MA-phenotypes. By proving the functional relationship between WP activation and MAphenotypes, our data mechanistically explains (1) why different components of WP are upregulated in TNBC, (2) how WP activation is associated with metastasis and (3) how integrin-dependent MA-phenotypes can be regulated by mitigating the WP.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.


Eid, Wael Emad, S. F. Shehata, D. A. Cole, & K. L. Doerman. (2016). PREDICTORS OF NONATTENDANCE AT AN ENDOCRINOLOGY OUTPATIENT CLINIC.Endocrine Practice, 22(8), 983-989.

Objective: To identify predictors potentially contributing to patients’ nonattendance or to same-day cancellation of scheduled appointments at an adult endocrinology office practice. Methods: A retrospective, records-based, cross-sectional study was conducted using data from 9,305 electronic medical records of patients presenting at a U.S. metropolitan adult endocrinology clinic in 2013. Statistical analyses included multivariate regression, calculated odds ratios, and posttest probabilities. Results: Of 29,178 total patient visits analyzed, 68% were attended by patients. Of total scheduled appointments, 7% resulted in nonattendance and 5% in same-day cancellation. The most significant predictors of nonattendance were a previous history of nonattendance (P<.001), uncontrolled diabetes (P<.001), and new patients to the practice (P<.001). Long lead- time to appointment (P=.001), younger age (P<. 001), and certain insurance carriers (P<. 001) also were significant predictors. Conclusion: Specific predictors of nonattendance at scheduled appointments were identified using statistical analysis of electronic medical record data. Previous history of nonattendance and having uncontrolled diabetes (especially in patients newly referred to the practice) are among these significant predictors. Identifying specific predictors for nonattendance enables targeted strategies to be developed.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.


Erck, AdamWendi Sapp, S. Kilina, & Dmitri Kilin. (2016). Photoinduced Charge Transfer at Interfaces of Carbon Nanotube and Lead Selenide Nanowire. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 120(40), 23197-23206.

Photoinduced generation of excitons and their nonradiative relaxation dynamics are simulated at the interface of (10, 0) carbon nanotubes (CNT) and a PbSe nanowire (NW). Possible pathways of photoinduced excitations are explored by combining a reduced density matrix approach in the basis of Kohn-Sham orbitals and on-the-fly nonadiabatic couplings. A range of neutral photoexcitations localized on the CNT is followed by formation of charge transfer (CT) states involving PbSe NW. Depending on the wavelength of the incident light, the initial photoexcitation can be followed by two directions of charge transfer: either (PbSe)(+)(CNT)(-) or (PbSe)(-)(CNT)(+). Excitation of a hot electron results in the CT state with an electron located at the NW and the hole at the CNT with shorter lifetime, while excitation of a hot hole leads to the CT state with an electron at the CNT and the hole at the PbSe having much longer lifetime. Observed ability to control the direction and the lifetime of the CT state makes the CNT/PbSe NW composites promising for photovoltaic applications.

Chemistry Department.


Fang, Jiaming, Benjamin George, Yunfei Shao, & Chao Wen. (2016). Affective and cognitive factors influencing repeat buying in e-commerce.Electronic Commerce Research & Applications, 19, 44-55.

Drawing on means-end chain theory and feelings-as-information theory , we propose a moderation model, and offer a detailed analysis of how the affective factor perceived enjoyment influences perceived value and repeat buying in e-tailing contexts. Based upon survey data from 651 online shoppers, we observe the complex moderation effects of e-shopping enjoyment on the relations between perceived benefits, sacrifice and perceived value. However, the moderation effect of enjoyment only appears in shoppers with a task-focused motivation. Furthermore, this study applies fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) and uncovers several equifinal configurations associated with the perceived value and repeat buying intention. The results reveal that none of the above-mentioned factors provide sufficient or necessary conditions for the presence of high perceived value and repeat buying intention. The findings suggest complex substitutive and complementary relationships between the factors and demonstrate the complexities of consumers’ online repurchase decision. This study thus helps to gain a better understanding of the conditions leading to e-shopping value and repeat buying behavior.

Beacom School of Business.


Fenton, J. I., E. A. Gurzell, E. A. Davidson, & William S. Harris. (2016). Red blood cell PUFAs reflect the phospholipid PUFA composition of major organs. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 112, 12-23.

Numerous clinical trials examining the use of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) on various health outcomes have been conducted, and fish oil remains one of the most widely used nutritional supplements. More recently, studies have begun to utilize the omega-3 index, defined as the sum of EPA+DHA in red blood cells (RBCs), as both a biomarker of n-3 LCPUFA exposure and a potential risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Considerably less research evaluates whether RBC phospholipid fatty acids reflect the phospholipid fatty acid composition of other tissues across increasing intakes of n-3 LCPUFAs. We fed mice diets containing increasing amounts of EPA+DHA, equivalent to current recommendations by the American Heart Association on a percent of energy basis, and analyzed the phospholipid fatty acid composition of various tissues in relation to RBCs. We observed that RBCs, heart, muscle, spleen, lung, and adipose tissues all respond to dietary supplementation with EPA+DHA with increasing n-3 LCPUFA and decreasing n-6 LCPUFA levels. Furthermore, the n-3 LCPUFA profiles of all measured tissues had strong (r > 0.7) and significant (p < 0.001) correlations to RBCs. Interestingly, we also observed changes in saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) levels across various tissues in response to increased EPA+DHA intakes despite there being no change in dietary SFA and MUFA. Specifically, there were increases in RBC SFA and spleen MUFA and decreases in heart MUFA. These demonstrate that the RBC, including the omega-3 index, may serve as a marker for the relative levels of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFAs in phospholipids of certain tissues. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.


Frejd, D., K. Dunaway, J. Hill, Jesse Van Maanen, & C. Carlson. (2016). The Genomic and Morphological Effects of Bisphenol A on Arabidopsis thaliana.Plos One, 11(9), 10.

