Posted by: tadeterman | June 19, 2018

June 2016

Adjepong, M., C. A. Pickens, R. Jain, William S. Harris, R. A. Annan, & J. I. Fenton. (2018). “Association of whole blood n-6 fatty acids with stunting in 2-to-6-year-old Northern Ghanaian children: A cross-sectional study.” Plos One, 13(3), 15.

In Northern Ghana, 33% of children are stunted due to economic disparities. Dietary fatty acids ( FA) are critical for growth, but whether blood FA levels are adequate in Ghanaian children is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the association between whole blood FAs and growth parameters in Northern Ghanaian children 2-6 years of age. A drop of blood was collected on an antioxidant treated card and analyzed for FA composition. Weight and height were measured and z-scores were calculated. Relationships between FAs and growth parameters were analyzed by Spearman correlations, linear regressions, and factor analysis. Of the 307 children who participated, 29.7% were stunted and 8% were essential FA deficient ( triene/tetraene ratio>0.02). Essential FA did not differ between stunted and non-stunted children and was not associated with height-for-age z-score ( HAZ) or weight-for-age z-score ( WAZ). In hemoglobin adjusted regression models, both HAZ and WAZ were positively associated with arachidonic acid ( p <= 0.01), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid ( DGLA, p <= 0.05), docosatetraenoic acid ( p <= 0.01) and the ratio of DGLA/linoleic acid ( p <= 0.01). These data add to the growing body of evidence indicating n-6 FAs are critical in childhood linear growth. Our findings provide new insights into the health status of an understudied Northern Ghanaian population.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Asgari, M., S. Jawahery, E. D. Bloch, M. R. Hudson, R. Flacau, Bess Vlaisavljevich, J. R. Long, C. M. Brown, & W. L. Queen. (2018). “An experimental and computational study of CO2 adsorption in the sodalite-type M-BTT (M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu) metal-organic frameworks featuring open metal sites.”Chemical Science, 9(20), 4579-4588.

We present a comprehensive investigation of the CO2 adsorption properties of an isostructural series of metal-organic frameworks, M-BTT (M 1/4 Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu; BTT3 = 1/4 1,3,5-benzenetristetrazolate), which exhibit a high density of open metal sites capable of polarizing and binding guest molecules. Coupling gas adsorption measurements with in situ neutron and X-ray diffraction experiments provides molecularlevel insight into the adsorption process and enables rationalization of the observed adsorption isotherms. In particular, structural data confirms that the high initial isosteric heats of CO2 adsorption for the series are directly correlated with the presence of open metal sites and further reveals the positions and orientations of as many as three additional adsorption sites. Density functional theory calculations that include van der Waals dispersion corrections quantitatively support the observed structural features associated with the primary and secondary CO2 binding sites, including CO2 positions and orientations, as well as the experimentally determined isosteric heats of CO2 adsorption.

Chemistry Department.

 

Assam, Jed H., & William CSpanos. (2018). “Oral Cavity Reconstruction Outcomes Using a Porcine Urinary Bladder Matrix: A Retrospective Case Series.”Wounds : a compendium of clinical research and practice, 30(5), 131-137.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to assess healing outcomes in full-thickness mucosal wounds following the use of a porcine urinary bladder matrix to augment mixed oral cavity repairs.; MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart analysis was conducted over a 58-month timespan. Participants included individuals with osteoradionecrosis. Descriptive measures obtained in the postoperative setting were used to examine wound healing outcomes.; RESULTS: Thirty-nine encounters with 35 patients met inclusion criteria for assessment. The mean defect size repaired was 14 cm2. Successful healing occurred in 64% of cases. Scarring was observed in 10 cases, and 3 cases demonstrated transient functional deficits. Reapplication of the xenograft was required in 4 cases. Only 1 acute event of hemorrhage and 1 infection were observed in the postoperative period.; CONCLUSIONS: Use of porcine urinary bladder matrix grafts for oral cavity reconstruction was well tolerated in a diverse number of wound scenarios with a relatively low risk of postoperative complication. The use of porcine urinary bladder matrix was not observed to provide any noteworthy advantages for the healing of recalcitrant osteoradionecrosis wounds.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Balasanthiran, ChouminiStephanie Jensen, C. S. Spanjers, Shelton J. P. Varapragasam, R. M. Rioux, Dmitri Kilin, & James D. Hoefelmeyer. (2018). “Quantitative Attachment of Bimetal Combinations of Transition-Metal Ions to the Surface of TiO2 Nanorods.” Langmuir, 34(19), 5422-5434.

We report the sequential, quantitative loading of transition-metal ions (Cr3+, Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, and Cu2+) onto the surface of rod-shaped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals in bimetallic combinations (C-6(2) = 15) to form M,M’-TiO2 nanocrystals. The materials were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-visible spectroscopy. TEM and XRD data indicate that the sequential adsorption of metal ions occurs with the retention of the phase and morphology of the nanocrystal. Atomistic models of the M,M’-TiO2 nanocrystals were optimized with density functional theory calculations. Calculated UV-visible absorption spectra and partial charge density maps of the donor and acceptor states for the electronic transitions indicate the importance of metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) processes.

Chemistry Department.

 

Baumgarten, Keith M.Peter S. ChangTasha M. Dannenbring, & Elaine K. Foley. (2018). “Does arthroscopic rotator cuff repair improve patients’ activity levels?”. Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery.

BACKGROUND: Rotator cuff repair decreases pain, improves range of motion, and increases strength. Whether these improvements translate to an improvement in a patient’s activity level postoperatively remains unknown. The Shoulder Activity Level is a valid and reliable outcomes survey that can be used to measure a patient’s shoulder-specific activity level. Currently, there are no studies that examine the effect of rotator cuff repair on shoulder activity level.; METHODS: Preoperative patient-determined outcomes scores collected prospectively on patients undergoing rotator cuff repair were compared with postoperative scores at a minimum of 2 years. These scores included the Shoulder Activity Level, Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation, and simple shoulder test. Inclusion criteria were patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.; RESULTS: Included were 281 shoulders from 273 patients with a mean follow-up of 3.7 years. The postoperative median Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (42 vs. 94), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (41 vs. 95), Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (30 vs. 95), and simple shoulder test (4 vs. 11) scores were statistically significantly improved compared with preoperative scores (P<.0001). The postoperative median Shoulder Activity Level score decreased compared with the preoperative score (12 vs. 11; P<.0001).; CONCLUSIONS: Patients reported a statistically significant deterioration of their Shoulder Activity Level score after rotator cuff repair compared with their preoperative scores, although disease-specific and joint-specific quality of life scores all had statistically significantly improvement. This study suggests that patients generally have (1) significant improvements in their quality of life and (2) small deteriorations in activity level after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Bilandzija, H., L. Abraham, L. Ma, Kenneth J. Renner, & W. R. Jeffery. (2018). “Behavioural changes controlled by catecholaminergic systems explain recurrent loss of pigmentation in cavefish.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 285(1978), 10.

Multiple cave populations of the teleost Astyanax mexicanus have repeatedly reduced or lost eye and body pigmentation during adaptation to dark caves. Albinism, the complete absence of melanin pigmentation, is controlled by oss-of-function mutations in the oca2 gene. The mutation is accompanied by an increase in the melanin synthesis precursor L-tyrosine, which is also a precursor for catecholamine synthesis. In this study, we show a relationship between pigmentation loss, enhanced catecholamine synthesis and responsiveness to anaesthesia, determined as a proxy for catecholamine-related behaviours. V’ demonstrate that anaesthesia resistance (AR) is enhanced in multiple depigmented and albino cavefish (CF), inversely proportional to the degree of pigmentation loss, controlled by the oca2 gene, and can be modulated by experimental manipulations of L-tyrosine or the cat-echolamine norepinephrine (NE). Moreover, NE is increased in the brains f multiple albino and depigmented CF relative to surface fish. The results provide new insights into the evolution of pigment modification because NE controls a suite of adaptive behaviours similar to AR that may represent a target of natural selection. Thus, understanding the relationship between loss of pigmentation and AR may provide insight into the role of natural selection in the evolution of albinism via a melanin-catecholamine trade-off.

Biology Department.

 

Blake, Anastasia V., Taylor V. Fetrow, Zachary J. Theiler, Bess Vlaisavljevich, & Scott R. Daly. (2018). “Homoleptic uranium and lanthanide phosphinodiboranates.”Chemical Communications, 54(44), 5602-5605.

Here we report a new class of homoleptic f-element borohydride complexes called phosphinodiboranates. Treating UI3(1,4-dioxane)1.5, NdI3, or ErI3, with three equiv. of K(H3BPtBu2BH3) in Et2O yielded M2(H3BPtBu2BH3)6, where M = U, Nd, and Er. All three complexes form solid-state dimers, but exist as mixtures of monomers and dimers in solution. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Chemical Communications is the property of Royal Society of Chemistry and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Chemistry Department.

 

Chen, Xi, Qitao Hu, Si Chen, Nathan L. Netzer, Zhenqiang Wang, Shi-Li Zhang, & Zhen Zhang. (2018). “Multiplexed analysis of molecular and elemental ions using nanowire transistor sensors.” Sensors & Actuators B: Chemical, 270, 89-96.

An integrated sensor chip with silicon nanowire ion-sensitive field-effect transistors for simultaneous and selective detection of both molecular and elemental ions in a single sample solution is demonstrated. The sensing selectivity is realized by functionalizing the sensor surface with tailor-made mixed-matrix membranes (MMM) incorporated with specific ionophores for the target ions. A biomimetic container molecule, named metal-organic supercontainer (MOSC), is selected as the ionophore for detection of methylene blue (MB + ), a molecular ion, while a commercially available Na-ionophore is used for Na + , an elemental ion. The sensors show a near-Nernstian response with 56.4 ± 1.8 mV/dec down to a concentration limit of ∼1 μM for MB + and 57.9 ± 0.7 mV/dec down to ∼60 μM for Na + , both with excellent reproducibility. Extensive control experiments on the MB + sensor lead to identification of the critical role of the MOSC molecules in achieving a stable and reproducible potentiometric response. Moreover, the MB + -specific sensor shows remarkable selectivity against common interfering elemental ions in physiological samples, e.g. , H + , Na + , and K + . Although the Na + -specific sensor is currently characterized by insufficient immunity to the interference by MB + , the root cause is identified and remedies generally applicable for hydrophobic molecular ions are discussed. River water experiments are also conducted to prove the efficacy of our sensors.

Chemistry Department.

 

De Jong, David, & A. Campoli. (2018). “Curricular coaches’ impact on retention for early-career elementary teachers in the USA: Implications for urban schools.” International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, 7(2), 191-200.

Purpose Researchers have found that curricular coaches have had an impact on student achievement by supporting classroom teachers in providing high-quality instruction. However, few studies examine the association between curricular coaches and teacher retention, especially in urban areas. Given the high cost of teacher turnover and the high percentage of early-career teachers who leave the profession each year, the purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the presence of curricular coaches in elementary schools reduces turnover among early-career teachers. Design/methodology/approach In this study, the authors analyzed the observational data from the 2007-2008 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). The SASS is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey that has been administered repeatedly to public and private kindergarten through 12th-grade teachers in the USA approximately every four years by the National Center for Education Statistics and the US Census Bureau. Findings The authors found that the presence of a curricular coach was associated with a substantial reduction in early-career teacher turnover. This finding suggests that curricular coaches could be a particular benefit to urban schools. Research limitations/implications This study was national in scope; therefore, it does not examine causes of attrition specific to local contexts. Practical implications Curricular coaches may indirectly save urban school districts thousands of dollars because of their impact on reducing early-career teacher attrition. Social implications In this study, the authors found a statistically significant and practically meaningful association between the presence of curricular coaches in schools and the retention of elementary teachers, especially in urban areas. Originality/value The model predicted that among early-career teachers, teachers in schools without curricular coaches are approximately twice as likely to leave the profession the next year compared to teachers in schools with curricular coaches.

School of Education.

 

Halder, Chayan, Sk Md Obaidullah, K. C. Santosh, & Kaushik Roy. (2018). “Content Independent Writer Identification on Bangla Script: A Document Level Approach.” International Journal of Pattern Recognition & Artificial Intelligence, 32(9), N.PAG-N.PAG.

Offline writer identification is one of the major fields of study in behavioral biometric. It is a process of matching a questioned document with other documents of known writers to find the appropriate writer. In this paper, local handwriting-based attributes are used as features, and multi-layer perceptron and simple logistic classifiers are used for decision making. The method is tested on an unconstrained handwritten Bangla database of 1383 documents with variable number of datasets from 190 writers. Experimental results show the effectiveness of our system, since it outperforms the state-of-the-art methods by approximately 3% (top-3 and top-4 choices). Further, our method is approximately 27 times faster than conventional segmentation-based methods.

Computer Science Department.

 

Harris, William S. (2018). “The Omega-6:Omega-3 ratio: A critical appraisal and possible successor.” Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 132, 34-40.

The well-known health effects of the long-chain, marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) has led to a growing interest in the prognostic value that blood levels of these FAs might have vis-a-vis cardiovascular and neuro-cognitive diseases. The measurement and expression of n-3 FA levels is not straight-forward, however, and a wide variety of means of expression of n-3 FA status have been used in research and clinical medicine. This has led to considerable confusion as to what “optimal” n-3 FA status is. The n-6:n-3 ratio has enjoyed relatively widespread use, but this apparently simple metric has both theoretical and practical difficulties that have contributed to misunderstandings in this field. Just as the once-popular polyunsaturated:saturated FA ratio has largely disappeared from the nutritional and medical literature, it may be time to replace the n-6:n-3 ratio with a newer metric that focuses on the primary deficiency in Western diets – the lack of eicosapentaenoic and doc-osahexaenoic acids (EPA and DHA). The Omega-3 Index (red blood cell EPA + DHA) has much to recommend it in this regard.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Hocking, Elise C.Raluca M. SimonsJeffrey S. Simons, & Harry Freeman. (2018). “Adult attachment and drinking context as predictors of alcohol problems and relationship satisfaction in college students.” American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 44(3), 339-347.

Background: Evidence suggests that for young adults, intimate partners influence each other’s drinking patterns. Therefore, exploration of variables related to intimate partner relationships (such as attachment style) could broaden the current understanding of risk factors for alcohol problems in this demographic. Objectives: The current study examined the role of drinking context in the relationships among insecure attachment, alcohol problems, and relationship satisfaction. A path model was hypothesized where the relationship between insecure attachment and alcohol problems would be explained via two distinct drinking contexts (i.e., drinking with one’s partner and drinking away from one’s partner). It was also hypothesized that the relationship between insecure attachment and relationship satisfaction would be explained via these same two drinking contexts. Methods: Participants were 194 undergraduate students ages 18-25 who reported being in a monogamous intimate partner relationship for at least 90days and had also consumed alcohol in the past 90days. The sample was comprised of 76% women and 24% men. Results: The hypothesized direct relationship from anxious attachment to alcohol problems was significant; there were also significant direct paths from both anxious and avoidant attachment to relationship satisfaction. The hypotheses regarding indirect relationships were not supported. Conclusion: The results of this study contribute to the existing literature, in that they suggest that drinking in the context of an intimate relationship may not directly affect relationship satisfaction in this population. However, relationship functioning still appears to be an important variable to consider in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related problems affecting college students.

Psychology Department.

 

Jarding, LauraLaurie A. HogdenStephen E. MessierValeriy Kozmenko, Edward Simanton, Kerri Bjornson, & Charisse Ortman Brockmueller. (2018). “Development and Validation of Simulation-Based Procedural Checklists for Evaluation of Neonatal Nurse Practitioner Performance.” Advances in neonatal care : official journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses.

BACKGROUND: Neonatal nurse practitioner (NNP) procedural competence is essential. Procedural simulation provides opportunity to practice high-risk, low-frequency procedures and helps improve skill retention. A formal procedural simulation experience was created in an attempt to provide sufficient experience for NNPs. While preparing for the simulation experience, the group recognized the lack of validated competency metrics for most neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) procedures.; PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to create and validate procedural checklists measuring competence of NNPs participating in simulated performance of 9 high-risk NICU procedures.; METHODS: IRB approval was obtained and NNPs agreed to data collection. A self and peer assessment tool was developed and distributed to NNPs, nurses, and neonatologists to gather a baseline perception of procedural competency. Procedural checklists were then developed to measure/assess individual skills against a standard. Benchmark videos were created to demonstrate the standard approach to procedural performance. Each procedural skill performed by the NNP participant was scored by 3 individual evaluators: once in real time and twice by video recording analysis.; FINDINGS/RESULTS: A Cronbach alpha was used to measure the reliability and validity of the procedural checklists. Comparison was made between live grading and video-based grading scores using analysis of variance. Difference between grading modalities was less than 3% and nonsignificant for 8 of 9 procedures. No significant difference was found between individual graders for any of the skills being evaluated and suggested high interrater reliability of the checklists.; IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Objective, standardized procedural checklists are valid tools to evaluate NNP procedural skills in simulation. Procedural simulation experiences help strengthen skills, improve performance, and possibly improve patient outcomes.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Jensen, StephanieShelton J. P. VarapragasamDmitri KilinJames D. Hoefelmeyer,Choumini Balasanthiran, Charles S. Spanjers, & Robert M. Rioux. (2018). “Quantitative Attachment of Bimetal Combinations of Transition-Metal Ions to the Surface of TiO2 Nanorods.” Langmuir, 34(19), 5422-5434.

We report the sequential, quantitative loading of transition-metal ions (Cr3+, Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, and Cu2+) onto the surface of rod-shaped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals in bimetallic combinations (6C2 = 15) to form M,M’-TiO2 nanocrystals. The materials were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-visible spectroscopy. TEM and XRD data indicate that the sequential adsorption of metal ions occurs with the retention of the phase and morphology of the nanocrystal. Atomistic models of the M,M’-TiO2 nanocrystals were optimized with density functional theory calculations. Calculated UV-visible absorption spectra and partial charge density maps of the donor and acceptor states for the electronic transitions indicate the importance of metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) processes.

Chemistry Department.

 

Jung, J., D. Franzen, …., Arleigh Trainor, D. A. Wald, & K. Hiller. (2018). “The National Clinical Assessment Tool for Medical Students in the Emergency Department (NCAT-EM).” Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 19(1), 66-74.

Introduction: Clinical assessment of medical students in emergency medicine (EM) clerkships is a highly variable process that presents unique challenges and opportunities. Currently, clerkship directors use institution-specific tools with unproven validity and reliability that may or may not address competencies valued most highly in the EM setting. Standardization of assessment practices and development of a common, valid, specialty-specific tool would benefit EM educators and students. Methods: A two-day national consensus conference was held in March 2016 in the Clerkship Directors in Emergency Medicine (CDEM) track at the Council of Residency Directors in Emergency Medicine (CORD) Academic Assembly in Nashville, TN. The goal of this conference was to standardize assessment practices and to create a national clinical assessment tool for use in EM clerkships across the country. Conference leaders synthesized the literature, articulated major themes and questions pertinent to clinical assessment of students in EM, clarified the issues, and outlined the consensus-building process prior to consensus-building activities. Results: The first day of the conference was dedicated to developing consensus on these key themes in clinical assessment. The second day of the conference was dedicated to discussing and voting on proposed domains to be included in the national clinical assessment tool. A modified Delphi process was initiated after the conference to reconcile questions and items that did not reach an a priori level of consensus. Conclusion: The final tool, the National Clinical Assessment Tool for Medical Students in Emergency Medicine (NCAT-EM) is presented here.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Kisner, Tamela. (2018). “Workplace incivility: How do you address it?”. Nursing, 48(6), 36-40.

