Posted by: princekhaled | June 8, 2009

June 2009

Ballal, A., & Manna, A. C. (2009).
Regulation of Superoxide Dismutase (sod) Genes by SarA in Staphylococcus aureus.
R Journal of Bacteriology, 191(10), 6.

The scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within cells is regulated by several interacting factors, including transcriptional regulators. Involvement of sarA family genes in the regulation of proteins involved in the scavenging of ROS is largely unknown. In this report, we show that under aerobic conditions, the levels of sodM and sodA transcription, in particular the sodM transcript, are markedly enhanced in the sarA mutant among the tested sarA family mutants. Increased levels of sod expression returned to near the parental level in a single-copy sarA complemented strain. Under microaerophilc conditions, transcription of both sodM and sodA was considerably enhanced in the sarA mutant compared to the wild-type strain. Various genotypic, phenotypic, and DNA binding studies confirmed the involvement of SarA in the regulation of sod transcripts in different strains of Staphylococcus aureus. The sodA mutant was sensitive to an oxidative stress-inducing agent, methyl viologen, but the sarA sodA double mutant was more resistant to the same stressor than the single sodA mutant. These results suggest that overexpression of SodM, which occurs in the sarA background, can rescue the methyl viologen-sensitive phenotype observed in the absence of the sodA gene. Analysis with various oxidative stress-inducing agents indicates that SarA may play a greater role in modulating oxidative stress resistance in S. aureus. This is the first report that demonstrates the direct involvement of a regulatory protein (SarA) in control of sod expression in S. aureus.

Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069
Center for Infectious Disease Research and Vaccinology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota 57007

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Erkina, T., Lavrova, M., & Erkine, A. (2009).
Alternative ways of stress regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells: Transcriptional activators Msn2 and Msn4.
Cell and Tissue Biology, 3(2), 121-129.

Cell response to stress at the transcriptional level is characterized by the rapid expression of a large set of heat shock genes. In yeast S. cerevisiae, this gene activation is determined by activators of two types, i.e., HSF and partially redundant Msn2 and Msn4. While mechanisms of HSF activation were relatively well established during the last decade, the mechanisms of regulation by Msn2/Msn4 only began to be clarified recently. Some of the important aspects of Msn2/Msn4 regulation include nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling and targeted degradation of these factors at gene promoters during transcriptional activation. These and other mechanisms are discussed in this review.

USD Sanford School of Medicine Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences Vermillion SD 57069 USA

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Feng, N., Telefont, M., Kelly, K. J., Orchinik, M., Forster, G. L., Renner, K. J., et al. (2009).
Local perfusion of corticosterone in the rat medial hypothalamus potentiates d-fenfluramine-induced elevations of extracellular 5-HT concentrations.
Hormones & Behavior, 56(1), 149-157.

Abstract: The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) plays an important role in coordinating physiological and behavioral responses to stress-related stimuli. In vertebrates, DMH serotonin (5-HT) concentrations increase rapidly in response to acute stressors or corticosterone (CORT). Recent studies suggest that CORT inhibits postsynaptic clearance of 5-HT from the extracellular fluid in the DMH by blocking organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3), a polyspecific CORT-sensitive transport protein. Because OCTs are low-affinity, high-capacity transporters, we hypothesized that CORT effects on extracellular 5-HT are most pronounced in the presence of elevated 5-HT release. We predicted that local application of CORT into the DMH would potentiate the effects of d-fenfluramine, a 5-HT-releasing agent, on extracellular 5-HT. These experiments were conducted using in vivo microdialysis in freely-moving male Sprague–Dawley rats implanted with a microdialysis probe into the medial hypothalamus (MH), which includes the DMH. In Experiment 1, rats simultaneously received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of 1 mg/kg d-fenfluramine or saline and either 200 ng/mL CORT or dilute ethanol (EtOH) vehicle delivered to the MH by reverse-dialysis for 40 min. In Experiment 2, 5 μM d-fenfluramine and either 200 ng/mL CORT or EtOH vehicle were concurrently delivered to the MH for 40 min using reverse-dialysis. CORT potentiated the increases in extracellular 5-HT concentrations induced by either i.p. or intra-MH administration of d-fenfluramine. Furthermore, CORT and d-fenfluramine interacted to alter home cage behaviors. Our results support the hypothesis that CORT inhibition of OCT3-mediated 5-HT clearance from the extracellular fluid contributes to stress-induced increases in extracellular 5-HT and 5-HT signaling.