The environmental toxin bisphenol A (BPA) is a known mammalian hormone disrupter but its effects on plants have not been well established. The effect of BPA on gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana was determined using microarray analysis and quantitative gene PCR. Many hormone responsive genes showed changes in expression after BPA treatment. BPA disrupted flowering by a mechanism that may involve disruption of auxin signaling. The results presented here indicate that BPA is a plant hormone disrupter.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.


Furr, Susan, & Kathleen Brown-Rice. (2016). Doctoral students’ knowledge of educators’ problems of professional competency. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 10(4), 223-230.

We surveyed doctoral students in APA-accredited programs (clinical psychology PhD, counseling psychology PhD, and clinical psychology PsyD; n = 939) and CACREP-accredited counseling/counselor education programs PhD (n = 345) to investigate their knowledge of educators’ problems of professional competency (PPC). Findings suggest the majority of respondents are aware of educators with PPC and are affected by these interactions. Areas such as educators’ unprofessional behavior (e.g., dishonesty, excessive tardiness, class absences), inadequate supervision skills, inappropriate boundaries, and inability to regulate emotions were cited by all groups as problematic while being culturally insensitive or culturally incompetent was a more prominent problem experienced by psychology doctoral students. Doctoral students reported that they had feelings of resentment toward educators who displayed PPC and viewed these educators as disrupting the learning environment in the classroom, interfering with their ability to concentrate and complete their own work, and increasing their workload. Limited differences between programs adhering to the scientist-practitioner model and programs following the practitioner-scholar model were noted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

School of Education.


Goodman, Barbara E. (2016). An evolution in student-centered teaching. Advances in Physiology Education, 40(3), 278-282.

The American Physiological Society (APS) Teaching Section annually honors an educator through its Claude Bernard Distinguished Lecture at the Experimental Biology meeting. Since I knew about my selection for almost a year, I had a long time to think about what I wanted to say and how I wanted to say it. The theme of my presentation was “nothing in education makes sense except in the light of student learning.” My presentation began with a video of my “And, But, Therefore” description of my educational scholarship (see Randy Olson Great Challenges Day at TEDMED 2013, Ref. 10). “Physiology is the basic foundation of all the health professions AND physiology can be hard for students to figure out BUT many physiology courses expect students to memorize a large number of facts; THEREFORE, my scholarship is to help students learn physiology better for the long-term with various types of student-centered learning opportunities.” To stress the goal of student-centered learning, my brief video was followed by a 2-min video of one of my students describing her experiences with student-centered learning in one of my two-semester Advanced Human Physiology classes. Since I have been convinced that Randy Olson is an expert on science communication (11), the rest of my presentation was the story about how I have evolved from a sage-on-the-stage lecturer into a student-centered learning facilitator. I have chosen Olson’s “And, But, Therefore” approach to narrative for this written version of key aspects of the presentation.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.


Hoover, K. M., A. N. Bubak, I. J. Law, Jazmine D. W. YaegerKenneth J. Renner, J. G. Swallow, & M. J. Greene. (2016). The organization of societal conflicts by pavement ants Tetramorium caespitum: an agent-based model of amine-mediated decision making. Current Zoology, 62(3), 277-284.

Ant colonies self-organize to solve complex problems despite the simplicity of an individual ant’s brain. Pavement ant Tetramorium caespitum colonies must solve the problem of defending the territory that they patrol in search of energetically rich forage. When members of 2 colonies randomly interact at the territory boundary a decision to fight occurs when: 1) there is a mismatch in nestmate recognition cues and 2) each ant has a recent history of high interaction rates with nestmate ants. Instead of fighting, some ants will decide to recruit more workers from the nest to the fighting location, and in this way a positive feedback mediates the development of colony wide wars. In ants, the monoamines serotonin (5-HT) and octopamine (OA) modulate many behaviors associated with colony organization and in particular behaviors associated with nestmate recognition and aggression. In this article, we develop and explore an agent-based model that conceptualizes how individual changes in brain concentrations of 5-HT and OA, paired with a simple threshold-based decision rule, can lead to the development of colony wide warfare. Model simulations do lead to the development of warfare with 91% of ants fighting at the end of 1 h. When conducting a sensitivity analysis, we determined that uncertainty in monoamine concentration signal decay influences the behavior of the model more than uncertainty in the decision-making rule or density. We conclude that pavement ant behavior is consistent with the detection of interaction rate through a single timed interval rather than integration of multiple interactions.

Biology Department.


Hoyme, H. Eugene, & Claire D. Coles. (2016). Alcohol-Related Neurobehavioral Disabilities: Need for Further Definition and Common Terminology.Pediatrics, 138(4), 1-3.

The article addresses the definition of neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (ND-PAE), how it intersects with the existing diagnostic categories of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and the need for ongoing research and development of common terminology for FASD. It suggests that every child evaluated for FASD must have expert assessment of growth and dysmorphology in addition to skilled neurobehavioral evaluation.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.


Hsu, Benson S.Saquib A. Lakhani, & M. Wilhelm. (2016). Acid-Base Disorders. Pediatrics in Review, 37(9), 361-369.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.


Huntington, Mark K.Jay Allison, & D. Nair. (2016). Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases. American Family Physician, 94(7), 551-557.