The article explores the levels of workplace incivility and the effective methods to address them. Incivility takes different forms such as verbal or nonverbal abuse, passive-aggressive behaviors and bullying. A cognitive rehearsal was developed as a response to workplace incivility and a mixed-intervention strategy was also developed in dealing with this behavior with steps such as providing individual support, taking corrective action and enforcing of policies against bullying.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Klonoski, Joshua M.Trevor WatsonThomas E. BickettJoshua M. SvendsenTonia J. GauAlexandra BrittJeff T. NelsonEvelyn H. SchlenkerMichael S. ChausseeAgnieszka Rynda-Apple, & Victor C. Huber. (2018). “Contributions of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin and Host Immune Responses Toward the Severity of Influenza Virus: Streptococcus pyogenes Superinfections.” Viral immunology.

Influenza virus infections can be complicated by bacterial superinfections, which are medically relevant because of a complex interaction between the host, the virus, and the bacteria. Studies to date have implicated several influenza virus genes, varied host immune responses, and bacterial virulence factors, however, the host-pathogen interactions that predict survival versus lethal outcomes remain undefined. Previous work by our group showed that certain influenza viruses could yield a survival phenotype (A/swine/Texas/4199-2/98-H3N2, TX98), whereas others were associated with a lethal phenotype (A/Puerto Rico/8/34-H1N1, PR8). Based on this observation, we developed the hypothesis that individual influenza virus genes could contribute to a superinfection, and that the host response after influenza virus infection could influence superinfection severity. The present study analyzes individual influenza virus gene contributions to superinfection severity using reassortant viruses created using TX98 and PR8 viral genes. Host and pathogen interactions, relevant to survival and lethal phenotypes, were studied with a focus on pathogen clearance, host cellular infiltrates, and cytokine levels after infection. Specifically, we found that the hemagglutinin gene expressed by an influenza virus can contribute to the severity of a secondary bacterial infection, likely through modulation of host proinflammatory responses. Altogether, these results advance our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying influenza virus-bacteria superinfections and identify viral and corresponding host factors that may contribute to morbidity and mortality.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Liu, YangxiQingping Yao, & Hangli Sun. (2018). “Prostaglandin E2 Modulates Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Induced Osteogenic Differentiation on a Biomimetic 3D Nanofibrous Scaffold.” Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, 14(4), 747-755.

It is a significant challenge to improve the efficacy of biomaterials-delivered bone morphogenetic proteins (i.e., BMP2 and 7) for bone repair. Emerging evidences suggest the traditionally inflammatory factor, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), may serve as an intriguing target to promote bone regeneration through modulating both inflammation and osteogenesis. Therefore, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) bone matrix-mimicking nanofibrous gelatin scaffold to study the role of PGE2 and a novel and highly selective EP4 receptor agonist (EP4A), CAY10598, in osteogenic differentiation in vitro and bone formation in a mouse model. Our data indicated that EP4A, similar to PGE2, significantly improved osteoblasts differentiation on the 3D scaffolds. Importantly, EP4A significantly inhibited the tumor necrosis factor-alpha protein (TNF alpha), a key inflammatory cytokine, expression in macrophage cells, and largely rescued TNF alpha-suppressed alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in vitro. Surprisingly, BMP2-induced bone formation on the 3D scaffolds was significantly inhibited by EP4A after 4-week transplantation. These results indicated the complicity of the role of PGE2/EP4A-modulated TNF alpha expression and subsequent bone regeneration. Therefore, our study strongly suggests that substantial studies are essential before PGE2/EP4A can be developed as a new therapeutic because the closely related inflammation and osteogenesis are required to be coordinately regulated for bone regeneration.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Louw, A., Kory Zimney, T. Cox, C. O’Hotto, & C. A. Wassinger. (2018). “The experiences and beliefs of patients with complex regional pain syndrome: An exploratory survey study.” Chronic Illness, 14(2), 104-118.

Objectives To determine the beliefs and describe the health care experiences of patients with complex regional pain syndrome. Methods A survey tool for patients with complex regional pain syndrome was designed for this study. The survey tool collected self-reported measures associated with pain, disability, health care experiences, education, beliefs, and treatments. Results Thirty-one patients attending physical therapy for complex regional pain syndrome (mean age 40.48; female n=20) completed the survey. Patients with presented with high levels of pain and disability and reported various changes associated with altered neuroplasticity such as confused body part recognition, left/right discrimination, neglect, and spreading pain. The patients’ experiences with diagnostic testing and interventions are not in line with the current pain science research and/or evidence-based practice. Overall, patients are ill-informed, confused, and receive conflicting information. Discussion The suffering associated with complex regional pain syndrome is real, as told by patients. This suffering coincides with a lack of consensus by health care providers and conflicting information on complex regional pain syndrome. Overall, patient experiences show health care providers are not up to date with the current best-evidence regarding complex regional pain syndrome.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Mariappan, KadarkaraisamyShelton J. P. VarapragasamMatthew R. Hansen,Shivatharsiny RasalingamMadhubabu Alaparthi, & Andrew G. Sykes. (2018). “Facile one-step synthesis of palladium tellurium alloy nanorods.”Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, 866, 251-256.

A palladium-tellurium binary alloy nanomaterial was synthesized by a one-pot reaction of bis(4-methoxyphenyltelluro)methane [(4-CH 3 O-C 6 H 4 Te) 2 CH 2 ](1) and allylpalladium (II)chloride dimer [(η 3 -C 3 H 5 ) 2 Pd 2 (μ-Cl 2 )] (2) in 1:1 ratio using methylene chloride as solvent at ambient conditions. In addition to the Pd 20 Te 7 alloy nanomaterial (3) generated, a palliadum (II) tellurolate complex [PdC1( μ -TeC 6 H 4 -OCH 3 )Te(C 6 H 4 -OCH 3 ) 2 ] 2 (6), and other organic and organotellurim compounds were isolated as byproducts using column chromatography. The palladium-tellurium binary alloy nanomaterial and other byproducts from the reaction were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), NMR, GC-MS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and single crystal X-ray diffractions (XRD) methods. The palladium-tellurium binary alloy nanomaterial was obtained as single-phase Pd 20 Te 7 nanorods, under mild conditions. TEM results indicated that the nanorods are less than 15 nm in diameter and range from 40 to 200 nm in length. A nanomaterial mixture was isolated with two binary-phases Pd 20 Te 7 and Pd 10 Te 3 when benzene was used as solvent. Compound 6 was successfully tested for catalytic activity for the Heck Reaction and produced a mixture of PdTe 2 with Pd 13 Te 3 nanomaterials as byproducts.

Chemistry Department.

 

Menge, Travis J., & N. W. Truex. (2018). “Femoroacetabular impingement: a common cause of hip pain.” Physician and Sportsmedicine, 46(2), 139-144.

Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a common cause of hip pain that can affect a wide range of patients. It is due to altered bony morphology of the proximal femur and acetabulum, resulting in decreased function and progression to early osteoarthritis. Until the early 2000s, little was known or understood about the significance of FAI as a clinical entity. The field of hip preservation has grown exponentially since that time, and has led to many advances in caring for those with symptomatic impingement. This review details the early diagnosis and proper management of femoroacetabular impingement for the sports medicine practitioner.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Molitor, Whitney L., & Rebecca Mayou. (2018). “The Low Vision Team: Optometrists’ and Ophthalmologists’ Perceptions and Knowledge of Occupational Therapy.” Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 36(1), 54-71.

Aims: The purpose was to discover the knowledge and perceptions among eye-care professionals regarding the role of occupational therapists in low visions rehabilitation. Methods: A mixed methods design included open-ended qualitative responses along with quantitative survey data. Data were gathered anonymously through the PsychData electronic platform. Results: Optometrists and ophthalmologists were familiar with occupational therapy interventions for individuals with low vision but were uncertain about how to include occupational therapists in this practice specialty. Data were categorized into two themes: knowledge and perceptions and were grouped into subthemes of comprehensive, fractioned, occupational therapy intervention strategies, optimistic perceptions, and uncertain perceptions. It was found that only a small number of respondents referred or consulted with occupational therapists regarding clients with low vision. Conclusion: There is a need for education and advocacy to optometrists and ophthalmologists regarding the access to occupational therapy services for individuals with low vision.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Nelson, T., David A. Pearce, & Attila D. Kovacs. (2017). “Lack of specificity of antibodies raised against CLN3, the lysosomal/endosomal transmembrane protein mutated in juvenile Batten disease.” Bioscience Reports, 37, 12.

Juvenile CLN3 (Batten) disease, a fatal, childhood neurodegenerative disorder, results from mutations in the CLN3 gene encoding a lysosomal/endosomal transmembrane protein. The exact physiological function of CLN3 is still unknown and it is unclear how CLN3 mutations lead to selective neurodegeneration. To study the tissue expression and subcellular localization of the CLN3 protein, a number of anti-CLN3 antibodies have been generated using either the whole CLN3 protein or short peptides from CLN3 for immunization. The specificity of these antibodies, however, has never been tested properly. Using immunoblot experiments, we show that commercially available or researcher-generated anti-CLN3 antibodies lack specificity: they detect the same protein bands in wild-type (WT) and Cln3(-/-) mouse brain and kidney extracts prepared with different detergents, in membrane proteins isolated from the cerebellum, cerebral hemisphere and kidney of WT and Cln3(-/-) mice, in cell extracts of WT and Cln3(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblast cultures, and in lysates of BHK cells lacking or overexpressing human CLN3. Protein BLAST searches with sequences from peptides used to generate anti-CLN3 antibodies identified short motifs present in a number of different mouse and human proteins, providing a plausible explanation for the lack of specificity of anti-CLN3 antibodies. Our data provide evidence that immunization against a transmembrane protein with low to medium expression level does not necessarily generate specific antibodies. Because of the possible cross-reactivity to other proteins, the specificity of an antibody should always be checked using tissue samples from an appropriate knock-out animal or using knock-out cells.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Olson, Macy G.Megan GoldammerEmilie GauliardDaniel Ladant, & Scot P. Ouellette. (2018). “A Bacterial Adenylate Cyclase-Based Two-Hybrid System Compatible with Gateway Cloning.” Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 1794, 75-96.

The bacterial adenylate cyclase two-hybrid system (BACTH) is a genetic approach used to test protein interactions in vivo in E. coli. This system takes advantage of the two catalytic domains of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase (CyaA) toxin, which can be fused separately to proteins of interest. If the proteins of interest interact, then the adenylate cyclase domains will be brought in close proximity to each other, reconstituting cyclic AMP (cAMP) production. Interacting proteins can be both qualitatively and quantitatively assessed by the expression of chromosomal genes of the E. coli lac or mal operon, which are positively regulated by cAMP production. Because cAMP is diffusible, the proteins of interest do not need to interact near the transcriptional machinery. Consequently, both cytosolic and membrane protein-protein interactions can be tested. The BACTH system has recently been modified to be compatible with Gateway recombinational cloning, BACTHGW. This chapter explains the principle of the BACTH, its Gateway modified system, and details of the general procedure.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Preston, C. C., S. P. Wyles, S. Reyes, E. C. Storm, B. W. Eckloff, & Randolph S. Faustino. (2018). “NUP155 insufficiency recalibrates a pluripotent transcriptome with network remodeling of a cardiogenic signaling module.”Bmc Systems Biology, 12, 13.

Background: Atrial fibrillation is a cardiac disease driven by numerous idiopathic etiologies. NUP155 is a nuclear pore complex protein that has been identified as a clinical driver of atrial fibrillation, yet the precise mechanism is unknown. The present study employs a systems biology algorithm to identify effects of NUP155 disruption on cardiogenicity in a model of stem cell-derived differentiation. Methods: Embryonic stem (ES) cell lines (n = 5) with truncated NUP155 were cultured in parallel with wild type (WT) ES cells (n = 5), and then harvested for RNAseq. Samples were run on an Illumina HiSeq 2000. Reads were analyzed using Strand NGS, Cytoscape, DAVID and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis to deconvolute the NUP155-disrupted transcriptome. Network topological analysis identified key features that controlled framework architecture and functional enrichment. Results: In NUP155 truncated ES cells, significant expression changes were detected in 326 genes compared to WT. These genes segregated into clusters that enriched for specific gene ontologies. Deconvolution of the collective framework into discrete sub-networks identified a module with the highest score that enriched for Cardiovascular System Development, and revealed NTRK1/TRKA and SRSF2/SC35 as critical hubs within this cardiogenic module. Conclusions: The strategy of pluripotent transcriptome deconvolution used in the current study identified a novel association of NUP155 with potential drivers of arrhythmogenic AF. Here, NUP155 regulates cardioplasticity of a sub-network embedded within a larger framework of genome integrity, and exemplifies how transcriptome cardiogenicity in an embryonic stem cell genome is recalibrated by nucleoporin dysfunction.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Roh, Soonhee, Catherine E. Burnette, & Yeon-Shim Lee. (2018). “Prayer and Faith: Spiritual Coping among American Indian Women Cancer Survivors.” Health & social work.

Although cancer disparities among American Indian (AI) women are alarming, research on spiritual coping among this population is virtually nonexistent. This is particularly problematic, given the importance of medical practitioners’ discussing the topic with cancer patients, along with the centrality of spirituality to many AI patients. The purpose of this article was to explore AI women cancer survivors’ spiritual coping with their experiences. Using a community-based participatory research approach, this qualitative descriptive study included a sample of 43 AI women cancer survivors (n = 14 breast cancer, n = 14 cervical cancer, and n = 15 colon and other types of cancer). Qualitative content analysis revealed that most participants (76 percent, n = 32) cited prayer as an important part of their cancer recovery and coping strategies. Many participants expressed how prayer and spirituality connected them to family, to faith communities, and to others. In addition to prayer, over a third (36 percent, n = 15) of participants emphasized faith as a recovery and coping strategy. Results indicate that most women drew great comfort, strength, hope, and relief from their spiritual and faith traditions, indicating that religious and spiritual practices may be an important protective factor against the strain of the cancer experience.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Roh, Soonhee, Catherine E. Burnette, Yeon-Shim Lee, Jung Sim Jun, Hee Yun Lee, & Kyoung Hag Lee. (2018). “Breast cancer literacy and health beliefs related to breast cancer screening among American Indian women.” Social work in health care, 57(7), 465-482.

The purpose of this article is to examine the health beliefs and literacy about breast cancer and their relationship with breast cancer screening among American Indian (AI) women. Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and hierarchical logistic regression with data from a sample of 286 AI female adults residing in the Northern Plains, we found that greater awareness of breast cancer screening was linked to breast cancer screening practices. However, perceived barriers, one of the HBM constructs, prevented such screening practices. This study suggested that culturally relevant HBM factors should be targeted when developing culturally sensitive breast cancer prevention efforts.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Santosh, K. C., & P. P. Roy. (2018). “Arrow detection in biomedical images using sequential classifier.” International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics, 9(6), 993-1006.

Biomedical images are often complex, and contain several regions that are annotated using arrows. Annotated arrow detection is a critical precursor to regionof-interest (ROI) labeling, which is useful in content-based image retrieval (CBIR). In this paper, we propose a sequential classifier comprising of bidirectional long short-term memory (BLSTM) classifier followed by convexity defect-based arrowhead detection. Different image layers are first segmented via fuzzy binarization. Candidate regions are then checked whether they are arrows by using BLSTM classifier, where Npen++ features are used. In case of low confidence score (i.e., BLSTM classifier score), we take convexity defect-based arrowhead detection technique into account. Our test results on biomedical images from image-CLEF 2010 collection outperforms the existing state-ofthe-art arrow detection techniques, by approximately more than 3% in precision, 12% in recall, and therefore 8% in F-1 score.

Computer Science Department.

 

Sathyanesan, MonicaMichael J. WattJacob M. HaiarJamie L. SchollShaydel R. DaviesRiley T. PaulsenJayme WiederinPawel Ciborowski, & Samuel S. Newton. (2018). “Carbamoylated erythropoietin modulates cognitive outcomes of social defeat and differentially regulates gene expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus.” Translational psychiatry, 8(1), 113.

Cognitive deficits are widespread in psychiatric disorders and frequently as debilitating as the affective component. Widely prescribed antidepressants for treating depressive disorders have limited efficacy in normalizing cognitive function. Erythropoietin (Epo) has been shown to improve cognitive function in schizophrenia and treatment resistant depressed patients. However, the potent elevation of red blood cell counts by Epo can cause hematological complications in non-anemic patients. We investigated a chemically engineered, posttranslational modification of Epo, carbamoylation, which renders it non-erythropoietic. We conducted mass-spectrometry-based peptide mapping of carbamoylated Epo (Cepo) and tested its ability to improve cognitive function after social defeat stress. Gene expression analysis in discrete brain regions was performed to obtain mechanistic insight of Cepo action. Cepo reversed stress-induced spatial working memory deficits while affecting long-term (24h) novel object recognition in these rats. Contextual fear conditioning following defeat was enhanced by Cepo, but attenuated in controls. However, Cepo improved fear extinction in all rats compared to vehicle treatment. Cepo induced differential gene expression of BDNF, VGF, Arc, TH. and neuritin in the mPFC and discrete hippocampal subfields, with strongest induction in the dorsal hippocampus. Analysis of gene-brain region-behavior interactions showed that Cepo-induced neurotrophic mechanisms influence cognitive function. Carbamoylated erythropoietin can be developed as a therapeutic neurotrophic agent to treat cognitive dysfunction in neuropsychiatric diseases. Due to its distinct mechanism of action, it is unlikely to cross react with the activity of currently prescribed small molecule drugs and can be used as an add-on biologic drug.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Shoemaker, Ian M., & K. Murase. (2018). “Constraints from the time lag between gravitational waves and gamma rays: Implications of GW170817 and GRB 170817A.” Physical Review D, 97(8), 6.

The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has recently discovered gravitational waves (GWs) from its first neutron star-neutron star merger at a distance of similar to 40 Mpc from the Earth. The associated electromagnetic (EM) detection of the event, including the short gamma-ray burst within Delta t similar to 2 s after the GW arrival, can be used to test various aspects of sources physics and GW propagation. Using GW170817 as the first GW-EM example, we show that this event provides a stringent direct test that GWs travel at the speed of light. The gravitational potential of the Milky Way provides a potential source of Shapiro time delay difference between the arrival of photons and GWs, and we demonstrate that the nearly coincident detection of the GW and EM signals can yield strong limits on anomalous gravitational time delay, through updating the previous limits taking into account details of Milky Way’s gravitational potential. Finally, we also obtain an intriguing limit on the size of the prompt emission region of GRB 170817A, and discuss implications for the emission mechanism of short gamma-ray bursts.

Physics Department.

 

Thuppal, S. V., C. von Schacky, William S. Harris, K. D. Sherif, N. Denby, S. R. Steinbaum, B. Haycock, & R. L. Bailey. (2017). “Discrepancy between Knowledge and Perceptions of Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake Compared with the Omega-3 Index.” Nutrients, 9(9), 11.