Department of Biology and Neuroscience Group, University of South Dakota, 414 E. Clark St., Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
University of Colorado at Boulder, Department of Integrative Physiology, Boulder, CO 80309-0354, USA
School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe AZ 85287-4501, USA
Basic Biomedical Sciences and Neuroscience Group, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, 414 E. Clark St., Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
University of Bristol, Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, Bristol, BS1 3NY, UK

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Files, M. D., Zenel, J. A., Armsby, L. B., & Langley, S. M. (2009).
A Child with Eosinophilia, Loeffler Endocarditis, and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
Pediatric Cardiology, 30(4), 530-532.

We present an 8-year-old male with Loeffler endocarditis and acute lymphoblastic leukemia with hypereosinophilia (ALL/Eo) who initially presented with a 3-month history of peripheral eosinophilia thought to be due to visceral larval migrans. Despite treatment for Toxocara, his leukocytosis persisted and he developed mitral valve insufficiency and congestive heart failure. Myocardial biopsy revealed fibrosis and thrombus formation indicative of Loeffler endocarditis, and a peripheral smear showed pre-B-cell acute lymphoid leukemia. This unique case highlights a rare, yet serious sequella of prolonged eosinophilia.

Department of Pediatrics, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97201, USA
Department of Pediatrics, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD, USA
Department of Surgery, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97201, USA

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Hanson, E. K., & Sundheimer, C. (2009).
Telephone Talk: Effects of Timing and Use of a Floorholder Message on Telephone Conversations Using Synthesized Speech.
AAC: Augmentative & Alternative Communication, 25(2), 90-98.

Telephone interaction remains a challenging form of communication for many who use speech-generating devices (SGDs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of delayed starts and floorholder information at the beginning of synthesized-speech telephone calls to local businesses. Calls were placed to 100 randomly selected businesses asking for business hours. Each call was randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: a floorholder present with no delay, a floorholder present with a delay, floorholder absent and no delay, and floorholder absent with a delay. Overall, 76% of the calls were unsuccessful because the participant hung up or otherwise did not provide the information requested. The majority of successful calls occurred in the floorholder present and no delay condition.

University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota
Fiesta Pediatric Therapy, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

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JONES, P. H., WALLACE, L., & BRITTEN, H. B. (2009).
Isolation and characterization of 11 microsatellite loci from Oropsylla hirsuta, a vector of sylvatic plague.
Molecular Ecology Resources, 9(3), 1041-1044.

The flea ( Oropsylla hirsuta) is an important vector of the plague bacterium, Yersinia pestis, in black-tailed prairie dog ( Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies. We developed 11 anonymous microsatellite primers for O. hirsuta using a subtractive hybridization procedure. All primers were polymorphic exhibiting 4–12 alleles.

Department of Biology, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
Department of Biological Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA

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Kavouras, I. G., Etyemezian, V., Nikolich, G., Gillies, J., Sweeney, M., Young, M., et al. (2009).
A New Technique for Characterizing the Efficacy of Fugitive Dust Suppressants.
Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995), 59(5), 603-612.

The Portable In-Situ Wind Erosion Laboratory (PI-SWERL) instrument was evaluated for testing the effectiveness of dust suppressants for a range of native and constructed soils. The PM<sub>10</sub> (particles with diameter ≤10 μm) emissions from dust suppressant-treated and untreated soil surfaces were measured periodically over 14 months. No statistically significant differences were found among soil surfaces treated with three dilution mixtures of the dust suppressant. The temporal variation of PM<sub>10</sub> emissions from treated and untreated plots for native and constructed soil textures indicated that: (1) reductions of PM<sub>10</sub> emissions by the dust suppressant were significant within 2-3 months after the application and diminished substantially thereafter, (2) decomposition of the protective treated layer resulted in high PM<sub>10</sub> emissions for longer environmental exposure times, and (3) emissions from untreated soil surfaces declined over time because of the formation of a natural crust. These results demonstrated that the PI-SWERL can provide qualitative and quantitative information on PM<sub>10</sub> emissions for a range of soil textures and can be used to estimate the effectiveness of dust suppressants exposed to actual environmental (i.e., weather and solar radiation) conditions over long periods of time.

Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Desert Research Institute, Las Vegas, NV
Department of Earth Sciences, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD
Division of Hydrologic Sciences, Desert Research Institute, Las Vegas, NV

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Liu, Y., Wang, D., Redetzke, R. A., Sherer, B. A., & Gerdes, A. M. (2009).
Thyroid hormone analog 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid promotes healthy vasculature in the adult myocardium independent of thyroid effects on cardiac function.
American Journal of Physiology: Heart & Circulatory Physiology, 65(5), H1551-H1557.

Liu Y, Wang 0, Redetzke RA, Sherer BA, Gerdes AM. Thyroid hormone analog 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid promotes healthy vasculature in the adult myocardium independent of thyroid effects on cardiac function. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 296: H1551-H1557, 2009. First published March 13, 2009; doi:10.1152/ajpheart.01293.2008.Patients with hypothyroidism are at a higher risk for coronary vascular disease. Patients with diabetes and related vascular complications also have an increased incidence of low thyroid function. While thyroid hormones (TH5) may be key regulators of a healthy vasculature, potential undesirable side effects hinder their use in the treatment of vascular disorders. TH analogs such as 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid (DITPA) may provide a safer treatment option. However, the relative potency of DITPA on vascular growth, cardiac function, and metabolism is poorly understood. We hypothesized that the vascular growth-promoting effects of DITPA can be obtained with a minimum effect on cardiac function. Thyroidectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were given slow-release pellets with either thyroxins (T4, 2.7 or 5.2 mg) or DITPA (80 mg) for 6 wk and were compared with placebo. Heart mass, body mass, body temperature, serum THs, cardiac function (echocardiograms and hemodynamics), and myocardial arteriolar density were determined. Hypothyroidism led to reductions in cardiac function, heart mass, body temperature, and myocardial arterioles. High-dose T4 prevented arteriolar loss and the development of hypothyroidism. Low-dose T4 partially prevented the reduction in cardiac function but had minimal effects on arteriolar loss. In contrast, DITPA treatment prevented myocardial arteriolar loss but not the progression of hypothyroid-induced changes in cardiac function. The results suggested that DITPA can promote a healthy vascillature independently from its thyroid-related metabolic effects. Drugs in this class may provide new therapeutic options for patients with vascular disease.

Cardiovascular Research Center, Sanfcird Research/University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA

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Lorenzi, V., Carpenter, R. E., Summers, C. H., Earley, R. L., & Grober, M. S. (2009).
Serotonin, social status and sex change in the bluebanded goby Lythrypnus dalli.
Physiology & Behavior, 97(3/4), 476-483.

Abstract: In a variety of vertebrates, highly aggressive individuals tend to have high social status and low serotonergic function. In the sex changing fish Lythrypnus dalli, serotonin (5-HT) may be involved as a mediator between the social environment and the reproductive system because social status is a critical cue in regulating sex change. Subordination inhibits sex change in L. dalli, and it is associated with higher serotonergic activity in other species. We tested the hypothesis that high serotonergic activity has an inhibitory effect on sex change. In a social situation permissive to sex change, we administered to the dominant female implants containing the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). In a social situation not conducive to sex change, we administered either the serotonin synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) or the 5-HT<sub>1A</sub> receptor antagonist p-MPPI. After three weeks we used HPLC to measure brain levels of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). We also performed PCPA, p-MPPI and fluoxetine injections in size-matched pairs of females to assess its effect on dominance status. Males and newly sex changed fish showed a trend for higher levels of 5-HIAA and 5-HT/5-HIAA ratio than females. The different implants treatments did not affect the probability of sex change. Interestingly, this species does not seem to fit the pattern seen in other vertebrates where dominant individuals have lower serotonergic activity than subordinates.