Several mosquito-borne viral infections have recently emerged in North America; West Nile virus is the most common in the United States. Although West Nile virus generally causes a self-limited, flulike febrile illness, a serious neuroinvasive form may occur. Dengue is the most common vector-borne viral disease worldwide, and it has been a significant public health threat in the United States since 2009. Known as breakbone fever for its severe myalgias and arthralgias, dengue may cause a hemorrhagic syndrome. Chikungunya also causes flulike febrile illness and disabling arthralgias. Although meningoencephalitis may occur with chikungunya, bleeding is uncommon. Symptoms of Zika virus infection are similar to those of dengue, but milder. Zika virus increases the risk of fetal brain abnormalities, including microcephaly, if a pregnant woman is infected. Zika virus is spread through Aedes albopictus mosquito bites, is transmitted sexually, and may rarely spread nonsexually from person to person. Diagnosis of these vector borne infections is clinical and serologic, and treatment is supportive. Other, well-established vector-borne diseases are also important. Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne bacterial disease that presents as a nonspecific syndrome of fever, headache, malaise, and myalgias. It is diagnosed via blood smear testing, with confirmatory serology. Ehrlichiosis is treated with doxycycline. Rickettsial infections are transmitted by fleas, mites, and ticks, and severity ranges from mild to life threatening. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, the most significant rickettsial infection, is primarily a clinical diagnosis that presents as fever, headache, myalgias, petechial rash, and tick exposure. Doxycycline is effective for rickettsial infections if administered promptly. Vector avoidance strategies are critical to the prevention of all of these infections. Copyright 2016 American Academy of Family Physicians.)

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.


Jacobs, Gerard A.Brandon L. GraySara E. EricksonElvira D. Gonzalez, & Randal P. Quevillon. (2016). Disaster Mental Health and Community-Based Psychological First Aid: Concepts and Education/Training. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 72(12), 1307-1317.

Any community can experience a disaster, and many traumatic events occur without warning. Psychologists can be an important resource assisting in psychological support for individuals and communities, in preparation for and in response to traumatic events. Disaster mental health and the community-based model of psychological first aid are described. The National Preparedness and Response Science Board has recommended that all mental health professionals be trained in disaster mental health, and that first responders, civic officials, emergency managers, and the general public be trained in community-based psychological first aid. Education and training resources in these two fields are described to assist psychologists and others in preparing themselves to assist their communities in difficult times and to help their communities learn to support one another.

Psychology Department.


Jenks, Christopher J., & Jerry Won Lee. (2016). Heteroglossic ideologies in world Englishes: an examination of the Hong Kong context. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 26(3), 384-402.

Much research in world Englishes centers on examining the linguistic features of a particular region. Such work can give the false impression of a collective homogeneous ideology of English within a geographic space. We refer to this limiting monolithic perspective of language ideology as ‘the single linguistic narrative.’ The present study builds on this body of work by investigating how often competing ideologies of English can circulate within a region. Focusing on the Hong Kong context, we adapt the concept of Bakhtinian heteroglossia to consider the simultaneous co-presence of varying ideologies of English. Through an analysis of self-narratives, we examine how Hong Kong university students construct expectations regarding how English should be used and what the colonial language means to their regional identity.

English Department.


Keifer, Joyce, & Cliff H. Summers. (2016). Putting the “Biology” Back into “Neurobiology”: The Strength of Diversity in Animal Model Systems for Neuroscience Research. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 10, 9.

Current trends in neuroscience research have moved toward a reliance on rodent animal models to study most aspects of brain function. Such laboratory-reared animals are highly inbred, have been disengaged from their natural environments for generations and appear to be of limited predictive value for successful clinical outcomes. In this Perspective article, we argue that research on a rich diversity of animal model systems is fundamental to new discoveries in evolutionarily conserved core physiological and molecular mechanisms that are the foundation of human brain function. Analysis of neural circuits across phyla will reveal general computational solutions that form the basis for adaptive behavioral responses. Further, we stress that development of ethoexperimental approaches to improve our understanding of behavioral nuance will help to realign our research strategies with therapeutic goals and improve the translational validity of specific animal models. Finally, we suggest that neuroscience has a role in environmental conservation of habitat and fauna that will preserve and protect the ecological settings that drive species-specific behavioral adaptations. A rich biodiversity will enhance our understanding of human brain function and lead in unpredicted directions for development of therapeutic treatments for neurological disorders.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.


Kim, Dae In, & Kyle J. Roux. (2016). Filling the Void: Proximity-Based Labeling of Proteins in Living Cells. Trends in Cell Biology, 26(11), 804-817.

There are inherent limitations with traditional methods to study protein behavior or to determine the constituency of proteins in discrete subcellular compartments. In response to these limitations, several methods have recently been developed that use proximity-dependent labeling. By fusing proteins to enzymes that generate reactive molecules, most commonly biotin, proximate proteins are covalently labeled to enable their isolation and identification. In this review we describe current methods for proximity-dependent labeling in living cells and discuss their applications and future use in the study of protein behavior.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.


Knisely, Kris A. (2016). Language learning and the gendered self: the case of French and masculinity in a US context. Gender and Language, 10(2), 216-239.

In a time of ever-increasing globalisation, the development of diverse linguistic skills has been growing in importance despite a trend of reduced language learning, which is particularly marked in Anglophone countries. Although the need for international interaction is not gender-specific, a growing body of literature has identified gender-related differences in language education. Existing research has demonstrated that different target languages have been gendered by students in different ways. Extending the existing literature, focused primarily on adolescents, a survey was administered to 294 students at four universities in the southeastern US to explore the degree to which young adults perceive languages as gendered and to which taking French is perceived as gender-norm violating. Findings suggest that although there are some similarities in terms of the gendering of languages and language study among adolescent and young adult learners, differences exists in the nature of this gendering.

Modern Languages Department.


LoCicero, Alice, Robert P. Marlin, David Jull-Patterson, Nancy M. Sweeney, Brandon Lee Gray, & J. Wesley Boyd. (2016). Enabling torture: APA, clinical psychology training and the failure to disobey. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 22(4), 345-355.