Little is known about the relationship between perceptions of nutrient adequacy and biomarkers of nutrition status. This cross-sectional study of U.S. and German adults (n = 200; 18-80 years) compared dietary practices, knowledge, and beliefs of omega-3 fatty acids (O3-FA) with the omega-3 index (O3-I), an erythrocyte-based biomarker associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. More than half of adults believed that O3-FAs are beneficial for heart and brain health and could correctly identify the food sources of O3-FA. However, the mean O3-I in the U.S. (4.3%) and Germany (5.5%) puts the majority of adults sampled (99%) in intermediate or high CVD-risk categories. More Americans were considered at high CVD-risk (40%) when compared with Germans (10%). In the U.S., but not Germany, women had a significantly higher O3-I than men (4.8% vs. 3.8%, p < 0.001). In the intermediate CVD-risk group, about one-third of adults in both countries (30% in the U.S. and 27% in Germany) believed their diet was adequate in O3-FA. Notably, mean O3-I concentrations did not significantly differ with dietary perceptions of adequacy. More adults in Germany (26%) than in the U.S. (10%) believed that dietary supplements are needed to achieve a balanced diet. In spite of adequate knowledge about food sources and a consistent belief that O3-FA are important for health, very few participants had O3-I concentrations in the range for CVD protection.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Wooles, A. J., D. P. Mills, F. Tuna, …., Bess Vlaisavljevich, & S. T. Liddle. (2018). “Uranium(III)-carbon multiple bonding supported by arene delta-bonding in mixed-valence hexauranium nanometre-scale rings.” Nature Communications, 9, 11.

Despite the fact that non-aqueous uranium chemistry is over 60 years old, most polarised-covalent uranium-element multiple bonds involve formal uranium oxidation states IV, V, and VI. The paucity of uranium(III) congeners is because, in common with metal-ligand multiple bonding generally, such linkages involve strongly donating, charge-loaded ligands that bind best to electron-poor metals and inherently promote disproportionation of uranium(III). Here, we report the synthesis of hexauranium-methanediide nanometre-scale rings. Combined experimental and computational studies suggest overall the presence of formal uranium(III) and (IV) ions, though electron delocalisation in this Kramers system cannot be definitively ruled out, and the resulting polarised-covalent U = C bonds are supported by iodide and delta-bonded arene bridges. The arenes provide reservoirs that accommodate charge, thus avoiding inter-electronic repulsion that would destabilise these low oxidation state metalligand multiple bonds. Using arenes as electronic buffers could constitute a general synthetic strategy by which to stabilise otherwise inherently unstable metal-ligand linkages.

Chemistry Department.

 

Xiao, L. H., A. Yobi, Karen L. Koster, Y. K. He, & M. J. Oliver. (2018). “Desiccation tolerance in Physcomitrella patens: Rate of dehydration and the involvement of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA).” Plant Cell and Environment, 41(1), 275-284.

The moss Physcomitrella patens, a model system for basal land plants, tolerates several abiotic stresses, including dehydration. We previously reported that Physcomitrella patens survives equilibrium dehydration to -13MPa in a closed system at 91% RH. Tolerance of desiccation to water potentials below -100MPa was only achieved by pretreatment with exogenous abscisic acid (ABA). We report here that gametophores, but not protonemata, can survive desiccation below -100MPa after a gradual drying regime in an open system, without exogenous ABA. In contrast, faster equilibrium drying at 90% RH for 3-5days did not induce desiccation tolerance in either tissue. Endogenous ABA accumulated in protonemata and gametophores under both drying regimes, so did not correlate directly with desiccation tolerance. Gametophores of a Ppabi3a/b/c triple knock out transgenic line also survived the gradual dehydration regime, despite impaired ABA signaling. Our results suggest that the initial drying rate, and not the amount of endogenous ABA, may be critical in the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. Results from this work will provide insight into ongoing studies to uncover the role of ABA in the dehydration response and the underlying mechanisms of desiccation tolerance in this bryophyte. The moss Physcomitrella patens, as a model system for basal land plants, has an important role in efforts aimed at understanding the evolutionary dynamics of genes that constitute cellular signaling pathways involved in abiotic stress responses. We report that both gametophores and protonemata are sensitive to slow dehydration under equilibrium drying regimes but desiccation tolerance can be induced in gametophores during gradual drying in an open system. Endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation did not correlate directly with desiccation tolerance, and impairment of ABA signaling pathways did not render the gametophores sensitive to desiccation. It appears that the initial drying rate, and not endogenous ABA amounts, is critical for the acquisition of desiccation tolerance.

Biology Department.

 

Yao, QingpingEric S. SandhurstYangxi Liu, & Hongli Sun. (2017). “BBP-functionalized biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds can capture BMP2 and promote osteogenic differentiation.” Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 5(26), 5196-5205.

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs, e.g., BMP2 and 7) are potent mediators for bone repair, however, their clinical use has been limited by their safety and cost-effectiveness. Therefore, innovative strategies that can improve the efficacy of BMPs, and thereby use a lower dose of exogenous BMPs are highly desired. Inspired by the natural interactions between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and growth factors, we hypothesize that bone matrix-mimicking nanofibrous scaffolds functionalized with BMP binding moieties can selectively capture and stabilize BMPs, and thereby promote BMP-induced osteogenic differentiation. To test our hypothesis, a gelatin nanofibrous scaffold was fabricated using thermally induced phase separation together with a porogen leaching technique (TIPS&P) and functionalized by a BMP-binding peptide (BBP) through cross-linking. Our data indicated that BBP decoration largely improved the BMP2 binding and retention capacity of the nanofibrous scaffolds without compromising their macro/microstructure and mechanical properties. Importantly, the BBP-functionalized gelatin scaffolds were able to significantly promote BMP2-induced osteogenic differentiation. Moreover, the BBP alone was able to significantly stimulate endogenous BMP2 expression and improve osteogenic differentiation. Compared to other affinity-based drug delivery strategies, e.g., heparin and antibody-mediated growth factor delivering techniques, we expect that BBP-functionalized scaffolds will be a safer, more feasible and selective strategy for endogenous BMP stimulating and binding. Therefore, our data suggest a promising application of using the BBP-decorated gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds to stimulate/capture BMPs and promote endogenous bone formation in situ in contrast to relying on the administration of high doses of exogenous BMPs and transplantation of cells.

Biomedical Engineering Department, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Yao, QingqingYangxi LiuBalaranjan SelvaratnamRanjit T. Koodali, & Hongli Sun. (2018). “Mesoporous silicate nanoparticles/3D nanofibrous scaffold-mediated dual-drug delivery for bone tissue engineering.” Journal of Controlled Release, 279, 69-78.

Controlled delivery systems play a critical role in the success of bone morphogenetic proteins ( i.e., BMP2 and BMP7) for challenged bone repair. Instead of single-drug release that is currently and commonly prevalent, dual-drug delivery strategies are highly desired to achieve effective bone regeneration because natural bone repair process is driven by multiple factors. Particularly, angiogenesis is essential for osteogenesis and requires more than just one factor ( e.g., Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, VEGF). Therefore, we developed a novel mesoporous silicate nanoparticles (MSNs) incorporated-3D nanofibrous gelatin (GF) scaffold for dual-delivery of BMP2 and deferoxamine (DFO). DFO is a hypoxia-mimetic drug that can activate hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), and trigger subsequent angiogenesis. Sustained BMP2 release system was achieved through encapsulation into large-pored MSNs, while the relative short-term release of DFO was engineered through covalent conjugation with chitosan to reduce its cytotoxicity and elongate its half-life. Both MSNs and DFO were incorporated onto a porous 3D GF scaffold to serve as a biomimetic osteogenic microenvironment. Our data indicated that DFO and BMP2 were released from a scaffold at different release rates (10 vs 28 days) yet maintained their angiogenic and osteogenic ability, respectively. Importantly, our data indicated that the released DFO significantly improved BMP2-induced osteogenic differentiation where the dose/duration was important for its effects in both mouse and human stem cell models. Thus, we developed a novel and tunable MSNs/GF 3D scaffold-mediated dual-drug delivery system and studied the potential application of the both FDA-approved DFO and BMP2 for bone tissue engineering.

Biomedical Engineering Department, Sioux Falls Campus.

Chemistry Department.

 

Yuan, J., Vasantha L. Gali, D. A. Perry, K. Fu, H. Qureishi, C. Amador-Ortiz, T. Greiner, & S. J. Pirruccello. (2018). “Flow Cytometric Characteristics of Extrathymic Thymocytes in Adenoid Tissue: A Case Report and Comparison to Normal Thymus and Thymoma.” Cytometry Part B-Clinical Cytometry, 94(2), 357-362.

Background: Normal thymocyte precursors in secondary lymphoid organs have previously been described. It is important to recognize normal thymocyte precursors by flow cytometry to differentiate them from T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: A 3-year-old boy status 2 years postallogenic cardiac transplant underwent adenoidectomy to exclude post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Microscopic, immunohistochemical, and flow cytometry analyses of the adenoid were performed. Results: By flow cytometry, a population of CD45+(dim)/CD7+(bright)/CD3- cells were observed at 1.0% of lymphocytes. These cells expressed CD10, partial CD34 and exhibited acquisition of CD4 followed by CD8. Within the brighter CD45+ lymphocytes, a population of CD3-/CD4+/CD8+ thymocytes and a similarly sized population of CD4+/CD8+ cells exhibiting acquisition of low-density CD3 were identified. By immunostaining, clusters of TdT+/CD1a+/CD4+/CD8+ T-cells were identified in the interfollicular areas. Compared to normal thymus, thymocytes in the adenoid tissue lacked the classic CD4xCD8 winged differentiation profile but showed a normal early precursor pattern. Conclusions: Thymocytes in adenoid show a similar differentiation pattern to thymus and thymoma. However, the classic winged pattern of common thymocyte differentiation may not be readily apparent in thymocytes differentiating outside of the thymus. Recognition of the early thymocyte precursor antigen acquisition profile can be crucial to correct interpretation. (c) 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Yucel, Aylin, Ekere J. Essien, Swarnava Sanyal, Osaro Mgbere, Rajender R. Aparasu,Vinod S. Bhatara, Joy P. Alonzo, & Hua Chen. (2018). “Racial/ethnic differences in the treatment of adolescent major depressive disorders (MDD) across healthcare providers participating in the medicaid program.”Journal of Affective Disorders, 235, 155-161.

Background: To examine whether racial/ethnic differences in receipt of MDD treatment could be explained by the specialty of provider diagnosing the adolescent. Method: Adolescents (10-20 years-old) with ≥2 MDD diagnoses were identified using 2005-2007 Medicaid data from Texas. Patients were categorized based on the types of provider who gave the initial MDD diagnosis (psychiatrist (PSY-I), social worker/psychologist (SWP-I), and primary care physician (PCP-I)). Within the sub-cohorts identified by each type of provider, patients were further divided by racial/ethnic groups. Results: Of the 13,234-new pediatric MDD cases diagnosed, 61% were SWP-I, 33% PSY-I and 6% PCP-I. Results of the analysis using general linear multi-level model showed that being first diagnosed by a psychiatrist was associated with higher chance of receiving MDD related treatment (PCP-I vs. PSY-I (OR: 0.54, 95%CI: 0.4-0.7) and SWP-I vs. PSY-I (OR: 0.17, 95%CI: 0.1-0.2)). Specifically, regarding the receipt of pharmacotherapy, an interaction effect was detected between types of identifying providers and patients’ race/ethnicity. The analysis stratified by race/ethnicity found Whites received comparable treatment regardless being PCP-Is or PSY-Is, while for Hispanics, being first identified by a PCP was associated with lower likelihood of receiving treatment as compared to being first identified by a psychiatrist. Further analysis stratified by provider types showed that a significant racial/ethnic variation in medication utilization was observed in PCP-Is, but not in PSY-Is. Conclusion: For adolescents with MDD, being first diagnosed by a psychiatrist was associated with higher treatment rate and reduced racial/ethnic variation in the utilization of pharmacotherapy.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

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April 2018

Adjepong, M., C. A. Pickens, R. Jain, William S. Harris, R. A. Annan, & J. I. Fenton. (2018). “Association of whole blood n-6 fatty acids with stunting in 2-to-6-year-old Northern Ghanaian children: A cross-sectional study.” Plos One, 13(3), 15.

In Northern Ghana, 33% of children are stunted due to economic disparities. Dietary fatty acids ( FA) are critical for growth, but whether blood FA levels are adequate in Ghanaian children is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the association between whole blood FAs and growth parameters in Northern Ghanaian children 2-6 years of age. A drop of blood was collected on an antioxidant treated card and analyzed for FA composition. Weight and height were measured and z-scores were calculated. Relationships between FAs and growth parameters were analyzed by Spearman correlations, linear regressions, and factor analysis. Of the 307 children who participated, 29.7% were stunted and 8% were essential FA deficient ( triene/tetraene ratio>0.02). Essential FA did not differ between stunted and non-stunted children and was not associated with height-for-age z-score ( HAZ) or weight-for-age z-score ( WAZ). In hemoglobin adjusted regression models, both HAZ and WAZ were positively associated with arachidonic acid ( p <= 0.01), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid ( DGLA, p <= 0.05), docosatetraenoic acid ( p <= 0.01) and the ratio of DGLA/linoleic acid ( p <= 0.01). These data add to the growing body of evidence indicating n-6 FAs are critical in childhood linear growth. Our findings provide new insights into the health status of an understudied Northern Ghanaian population.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Atkins, Lee T., C. Roger James, Hyung Suk Yang, Phillip S. JrSizer, Jean-Michel Brismée, Steven F. Sawyer, & Christopher M. Powers. (2018). “Changes in patellofemoral pain resulting from repetitive impact landings are associated with the magnitude and rate of patellofemoral joint loading.” Clinical Biomechanics, 53, 31-36.

Although a relationship between elevated patellofemoral forces and pain has been proposed, it is unknown which joint loading variable (magnitude, rate) is best associated with pain changes. The purpose of this study was to examine associations among patellofemoral joint loading variables and changes in patellofemoral pain across repeated single limb landings. Methods Thirty-one females (age: 23.5(2.8) year; height: 166.8(5.8) cm; mass: 59.6(8.1) kg) with PFP performed 5 landing trials from 0.25 m. The dependent variable was rate of change in pain obtained from self-reported pain scores following each trial. Independent variables included 5-trial averages of peak, time-integral, and average and maximum development rates of the patellofemoral joint reaction force obtained using a previously described model. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate individual associations between rate of change in pain and each independent variable (α = 0.05). Stepwise linear multiple regression (α enter  = 0.05; α exit  = 0.10) was used to identify the best predictor of rate of change in pain. Findings Subjects reported an average increase of 0.38 pain points with each landing trial. Although, rate of change in pain was positively correlated with peak force ( r  = 0.44, p  = 0.01), and average ( r  = 0.41, p  = 0.02) and maximum force development rates ( r  = 0.39, p  = 0.03), only the peak force entered the predictive model explaining 19% of variance in rate of change in pain ( r 2  = 0.19, p  = 0.01). Interpretation Peak patellofemoral joint reaction force was the best predictor of the rate of change in pain following repetitive singe limb landings. The current study supports the theory that patellofemoral joint loading contributes to changes in patellofemoral pain.

School of Education.

 

Berghoff, Christopher R., John P. Forsyth, Timothy R. Ritzert, Georg H. Eifert, & Drew A. Anderson. (2018). “Evaluation of the contribution of values clarification to a brief mindfulness meditation intervention for anxiety.” Journal of Clinical Psychology, x(x), x-x.

Objective Evaluate the incremental effects of a computerized values clarification (VC) activity on anxiety symptomology and quality of life over and above establishment of a mindfulness meditation (MM) practice. Method Anxious participants (N = 120, Female = 86; Mage = 22.26) were randomly assigned to a 2‐week, 10‐min daily MM practice + control task or a 2‐week, 10‐min daily MM practice + VC task. Pre‐assessments and post‐assessments included well‐established and ideographic self‐report measures. Results Overall decreases in past week and past 24‐h anxiety symptom frequency, as well as increased quality of life during the previous 24‐h cycle only. VC did not have a demonstrable impact on outcomes. Conclusions Though findings are preliminary, brief VC exercises may not enhance outcomes that follow from mindfulness practice. Additional research is needed to isolate specific and shared impacts of mindfulness‐based and values‐based treatment strategies on anxiety symptoms and quality of life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)

Psychology Department.

 

Bonnan-White, Jess, Melanie D. Hetzel-Riggin, Bridget K. Diamond-Welch, & Craig Tollini. (2018). ““You Blame Me, Therefore I Blame Me”: The Importance of First Disclosure Partner Responses on Trauma-Related Cognitions and Distress.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 33(8), 1260-1286.

Trauma recovery processes may be understood within a socioecological model. Individual factors (such as sex of the survivor) and microsystem factors (including trauma characteristics) have been studied extensively. However, there is a paucity of research examining the effects of macrosystem factors on the impact of trauma—especially examining how the response of the first person to whom the survivor disclosed affects trauma-related cognitions and distress. Sixty-three college student participants reported a history of disclosing at least one traumatic event in an online, anonymous survey. Participants also provided information on the first person they told about the trauma, the social reactions of that person, general social reactions to trauma disclosure, the participants’ trauma-related cognitions and psychological distress (PTSD, other mental health issues), details about the traumatic event, and basic demographic information. Paired sample t tests showed that participants experienced the responses of the first person they told about their trauma as more favorable than the responses of the all of the people to whom they told about the event. Women and survivors of non-interpersonal trauma reported more supportive responses than men and survivors of interpersonal trauma. Hierarchical linear regressions showed that interpersonal trauma and victim blame on the part of the first person the survivor told were associated with more negative trauma-related cognitions. Interpersonal trauma, emotional support, and victim blame were associated with a greater degree of trauma-related distress. The results suggest that participants perceived the response of the first person they told as more beneficial than the response of the rest of their exosystem. However, the reactions of the first person the survivor told differed based on the sex of the survivor and the type of trauma they experienced. Consistent with previous research, interpersonal trauma and victim blame by the first person the survivor told about the trauma were associated with more trauma-related distress and negative cognitions. Trauma-related distress was also associated with greater emotional support by the disclosure partner. The results support the use of the socioeological model to better understand the complex nature of trauma recovery and have implications for prevention.

Political Science and Criminal Justice Department.

 

Brennan, Carolyn L., Kevin M. Swartout, Bradley L. Goodnight, …., Sarah R. B. Barron, Joana Carvalho, & Ruschelle M. Leone. (2018). “Evidence for multiple classes of sexually violent college men.” Psychology of Violence, x(x), x-x.

Objective: Research on college sexual violence (SV) perpetration suggests there are multiple groups of male perpetrators. It is important to understand distinctions between perpetrator subgroups to determine appropriate prevention strategies, as multiple strategies may be necessary to address multiple types of perpetrators. However, previous studies on subgroups of college perpetrators have relied on theoretically based distinctions, and there is currently no consensus on how to classify perpetrators based on their sexually violent behaviors. The purpose of the current study was to take a data-driven approach to identifying subgroups of sexually violent college men to help clarify (a) the number and size of cohesive subgroups of sexually violent college men and (b) the types of behaviors that characterize each group. Method: 1,982 college men across 5 universities in the United States self-reported their past sexually violent behaviors, using the Sexual Experiences Survey—Short Form Perpetration (Koss et al., 2007). Results: Latent class analysis uncovered evidence for 3 groups: (a) a group unlikely to perpetrate any SV (88.6%); (b) a group likely to perpetrate SV using coercive tactics (verbal coercion or victim intoxication), but unlikely to use force (9.8%); and (c) a group likely to perpetrate the full range of SV (1.5%). Although the coercive tactics group included men unlikely to use force, it included the majority who attempted or completed rape based on legal definitions. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there are multiple, distinct perpetrator subgroups and signal the need for multiple prevention approaches, including approaches that address campus social norms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)

Psychology Department.