Department of Biology, Georgia State University & Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
Department of Biology, University of South Dakota Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
Neuroscience Group, Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, Box 870344, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA

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Lowry, C. A., Hale, M. W., Burke, K. A., Renner, K. J., & Moore, F. L. (2009).
Fluoxetine potentiates the effects of corticotropin-releasing factor on locomotor activity and serotonergic systems in the roughskin newt, Taricha granulosa.
Hormones & Behavior, 56(1), 177-184.

Abstract: The anxiety- and stress-related neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) elicits behavioral changes in vertebrates including increases in behavioral arousal and locomotor activity. Intracerebroventricular injections of CRF in an amphibian, the roughskin newt (Taricha granulosa), induces rapid increases in locomotor activity in both intact and hypophysectomized animals. We hypothesized that this CRF-induced increase in locomotor activity involves a central effect of CRF on serotonergic neurons, based on known stimulatory actions of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) on spinal motor neurons and the central pattern generator for locomotor activity in vertebrates. In Experiment 1, we found that neither intracerebroventricular injections of low doses of CRF (25Â ng) nor the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (10, 100Â ng), by themselves, altered locomotor activity. In contrast, newts treated concurrently with CRF and fluoxetine responded with marked increases in locomotor activity. In Experiment 2, we found that increases in locomotor activity following co-administration of CRF (25Â ng) and fluoxetine (100Â ng) were associated with decreased 5-HT concentrations in a number of forebrain structures involved in regulation of emotional behavior and emotional states, including the ventral striatum, amygdala pars lateralis, and dorsal hypothalamus, measured 37Â min after treatment. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that CRF stimulates locomotor activity through activation of serotonergic systems.

Department of Zoology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS1 3NY, UK
Center for Premature Infant Health and Development, USC Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
Department of Biology, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA

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MCGLAUGHLIN, M. E., RILEY, L., & HELENURM, K. (2009).
Isolation of microsatellite loci from the endangered plant Galium catalinense subspecies acrispum (Rubiaceae).
Molecular Ecology Resources, 9(3), 984-986.

Galium catalinense subspecies acrispum (Rubiaceae) is a state-endangered perennial shrub endemic to San Clemente Island. Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated from G. catalinense ssp. acrispum. These loci show high levels of variability, averaging 6.5 alleles per locus and an expected heterozygosity of 0.550. One locus exhibited significant deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium ( P < 0.01) and one pair of loci exhibited significant linkage disequilibrium.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO 80639, USA
Department of Biology, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA

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Ragothaman, S., & Carr, D. (2008).
The Impact of Environmental Information Disclosures on Shareholder Returns in a Company: An Empirical Study.
International Journal of Management, 25(4), 613-620.

The Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (1986) has mandated Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) disclosures in the United States. This Act requires all manufacturing companies (SIC code 20-39) who employ more than 10 people to provide an annual report about the release of more than 300 specified toxic chemicals. Similar legislation exists in other countries as well. How is this information used by investors and corporations? We develop and test a regression model to answer this question. We also perform a few robustness tests. Our sample comes from TRI disclosures for “top 100” corporate polluters based on COMPUSTAT data. Descriptive statistics and correlation measures are also provided. The higher the return on assets the higher is Tobin’s q (a proxy for firm value or shareholder wealth). The waste disposal variable (toxic air release) is a statistically significant predictor of Tobin’s q. As expected, the sign of the regression coefficient for waste disposal is negative. In addition, firm size has a significant impact on Tobin’s q. A firm’s beta, P/E ratio, and the corporate governance variable are all statistically insignificant.

University of South Dakota Beacom School of Business

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Wallace, L. E. (2009).
Phylogeographic patterns and demographic history of Schiedea globosa (Caryophyllaceae) on the Hawaiian Islands.
American Journal of Botany, 96(5), 958-967.