The American Psychological Association (APA) has historically had close ties with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD). Recent revelations describe problematic outcomes of those ties, as some in the APA colluded with the DOD to allow psychologists to participate, with expectation of impunity, in harsh interrogations that amounted to torture of Guantanamo detainees, during the Bush era. We now know that leaders in the APA purposely misled psychologists about the establishment of policies on psychologists’ roles in interrogations. Still, the authors wondered why, when the resulting policies reflected a clear contradiction of the fundamental duty to do no harm, few psychologists, in or out of the military, protested the policies articulated in 2005 by the committee on Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS). Previous research suggested that U.S. graduate students in clinical psychology receive little or no training in the duties of psychologists in military settings or in the ethical guidance offered by international treaties. Thus psychologists might not have been well prepared to critique the PENS policies or to refuse to participate in interrogations. To further explore this issue, the authors surveyed Directors of Clinical Training of doctoral programs in clinical psychology, asking how extensively their programs address dilemmas psychologists may face in military settings. The results indicate that most graduate programs offer little attention to dilemmas of unethical orders, violations of international conventions, or excessively harsh interrogations. These findings, combined with earlier studies, suggest that military psychologists may have been unprepared to address ethical dilemmas, whereas psychologists outside the military may have been unprepared to critique the APA’s collusion with the DOD. The authors suggest ways to address this apparent gap in ethics education for psychology graduate students, interns, and fellows. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)


May, Philip A., Anna-Susan Marais, Marlene M. de Vries, …, & H. Eugene Hoyme. (2016). The continuum of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in a community in South Africa: Prevalence and characteristics in a fifth sample. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 168, 274-286.

The prevalence and characteristics of the continuum of diagnoses within fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were researched in a fifth sample in a South African community.<bold>Methods: </bold>An active case ascertainment approach was employed among all first grade learners in this community (n=862). Following individual examination by clinical geneticists/dysmorphologists, cognitive/behavioral testing, and maternal interviews, final diagnoses were made in multidisciplinary case conferences.<bold>Results: </bold>Physical measurements, cardinal facial features of FAS, and total dysmorphology scores clearly differentiated diagnostic categories in a consistent, linear fashion, from severe to mild. Neurodevelopmental delays and behavioral problems were significantly worse for each of the FASD diagnostic categories, although not as consistently linear across diagnostic groups. Alcohol use was documented by direct report from the mother in 71% to 100% of cases in specific diagnostic groups. Significant distal maternal risk factors in this population are: advanced maternal age at pregnancy; low height, weight, and body mass index (BMI); small head circumference; low education; low income; and rural residence. Even when controlling for socioeconomic status, prenatal drinking correlates significantly with total dysmorphology score, head circumference, and five cognitive and behavioral measures. In this community, FAS occurs in 59-79 per 1,000 children, and total FASD in 170-233 per 1,000 children, or 17% to 23%.<bold>Conclusions: </bold>Very high rates of FASD continue in this community where entrenched practices of regular binge drinking co-exist with challenging conditions for childbearing and child development in a significant portion of the population.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.


McCormack, Leah. (2016). Blameless. New England Review-Middlebury Series, 37(3), 154-168.

English Department.


Millikin, Alice R.Meghann E. Jarchow, K. L. Olmstead, Rustan E. Krentz, & Mark D. Dixon. (2016). Site Preparation Drives Long-Term Plant Community Dynamics in Restored Tallgrass Prairie: A Case Study in Southeastern South Dakota. Environmental Management, 58(4), 597-605.

Most tallgrass prairies have been destroyed or altered, making restoration an important component to their conservation. Our goal was to evaluate progress 12-years post-restoration at Spirit Mound Historic Prairie and determine whether the outcomes varied based on different land use and restoration histories across the site. We examined changes in plant diversity, richness, evenness, non-native species relative abundance, and community composition from 2004 to 2013. Areas with different restoration treatments and land-use histories showed divergent results. Seventy percent of the site, previously annual row crop, was reconstructed using herbicide application followed by native seeding (hereafter reconstruction). Areas that were previously grazed, 15 % of the site, were restored with only partial seeding and no herbicide treatment (hereafter rehabilitation). Species richness and diversity increased over 40 % in the reconstruction since 2004 and remained over 1.9 times higher in the reconstructed areas than rehabilitated areas. Diversity did not change in the rehabilitation, but richness increased 47 % since 2004. Evenness decreased 11-26 % over time in both areas. Non-native species relative abundance did not change from 2004 to 2013, and remained five times higher in the rehabilitation than the reconstruction. Native C-4 grass and forb abundance increased over time in the reconstruction, whereas non-native C-3 grasses remained dominant in the rehabilitation. These results showed that restoration outcomes were radically different 12-years post-restoration among areas with different prior land uses that were subjected to different restoration practices. Long-term assessments are important to accurately determine restoration progress and inform management decisions.

Biology Department.


Mills, Stacia, Kate Wolitzky-Taylor, Anna Q. Xiao, Marie Claire Bourque, Sandra M. Peynado RojasDebanjana Bhattacharya, Annabelle K. Simpson, Aleea Maye, Pachida Lo, Aaron Clark, Russell Lim, & Francis G. Lu. (2016). Training on the DSM-5 cultural formulation interview improves cultural competence in general psychiatry residents: A multi-site study. Academic Psychiatry, 40(5), 829-834.

Objective: The authors assessed whether a 1-h didactic session on the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) improves cultural competence of general psychiatry residents. Methods: Psychiatry residents at six residency programs completed demographics and pre-intervention questionnaires, were exposed to a 1-h session on the CFI, and completed a post-intervention questionnaire. Repeated measures ANCOVA compared pre- to post-intervention change. Linear regression assessed whether previous cultural experience predicted post-intervention scores. Results: Mean scores on the questionnaire significantly changed from pre- to post-intervention (p < 0.001). Previous cultural experience did not predict post-intervention scores. Conclusions: Psychiatry residents’ cultural competence scores improved with a 1-h session on the CFI but with notable limitations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.


Narra, H. P., L. F. Shubitz, M. A. Mandel, H. T. Trinh, Kurt Griffin, A. S. Buntzman, J. A. Frelinger, J. N. Galgiani, & M. J. Orbach. (2016). A Coccidioides posadasii CPS1 Deletion Mutant Is Avirulent and Protects Mice from Lethal Infection. Infection and Immunity, 84(10), 3007-3016.