 

De Jong, David, T. Grundmeyer, & C. Anderson. (2018). “Comparative Study of Elementary and Secondary Teacher Perceptions of Mobile Technology in Classrooms.”International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, 10(1), 12-33.

More and more schools are implementing a 1:1 mobile device initiative for their students because the future of learning will have technology embedded within the curriculum. Teachers are often given the direction to utilize mobile devices in the classroom, but quite often educators do not understand the significance of this technology or agree with its purpose. The purpose of this study was to explore elementary and secondary teacher perceptions of mobile technology in the classroom. According to the survey results, elementary and secondary teachers feel positive about the uses and the importance of mobile technology in the classroom. These positive perceptions by teachers regardless of gender, age, and training indicate that schools should continue to allocate resources to purchase mobile devices for all students.

School of Education.

 

DelVecchio, Devon, William J. Jones, & Eric Stenstrom. (2017). “Integrating partitioned prices via computational estimation.” Psychology & Marketing, 34(8), 823-835.

This paper introduces computational estimation to the literature on consumers’ numerical cognition. Computational estimation involves simplifying an arithmetic problem via mathematical procedures to produce an approximate answer. Employing calculation knowledge and approximation together, consumers are likely to use computational estimation as it is relatively accurate while saving cognitive effort compared to calculating values. Three studies applied to partitioned prices in the form of a base price and a percentage discount, demonstrate that when faced with this numeric integration task, the strategy consumers undertake is dependent on the characteristics of the numerals with discounts that are round or close to round being associated with greater use of computational estimation. Further, when employing computational estimation, consumers arrive at more accurate, and lower, price estimates in which they place more confidence than when using alternative an integration strategy. As a result, discounts that are near a round value are preferred to those that are not; a result that is dependent upon the use of computational estimation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)

Beacom School of Business.

 

Diana, P., Charoen Mankongpaisarnrung, M. B. Atkins, J. C. Zeck, & A. Charabaty. (2018). “Emerging Role of Vedolizumab in Managing Refractory Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor-Induced Enteritis.” Acg Case Reports Journal, 5, 3.

We report a 62-year-old white woman with metastatic choroidal melanoma who developed immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-induced enteritis and grade 3 diarrhea refractory to steroids and infliximab. Her diarrhea quickly resolved after infusion of vedolizumab, and the patient was able to taper down steroids. Vedolizumab’s mechanism of action and its gut specificity have the potential to reverse immune-induced enterocolitis without neutralizing or reversing the therapeutic benefit of ICI on the malignancy.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Ferguson, Tanner, R. Swan, M. Ibach, J. Schweitzer, Ramu Sudhagoni, & J. P. Berdahl. (2018). “Evaluation of a Trabecular Microbypass Stent With Cataract Extraction in Severe Primary Open-angle Glaucoma.” Journal of Glaucoma, 27(1), 71-76.

Purpose:To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a trabecular microbypass stent combined with cataract surgery in patients with severe open-angle glaucoma.Patients:The series included 59 eyes with severe primary open-angle glaucoma and severe visual field loss as defined by American Academy of Ophthalmology preferred practice pattern criteria.Materials and Methods:Retrospective case series. Patients were implanted with 1 trabecular microbypass stent with concomitant cataract surgery. Primary outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of glaucoma medications. Safety measures included postoperative IOP pressure spikes 15mmHg or IOP<6mmHg at any time point, and the need for additional surgery.Results:The mean preoperative IOP was 19.256.97mmHg. Postoperatively, the mean IOP was 14.38 +/- 3.63mmHg (P<0.01) at 12 months and 14.92 +/- 3.86mmHg (P<0.01) at 24 months. The mean number of glaucoma medications was 2.27 +/- 1.06 preoperatively and 1.63 +/- 1.17 (P<0.01) at 24 months postoperative, indicating a 28% reduction in medication use. In total, 4 (7%) eyes required additional surgery. In total, 5 eyes (8%) experienced IOP spikes 15mmHg, 14 (24%) eyes had IOP spikes 10mmHg. Overall 55% of eyes had a 20% IOP reduction after 24 months of surgery. Eyes with baseline IOP19 had a mean reduction of 2.24mmHg 36 months after surgery.Conclusions:Trabecular microbypass stent implantation during cataract surgery safely and effectively lowers IOP and medication use in patients with severe primary open-angle glaucoma.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Gao, Hongbo, & Yi-Fan Li. (2018). “Distinct signal transductions in fast- and slow- twitch muscles upon denervation.” Physiological Reports, 6(4), 10.

Denervation induces skeletal muscle atrophy, which primarily impairs oxidative slow twitch fibers. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon, however, remains to be addressed. We hypothesize that denervation-induced fiber-specific atrophy may result from the distinct activities of different signaling pathways that are involved in protein synthesis and degradation in fast- and slow-twitch fibers. In this study, 1-month-old male mice were subjected to unilateral sciatic denervation for 4 days. Fast-twitch muscle extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and slow-twitch muscle soleus were collected from the denervated side and the control side of hind limbs. Total and phosphorylated protein levels of key factors of major signaling pathways in these tissues were determined using western blot assay. Our data showed that total AKT and FoxO3 protein levels were upregulated in denervated muscles as compared with control sides. Phosphorylation of AKT and FoxO3 were proportionally enhanced in denervated EDL but not soleus, indicating AKT activation drives phosphorylation of FoxO3 in EDL but not in soleus upon denervation. As a result, FoxO3-targeted atrogenes MurF1 and Atrogin1 protein abundances were reduced in denervated EDL but not altered in soleus. In consistent with this change, polyubiquitination were significantly increased in denervated soleus, but only a slight increase in ubiquitination was found in denervated EDL. Autophagy marker LC3 protein level was significantly increased in both muscle types, but in greater extent in EDL after denervation. IRS1 protein level and active ERK were reduced in both muscles upon denervation, which might contribute to the upregulation of total AKT protein level and FoxO3 abundance in EDL and soleus. Total and phosphorylated AMPK protein levels were increased in denervated soleus but not in EDL. Overall, these data reveal that the key signaling pathways that regulate protein synthesis and degradation are more sensitive in soleus than EDL in response to denervation.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Granruth, L. B., Peter A. Kindle, M. L. Burford, E. Delavega, D. H. Johnson, S. Peterson, & M. A. Caplan. (2018). “Changing Social Work Students’ Perceptions of the Role of Government in a Policy Class.” Journal of Social Work Education, 54(1), 110-121.

Understanding student political attitudes-feelings about government and perceptions of its rolehas long been of interest to social scientists. One factor that may influence political attitudes is belief in a just world, a complex psychological construct well established in the literature. Our study explores changes in social work students’ perception of a supportive role of government and their beliefs in a just world after one policy course using a pretest and posttest design. Student perceptions changed toward a more supportive government role, but there was no significant change for belief in a just world. The study contributes to empirical evaluation of the social work education policy class in terms of the Council on Social Work Education competencies.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Hajovsky, Daniel B.Ethan F. Villeneuve, Matthew R. Reynolds, Christopher R. Niileksela, Benjamin A. Mason, & Nicholas J. Shudak. (2018). “Cognitive ability influences on written expression: Evidence for developmental and sex-based differences in school-age children.” Journal of School Psychology, 67, 104-118.

Some studies have demonstrated that the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) cognitive abilities influence writing; however, little research has investigated whether CHC cognitive abilities influence writing the same way for males and females across grades. We used multiple group structural equation models to investigate whether CHC cognitive ability influences on written expression differed between grades or sex using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition and the Kaufman Tests of Educational Achievement, Second Edition co-normed standardization sample data ( N = 2117). After testing for consistent measurement of cognitive abilities across grades and sex, we tested whether the cognitive ability influences on written expression were moderated by grade level or sex. An important developmental shift was observed equally across sex groups: Learning Efficiency (G l ) influences decreased whereas Crystallized Ability (G c ) influences increased after fourth grade. Further, Short-Term Memory (G sm ) and Retrieval Fluency (G r ) influences on written expression depended on sex at grades 1–4, with larger G r influences for females and larger G sm influences for males. We internally replicated our main findings using two different cognitive explanatory models, adding further support for the developmental and sex-based differential cognitive ability influences on writing. Explanatory cognitive models of writing need to incorporate development, and possibly, sex to provide an expanded understanding of writing development and guard against potential generalizability issues characteristic of special population (i.e., male-female) studies.

School of Education.

 

Hocking, Elise C.Raluca M. SimonsJeffrey S. Simons, & Harry Freeman. (2018). “Adult attachment and drinking context as predictors of alcohol problems and relationship satisfaction in college students.” American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 44(3), 339-347.

Background: Evidence suggests that for young adults, intimate partners influence each other’s drinking patterns. Therefore, exploration of variables related to intimate partner relationships (such as attachment style) could broaden the current understanding of risk factors for alcohol problems in this demographic. Objectives: The current study examined the role of drinking context in the relationships among insecure attachment, alcohol problems, and relationship satisfaction. A path model was hypothesized where the relationship between insecure attachment and alcohol problems would be explained via two distinct drinking contexts (i.e., drinking with one’s partner and drinking away from one’s partner). It was also hypothesized that the relationship between insecure attachment and relationship satisfaction would be explained via these same two drinking contexts. Methods: Participants were 194 undergraduate students ages 18-25 who reported being in a monogamous intimate partner relationship for at least 90days and had also consumed alcohol in the past 90days. The sample was comprised of 76% women and 24% men. Results: The hypothesized direct relationship from anxious attachment to alcohol problems was significant; there were also significant direct paths from both anxious and avoidant attachment to relationship satisfaction. The hypotheses regarding indirect relationships were not supported. Conclusion: The results of this study contribute to the existing literature, in that they suggest that drinking in the context of an intimate relationship may not directly affect relationship satisfaction in this population. However, relationship functioning still appears to be an important variable to consider in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related problems affecting college students.

Psychology Department.

 

Kindle, TrevorTanner Ferguson, M. Ibach, M. Greenwood, J. Schweitzer, Ramu Swan, R. G. Sudhagoni, & J. P. Berdahl. (2018). “Safety and efficacy of intravitreal injection of steroid and antibiotics in the setting of cataract surgery and trabecular microbypass stent.” Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, 44(1), 56-62.

Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravitreal administration of a steroid and antibiotics during cataract surgery compared with the typical postoperative topical regimen in preventing postoperative inflammation, pain, cystoid macular edema (CME), and endophthalmitis. Setting: Private practice, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA. Design: Retrospective case series. Methods: The study group included eyes that had an intravitreal injection of triamcinolone moxifloxacin vancomycin at the time of cataract surgery with concomitant trabecular microbypass stent insertion. The control eyes had the same procedure but were prescribed topical antibiotics, steroids, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs postoperatively. Data were recorded preoperatively and 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively. Primary outcomes included the number of glaucoma medications, intraocular pressure (IOP), and IOP spikes of at least 15 mm Hg from baseline. Results: There were 234 eyes in the study group and 249 eyes in the control group. The mean reduction in glaucoma medications was 0.24 drops in the study group and 0.80 drops in the control group 3 months postoperatively, whereas the mean IOP reduction was 2.59 mm Hg in the study group and 3.63 mm Hg in the control group. Pressure spikes were detected at 54 (5.7%) of 936 postoperative visits in the study group and at 37 (3.7%) of 996 visits in the control group. There were no cases of severe inflammation, CME, infection, or retinal detachments. Conclusions: Both groups had similar postoperative pressure reductions and incidence of IOP spikes. The results indicate that intravitreal injections of a steroid and antibiotics might be a safe option for glaucomatous eyes having cataract surgery with trabecular microbypass stent insertion.

Basic Biomedial Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Lee, AhyoungXuan Wang, H. Nguyen, & I. Ra. (2018). “A Hybrid Software Defined Networking Architecture for Next-Generation IoTs.” Ksii Transactions on Internet and Information Systems, 12(2), 932-945.

Everything in the world is becoming connected and interactive due to the Internet. The future of interactive smart environments such as smart cities, smart industries, or smart farms demand high network bandwidth, high network flexibility, and self-organization systems without costly hardware upgrades, and they provide a sustainable, scalable, and replicable smart environment backbone infrastructure. This paper presents a new Hybrid Software-Defined architecture for integrating Internet-of-Things technologies that are essential technologies for smart environments. It combines a software-defined networking infrastructure and a real-time distributed network framework with an advanced optimization to enable self-configuration, self-management, and self-adaption for providing seamless communication and efficiently managing a vast number of smart heterogeneous devices.

Computer Science Department.

 

Louw, A., J. Podalak, Kory Zimney, S. Schmidt, & E. J. Puentedura. (2018). “Can pain beliefs change in middle school students? A study of the effectiveness of pain neuroscience education.” Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 34(7), 542-550.

Pain neuroscience education (PNE) is an educational strategy aimed at teaching people more about pain from a neurobiological and neurophysiological perspective. Current best-evidence provides strong support for PNE to positively influence pain ratings, dysfunctions, fear-avoidance and pain catastrophization, limitations in movement, pain knowledge, and healthcare utilization. To date, all PNE studies have been conducted on adult populations. This study set out to explore if an abbreviated PNE lecture to middle school children would result in a positive shift in pain knowledge as well as healthier beliefs regarding pain. One-hundred-and-thirty-three middle school students spanning 5th to 8th grade attended a 30-minute PNE lecture. The primary outcome measures of pain knowledge (neurophysiology of pain questionnaire [NPQ]) and beliefs regarding pain (numeric rating scale) were measured before and immediately after the PNE lecture. Significant improvement in knowledge was found with mean score on NPQ test scores improving from 3.83 (29.5%) pre-PNE to 7.90 (60.8%) post-PNE (p<0.001), with a large effect size (r=.711). Significant shifts in beliefs were also found in all but one of the pain beliefs questions, with a medium effect size for you can control how much pain you feel (p<0.001; r=0.354) and large effect size for your brain decides if you feel pain, not your tissues (p<0.001; r=0.545). This study shows that a 30-minute PNE lecture to middle school children resulted in a significant increase in their knowledge of pain as well various beliefs regarding pain.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Lucas Molitor, Whitney, & Rebecca Mayou. (2018). “The Low Vision Team: Optometrists’ and Ophthalmologists’ Perceptions and Knowledge of Occupational Therapy.” Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 36(1), 54-71.

Aims: The purpose was to discover the knowledge and perceptions among eye-care professionals regarding the role of occupational therapists in low visions rehabilitation. Methods: A mixed methods design included open-ended qualitative responses along with quantitative survey data. Data were gathered anonymously through the PsychData electronic platform. Results: Optometrists and ophthalmologists were familiar with occupational therapy interventions for individuals with low vision but were uncertain about how to include occupational therapists in this practice specialty. Data were categorized into two themes: knowledge and perceptions and were grouped into subthemes of comprehensive, fractioned, occupational therapy intervention strategies, optimistic perceptions, and uncertain perceptions. It was found that only a small number of respondents referred or consulted with occupational therapists regarding clients with low vision. Conclusion: There is a need for education and advocacy to optometrists and ophthalmologists regarding the access to occupational therapy services for individuals with low vision.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Ma, J. J., James Kuzman, A. Ray, B. O. Lawson, B. Khong, S. Xuan, A. W. Hahn, & H. T. Khong. (2018). “Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) as a predictor for recurrence in patients with stage III melanoma.” Scientific Reports, 8, 6.

Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is a strong predictor for overall survival and disease free survival in many cancers. Our study is the first investigation aiming to determine the predictive value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio on prognosis of patients with stage III melanoma. This retrospective study utilized a cohort of 107 patients with stage III melanoma treated at Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, from May 2002 to March 2016. The optimal cutoff of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was determined by the significance of log-rank tests. A total of 97 log-rank tests were conducted to find the optimal cutoff. Disease free survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and univariable and multivariable Cox models were applied to evaluate the predictive value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. 2.5 was identified as the optimal cutoff. Kaplan-Meier curve showed that the disease free survival rate of the low value group was significantly higher compared to that of high value group. After adjusting for confounders and other prognostic factors, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio >= 2.5 remained a strong predictor for disease recurrence in patients with stage III melanoma.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Mei, D. M.G. J. WangH. MeiG. YangJ. LiuM. WagnerR. PanthK. KooiY. Y. Yang, & W. Z. Wei. (2018). “Direct detection of MeV-scale dark matter utilizing germanium internal amplification for the charge created by the ionization of impurities.” European Physical Journal C, 78(3), 12.

Light, MeV-scale darkmatter (DM) is an exciting DM candidate that is undetectable by current experiments. A germanium (Ge) detector utilizing internal charge amplification for the charge carriers created by the ionization of impurities is a promising new technology with experimental sensitivity for detecting MeV-scale DM. We analyze the physics mechanisms of the signal formation, charge creation, charge internal amplification, and the projected sensitivity for directly detecting MeV-scale DM particles. We present a design for a novel Ge detector at helium temperature (similar to 4K) enabling ionization of impurities from DM impacts. With large localized E-fields, the ionized excitations can be accelerated to kinetic energies larger than the Ge bandgap at which point they can create additional electron-hole pairs, producing intrinsic amplification to achieve an ultra-low energy threshold of similar to 0.1 eV for detecting low-mass DM particles in the MeV scale. Correspondingly, such a Ge detector with 1 kg-year exposure will have high sensitivity to a DM-nucleon cross section of similar to 5 x 10(-45) cm(2) at a DM mass of similar to 10 MeV/c(2) and a DM-electron cross section of similar to 5 x 10(-46) cm(2) at a DM mass of similar to 1 MeV/c(2).

Physics Department.

 

Miszuk, Jacob M., T. Xu, Qingping Yao, F. Fang, Josh D. ChildsZhangkui K. Hong, P. N. Tao, H. Fong, & Hongli Sun. (2018). “Functionalization of PCL-3D electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for improved BMP2-induced bone formation.” Applied Materials Today, 10, 194-202.

Bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) is a key growth factor for bone regeneration, possessing FDA approvafor orthopedic applications. BMP2 is often required in supratherapeutic doses clinically, yielding adverse side effects and substantial treatment costs. Considering the crucial role of materials for BMPs delivery and cell osteogenic differentiation, we devote to engineering an innovative bone-matrix mimicking niche to improve low dose of BMP2-induced bone formation. Our previous work describes a novel technique, named thermally induced nanofiber self-agglomeration (TISA), for generating 3D electrospun nanofibrous (NF) polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds. TISA process could readily blend PCL with PLA, leading to increased osteogenic capabilities in vitro, however, these bio-inert synthetic polymers produced limited BMP2-induced bone formation in vivo. We therefore hypothesize that functionalization of NF 3DPCL scaffolds with bone-like hydroxyapatite ( HA) and BMP2 signaling activator phenamil will provide a favorable osteogenic niche for bone formation at low doses of BMP2. Compared to PCL-3D scaffolds, PCL/HA-3D scaffolds demonstrated synergistically enhanced osteogenic differentiation capabilities of C2C12 cells with phenamil. Importantly, in vivo studies showed that this synergism was able to generate significantly increased new bone in an ectopic mouse model, suggesting that PCL/HA-3D scaffolds act as a favorable synthetic extracellular matrix for bone regeneration. (c) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Biomedical Engineering Department, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Munson, Patrick D., & Alicia Ward. (2018). “Primary augmentation pharyngoplasty with calcium hydroxylapatite for treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency: Surgical and speech outcomes.” International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 108(x), 91-94.