Geomorphological changes have been demonstrated to have had profound impacts on biodiversity, often leading to demographic expansions and contractions and allopatric divergence of taxa. We examined DNA sequence variation at two nuclear and one maternally inherited plastid locus among 10 populations of Schiedea globosa on the Hawaiian Islands to assess the primary factors shaping genetic structure, phylogeographic patterns, and the importance of geographic isolation to population divergence. Schiedea globosa has characteristics that may promote gene flow, including wind pollination and rafting of plants in ocean currents. However, we detected significant differentiation among populations on all islands except Hawaii, with the maternally inherited plastid locus having the greatest genetic structure (FST= 0.81). Migration rates across all loci are less than one migrant per generation. We found evidence of growth in several populations and on the islands of Molokai and Maui, which supports population expansion associated with the formation of Maui Nui during the last glacial maximum. Similar to data for many other Hawaiian taxa, these data suggest S. globosa originated on Oahu and subsequently colonized Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii in progression. Given the high level of genetic structure, allopatric divergence will likely contribute to further divergence of populations.

Department of Biological Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 USA
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 USA
Department of Botany, MRC 166, P.O. Box 37012, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20013-7012 USA
Department of Biology, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 USA

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Wallace, L. E., Weller, S. G., Wagner, W. L., Sakai, A. K., & Nepokroeff, M. (2009).
PHYLOGEOGRAPHIC PATTERNS AND DEMOGRAPHIC HISTORY OF SCHIEDEA GLOBOSA (CARYOPHYLLACEAE) ON THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS.
American Journal of Botany, 96(5), 958-967.

Geomorphological changes have been demonstrated to have had profound impacts on biodiversity, often leading to demographic expansions and contractions and allopatric divergence of taxa. We examined DNA sequence variation at two nuclear and one maternally inherited plastid locus among 10 populations of Schiedea globosa on the Hawaiian Islands to assess the primary factors shaping genetic structure, phylogeographic patterns, and the importance of geographic isolation to population divergence. Schiedea globosa has characteristics that may promote gene flow, including wind pollination and rafting of plants in ocean currents. However, we detected significant differentiation among populations on all islands except Hawaii, with the maternally inherited plastid locus having the greatest genetic structure (FST = 0.81). Migration rates across all loci are less than one migrant per generation. We found evidence of growth in several populations and on the islands of Molokai and Maui, which supports population expansion associated with the formation of Maui Nui during the last glacial maximum. Similar to data for many other Hawaiian taxa, these data suggest S. globosa originated on Oahu and subsequently colonized Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii in progression. Given the high level of genetic structure, allopatric divergence will likely contribute to further divergence of populations.

Department of Biological Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 USA
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 USA
Department of Botany, MRC 166, P.O. Box 37012, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20013-7012 USA
Department of Biology, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 USA

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Willyard, A., Cronn, R., & Liston, A. (2009).
Reticulate evolution and incomplete lineage sorting among the ponderosa pines.
Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution, 52(2), 498-511.

Abstract: Interspecific gene flow via hybridization may play a major role in evolution by creating reticulate rather than hierarchical lineages in plant species. Occasional diploid pine hybrids indicate the potential for introgression, but reticulation is hard to detect because ancestral polymorphism is still shared across many groups of pine species. Nucleotide sequences for 53 accessions from 17 species in subsection Ponderosae (Pinus) provide evidence for reticulate evolution. Two discordant patterns among independent low-copy nuclear gene trees and a chloroplast haplotype are better explained by introgression than incomplete lineage sorting or other causes of incongruence. Conflicting resolution of three monophyletic Pinus coulteri accessions is best explained by ancient introgression followed by a genetic bottleneck. More recent hybridization transferred a chloroplast from P. jeffreyi to a sympatric P. washoensis individual. We conclude that incomplete lineage sorting could account for other examples of non-monophyly, and caution against any analysis based on single-accession or single-locus sampling in Pinus.

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
Department of Biology, University of South Dakota, 414 E. Clark St, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
Biology Department, Hendrix College, 1600 Washington Ave., Conway, AR 72032, USA
Pacific Northwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service, 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA

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