The CPS1 gene was identified as a virulence factor in the maize pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus. Hypothesizing that the homologous gene in Coccidioides posadasii could be important for virulence, we created a Delta cps1 deletion mutant which was unable to cause disease in three strains of mice (C57BL/6, BALB/c, or the severely immunodeficient NOD-scid, gamma c(null) [NSG]). Only a single colony was recovered from 1 of 60 C57BL/6 mice following intranasal infections of up to 4,400 spores. Following administration of very high doses (10,000 to 2.5 x 10(7) spores) to NSG and BALB/c mice, spherules were observed in lung sections at time points from day 3 to day 10 postinfection, but nearly all appeared degraded with infrequent endosporulation. Although the role of CPS1 in virulence is not understood, phenotypic alterations and transcription differences of at least 33 genes in the Delta cps1 strain versus C. posadasii is consistent with both metabolic and regulatory functions for the gene. The in vitro phenotype of the Delta cps1 strain showed slower growth of mycelia with delayed and lower spore production than C. posadasii, and in vitro spherules were smaller. Vaccination of C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice with live Delta cps1 spores either intranasally, intraperitoneally, or subcutaneously resulted in over 95% survival with mean residual lung fungal burdens of < 1,000 CFU from an otherwise lethal C. posadasii intranasal infection. Considering its apparently complete attenuation of virulence and the high degree of resistance to C. posadasii infection when used as a vaccine, the Delta cps1 strain is a promising vaccine candidate for preventing coccidioidomycosis in humans or other animals.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.


Olson, SethKathleen Brown-Rice, & Natasha Keller. (2016). Mental Health Practitioners’ Knowledge of Colleagues’ Problems of Professional Competency. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 38(4), 308-326.

There is a lack of empirical research on how mental health practitioners (MTIPs) are affected hy professional incompetency of their colleagues. To bridge this gap in the literature, a total of 213 MHPs were surveyed to determine their knowledge of coworkers’ problems of professional competency (PPC). Descriptive statistics were utilized to analyze the data. Findings suggest the majority of MHPs are aware of colleagues with PPC and believe these colleagues are disrupting the work environment and adversely affecting client care.

School of Education.


Payra, Soumen, Arijit Saha, Chia-Ming WuBalaranjan SelvaratnamThorn DramstadLuther Mahoney, Sant Kumar Verma, Suresh Thareja, Ranjit Koodali, & Subhash Banerjee. (2016). Fe–SBA-15 catalyzed synthesis of 2-alkoxyimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and screening of their in silico selectivity and binding affinity to biological targets. New Journal of Chemistry, 40(11), 9753-9760.

Here, we have demonstrated regioselective three-component synthesis of 2-alkoxyimidazopyridines using mesoporous Fe–SBA-15 as the catalyst and screened their in silico selectivity and binding affinity to different biological targets viz. farnesyl diphosphate synthase, phosphodiesterase III, GABAa and chemokine receptor CXCR4 using molecular docking simulations. Fe–SBA-15 has been characterized by nitrogen absorption–desorption, powder XRD, SEM, TEM studies and atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis. Fe–SBA-15 was very efficient in synthesizing imidazopyridines. The binding affinity study revealed that the 2-butoxy-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-methylH-imidazo[1,2-a] pyridine (4g) moiety has exhibited even better affinity in terms of MolDock, re-rank and steric scores than the marketed anti-inflammatory drug, olprinone.


Puckett, Jae A., F. I. Surace, H. M. Levitt, & S. G. Horne. (2016). Sexual Orientation Identity in Relation to Minority Stress and Mental Health in Sexual Minority Women. Lgbt Health, 3(5), 350-356.

Purpose: Research often erases the distinct experiences of bisexual and queer women through collapsing participants with lesbian or gay women. In addition, queer is often not included as a sexual orientation identity in research, therefore limiting the available information about how this group experiences minority stress. Given these limitations, we sought to compare groups, based on their sexual orientation identity, on experiences of minority stress and mental health to further understand between group differences that often go unaccounted for in research. Methods: Participants (N=249; age range 19-77; M=38.43, SD=12.98) completed an online survey exploring experiences of minority stress and mental health. Results: We found that the group most at risk for encountering minority stressors depended on the specific stressor being examined. Queer and gay or lesbian women encountered greater victimization, discrimination, and expectations of discrimination than bisexual women. However, bisexual women had higher levels of identity concealment and internalized heterosexism than gay, lesbian, or queer women. While queer women tended to have fewer proximal stressors, they were similar to bisexual women in terms of psychological distress, with both groups scoring higher than gay or lesbian women. Conclusions: These results highlight the need to examine between group differences in future research. The experiences of minority stress appear to complexly relate to psychological distress in varying ways for different groups of women, with bisexual and queer women having the highest rates of psychological distress although they vary in the types of stressors that they encounter. In addition, the experiences of queer women were divergent from those of gay, lesbian, or bisexual women across many of the stressors, indicating that there is a need to further recognize this distinct group of women in future research.

Psychology Department.


Qiao, Yupu, Long Zhang, Jia Li, Wei Lin, & Zhenqiang Wang. (2016). Switching on Supramolecular Catalysis via Cavity Mediation and Electrostatic Regulation. Angewandte Chemie, 128(41), 12970-12974.

Synthetic supercontainers constructed from divalent metal ions, carboxylate linkers, and sulfonylcalix[4]arene-based container precursors exhibit great promise as enzyme mimics that function in organic solvents. The capacity of these artificial hosts to catalyze Knoevenagel condensation can be switched on when the aldehyde substrate possesses a molecular size and shape matching the nanocavity of the supercontainers. In contrast, little reactivity is observed for other aldehydes that do not match the binding pocket. This substrate-dependent catalytic selectivity is attributed to the Brønsted acidity of the metal-bound water molecules located inside the nanocavity, which is amplified when the size/shape of the aldehyde substrate fits the binding cavity. The electrostatic environment of the binding cavity and the Brønsted acidity of the supercontainer can be further modulated using tetraalkylammonium-based regulators, leading to higher reactivity for the otherwise unreactive aldehydes.