Introduction Augmentation pharyngoplasty (AP) is a technique that may effectively treat velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI), while avoiding typical short and long term surgical risks. This study seeks to determine if children with VPI treated by AP with calcium hydoxylapatite (CaHa) demonstrate clinically significant improvement in speech outcomes. Methods Retrospective review (2012–2016) of prospectively collected database of children with VPI, cared for at a single tertiary children’s hospital. Preoperative speech assessment, nasometry, and video nasendoscopy were used to identify patients with VPI treated by AP with CaHa. Demographics, surgical/speech outcomes, complications, novel surgical technique and follow-up were recorded. Main outcome measures included pre and postoperative nasality and perceptual speech assessments, based on the Pittsburgh Weighted Values for Speech (PWS). Results 17 patients treated with AP with CaHa, as initial primary treatment for VPI, were identified. 8 patients had cleft palate, 9 patients had isolated VPI. Mean age at treatment was 6.6 years, with no operative complications. Mean nasality scores before and after surgery were 3.2 vs. 0.5 (p < 0.001). Mean PWS before and after surgery were 9.7 vs. 2.1 (p < 0.001). Based on the PWS scoring, 4/8 of cleft patients (50%) and 8/9 of isolated patients (89%) achieved a competent/borderline competent nasopharyngeal valve. 17/17 of patients (100%) had improvement in nasality. Mean length of follow-up was 32.8 months (range 10–64 months). Conclusion In this largest series of patients to date, AP with CaHa is a safe, minimally invasive, enduring treatment for VPI in properly selected patients. Nasality and speech scores significantly improved, especially in patients with isolated VPI.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Nelson, T., David A. Pearce, & Attila D. Kovacs. (2017). “Lack of specificity of antibodies raised against CLN3, the lysosomal/endosomal transmembrane protein mutated in juvenile Batten disease.” Bioscience Reports, 37, 12.

Juvenile CLN3 (Batten) disease, a fatal, childhood neurodegenerative disorder, results from mutations in the CLN3 gene encoding a lysosomal/endosomal transmembrane protein. The exact physiological function of CLN3 is still unknown and it is unclear how CLN3 mutations lead to selective neurodegeneration. To study the tissue expression and subcellular localization of the CLN3 protein, a number of anti-CLN3 antibodies have been generated using either the whole CLN3 protein or short peptides from CLN3 for immunization. The specificity of these antibodies, however, has never been tested properly. Using immunoblot experiments, we show that commercially available or researcher-generated anti-CLN3 antibodies lack specificity: they detect the same protein bands in wild-type (WT) and Cln3(-/-) mouse brain and kidney extracts prepared with different detergents, in membrane proteins isolated from the cerebellum, cerebral hemisphere and kidney of WT and Cln3(-/-) mice, in cell extracts of WT and Cln3(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblast cultures, and in lysates of BHK cells lacking or overexpressing human CLN3. Protein BLAST searches with sequences from peptides used to generate anti-CLN3 antibodies identified short motifs present in a number of different mouse and human proteins, providing a plausible explanation for the lack of specificity of anti-CLN3 antibodies. Our data provide evidence that immunization against a transmembrane protein with low to medium expression level does not necessarily generate specific antibodies. Because of the possible cross-reactivity to other proteins, the specificity of an antibody should always be checked using tissue samples from an appropriate knock-out animal or using knock-out cells.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Newberry, Gretchen N., & David L. Swanson. (2018). “Elevated temperatures are associated with stress in rooftop-nesting Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor) chicks.”Conservation Physiology, 6, 12.

Grasslands and riparian forests in southeastern South Dakota have been greatly reduced since historical times, primarily due to conversion to row-crop agriculture. Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor) nesting habitat includes grasslands, open woodlands and urban rooftops, but nesting sites in southeastern South Dakota are confined to rooftops, as natural nesting habitat is limited. Nighthawks nesting on exposed rooftop habitats may encounter thermal conditions that increase operative temperatures relative to vegetated land cover types. Mean humidity has increased and mean wind speed and cloud cover have decreased during the nighthawk breeding season from 1948 to 2016 in southeastern South Dakota. These changes might contribute to increasing operative temperatures at exposed rooftop nest sites and this could influence chick condition. We studied nest micro-climate and the plasma stress response for 24 rooftop-nesting nighthawk chicks from 17 nests during 2015 and 2016. High humidity prior to blood collection reduced both baseline and stress-induced plasma corticosterone (CORT). In contrast, high maximum temperatures during the day before sampling increased stress-induced CORT. The magnitude of the chick stress response was significantly negatively related to maximum wind speed for the week prior to CORT measurement. Other weather and micro-climate variables were not significant effectors of CORT metrics. Most chicks had low baseline CORT and were able to mount a stress response, but a subset of chicks (n = 4) showed elevated baseline CORT and a negative association between the magnitude of stress response and ambient temperature. For this subset, mean ambient temperature for the day before sampling was significantly higher (2.3 degrees C) than for chicks with typical baseline CORT levels. These data suggest that regional climate change trends could affect the ability of nighthawk chicks to mount a stress response, which, in turn, might influence the susceptibility of nighthawk chicks to climate change in the Northern Prairie region.

Biology Department.

 

Pitcher, Kristopher A., & Daniel A. Soluk. (2018). “Fish presence and inter-patch connectivity interactively alter the size of emergent insects in experimental enclosures.”Ecosphere, 9(3), 17.

Structural habitat complexity (SHC) and functional habitat connectivity (FHC) are the basic components that make up the physical architecture of an ecosystem, and can have substantial impacts on predator-prey interactions. These structural components influence animal behaviors such as inter-patch movement, foraging, and competition, and can impact community structure/dynamics in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The effects of SHC and FHC on predator-prey dynamics within an ecosystem may also have important cascading effects on neighboring ecosystems by altering the movement of individuals across ecosystem boundaries. For example, when aquatic insects emerge as adults, they enter terrestrial ecosystems where they become an important food resource for terrestrial predators. Using a multiple patch, predator enclosure design in ponds, we tested whether altering intra-patch plant stem densities (SHC) and inter-patch distances (FHC) would influence the impact a predatory fish has on the biomass, quality, and trophic composition of emergent insects. As expected, fish significantly reduced emergent insect biomass (33% +/- 7.6, mean +/- SE). Intra-patch stem densities (SHC) did not significantly alter fish effects; however, inter-patch distance (FHC) did significantly alter the impact of fish on the size of some emergent insects. Damselflies that emerged in treatments with fish present and shorter inter-patch distances were significantly larger, 4.1 +/- 0.1 mg/m(2) compared to 3.3 mg/m(2) +/- 0.1 in the long/fish treatments. In fish treatments, this effect on damselfly size resulted in greater reductions in total emergent insect biomass in long inter-patch distance treatments (47.3% +/- 6.9) compared to short inter-patch distance treatments (20.5% +/- 12.4). Our results suggest that physical components of a habitat, such as inter-patch distances, have important impacts on predator-prey dynamics within habitats. These altered predator-prey dynamics can then have cascading effects on adjacent habitats by influencing the abundance, trophic composition, and quality of exported trophic subsidies.

Biology Department.

 

Puckett, Jae A., B. A. Feinstein, M. E. Newcomb, & B. Mustanski. (2018). “Trajectories of Internalized Heterosexism among Young Men Who have Sex with Men.” Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47(4), 872-889.

Minority stress, or the unique stressors encountered by sexual minorities, has a significant impact on the mental health and well-being of this population. One minority stressor, internalized heterosexism, refers to incorporating stigma against sexual minorities into one’s self-concept as a product of social bias. This minority stressor has been consistently related to worse mental health in sexual minorities. We evaluated experiences of internalized heterosexism longitudinally, over 24 months, in a sample of 450 young men who have sex with men (YMSM; age range = 16-20 years old at baseline). Latent class growth analyses revealed three classes: individuals with low-decreasing internalized heterosexism (57.1%), medium-stable internalized heterosexism (37.3%), and high-stable internalized heterosexism (5.6%). Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that some racial/ethnic minorities, non-gay identified individuals (i.e., bisexual/other), and individuals with less femininity and greater masculinity were significantly more likely to be in the medium- and high-stable internalized heterosexism classes. Higher victimization, as well as lower gay/bisexual community involvement, peer support, and outness predicted membership in the medium-stable internalized heterosexism class (relative to the low-decreasing class). Further, higher past 6-month victimization and lower outness were also predictive of high-stable internalized heterosexism class membership (relative to the low-decreasing class). These findings reveal that there is not a single trajectory of internalized heterosexism-the degree to which it changes differs across men and depends on demographic characteristics and interpersonal experiences. Furthermore, the results indicate interpersonal targets for future work aimed at promoting positive identity development and decreased internalized heterosexism for sexual minority youth.

Psychology Department.

 

Reitsma, J., & Bette Schumacher. (2018). “Nursing Assessment of Intra-abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in the Neonate.” Advances in Neonatal Care, 18(1), 7-13.

Abdominal compartment syndrome in the surgical neonate is a low-frequency, high-risk occurrence that if overlooked is often accompanied with long-term sequelae and sometimes death. The importance of early detection of signs and symptoms through expert nursing assessment cannot be overstated.& para;& para;Purpose: To review the components of nursing assessment as it applies to detection of abdominal compartment syndrome in the surgical neonate and its relationship to the pathophysiology.& para;& para;Methods/Search Strategy: Detailed search of the nursing and medical literature.& para;& para;Implications for Practice: The purpose of this article is to describe the onset of abdominal compartment syndrome in the neonate. Early detection of this low-frequency, high-risk occurrence hinges on expert nursing assessment. Complications of abdominal compartment syndrome in the neonate involve bowel perforation, short bowel syndrome, and sometimes death. Components of this expert nursing assessment and its relationship to the pathophysiology of compartment syndrome are presented.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Ronan, Patrick J., S. A. Strait, G. M. Palmer, & T. P. Beresford. (2018). “Central Administration of Cyclosporine A Decreases Ethanol Drinking.” Alcohol and Alcoholism, 53(2), 193-199.

Aims: Abstinence among alcohol dependent liver graft recipients is remarkably high. The routine use of anti-immune agents in these patients led to rodent studies showing that immunosuppressants acting through inhibition of calcineurin (CLN) are highly effective in decreasing alcohol consumption. It remained unclear, however, whether the decreased alcohol consumption in rodent models is mediated through peripheral suppression of immune response or centrally through direct inhibition of cyclophilin-CLN in the brain. We tested the hypothesis that direct brain inhibition of CLN with intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of the immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) is sufficient to decrease ethanol consumption in a rodent model of binge-like drinking. Methods: Male C57BL/6NHsd mice were put through a modified ‘drinking in the dark’ (DID) paradigm. Effects of both peripheral (IP) and central (ICV) injections of CsA on ethanol consumption were assessed. Results: Here, as in earlier work, IP CsA administration significantly decreased alcohol consumption. Supporting our hypothesis, central administration of CsA was sufficient to decrease alcohol consumption in a dose-dependent manner. There was no significant effect of CsA on water or sucrose consumption. Conclusions: These results clearly implicate a CLN-mediated mechanism in brain in the inhibitory effects of CsA on ethanol consumption and provide novel targets for investigation of treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD). These results also add to the growing body of literature implicating neuroimmune mechanisms in the etiology, pathophysiology and behaviors driving AUD. Short Summary: The unusually high abstinence rate and routine use of immunosuppressants in AUD liver graft recipients led us to rodent studies showing that immunosuppressants acting through inhibition of calcineurin (CLN) are highly effective in decreasing drinking. Here we demonstrate that this effect is mediated by brain rather than peripheral immune mechanisms.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Smith, Amber M., & Victor C. Huber. (2018). “The Unexpected Impact of Vaccines on Secondary Bacterial Infections Following Influenza.” Viral Immunology, 31(2), 159-173.

Influenza virus infections remain a significant health burden worldwide, despite available vaccines. Factors that contribute to this include a lack of broad coverage by current vaccines and continual emergence of novel virus strains. Further complicating matters, when influenza viruses infect a host, severe infections can develop when bacterial pathogens invade. Secondary bacterial infections (SBIs) contribute to a significant proportion of influenza-related mortality, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Haemophilus influenzae as major coinfecting pathogens. Vaccines against bacterial pathogens can reduce coinfection incidence and severity, but few vaccines are available and those that are, may have decreased efficacy in influenza virus-infected hosts. While some studies indicate a benefit of vaccine-induced immunity in providing protection against SBIs, a comprehensive understanding is lacking. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of viral and bacterial vaccine availability, the generation of protective immunity from these vaccines, and the effectiveness in limiting influenza-associated bacterial infections.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Spelman, Philip J., & Jeffrey S. Simons. (2018). “Effects of sexual arousal and alcohol cues on acute motivation for alcohol.” Archives of Sexual Behavior, x(x), x-x.

Reward-related stimuli can induce motivation to obtain rewards both within and across domains. We tested within- and cross-domain effects of environmental context (mock bar vs. laboratory) and sexually arousing stimuli (pornography vs. nature film) on acute motivation for alcohol as measured by a state-based alcohol purchase task in 109 male and female college students. Our results showed significant effects of both sexual arousal and environmental context on acute motivation for alcohol. A limited subsample analysis (N = 84) revealed significant effects of both sexual arousal and environmental context conditions on elasticity. Consistent with hypotheses, the presence of either sex- or alcohol-related cues increased acute motivation for alcohol and decreased sensitivity to costs of drinking. Furthermore, there was a significant video × laboratory condition interaction in the elasticity analysis. Our findings suggest that both sexually arousing stimuli and incidental environmental alcohol cues may significantly increase the effort one will expend to consume alcohol and thus the potential for risky drinking behavior. We believe this is the first experiment to use demand curves to present evidence of cross-domain effects of sexually arousing stimuli on acute motivation for alcohol. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)

Psychology Department.

 

Vogel, Dayton J.Talgat M. Inerbaev, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2018). “Role of Lead Vacancies for Optoelectronic Properties of Lead-Halide Perovskites.” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 122(10), 5216-5226.

Methylammonium lead iodide perovskite materials have been shown to be efficient in photovoltaic devices. The current fabrication process has not been perfected, leaving defects such as site vacancies, which can trap charge and have a detrimental effect on photogenerated charge carriers. Here focus is placed on the effect a Pb site vacancy has on the charge-carrier dynamics following photoexcitation. The electronic structure of materials with vacancies is often found in open-shell configurations with unpaired electrons in the conduction/valence bands To accurately describe unpaired electrons, spin-polarized and noncollinear spin calculations are performed on both neutral and charged vacancy systems. This work presents spin-polarized and noncollinear spin ground-state electronic structures and nonradiative rates of charge-carrier relaxation and introduces an extension to a novel procedure to compute photoluminescence spectra for open-shell models. This study describes nonadiabatic dynamics of MAPbI(3) models within a Redfield formalism focusing on the role of a Pb vacancy defect on electronic relaxation processes. Results show the vacancy of the Pb ion introducing a new energy state within the unblemished material band gap region. This additional unoccupied state is expected to increase the nonradiative relaxation lifetime of the excited electron, allowing for a longer lifetime of the charge carrier and increased opportunity for secondary relaxation mechanisms or collection to take place.

Chemistry Department.

 

Waalkes, Phillip L., J. M. Benshoff, J. Stickl, P. J. Swindle, & L. K. Umstead. (2018). “Structure, Impact, and Deficiencies of Beginning Counselor Educators’ Doctoral Teaching Preparation.” Counselor Education and Supervision, 57(1), 66-80.

The authors utilized the consensual qualitative research method (Hill, Thompson, & Williams, ) to explore beginning counselor educators’ (N = 9) experiences of doctoral teaching preparation, including helpful and missing components. Emerging themes included a lack of intentionality in teaching-related program design and a need for stronger preparation in pedagogy and content delivery methods.

School of Education.

 

Wilson, M. E., A. Barwise, K. J. Heise, …., & Michelle Biehl. (2018). “Long-Term Return to Functional Baseline After Mechanical Ventilation in the ICU.” Critical Care Medicine, 46(4), 562-569.

Objective: Predictors of long-term functional impairment in acute respiratory failure of all causes are poorly understood. Our objective was to assess the frequency and predictors of long-term functional impairment or death after invasive mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure of all causes. Design: Population-based, observational cohort study. Setting: Eight adult ICUs of a single center. Patients: All adult patients from Olmsted County, Minnesota, without baseline functional impairment who received mechanical ventilation in ICUs for acute respiratory failure of all causes from 2005 through 2009. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: In total, 743 patients without baseline functional impairment received mechanical ventilation in the ICU. At 1- and 5-year follow-up, the rates of survival with return to baseline functional ability were 61% (366/597) and 53% (356/669). Among 71 patients with new functional impairment at 1 year, 55% (39/71) had recovered and were alive without functional impairment at 5 years. Factors predictive of new functional impairment or death at 1 year were age, comorbidities, discharge to other than home, mechanical ventilation of 7 days or longer, and stroke. Of factors known at the time of intubation, the following are predictive of new functional impairment or death: age, comorbidities, nonsurgical condition, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III score, stroke, and sepsis. Post hoc sensitivity analyses revealed no significant change in predictor variables in patient populations when stroke was excluded or who received more than 48 hours of mechanical ventilation. Conclusions: At 1- and 5-year follow-up, many patients who received mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure from all causes are no longer alive or have new moderate-to-severe functional impairment. Functional recovery between year 1 and year 5 is possible and common. Sepsis, stroke, illness severity, age, and comorbidities predict long-term functional outcome at intubation.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Yuan, J., Vasantha L. Gali, D. A. Perry, K. Fu, H. Qureishi, C. Amador-Ortiz, T. Greiner, & S. J. Pirruccello. (2018). “Flow Cytometric Characteristics of Extrathymic Thymocytes in Adenoid Tissue: A Case Report and Comparison to Normal Thymus and Thymoma.”Cytometry Part B-Clinical Cytometry, 94(2), 357-362.

Background: Normal thymocyte precursors in secondary lymphoid organs have previously been described. It is important to recognize normal thymocyte precursors by flow cytometry to differentiate them from T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia. MethodsA 3-year-old boy status 2 years postallogenic cardiac transplant underwent adenoidectomy to exclude post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Microscopic, immunohistochemical, and flow cytometry analyses of the adenoid were performed. Results By flow cytometry, a population of CD45+(dim)/CD7+(bright)/CD3- cells were observed at 1.0% of lymphocytes. These cells expressed CD10, partial CD34 and exhibited acquisition of CD4 followed by CD8. Within the brighter CD45+ lymphocytes, a population of CD3-/CD4+/CD8+ thymocytes and a similarly sized population of CD4+/CD8+ cells exhibiting acquisition of low-density CD3 were identified. By immunostaining, clusters of TdT+/CD1a+/CD4+/CD8+ T-cells were identified in the interfollicular areas. Compared to normal thymus, thymocytes in the adenoid tissue lacked the classic CD4xCD8 winged differentiation profile but showed a normal early precursor pattern. ConclusionsThymocytes in adenoid show a similar differentiation pattern to thymus and thymoma. However, the classic winged pattern of common thymocyte differentiation may not be readily apparent in thymocytes differentiating outside of the thymus. Recognition of the early thymocyte precursor antigen acquisition profile can be crucial to correct interpretation. (c) 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Posted by: tadeterman | February 24, 2018

February 2018

Anderson, Jordan A., Sujan Lamichhane, Thomas Vierhout, & Daniel Engebretson. (2018). “Determining the cross-talk between smooth muscle cells and macrophages on a cobalt-chromium stent material surface using an in vitro postimplantation coculture model.” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 106(3), 673-685.

Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and macrophages are important cellular components involved in the development of complications following the implantation of cardiovascular devices. This leads to various disorders such as restenosis, chronic inflammation, and may ultimately result in device failure. In this study, we developed a postimplant stent coculture model using different ratios of SMCs and macrophages seeded on to cobalt-chromium alloy. The macrophages had an increased affinity to the coculture surfaces, which resulted in decreased SMC attachment to the alloy surfaces at the initial time point. Once adhered, the macrophages spread freely and displayed advanced stages of inflammation at 48 h when cocultured with SMCs. This resulted in an increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, interleukin [IL]-6, and IL-8) by 48 h in the coculture samples with the greatest increase observed with the high number of macrophages. Therefore, the increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines promoted the growth of SMCs in coculture to a greater extent than when the SMCs were culture alone. Thus, this study demonstrated the constant cross-talk between SMCs and macrophages occurring on the postimplant stent surface. Similar coculture models can be used to test the biocompatibility of drugs and biomaterials at possible postimplantation scenarios. (c) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 673-685, 2018.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Anderson, Susan M., & E. Simanton. (2017). “Correlations between community size and student perceptions of value.” Rural and Remote Health, 17(3), 7.

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine if medical students’ feeling of being valued was correlated to community size. The study, conducted in several communities in South Dakota, examined students’ feeling of value relating to attending physicians, healthcare teams and patients. Methods: Student value items were added to student satisfaction surveys sent out to students at the end of their primary clinical year aand data collected from two graduating classes of students (n=114). Student responses were grouped by clinical campus and mean responses by community size were calculated. Additionally, student encounter logs were reviewed for study participants to gauge participation levels during clinical encounters. Results: The degree to which students felt valued by their physician attending, the healthcare team and the patients decreased consistently as community size increased. Differences were statistically significant between students in the smallest and largest communities. Additionally, students in the community of 1 5 000 felt significantly more valued than students in the community of 170 000. Furthermore, there also appears to be a relationship between the percentage of participation in patient care by students and community size. Students in the smaller, rural communities participated at a higher percentage rather than observing. Conclusions: There appears to be a relationship between community size and the extent to which students feel value. The degree to which students felt valued decreased consistently as community size increased. Differences were statistically significant between students in the smallest communities and the two largest communities. Students in the smaller, rural communities participated at a higher percentage. Additional studies are needed to address whether students participate more as a result of feeling valued, or whether participation leads to an enhanced perception of value by students.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Berghoff, Christopher R., Michael J. Mcdermott, & Katherine L. Dixon-Gordon. (2018). Psychological flexibility moderates the relation between PTSD symptoms and daily pain interference. Personality & Individual Differences, 124, 130-134.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are associated with increased physical health problems, including chronic pain. Although researchers have identified several risk factors that partially account for the co-occurrence of PTSD symptoms and pain, a substantial amount of variance remains unexplained in these models. The present study evaluated psychological flexibility (PF) as a potential moderator of the relation between probable PTSD diagnosis and pain interference in daily life. Probable PTSD participants reported significantly greater daily pain severity and interference, and greater daily pain interference when controlling for pain severity, relative to non-PTSD participants. PF emerged as a significant moderator of the relation of PTSD and pain interference. Participants with probable PTSD reported greater pain interference only in conjunction with low levels of PF. Results suggest psychosocial treatments that target PF as a means of improving functioning may improve outcomes for patients with co-occurring PTSD and chronic pain.

Psychology Department.

 

Capp, E., Andrea L. Liebl, A. G. Cones, & A. F. Russell. (2018). “Advancing breeding phenology does not affect incubation schedules in chestnut-crowned babblers: Opposing effects of temperature and wind.” Ecology and Evolution, 8(1), 696-705.

Projecting population responses to climate change requires an understanding of climatic impacts on key components of reproduction. Here, we investigate the associations among breeding phenology, climate and incubation schedules in the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps), a 50g passerine with female-only, intermittent incubation that typically breeds from late winter (July) to early summer (November). During daylight hours, breeding females spent an average of 33min on the nest incubating (hereafter on-bouts) followed by 24-min foraging (hereafter off-bouts), leading to an average daytime nest attentiveness of 60%. Nest attentiveness was 25% shorter than expected from allometric calculations, largely because off-bout durations were double the expected value for a species with 16g clutches (4eggs x 4g/egg). On-bout durations and daily attentiveness were both negatively related to ambient temperature, presumably because increasing temperatures allowed more time to be allocated to foraging with reduced detriment to egg cooling. By contrast, on-bout durations were positively associated with wind speed, in this case because increasing wind speed exacerbated egg cooling during off-bouts. Despite an average temperature change of 12 degrees C across the breeding season, breeding phenology had no effect on incubation schedules. This surprising result arose because of a positive relationship between temperature and wind speed across the breeding season: Any benefit of increasing temperatures was canceled by apparently detrimental consequences of increasing wind speed on egg cooling. Our results indicate that a greater appreciation for the associations among climatic variables and their independent effects on reproductive investment are necessary to understand the effects of changing climates on breeding phenology.

Biology Department.

 

Chen, X., J. J. Wu, Q. Q. Yang, X. L. Zhang, P. Q. Zhang, S. Y. Liao, Z. M. He, Xuejun Wang, C. Zhao, & J. B. Liu. (2018). “Cadmium pyrithione suppresses tumor growth in vitro and in vivo through inhibition of proteasomal deubiquitinase.” Biometals, 31(1), 29-43.

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is indispensable to the protein quality control in eukaryotic cells. Due to the remarkable clinical success of using proteasome inhibitors for clinical treatment of multiple myeloma, it is anticipated that targeting the UPS upstream of the proteasome step be an effective strategy for cancer therapy. Deubiquitinases (DUB) are proteases that remove ubiquitin from target proteins and therefore regulate multiple cellular processes including some signaling pathways altered in cancer cells. Thus, targeting DUB is a promising strategy for cancer drug discovery. Previously, we have reported that metal complexes, such as copper and gold complexes, can disrupt the UPS via suppressing the activity of 19S proteasome-associated DUBs and/or of the 20S proteasomes, thereby inducing cancer cell death. In this study, we found that cadmium pyrithione (CdPT) treatment led to remarkable accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in cultured cancer cells and primary leukemia cells. CdPT potently inhibited the activity of proteasomal DUBs (USP14 and UCHL5), but slightly inhibited 20S proteasome activity. The anti-cancer activity of CdPT was associated with triggering apoptosis via caspase activation. Moreover, treatment with CdPT inhibited proteasome function and repressed tumor growth in animal xenograft models. Our results show that cadmium-containing complex CdPT may function as a novel proteasomal DUB inhibitor and suggest appealing prospects for cancer treatment.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Coker, E. Howard, & Dan Van Peursem. (2018). The erosion of horizontal sand slurry pipelines resulting from inter-particle collision. Wear, 400, 74-81.

Erosion in slurry pipeline systems has received a lot of attention due to the economic impact in the cost of replacing portions of the pipelines. Most attention has been merited from the oil and gas industry. However, remediation of reservoirs behind dams built along major river systems is also a major reason this investigation is so important and provides the background for some of the parameters of this paper. Given that straight pipes are the predominant part of most systems, our attention is restricted to long straight pipes that are far enough away from elbows, welds, and tee fittings that would alter the flow. A model predicting pipeline erosion from smooth river sands suspended in aqueous slurries due to inter-particle collisions which go on to impact the wall of the pipe on straight pipelines is presented. The model is based on physical laws governing the flow of the slurry, how these velocity gradients affect the number of particles impacting the pipe wall, and the amount of wall particle removed from such impacts based on their kinetic energy. The model considers particles with diameters ranging from 50 to 350 µm, velocities of 3.5–6 m/s, and sand slurry concentrations of 10–40% by volume.

Chemistry Department [Retired]

Mathematics Department

 

Cunningham, George, & Andrew Pickett. (2018). Trans Prejudice in Sport: Differences from LGB Prejudice, the Influence of Gender, and Changes over Time. Sex Roles, 78(3/4), 220-227.

The purpose of our study was to examine prejudice toward trans individuals in sport. Questionnaire data were collected from separate, albeit demographically similar, samples of students in 2007 ( n = 199) and 2014 ( n = 124). Results indicate that trans prejudice was higher than prejudice expressed toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals and that these differences remained over time. There were no gender differences as women and men expressed the same degrees of trans prejudice. Finally, trans prejudice significantly decreased over time, although the magnitude of the change was not as large as the corresponding decrease in LGB prejudice. Study findings suggest that although prejudice against trans individuals has decreased, additional interventions and prejudice reduction efforts are needed.

School of Education.

 

Delavega, E., Peter A. Kindle, S. Peterson, & C. Schwartz. (2017). “The Blame Index: Exploring the Change in Social Work Students’ Perceptions of Poverty.” Journal of Social Work Education, 53(4), 664-675.

This study reports the development of a new Blame Index to determine attributions of the causes of poverty along a single structural-to-individual dimension. A multisite pre-/post-group design tested the degree of change in social work students’ (N = 177) perception of poverty as a result of taking a single BSW social policy course or an MSW foundation social policy course. Student respondents reported a significant shift toward structural and away from individual attribution of the causes of poverty, more support for government antipoverty benefit programs, increased awareness of the inadequacy of existing government antipoverty programs, and increased awareness of the difficulty in accessing government antipoverty benefits. Linear regression explained 17% of the change in the Blame Index with only race/ethnicity and the change in adequacy of benefits as significant predictors.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Evans, Rick L., James V. Pottala, Nagata Satoshi, Kristi A. Egland, & Satoshi Nagata. (2018). Longitudinal autoantibody responses against tumor-associated antigens decrease in breast cancer patients according to treatment modality. BMC Cancer, 18, 1-9.

Background: Metastatic breast cancer (BCa) is most often diagnosed months after completion of treatment of the primary tumor when a patient reports physical symptoms. Besides a physical examination, no other alternative recurrence screening method is recommended for routine follow-up care. Detection of autoantibodies against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) has demonstrated promise for distinguishing healthy women from patients diagnosed with primary BCa. However, it is unknown what changes occur to patient autoantibody levels during and after treatment. Methods: Three serial blood draws were collected from 200 BCa patients: before treatment, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Patients were categorized according to treatment regimen, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, trastuzumab and hormonal therapies. The longitudinal samples were assayed for autoantibody responses against 32 conformation-carrying TAAs using a Luminex multiplex bead assay. Results: The treatment modality groups that had the greatest decrease in autoantibody response levels were radiation + hormonal therapy; radiation + chemotherapy; and radiation + hormonal therapy + chemotherapy. For these three treatment groups, autoantibody responses against 9 TAAs (A1AT, ANGPTL4, CAPC, CST2, DKK1, GFRA1, GRN, LGALS3 and LRP10) were significantly reduced at 12 months after surgery compared to before treatment. One TAA, GRP78, had a significantly increased autoantibody response after 12 months. Conclusions: Single treatment regimens alone did not significantly alter autoantibodies levels against the studied TAAs. Radiation treatment was the common denominator of the three most affected groups for significant changes in autoantibody response levels.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Freeman, Harry, & Jeffrey Simons. (2018). Attachment network structure as a predictor of romantic attachment formation and insecurity. Social Development, 27(1), 201-220.

Abstract: We present a new framework to conceptualize normative variation in attachment network structure and use the framework to predict romantic attachment formation and attachment insecurity. Young adults (N = 2,055) completed the Attachment Network Questionnaire and were classified into one of four network types based on two comparisons: (a) between their primary and secondary figure, and (b) between their secondary and tertiary figure. Each comparison was coded as Similar (S) or Different (D), resulting in the following distribution across four network types: (a) 40% D:D—diversified; (b) 32% D:S—monotropic; (c) 19% S:D—joint principal; and (d) 9% S:S—distributed. Romantic duration predicted a developmental sequence of network structure consistent with infant attachment formation. Findings also indicated that the nonhierarchical network, distributed type, was associated with insecure attachment representations. Results suggest that attachment networks exhibit greater structural diversity than is commonly assumed and that the new framework is useful for understanding developmental and social outcomes.

School of Education

Psychology Department

 

Gerrish, Ed, & T. L. Spreen. (2017). “Does Benchmarking Encourage Improvement or Convergence? Evaluating North Carolina’s Fiscal Benchmarking Tool.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 27(4), 596-614.

Several states monitor the fiscal health of their local governments by “benchmarking” them-using a suite of financial indicators to track performance over time. Benchmarking of public organizations can facilitate performance management, leading to the spread of best practices and improved organizational performance. It is also possible that benchmarking, absent other performance routines, could create isomorphic pressures that encourage local governments to adopt policies that converge performance or financial indicators towards the group mean. This article tests these hypotheses using the introduction of North Carolina’s financial benchmarking tool in 2010. We construct a panel of the 14 indicators used to assess and compare the financial positions of North Carolina county and municipal governments from fiscal year 2008 to 2014. We find support for isomorphism as the dispersion of several indicators declined in the post-implementation period without offsetting beneficial changes in the mean indicator value. These findings pose a dilemma for the quantitative evaluation of both benchmarking and performance management systems; could offsetting changes result in null findings at the mean of the distribution?

Political Science and Criminal Justice Department.

 

James, C. R., L. T. Atkins, Hyung Suk Yang, J. S. Dufek, & B. T. Bates. (2017). “Prediction of calcaneal bone competence from biomechanical accommodation variables measured during weighted walking.” Human Movement Science, 56, 37-45.

Carrying weight while walking is a common activity associated with increased musculoskeletal loading, but not all individuals accommodate to the weight in the same way. Different accommodation strategies could lead to different skeletal forces, stimuli for bone adaptation and ultimately bone competence. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationships between calcaneal bone competence and biomechanical accommodation variables measured during weighted walking. Twenty healthy men and women (10 each; age 27.8 +/- 6.8 years) walked on a treadmill at 1.34 m/s while carrying 0, 44.5 and 89 N weights with two hands in front of the body. Peak vertical ground reaction force and sagittal plane angular displacements of the trunk and left lower extremity during weight acceptance were measured and used to quantify accommodation. Calcaneal bone stiffness index T-score (BST) was measured using quantitative ultrasound. Correlation and stepwise multiple regression were used to predict calcaneal BST from the accommodation variables. Accommodations of the foot and ankle explained 29 and 54% (p <= .015) of the variance in calcaneal BST in different regression models. Statistical resampling using 1000 replications confirmed the strength and consistency of relationships, with the best model explaining 94% of the variance in calcaneal BST. Individuals who change foot and ankle function when carrying heavier weight likely alter the control of gravitational and muscular forces, thereby affecting calcaneal loading, bone adaptation and bone competence. These novel findings illustrate the importance of gait accommodation strategies and highlight a potential clinical consequence that requires further investigation.

School of Education

 

Jia-Wei, Min, Liu Yanying, David Wang, Qiao Fangfang, & Wang Hongmin. (2018). The non-peptidic δ-opioid receptor agonist Tan-67 mediates neuroprotection post-ischemically and is associated with altered amyloid precursor protein expression, maturation and processing in mice. Journal of Neurochemistry, 144(3), 336-347.

Tan-67 is a selective non-peptidic d-opioid receptor (DOR) agonist that confers neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R)-caused neuronal injury in pre-treated animals. In this study, we examined whether post-ischemic administration of Tan-67 in stroke mice is also neuroprotective and whether the treatment affects expression, maturation and processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). A focal cerebral I/R model in mice was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 1 h and Tan-67 (1.5, 3 or 4.5 mg/kg) was administered via the tail vein at 1 h after reperfusion. Alternatively, naltrindole, a selective DOR antagonist (5 mg/ kg), was administered 1 h before Tan-67 treatment. Our results showed that post-ischemic administration of Tan-67 (3 mg/kg or 4.5 mg/kg) was neuroprotective as shown by decreased infarct volume and neuronal loss following I/R. Importantly, Tan-67 improved animal survival and neurobehavioral outcomes. Conversely, naltrindole abolished Tan-67 neuroprotection in infarct volume. Tan-67 treatment also increased APP expression, maturation and processing in the ipsilateral penumbral area at 6 h but decreased APP expression and maturation in the same brain area at 24 h after I/R. Tan-67-induced increase in APP expression was also seen in the ischemic cortex at 24 h following I/R. Moreover, Tan-67 attenuated BACE-1 expression, b-secretase activity and the BACE cleavage of APP in the ischemic cortex at 24 h after I/R, which was abolished by naltrindole. Our data suggest that Tan-67 is a promising DOR-dependent therapeutic agent for treating I/R-caused disorder and that Tan-67-mediated neuroprotection may be mediated via modulating APP expression, maturation and processing, despite an uncertain causative relationship between the altered APP and the outcomes observed.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Killian, M., Fernando Teque, & Ramu Sudhagoni. (2018). Analysis of the CD8 T cell anti-HIV activity in heterologous cell co-cultures reveals the benefit of multiple HLA class I matches. Immunogenetics, 70(2), 99-113.

CD8 T lymphocytes can reduce the production of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) by CD4 T cells by cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic mechanisms. To investigate the involvement of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I compatibility in anti-HIV responses, we co-cultured primary CD8 T cells, isolated from the peripheral blood of HIV-1-infected individuals, with panels of autologous and heterologous acutely HIV-1-infected primary CD4 T cells. Altogether, CD8 T cell anti-HIV activity was evaluated in more than 200 co-cultures. Marked heterogeneity in HIV-1 replication levels was observed among the co-cultures sharing a common CD8 T cell source. The co-cultures that exhibited greater than 50% reduction in HIV production were found to have significantly increased numbers of matching HLA class I alleles (Yates chi-square = 54.21; p < 0.001). With CD8 T cells from HIV controllers and asymptomatic viremic individuals, matching HLA-B and/or HLA-C alleles were more predictive of strong anti-HIV activity than matching HLA-A alleles. Overall, HLA class I genotype matches were more closely associated with CD8 T cell anti-HIV activity than supertype pairings. Antibodies against HLA class I and CD3 reduced the CD8 T cell anti-HIV activity. Stimulated CD8 T cells exhibited increased anti-HIV activity and reduced dependency on HLA compatibility. These findings provide evidence that the maximal suppression of HIV replication by CD8 T cells requires the recognition of multiple epitopes. These studies provide insight for HIV vaccine development, and the analytic approach can be useful for the functional characterization of HLA class I alleles and tentative HLA class I supertypes.

School of Health Sciences.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Kwon, M., Pickett, D., Lee, Y., & Lee, S. (2018). Neighborhood physical environments, recreational wellbeing, and psychological health. Applied Research in Quality of Life. doi: 10.1007/s11482-018-9591-6

The physical environment in which individuals live has important implications for their access to resources and services. The a model for managing weight stigma and creating body-inclusive spaces. current study examined the role of several features of neighborhoods, such as perceived walkability and neighborhood appearance, in promoting recreational wellbeing, and resulting in impacts on physical wellbeing, happiness, and life satisfaction of residents. Survey responses (N = 1392) were collected in two distinct geographical areas and, using structural equation modeling, relationships between neighborhood physical environments and resident outcomes were explored. Results indicated perceived walkability (access to services) and neighborhood appearance (upkeep and attractiveness) played a significant role in increasing recreational wellbeing. Also, recreational wellbeing was positively related to individuals’ physical wellbeing. Lastly, physical wellbeing was positively associated with happiness and life satisfaction. Together, these findings suggest community planners could use several practical neighborhood improvements to improve the overall health, happiness, and life satisfaction of their residents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)

School of Education

 

Lawler, Michael J., Changyong Choi, Joan Yoo, Juyeon Lee, Soonhee Roh, Lisa A. Newland, Jarod T. Giger, Ramu Sudhagoni, Barbara L. Brockevelt, & Bong Joo Lee. (2018). “Children’s subjective well-being in rural communities of South Korea and the United States.” Children & Youth Services Review, 85, 158-164.

The study examined subjective well-being of 10- to 12-year-old children from rural South Korea ( n = 489) and rural United States ( n = 1286) using the Children’s Worlds Survey within the framework of the ecological, relationship-based model of children’s subjective well-being. Applying Structural Equation Modeling to the analysis, a large proportion of the variance was explained and children’s subjective well-being was predicted in both countries by microsystem factors of family relationships, parent involvement, and school quality, and individual factors of age (younger), and gender (male). Additional microsystem factors predicting subjective well-being were neighborhood quality in South Korea, and peer relationships in the United States, which may reflect contextual influences of collectivistic (South Korea) and individualistic (United States) macrosystems.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Obaidullah, S. M., C. Halder, K. C. Santosh, N. Das, & K. Roy. (2018a). “AUTOMATIC LINE-LEVEL SCRIPT IDENTIFICATION FROM HANDWRITTEN DOCUMENT IMAGES – A REGION-WISE CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR INDIAN SUBCONTINENT.” Malaysian Journal of Computer Science, 31(1), 63-84.

Script identification is a well-studied problem for automatic processing of document images. Several attempts have been made so far, but it is still far ahead from the complete solution. In this paper, an automatic approach for line-level handwritten script identification (HSI), considering eight official Indic scripts namely: Bangla, Devanagari, Kannada, Malayalam, Oriya, Roman, Telugu, and Urdu is proposed. We consider a 148-dimensional feature vector using: image component fractal dimension, structural and visual appearance, directional stroke, interpolation and Gabor energy based texture features. For classification, we divide the whole script dataset based on different regions of India, to study a region-wise classification performance. Experimentation was carried out using the state-of-the-art classifiers: multilayer perceptron (MLP), support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), and fuzzy unordered rule induction algorithm (FURIA). Among all, we found that MLP as the best performer in terms of average accuracy of 98.2%, 99.5%, 99.1%, 99.5%, 99.9%, 98%, 98.9% for eight-script, bi-script, eastern, north, south Indian script groups, scripts with ‘matra’ vs without ‘matra’, and dravidian vs. non-dravidian groups respectively.

Computer Science Department.

 

Obaidullah, S. M., C. Halder, K. C. Santosh, N. Das, & K. Roy. (2018b). “PHDIndic_11: page-level handwritten document image dataset of 11 official Indic scripts for script identification.” Multimedia Tools and Applications, 77(2), 1643-1678.

Without publicly available dataset, specifically in handwritten document recognition (HDR), we cannot make a fair and/or reliable comparison between the methods. Considering HDR, Indic script’s document recognition is still in its early stage compared to others such as Roman and Arabic. In this paper, we present a page-level handwritten document image dataset (PHDIndic_11), of 11 official Indic scripts: Bangla, Devanagari, Roman, Urdu, Oriya, Gurumukhi, Gujarati, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam and Kannada. PHDIndic_11 is composed of 1458 document text-pages written by 463 individuals from various parts of India. Further, we report the benchmark results for handwritten script identification (HSI). Beside script identification, the dataset can be effectively used in many other applications of document image analysis such as script sentence recognition/understanding, text-line segmentation, word segmentation/recognition, word spotting, handwritten and machine printed texts separation and writer identification.

Computer Science Department.

 

Owens, Matt P., C. Buffington, Michael P. Frost, & Randall J. Waldner. (2017). “The South Dakota Model: Health Care Professions Student Disaster Preparedness and Deployment Training.” Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 11(6), 735-740.

Objective: The Association of American Medical Colleges recommended an increase in medical education for public health emergencies, bioterrorism, and weapons of mass destruction in 2003. The University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine (USD SSOM) implemented a 1-day training event to provide disaster preparedness training and deployment organization for health professions students called Disaster Training Day (DTD). Methods: Hospital staff and emergency medical services personnel provided the lecture portion of DTD using Core Disaster Life Support (CDLS; National Disaster Life Support Foundation) as the framework. Pre-test and post-test analyses were presented to the students. Small group activities covered leadership, anaphylaxis, mass fatality, points of dispensing deployment training, psychological first aid, triage, and personal protective equipment. Students were given the option to sign up for statewide deployment through the South Dakota Statewide Emergency Registry of Volunteers (SERV SD). DTD data and student satisfaction surveys from 2009 to 2016 were reviewed. Results: Since 2004, DTD has provided disaster preparedness training to 2246 students across 13 health professions. Significant improvement was shown on CDLS post-test performance with a t-score of -14.24 and a resulting P value of < 0.00001. Students showed high levels of satisfaction on a 5-level Likert scale with overall training, small group sessions, and perceived self-competency relating to disaster response. SERV SD registration increased in 2015, and 77.5% of the participants registered in 2016. Conclusion: DTD at the USD SSOM provides for an effective 1-day disaster training course for health professions students. Resources from around the state were coordinated to provide training, liability coverage, and deployment organization for hundreds of students representing multiple health professions.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Patel, S., Z. X. Lu, X. Z. Jin, P. Swaminathan, Erliang Zeng, & A. Y. Fennell. (2018). “Comparison of three assembly strategies for a heterozygous seedless grapevine genome assembly.” Bmc Genomics, 19, 12.

Background: De novo heterozygous assembly is an ongoing challenge requiring improved assembly approaches. In this study, three strategies were used to develop de novo Vitis vinifera ‘Sultanina’ genome assemblies for comparison with the inbred V. vinifera (PN40024 12X.v2) reference genome and a published Sultanina ALLPATHS-LG assembly (AP). The strategies were: 1) a default PLATANUS assembly (PLAT_d) for direct comparison with AP assembly, 2) an iterative merging strategy using METASSEMBLER to combine PLAT_d and AP assemblies (MERGE) and 3) PLATANUS parameter modifications plus GapCloser (PLAT*_GC). Results: The three new assemblies were greater in size than the AP assembly. PLAT*_GC had the greatest number of scaffolds aligning with a minimum of 95% identity and >= 1000 bp alignment length to V. vinifera (PN40024 12X.v2) reference genome. SNP analysis also identified additional high quality SNPs. A greater number of sequence reads mapped back with zero-mismatch to the PLAT_d, MERGE, and PLAT*_GC (>94%) than was found in the AP assembly (87%) indicating a greater fidelity to the original sequence data in the new assemblies than in AP assembly. A de novo gene prediction conducted using seedless RNA-seq data predicted >30,000 coding sequences for the three new de novo assemblies, with the greatest number (30,544) in PLAT*_GC and only 26,515 for the AP assembly. Transcription factor analysis indicated good family coverage, but some genes found in the VCOST.v3 annotation were not identified in any of the de novo assemblies, particularly some from the MYB and ERF families. Conclusions: The PLAT_d and PLAT*_GC had a greater number of synteny blocks with the V. vinifera (PN40024 12X.v2) reference genome than AP or MERGE. PLAT*_GC provided the most contiguous assembly with only 1.2% scaffold N, in contrast to AP (10.7% N), PLAT_d (6.6% N) and Merge (6.4% N). A PLAT*_GC pseudo-chromosome assembly with chromosome alignment to the reference genome V. vinifera, (PN40024 12X.v2) provides new information for use in seedless grape genetic mapping studies. An annotated de novo gene prediction for the PLAT*_GC assembly, aligned with VitisNet pathways provides new seedless grapevine specific transcriptomic resource that has excellent fidelity with the seedless short read sequence data.

Computer Science Department.

 

Puckett, Jae A., P. Cleary, K. Rossman, B. Mustanski, & M. E. Newcomb. (2018). “Barriers to Gender-Affirming Care for Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Individuals.” Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 15(1), 48-59.

Gender-affirming care, including hormone therapy, “top” (e.g., chest reconstruction surgery) and “bottom” (e.g., vaginoplasty, phalloplasty, metoidioplasty, etc.) surgeries, and puberty blockers, is an efficacious treatment of gender dysphoria for transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) individuals. However, many TGNC people encounter significant barriers in accessing gender-affirming care, which we detail via results from on online study. Participants included 256 TGNC individuals (78.9% White, ages 16-73, M (age) = 28.4). Among participants, 61.3% were receiving hormone therapy, 22.7% had undergone top surgery, and 5.5% had undergone bottom surgery. Open-ended responses (n = 201) were thematically analyzed and common barriers included finances and insurance issues, a lack of service availability, and fears or worries. Participants reported various systemic issues and incidents of bias within medical and mental health fields, as well as a lack of medical provider awareness and education. Other themes were interpersonal barriers (e.g., fears of rejection); age and need of parental consent for minors; other medical issues; and a lack of information about how to acquire care. These findings can be utilized to educate professionals in medical and mental health fields about barriers their TGNC patients may encounter in receiving affirming care and suggest a number of ways to improve access to these services.

Psychology Department.

 

Rallis, Austin, Kelene A. Fercho, Taylor J. Bosch, & Lee A. Baugh. (2018). Getting a handle on virtual tools: An examination of the neuronal activity associated with virtual tool use. Neuropsychologia, 109, 208-221.

Tool use is associated with three visual streams—dorso-dorsal, ventro-dorsal, and ventral visual streams. These streams are involved in processing online motor planning, action semantics, and tool semantics features, respectively. Little is known about the way in which the brain represents virtual tools. To directly assess this question, a virtual tool paradigm was created that provided the ability to manipulate tool components in isolation of one another. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), adult participants performed a series of virtual tool manipulation tasks in which vision and movement kinematics of the tool were manipulated. Reaction time and hand movement direction were monitored while the tasks were performed. Functional imaging revealed that activity within all three visual streams was present, in a similar pattern to what would be expected with physical tool use. However, a previously unreported network of right-hemisphere activity was found including right inferior parietal lobule, middle and superior temporal gyri and supramarginal gyrus – regions well known to be associated with tool processing within the left hemisphere. These results provide evidence that both virtual and physical tools are processed within the same brain regions, though virtual tools recruit bilateral tool processing regions to a greater extent than physical tools.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Reihe, Casey A., Nickolas Pekas, Penglong Wu, & Xuejun Wang. (2017). “Systemic inhibition of neddylation by 3-day MLN4924 treatment regime does not impair autophagic flux in mouse hearts and brains.” American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease, 7(6), 134-150.

Beyond helping the cell survive from energy starvation via self-eating a portion of cytoplasm, macroautophagy is also capable of targeted removal of defective organelles or cytoplasmic aberrant protein aggregates, thereby playing an important role in quality control in the cell. Impaired or suppressed macroautophagy activity is associated with the progression from a large subset of heart diseases to heart failure and with the development of the vast majority of, if not all, neurodegenerative diseases, the leading causes of death and disability in humans. Hence, a better understanding of the impact of existing and upcoming pharmacotherapies on macroautophagy in the heart and brain will undoubtedly benefit the search for safer and more effective treatment to improve human health. Neddylation is a recently recognized posttranslational modification process that modifies a subset of cellular proteins and is, by virtue of regulating Cullin-RING ligases, essential to similar to 20% ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)-mediated protein degradation. MLN4924(Pevonedistat), a specific inhibitor of neddylation that promises to become a new anti-malignancy agent, is capable of inhibiting UPS-mediated progression of the cell cycle and activating macroautophagy in cancer cells. However, no reported study has tested the impact of systemic inhibition of neddylation on autophagic activity in a post-mitotic organ such as the heart and brain. This study was conducted to fill this gap. Sixteen GFP-LC3 transgenic mice of mixed sexes were divided equally into either MLN4924-treated or vehicle-treated groups and were treated respectively with MLN4924 (30 mg/kg, s.c, twice a day x 3 days) or equal volume of solvent. The resultant changes in myocardial levels of neddylated cullin 1 as well as autophagic flux in cardiac and brain tissues were assessed. The effectiveness of the MLN4924 regime was verified by myocardial accumulation of neddylated cullin 1. Myocardial LC3-II flux and free GFP levels were comparable between the MLN4924 and the vehicle groups whereas the protein level of p62, a bona fide substrate of macroautophagy, in the brain was significantly decreased by the MLN4924 treatment. Our data suggest that systemic inhibition of neddylation by a 3-day MLN4924 treatment regime does not suppress macroautophagy activities in the heart and brain.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Simons, J. S., Simons, R. M., Maisto, S. A., Hahn, A. M., & Walters, K. J. (2018). Daily associations between alcohol and sexual behavior in young adults. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 26(1), 36-48. doi: 10.1037/pha0000163

We tested within-person effects of alcohol on sexual behavior among young adults in a longitudinal burst design (N = 213, 6,487 days) using data collected from a previously published parent study. We differentiated effects of alcohol on likelihood of sexual activity versus use of protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or pregnancy on intercourse occasions by testing a multilevel multinomial model with 4 outcomes (no sex, oral sex without intercourse, protected intercourse, and unprotected intercourse). At the within-person level, effects of alcohol were hypothesized to be conditional upon level of intoxication (i.e., curvilinear effect). We also tested effects of four between-person moderators: gender, typical length of relationship with sexual partners, and two facets of self-control (effortful control and reactivity). Consistent with our hypothesis, low-level intoxication was associated with increased likelihood of engaging in oral sex or protected intercourse (relative to no sex) but was not related to likelihood of unprotected intercourse. The effect of intoxication on unprotected versus protected intercourse was an accelerating curve, significantly increasing likelihood of unprotected intercourse at high levels of intoxication. Between-person factors moderated associations between intoxication and sexual behavior. Effects of intoxication on both protected and unprotected intercourse were diminished for individuals with more familiar sexual partners. Effortful control exhibited a protective effect, reducing the effects of intoxication on likelihood of unprotected intercourse. Hypothesized effects of reactivity were not supported. Intoxication was a stronger predictor of oral sex and protected intercourse (but not unprotected intercourse) for women relative to men. Results highlight the inherent complexities of the alcohol-sexual behavior nexus. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)

Public Health Significance—Nonlinear associations between alcohol and sexual outcomes may account for discrepant findings in the literature. Effortful control acts as a buffer, reducing associations between intoxication and unprotected intercourse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)

Psychology Department.

 

Simons, Raluca M., Rebecca E. Sistad, Jeffrey S. Simons, & Jamie Hansen. (2018). The role of distress tolerance in the relationship between cognitive schemas and alcohol problems among college students. Addictive Behaviors, 78, 1-8.

Introduction:The current study tested the role of distress tolerance in the relationship between three early maladaptive cognitive schemas (Abandonment, Defectiveness/Shame, and Insufficient Self-Control) and alcohol problems among college students (N=364). Previous research suggests that maladaptive cognitive schemas may be a risk factor for alcohol-related problems. However, the mechanism underlying this association is unclear. One’s tolerance for emotional distress may play an important role in understanding the nature of this association. Methods: We tested a structural equation model where distress tolerance was expected to explain or moderate associations between early maladaptive schemas and alcohol outcomes. Results: Results indicated distress tolerance partially mediated the relationships between schemas of Abandonment and Insufficient Self-Control and alcohol problems. Distress tolerance also significantly moderated the relationship between the Defectiveness/Shame schema and alcohol-related problems, reducing the strength of the association. Conclusions: Distress tolerance is a modifiable risk factor and the results of this study support the inclusion of emotional regulation strategies in the prevention and treatment of alcohol problems among young adults.

Psychology Department.

 

Tjarks, B. Joel, J. S. Ko, & S. D. Billings. (2018). “Myxofibrosarcoma of unusual sites.” Journal of Cutaneous Pathology, 45(2), 104-110.

Background: Myxofibrosarcoma classically presents as a painless mass in the proximal extremities. Cutaneous myxofibrosarcomas arising in the head and neck and distal extremities are extremely uncommon. We present a series of 6 cases of myxofibrosarcoma presenting in the head and neck and acral locations. Methods: Archives were searched using the term “myxofibrosarcoma” over a 6-year period (2009-2015). The clinicopathologic features of myxofibrosarcoma were recorded. Cases in the head and neck or acral locations were retrieved. When available, the patient’s medical records were reviewed. Results: Ninety-five cases of myxofibrosarcoma were identified over a 6-year period. Six patients were identified with myxofibrosarcoma arising in the head (n = 4, M:F 3: 1), hand (n = 1, F) and foot (n = 1, F). Each had typical features of myxofibrosarcoma. Two of the tumors on the head were high-grade and had multiple recurrences, while the remaining 2 were intermediate grade. Both acral tumors were intermediate grade and 1 recurred locally within a year of diagnosis. Conclusions: Myxofibrosarcoma may rarely involve the head and neck and acral locations, and presentation in these sites is a potential source of diagnostic difficulty. Recognition of the characteristic histologic features of myxofibrosarcoma in conjunction with judicial use of immunohistochemical stains should allow for accurate diagnosis.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Topuz, Kazim, Ferhat D. Zengul, Ali Dag, Ammar Almehmi, & Mehmet Bayram Yildirim. (2018). Predicting graft survival among kidney transplant recipients: A Bayesian decision support model. Decision Support Systems, 106, 97-109.

Predicting the graft survival for kidney transplantation is a high stakes undertaking considering the shortage of available organs and the utilization of healthcare resources. The strength of any predictive model depends on the selection of proper predictors. However, despite improvements in acute rejection management and short-term graft survival, the accurate prediction of kidney transplant outcomes remains suboptimal. Among other approaches, machine-learning techniques have the potential to offer solutions to this prediction problem in kidney transplantation. This study offers a novel methodological solution to this prediction problem by: (a) analyzing the retrospective database including > 31,000 U.S. patients; (b) introducing a comprehensive feature selection framework that accounts for medical literature, data analytics methods and elastic net (EN) regression (c) using sensitivity analyses and information fusion to evaluate and combine features from several machine learning approaches (i.e., support vector machines (SVM), artificial neural networks (ANN), and Bootstrap Forest (BF)); (d) constructing several different scenarios by merging different sets of features that are optioned through these fused data mining models and statistical models in addition to expert knowledge; and (e) using best performing sets in Bayesian belief network (BBN) algorithm to identify non-linear relationships and the interactions between explanatory factors and risk levels for kidney graft survival. The results showed that the predictor set obtained through fused data mining model and literature review outperformed the all other alternative predictors sets with the scores of 0.602, 0.684, 0.495 for F-Measure, Average Accuracy, and G-Mean, respectively. Overall, our findings provide novel insights about risk prediction that could potentially help in improving the outcome of kidney transplants. This methodology can also be applied to other similar transplant data sets.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Webner, Steven, David De Jong, Ayana Campoli, & Mark Baron. (2017). “Public School Board Presidents’ and Superintendents’ Perceptions of the Characteristics of Effective Superintendents in a Midwestern State.” Journal of School Leadership, 27(6), 800-830.