Chemistry Department.


Quevillon, Randal P.Brandon L. GraySara E. EricksonElvira D. Gonzalez, & Gerard A. Jacobs. (2016). Helping the Helpers: Assisting Staff and Volunteer Workers Before, During, and After Disaster Relief Operations. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 72(12), 1348-1363.

Self-care strategies and system supports employed in preparation for, during, and after disaster relief operations (DROs) are crucial to relief worker well-being and the overall effectiveness of relief efforts. Relief organizations and management must structure DROs in a manner that promotes self-care and workers must implement proper self-care strategies. Proper self-care before, during, and after a DRO can reduce negative reactions to stressful emergency work and promote growth, mastery, and self-efficacy after the experience. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to discuss the importance of organizational supports and self-care strategies in disaster relief settings. This article emphasizes the role of both individual and management participation and commitment to relief worker support and positive experience in DROs and provides suggestions for doing so. These suggestions are derived from the empirical and experiential literature and extensions from the theoretical background, and from our experience as managers in DROs.

Psychology Department.


Roh, Soonhee, Catherine E. Burnette, Kyoung Hag Lee, Yeon-Shim Lee, & Scott D. Easton. (2016). Risk and Protective Factors for Depressive Symptoms Among Indigenous Older Adults: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and Social Support. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 59(4), 316-331.

Research on depression and intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by Indigenous older adults is virtually nonexistent. Given the associations between IPV and depression and their disproportionately high rates among Indigenous peoples in a context of historical oppression, the purpose of this inquiry is to examine how IPV and social support are associated with depressive symptoms for Indigenous older adults. We expand the knowledge base on IPV in later life, which primarily focuses on female samples, by including older men. We predicted: (a) IPV will be positively associated with depressive symptoms and (b) levels of social support will be negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses of data from a sample of Indigenous older adults (N = 233) in the Upper Midwest indicated that physical aggression (but not psychological aggression, sexual coercion, injury, or negotiation) was positively associated with depressive symptoms, whereas social support was negatively associated with depressive symptoms.

School of Health Sciences.


Ronan, Patrick J., N. Wongngamnit, & T. P. Beresford. (2016). Molecular Mechanisms of Cannabis Signaling in the Brain. In S. Rahman (Ed.), Molecular Basis of Drug Addiction (Vol. 137, pp. 123-147). San Diego: Elsevier Academic Press Inc.

Cannabis has been cultivated and used by humans for thousands of years. Research for decades was focused on understanding the mechanisms an illegal/addictive drug. This led to the discovery of the vast endocannabinoid system. Research has now shifted to understanding fundamental biological questions related to one of the most widespread signaling systems in both the brain and the body. Our understanding of cannabinoid signaling has advanced significantly in the last two decades. In this review, we discuss the state of knowledge on mechanisms of Cannabis signaling in the brain and the modulation of key brain neurotransmitter systems involved in both brain reward/addiction and psychiatric disorders. It is highly probable that various cannabinoids will be found to be efficacious in the treatment of a number of psychiatric disorders. However, while there is clearly much potential, marijuana has not been properly vetted by the medical-scientific evaluation process and there are clearly a range of potentially adverse side-effects-including addiction. We are at crossroads for research on endocannabinoid function and therapeutics (including the use of exogenous treatments such as Cannabis). With over 100 cannabinoid constituents, the majority of which have not been studied, there is much Cannabis research yet to be done. With more states legalizing both the medicinal and recreational use of marijuana the rigorous scientific investigation into cannabinoid signaling is imperative.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.


Simons, Jeffrey S.Raluca M. Simons, Carol O’Brien, Scott F. Stoltenberg, Jessica A. Keith, Jaime A. Hudson, & Carol O’Brien. (2017). PTSD, alcohol dependence, and conduct problems: Distinct pathways via lability and disinhibition. Addictive Behaviors, 64, 185-193.

This study tested the role of affect lability and disinhibition in mediating associations between PTSD symptoms and two forms of alcohol-related problems, dependence syndrome symptoms (e.g., impaired control over consumption) and conduct problems (e.g., assault, risk behaviors). Genotype at the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) was hypothesized to moderate associations between traumatic stress and PTSD symptoms. In addition, the study tested whether childhood traumatic stress moderated associations between combat trauma and PTSD symptoms. Participants were 270 OIF/OEF/OND veterans. The hypothesized model was largely supported. Participants with the low expression alleles of 5-HTTLPR (S or LG) exhibited stronger associations between childhood (but not combat) traumatic stress and PTSD symptoms. Affect lability mediated the associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol dependence symptoms. Behavioral disinhibition mediated associations between PTSD symptoms and conduct related problems. Conditional indirect effects indicated stronger associations between childhood traumatic stress and lability, behavioral disinhibition, alcohol consumption, AUD symptoms, and associated conduct problems via PTSD symptoms among those with the low expression 5-HTTLPR alleles. However, interactions between combat trauma and either childhood trauma or genotype were not significant. The results support the hypothesis that affect lability and behavioral disinhibition are potential intermediate traits with distinct associations with AUD and associated externalizing problems.

Psychology Department.


Son, Veronica, J. Chung, & J. P. Yom. (2016). When efficacy beliefs affect team attributions: relationships between self- and collective efficacy beliefs and team attributions over time. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 56(7-8), 939-948.

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the extent to which efficacy beliefs and perceptions of team performance influenced team causal attributions overtime. METHODS: A total of 258 undergraduate students were assigned to a three or four person team and played three games against three different opponents in a semi-round robin team bowling tournament. RESULTS: Multilevel modelling analyses revealed that individuals’ perceptions in team performance were positively associated with internal, stable, and team controllable attributions. Collective efficacy beliefs positively predicted team attributions overtime; whereas, self-efficacy beliefs were a negative predictor of team attributions across the tournament. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that individuals’ perceptions of their team’s success/failure were the stronger determinant of team attributions than their team’s winning/losing and, as well as, the efficacy beliefs team attributions relationships were moderated by time.

School of Education.


Strouse, Gabrielle A., & Patricia A. Ganea. (2016). Are prompts provided by electronic books as effective for teaching preschoolers a biological concept as those provided by adults? Early Education and Development, 27(8), 1190-1204.

Research Findings: Prior research indicates that shared book reading is an effective method for teaching biological concepts to young children. Adult questioning during reading enhances children’s comprehension. We investigated whether adult prompting during the reading of an electronic book enhanced children’s understanding of a biological concept. Ninety-one 4-year-olds read about camouflage in 3 conditions. We varied how prompts were provided: (a) read by the book, (b) read by a researcher, or (c) given face to face by the researcher. There was an interaction between children’s initial vocabulary level and condition. Children with low vocabulary scores gave fewer camouflage responses than their high-vocabulary peers, and this effect was particularly pronounced in the book-read condition. Children’s executive function was also measured and discussed. Practice or Policy: Our findings indicate that under some circumstances electronic prompts built into touchscreen books can be as effective at supporting conceptual development as the same prompts provided by a coreading adult. However, children with low vocabulary skills may be particularly supported by adult-led prompting. We suggest that adult prompting be used to motivate children to test and revise their own biological theories. Once children have learned strategies for updating their concepts, electronic prompting may be useful for scaffolding children’s transition to using the strategies when reading alone. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

School of Education.


Vallcaneras, Sandra S., Magalí de la Vega, Silvia M. Delgado, Alicia Motta, Carlos Telleria, Ana M. Rastrilla, & Marilina Casais. (2016). Prolactin modulates luteal regression from the coeliac ganglion via the superior ovarian nerve in the late-pregnant rat. Reproduction, Fertility & Development, 28(5), 565-573.

There is considerable evidence of the neuroendocrine control involved in luteal regression in the rat. In addition, circulating prolactin (PRL), which increases during the night before parturition, may gain access to the coeliac ganglion (CG), indirectly impacting the physiology of the ovary because of the known connection between the CG and the ovary via the superior ovarian nerve (SON). In this work we investigated in the CG-SON-ovary system and whether PRL added to the CG has an impact, indirectly via the SON, on luteal regression on Day 21 of pregnancy. The system was incubated without (control) or with PRL added to the CG. We measured the ovarian release of progesterone (P), oestradiol and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2α) by radioimmunoassay, and nitrites (NO) by the Griess method. Luteal mRNA expression of 3b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 20a-HSD, aromatase, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and apoptosis regulatory factors was analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. P release, the expression of Bcl-2 and the Bcl-2 : Bax ratio was lower than control preparations, while the expression of 20α-HSD and the release of NO and PGF2α were higher in the experimental group. In conclusion, PRL acts at the CG and, by a neural pathway, modulates luteal function at the end of pregnancy.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.


Wheeler, Cosette M., S. Rachel Skinner, M. Rowena Del Rosario-Raymundo, Suzanne M. Garland, Archana Chatterjee, …., & Galina Minkina. (2016). Efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in women older than 25 years: 7-year follow-up of the phase 3, double-blind, randomised controlled VIVIANE study. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 16(10), 1154-1168.

Although the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is greatest in young women, women older than 25 years remain at risk. We present data from the VIVIANE study of the HPV 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in adult women after 7 years of follow-up.<bold>Methods: </bold>In this phase 3, double-blind, randomised controlled trial, healthy women older than 25 years were enrolled (age stratified: 26-35 years, 36-45 years, and ≥46 years). Up to 15% in each age stratum had a history of HPV infection or disease. Women were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive HPV 16/18 vaccine or aluminium hydroxide control, with an internet-based system. The primary endpoint was vaccine efficacy against 6-month persistent infection or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or greater (CIN1+) associated with HPV 16/18. We did analyses in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy and total vaccinated cohort. Data for the combined primary endpoint in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy were considered significant when the lower limit of the 96·2% CI around the point estimate was greater than 30%. For all other endpoints and cohorts, data were considered significant when the lower limit of the 96·2% CI was greater than 0%. This study is registered with, number NCT00294047.<bold>Findings: </bold>The first participant was enrolled on Feb 16, 2006, and the last study visit took place on Jan 29, 2014. 4407 women were in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy (n=2209 vaccine, n=2198 control) and 5747 women in the total vaccinated cohort (n=2877 vaccine, n=2870 control). At month 84, in women seronegative for the corresponding HPV type in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy, vaccine efficacy against 6-month persistent infection or CIN1+ associated with HPV 16/18 was significant in all age groups combined (90·5%, 96·2% CI 78·6-96·5). Vaccine efficacy against HPV 16/18-related cytological abnormalities (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) and CIN1+ was also significant. We also noted significant cross-protective efficacy against 6-month persistent infection with HPV 31 (65·8%, 96·2% CI 24·9-85·8) and HPV 45 (70·7%, 96·2% CI 34·2-88·4). In the total vaccinated cohort, vaccine efficacy against CIN1+ irrespective of HPV was significant (22·9%, 96·2% CI 4·8-37·7). Serious adverse events related to vaccination occurred in five (0·2%) of 2877 women in the vaccine group and eight (0·3%) of 2870 women in the control group.<bold>Interpretation: </bold>In women older than 25 years, the HPV 16/18 vaccine continues to protect against infections, cytological abnormalities, and lesions associated with HPV 16/18 and CIN1+ irrespective of HPV type, and infection with non-vaccine types HPV 31 and HPV 45 over 7 years of follow-up.<bold>Funding: </bold>GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.


Yang, X. Y., Y. Xu, A. Brooks, B. Guo, Keith W. Miskimins, & S. Y. Qian. (2016). Knockdown delta-5-desaturase promotes the formation of a novel free radical byproduct from COX-catalyzed omega-6 peroxidation to induce apoptosis and sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to chemotherapy drugs. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 97, 342-350.

Recent research has demonstrated that colon cancer cell proliferation can be suppressed in the cells that overexpress COX-2 via generating 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid (a free radical byproduct) during dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, an omega-6 fatty acid) peroxidation from knocking down cellular delta-5-desaturase (D5D, the key enzyme for converting DGLA to the downstream omega-6, arachidonic acid). Here, this novel research finding is extended to pancreatic cancer growth, as COX-2 is also commonly overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. The pancreatic cancer cell line, BxPC-3 (with high COX-2 expression and mutated p53), was used to assess not only the inhibitory effects of the enhanced formation of 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid from cellular COX-2-catalyzed DGLA peroxidation but also its potential synergistic and/or additive effect on current chemotherapy drugs. This work demonstrated that, by inducing DNA damage through inhibition of histone deacetylase, a threshold level of 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid achieved in DGLA-treated and D5D-knockdown BxPC-3 cells subsequently induce cancer cell apoptosis. Furthermore, it was shown that a combination of D5D knockdown along with DGLA treatment could also significantly sensitize BxPC-3 cells to various chemotherapy drugs, likely via a p53-independent pathway through downregulating of anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g., Bcl-2) and activating pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g., caspase 3, 9). This study reinforces the supposition that using commonly overexpressed COX-2 for molecular targeting, a strategy conceptually distinct from the prevailing COX-2 inhibition strategy used in cancer treatment, is an important as well as viable alternative to inhibit cancer cell growth. Based on the COX-2 metabolic cascade, the outcomes presented here could guide the development of a novel omega-6-based dietary care strategy in combination with chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Inc.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.


Yulun, Han, Dmitri S. Kilin, P. Stanley MayMary T. Berry, & Meng Qingguo. (2016). Photofragmentation Pathways for Gas-Phase Lanthanide Tris(isopropylcyclopentadienyl) Complexes. Organometallics, 35(20), 3461-3473.

Photofragmentation mechanisms of gas-phase lanthanide tris(isopropylcyclopentadienyl) complexes, Ln(iCp)3, were studied through experimental photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PI-TOF-MS). A DFT-based time-dependent excited-state molecular dynamics (TDESMD) algorithm, under standard approximations, was used to simulate the photofragmentation process. Two competing reaction pathways, intact ligand stripping and ligand cracking within the metal-ligand complex, were hypothesized based on experimental data. It was evident that intramolecular hydrogen, methyl, and isopropyl abstraction play an important role in the ligand-cracking reaction pathway, leading to metal carbide and metal hydrocarbide products. The TDESMD simulations also produced branching reaction pathways for ligand ejection and ligand cracking and further suggested that both pathways are initiated by ligand-to-metal charge transfer. Although the simulations reproduced several of the proposed reactions and several of the products of cracking observed in the PI-TOF mass spectra, differences between the simulation and experimental results suggest specific directions for improvement in the computational model.

Chemistry Department.


Zeng, Z. C., S. Hu, S. C. Huang, Y. J. Zhang, W. X. Zhao, J. F. Li, Chaoyang Jiang, & B. Ren. (2016). Novel Electrochemical Raman Spectroscopy Enabled by Water Immersion Objective. Analytical Chemistry, 88(19), 9381-9385.

Electrochemical Raman spectroscopy is a powerful molecular lever diagnostic, technique for in situ investigation of adsorption and reactions on various material surfaces. However, there is still a big room to improve the optical path to meet the increasing request of higher detection sensitivity and spatial resolution. Herein, we proposed a novel electrochemical Raman setup based on a water immersion objective. It dramatically reduces mismatch of the refractive index in the light path: Consequently, significant: improvement in detection sensitivity and spatial resolution has been achieved from both Zemax simulation and the experimental results. Furthermore, the thickness of electrolyte layer could be expanded to 2 mm without any influence on the signal collection; Such a thick electrolyte layer allows a Much normal,electrochemical response during the spectroelectrochemical investigations of the methanol oxidation.

Chemistry Department.


Zhang, C.D. M. Meia, V. A. Kudryavtsev, & S. Fiorucci. (2016). Cosmogenic activation of materials used in rare event search experiments.Astroparticle Physics, 84, 62-69.

We evaluate the cosmogenic production rates in some materials that are commonly used as targets and shielding/supporting components for detecting rare events. The results from Geant4 simulations and the calculations of ACTIVIA are compared with the available experimental data. We demonstrate that the production rates from the Geant4-based simulations agree with the available data reasonably well. As a result, we report that the cosmogenic production of several isotopes in various materials can generate potential backgrounds for direct detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Physics Department.


Zhi-Cong, Zeng, Hu Shu, Huang Sheng-Chao, Zhang Yue-Jiao, Zhao Wei-Xing, Li Jian-Feng, Jiang Chaoyang, & Ren Bin. (2016). Novel Electrochemical Raman Spectroscopy Enabled by Water Immersion Objective. Analytical Chemistry, 88(19), 9381-9385.

Electrochemical Raman spectroscopy is a powerful molecular level diagnostic technique for in situ investigation of adsorption and reactions on various material surfaces. However, there is still a big room to improve the optical path to meet the increasing request of higher detection sensitivity and spatial resolution. Herein, we proposed a novel electrochemical Raman setup based on a water immersion objective. It dramatically reduces mismatch of the refractive index in the light path. Consequently, significant improvement in detection sensitivity and spatial resolution has been achieved from both Zemax simulation and the experimental results. Furthermore, the thickness of electrolyte layer could be expanded to 2 mm without any influence on the signal collection. Such a thick electrolyte layer allows a much normal electrochemical response during the spectroelectrochemical investigations of the methanol oxidation.

Chemistry Department.



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