The expectation for strong superintendent leadership has increased due to a demand for greater student achievement and accountability. This study examined public school board presidents’ and superintendents’ perceptions of the characteristics superintendents must possess to effectively lead in today’s complex educational system. A researcher-developed survey instrument was used to collect data from public school board presidents and superintendents in a Midwestern state. Computation of item means indicated school board presidents perceived developing a close, positive, and productive relationship with the school board, developing a culture and climate which enhances teacher morale and student achievement, developing partnerships between school and community, developing budgets and manage fiscal matters, and visibility throughout the community and district as the most important characteristics of effective superintendents. Superintendents perceived developing a culture and climate which enhances teacher morale and student achievement, developing a close positive, and productive relationship with the school board, building a team atmosphere and coherence, developing budgets and manage fiscal matters, and communicating with stakeholders as the most important characteristics of effective superintendents. School board presidents considered involvement of stakeholders in collaborative goal-setting and monitoring as well as superintendent visibility throughout the community and district to be significantly more important than did superintendents. In contrast, superintendents believed recruiting, selecting, developing personnel, and implementing effective evaluation structures to be significantly more important than did the superintendents. Independent sample f tests revealed that small district public school superintendents perceived recruiting, selecting, developing personnel, and implementing effective evaluation structures as significantly more important than small district school board presidents did (p < .05). There was no statistically significant difference in perceptions for the 20 characteristics of effective superintendents between large district board presidents and superintendents, or between less experienced school board presidents and superintendents (p < .05). More experienced school board members perceived involving stakeholders in collaborative goal-setting and monitoring to be statistically significantly more important than did more experienced superintendents (p < .05).

School of Education.

 

Xuan, Y.-H., Li, S., Tao, R., Chen, J., Rao, L.-L., Wang, X. T., & Zheng, R. (2017). Genetic and environmental influences on gambling: A meta-analysis of twin studies. Frontiers in Psychology, 8. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02121

Disentangling the genetic and environmental influences of gambling is important for explaining the roots of individual differences in gambling behavior and providing guidance for precaution and intervention, but we are unaware of any comprehensive and systematic quantitative meta-analysis. We systematically identified 18 twin studies on gambling in the meta-analysis. The correlation coefficients within monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, along with the corresponding sample size, were used to calculate the proportion of the total variance accounted for by additive genes (A), dominant genes (D), the shared environment (C), and the non-shared environment plus measurement error (E). We further assessed the moderating effects of gambling assessment (symptom oriented assessment vs. behavior oriented assessment), age, and sex. The whole sample analyses showed moderate additive genetic (a² = 0.50) and non-shared environmental influences (e² = 0.50) on gambling. The magnitude of the genetic influence (a²) was higher for disordered gambling assessed with symptom oriented assessment (53%) than for general gambling assessed with behavior oriented assessment (41%). Additionally, the magnitude of the genetic influence (a2) was higher for adults (53%) than adolescents (42%). Genetic influence (a²) was greater for male (47%) gambling than female (28%) gambling. Shared environment had noticeable effects on female gambling (c² = 14%) but zero effect on male gambling. In conclusion, gambling behavior was moderately heritable and moderately influenced by non-shared environmental factors. Gambling assessment, age, and sex significantly moderated the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on gambling. Note that the number of studies might serve as a limitation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)

Psychology Department.

 

Watkins, Shannon Lea, & Ed Gerrish. (2018). The relationship between urban forests and race: A meta-analysis. Journal of Environmental Management, 209, 152-168.

There is ample evidence that urban trees benefit the physical, mental, and social health of urban residents. The environmental justice hypothesis posits that environmental amenities are inequitably low in poor and minority communities, and predicts these communities experience fewer urban environmental benefits. Some previous research has found that urban forest cover is inequitably distributed by race, though other studies have found no relationship or negative inequity. These conflicting results and the single-city nature of the current literature suggest a need for a research synthesis. Using a systematic literature search and meta-analytic techniques, we examined the relationship between urban forest cover and race. First, we estimated the average (unconditional) relationship between urban forest cover and race across studies (studies = 40; effect sizes = 388). We find evidence of significant race-based inequity in urban forest cover. Second, we included characteristics of the original studies and study sites in meta-regressions to illuminate drivers of variation of urban forest cover between studies. Our meta-regressions reveal that the relationship varies across racial groups and by study methodology. Models reveal significant inequity on public land and that environmental and social characteristics of cities help explain variation across studies. As tree planting and other urban forestry programs proliferate, urban forestry professionals are encouraged to consider the equity consequences of urban forestry activities, particularly on public land.

Political Science Department.

 

Wone, Bernard W. M., J. M. Kinchen, Elana R. Kaup, & Beate Wone. (2018). “A procession of metabolic alterations accompanying muscle senescence in Manduca sexta.” Scientific Reports, 8, 13.

Biological aging profoundly impairs muscle function, performance, and metabolism. Because the progression of metabolic alterations associated with aging muscle has not been chronicled, we tracked the metabolic profiles of flight muscle from middle to advanced age in Manduca sexta to identify key molecules during the progression of muscle aging, as well as to evaluate the utility of the M. sexta system for molecular dissection of muscle aging. We identified a number of differences between Diel Time, Sexes, and Muscle Ages, including changes in metabolites related to energetics, extracellular matrix turnover, and glutathione metabolism. Increased abundances of glycolytic metabolites suggest a shift toward increased glycolysis with advancing age, whereas decreased abundances in lysolipids and acylcarnitines reflect decreasing beta-oxidation. We also observed a shift towards decreased polyamine metabolism with age, which might result in an age-related decline in lipid metabolism possibly due to regulation of energy metabolism by polyamines. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the feasibility of our system and approach and provide a deeper understanding of lepidopteran aging. More importantly, the results identify the key altered metabolic pathways that collectively contribute to the muscle aging phenotype and thereby improve our understanding of muscle senescence.

Biology Department.

 

Yao, B., P. Kolla, Ranjit Koodali, Selvaratn Balaranjan, Sunav Shrestha, & A. Smirnova. (2017). “Laccase-natural mediator systems for “green” synthesis of phenolic monomers from alkali lignin.” Sustainable Energy & Fuels, 1(7), 1573-1579.

Being a major byproduct of pulp and paper industry, lignin has attracted attention as a source of high-value organic chemicals, e.g. phenolic monomers that can be produced by lignin enzymatic treatment. In this study, the alkali lignin was treated by the laccase of Trametes versicolor (LTV) and laccase of Myceliophthora thermophila (LMT) laccases with or without natural mediator methyl syringate (MS). After treatment, the lignin pore volume has been increased by 66% and 167% for LTV-MS and LMT-MS systems, respectively. The mass balance analysis confirms that the 5 wt% LTV-5 wt% MS (LTV-MS (5, 5)) system produces 40 wt% more of the organic compounds than the 5 wt% LMT-5 wt% MS (LMT-MS (5, 5)) system, thus demonstrating higher efficiency of the LTV-MS toward lignin decomposition. The gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GCMS) analysis indicates that after lignin treatment with LTV-MS more phenolic products are produced in comparison to LMT-MS, among them 3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzaldehyde has the highest relative yield of 34.7 and 23.8 wt% for LTV-MS and LMT-MS systems, respectively. Pyrolysis-GCMS (pyr-GCMS) of the solid-state lignin residue after its treatment with laccase-mediator system (LMS) confirms significant enrichment of the solid-state lignin surface with phenolic groups. The total organic carbon (TOC) analysis shows that 38.76 mg L-1 of the organic carbon is produced by the LTV-MS (5, 5) system. A decrease in the decomposition temperature by 4 degrees C for the lignin sample treated by the LTV-MS (in comparison to LMT-MS) obtained from the thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis confirms superior performance of the LTV-MS vs. LMT-MS system. A comparative study of the enzymatically active systems with two laccases and a natural mediator applied to the alkali lignin has been performed. This study highlights an important role of the laccase in combination with a mediator methyl syringate for production of high-value phenolic monomers.

Chemistry Department.

 

Zhou, X. F., X. J. Guo, M. Y. Chen, ChenCheng Xie, & J. X. Jiang. (2018). “HIF-3 alpha Promotes Metastatic Phenotypes in Pancreatic Cancer by Transcriptional Regulation of the RhoC-ROCK1 Signaling Pathway.” Molecular Cancer Research, 16(1), 124-134.

Hypoxia contributes to pancreatic cancer progression and promotes its growth and invasion. Previous research principally focused on hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) and HIF-2 alpha (HIF1A and EPAS1) as the major hypoxia-associated transcription factors in pancreatic cancer. However, the role of HIF-3 alpha (HIF3A) has not been investigated. Therefore, HIF-1 alpha, HIF-2 alpha, and HIF-3 alpha expression levels were measured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. In addition, HIF-3 alpha expression was measured in human pancreatic cancer tissue specimens and the impact of altered HIF-3 alpha expression on cell invasion and migration was investigated in vitro and in vivo, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Under hypoxic conditions, HIF-3 alpha expression was stimulated in pancreatic cancer cells to a greater degree than HIF-1 alpha and HIF-2 alpha expression. HIF-3 alpha protein levels were also elevated in pancreatic cancer tissues and correlated with reduced survival and greater local invasion and distant metastasis, whereas knockdown of HIF-3 alpha, under hypoxic conditions, suppressed pancreatic cancer cell invasion and migration. Under normoxia, HIF-3 alpha overexpression promoted pancreatic cancer cell invasion and migration and stimulated F-actin polymerization. In summary, HIF-3 alpha promotes pancreatic cancer cell invasion and metastasis in vivo and promotes pancreatic cancer cell invasion and metastasis by transcriptionally activating the RhoC-ROCK1 signaling pathway. (C) 2017 AACR.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Posted by: tadeterman | January 20, 2018

January 2018

Antony, Stephanie, Ashlesha Kaushik, C. Mauriello, & Archana Chatterjee. (2017). “Non-Type b Haemophilus influenzae Invasive Infections in North Dakota and South Dakota, 2013-2015.” Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, 6(3), 281-284.

Reports of children with non-type b Haemophilus influenzae infection in the United States in recent years have been limited. Here, we report the spectrum and severity of disease associated with invasive non-type b H influenzae infection in 17 patients at 2 tertiary-care children’s hospitals over a 2-year period. Meningitis was the most common diagnosis. The majority of the patients had neurologic sequelae, and 1 patient died. The high proportions of hospitalization, intensive care utilization, and neurologic complications reveal that non-type b H influenzae infection was associated with significant morbidity in this pediatric population.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Baumgarten, Keith M., Roy Osborn, Will E. Schweinle, & M. J. Zens. (2018). “The influence of anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty using a subscapularis tenotomy on shoulder strength.” Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 27(1), 82-89.

Background and Hypothesis: There is limited evidence describing the influence of total shoulder arthroplasty on strength. The hypothesis was that after total shoulder arthroplasty, strength would improve compared with the preoperative state but remain inferior to that of the nonoperative shoulder. An additional aim was to determine whether strength improvement was associated with improvements in outcome scores and motion. Materials and methods: Thirty-six patients underwent total shoulder arthroplasty, with 31 patients (86%) having 1 year of follow-up for all outcomes. Patient-determined outcomes (Western Ontario Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder score; Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score; Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation rating; and shoulder activity level), range of motion, and strength were assessed. Isometric strength was determined for scaption and external rotation, as well as the liftoff test, belly-press test, and bear-hug test. Results: All strength measures improved, with significant increases in external rotation, the liftoff test, and the bear-hug test, but remained inferior to the nonoperative-side strength. Improved strength in the belly-press test was associated with greater improvement in Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation scores. Improvements in scaption and belly-press testing were associated with improvements in active flexion. Strength improvements in the liftoff test were associated with improved internal rotation in 90 degrees of abduction. Patients with improvements in strength had improvements in their shoulder activity level from baseline to final followup, whereas patients without improved strength test findings did not have improved shoulder activity levels. Conclusions: Total shoulder arthroplasty improved external rotation, liftoff, and bear-hug strength testing. Operative shoulder strength remained inferior to strength of the nonoperative shoulder. Patients with improvements in strength were more likely to have greater improvements in outcome scores and range of motion. Improvements in the shoulder activity level after anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty may be dependent on improvements in strength. (C) 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Chiang, Jyun-You, Nan Jiang, Trenton N. Brown, Tzong-Ru Tsai, & Y. L. Lio. (2017). “Control charts for generalized exponential distribution percentiles.” Communications in Statistics: Simulation & Computation, 46(10), 7827-7843.

The generalized exponential (GE) distribution, which was introduced by Mudholkar and Srivastava in 1993, has been studied for various applications of lifetime modelings. In this article, five control charts, that comprise the Shewhart-type chart and four parametric bootstrap charts based on maximum likelihood estimation method, the moment estimation method, probability plot method, and least-square error method for the GE percentiles, are investigated. An extensive Monte Carlo simulation study is conducted to compare the performance among all five control charts in terms of average run length. Finally, an example is given for illustration.

Mathematics Department.

 

Dachineni, R., D. R. Kumar, Eduardo Calegari, S. S. Kesharwani, R. Sankaranarayanan, T. Seefeldt, H. Tumala, & G. J. Bhat. (2017). “Salicylic acid metabolites and derivatives inhibit CDK activity: Novel insights into aspirin’s chemopreventive effects against colorectal cancer.” International Journal of Oncology, 51(6), 1661-1673.

Aspirin’s potential as a drug continues to be evaluated for the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC). Although multiple targets for aspirin and its metabolite, salicylic acid, have been identified, no unifying mechanism has been proposed to clearly explain its chemopreventive effects. Our goal here was to investigate the ability of salicylic acid metabolites, known to be generated through cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, and its derivatives as cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors to gain new insights into aspirin’s chemopreventive actions. Using in vitro kinase assays, for the first time, we demonstrate that salicylic acid metabolites, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA), as well as derivatives 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,4-DHBA), 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,6-DHBA), inhibited CDK1 enzyme activity. 2,3-DHBA and 2,6-DHBA did not inhibit CDK2 and 4; however, both inhibited CDK-6 activity. Interestingly, another derivative, 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic acid (2,4,6-THBA) was highly effective in inhibiting CDK1, 2, 4 and 6 activity. Molecular docking studies showed that these compounds potentially interact with CDK1. Immunoblotting experiments showed that aspirin acetylated CDK1, and pre-incubation with salicylic acid and its derivatives prevented aspirin-mediated CDK1 acetylation, which supported the data obtained from molecular docking studies. We suggest that intracellularly generated salicylic acid metabolites through CYP450 enzymes within the colonic epithelial cells, or the salicylic acid metabolites generated by gut microflora may significantly contribute to the preferential chemopreventive effect of aspirin against CRC through inhibition of CDKs. This novel hypothesis and mechanism of action in aspirin’s chemopreventive effects opens a new area for future research. In addition, structural modification to salicylic acid derivatives may prove useful in the development of novel CDK inhibitors in cancer prevention and treatment.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Ferris, D. G., R. Samakoses, S. L. Block, E. Lazcano-Ponce, J. A. Restrepo, J. Mehlsen, Archana Chatterjee, O. E. Iversen, A. Joshi, J. L. Chu, A. L. Krick, A. Saah, & R. Das. (2017). “4-Valent Human Papillomavirus (4vHPV) Vaccine in Preadolescents and Adolescents After 10 Years.” Pediatrics, 140(6), 9.

OBJECTIVES:We describe the final 10-year data for the long-term follow-up study of the 4-valent human papillomavirus (4vHPV) vaccine in preadolescents and adolescents. METHODS:In the base study (V501-018), 1661 sexually inactive boys and girls received the 4vHPV vaccine (early vaccination group [EVG], managed for 9.9 years) or a placebo at day 1, month 2, and month 6. Thereafter, at month 30, the placebo group (catch-up vaccination group [CVG], managed for 7.4 years) received the 4vHPV vaccine by using the same dosing schedule. Long-term anti-HPV type 6, 11, 16, and 18 immune responses were assessed. Effectiveness was estimated by calculating the incidence rate of the primary endpoints (HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18-related disease or persistent infection). RESULTS:For HPV types 6, 11, and 16, 89% to 96% of subjects remained seropositive through 10-years postvaccination. The preadolescents had 38% to 65% higher geometric mean titers at month 7, which remained 16% to 42% higher at 10 years compared with adolescents. No cases of HPV type 6, 11, 16, and 18-related diseases were observed. Ten subjects had a persistent infection of >= 6 months duration with vaccine-type HPV and 2 subjects had persistent infection for >= 12 months. No new serious adverse events were reported through 10 years. CONCLUSIONS:A 3-dose regimen of the 4vHPV vaccine was immunogenic, clinically effective, and generally well tolerated in preadolescents and adolescents during 10 years of follow-up. These long-term findings support efforts to vaccinate this population against HPV before exposure.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Fortier, S., J. R. Aguilar-Calderon, Bess Vlaisavljevich, A. J. Metta-Magana, A. G. Goos, & C. E. Botez. (2017). “An N-Tethered Uranium(III) Arene Complex and the Synthesis of an Unsupported U-Fe Bond.” Organometallics, 36(23), 4591-4599.

Amination of 2,2 ”-dibromo-p-terphenyl with 2,6-diisopropylaniline, through Pd mediated cross coupling, yields the p-terphenyl bis(aniline) ligand H2LAr. Deprotonation of H2LAr with excess KH generates the dianion [K(DME)(2)](2)L-Ar as a dark red solid. Treatment of [K-(DME)(2)](2)L-Ar with UI3(dioxane)(1.5) produces the mononuclear U(III) complex (LU)-U-Ar(I)(DME) (1). Subsequent addition of the nucleophilic metal anion [CpFe(CO)(2)](-) (Fp(-)) gives the bimetallic U(III) compound (LU)-U-Ar(Fp) (2) in modest yield which features a rare instance of an unsupported U-M bond. Inspection of the metrical parameters of the solid-state structures of 1.DME and 2.0.5DME from X-ray crystallographic analyses show a seemingly eta(6)-interaction between the uranium and the terphenyl ligand (1: U1-C-centroid = 2.56 angstrom; 2: U1-C-centroid = 2.45 angstrom), spatially imposed as a consequence of the anilide N-donor atom coordination. Furthermore, the U-Fe bond length in 2 (U1-Fe1 = 2.9462(3) angstrom) is consistent with a metal-metal single bond. Notably, electronic structure analyses by CASPT2 calculations instead suggest that electrostatic, and not covalent, interactions dominate between the U-arene systems in 1 and 2 and between the U-Fe bond in the latter.

Chemistry Department.

 

Gabor, Caitlin R., Drew R. Davis, Diana S. Kim, Kristina C. Zabierek, & Nathan F. Bendik. (2018). “Urbanization is associated with elevated corticosterone in Jollyville Plateau salamanders.” Ecological Indicators, 85, 229-235.

Urbanization has the potential to induce major changes in freshwater systems. Expected increases in human populations will likely amplify these changes and lead to the overall degradation of habitat quality within these systems. Such habitat alterations may function as stressors that can affect glucocorticoid stress hormones in freshwater vertebrates. Examining changes in physiological stress may provide early warning indicators of environmental threats and provide insights into the sub-lethal effects of habitat degradation. The threatened, obligate aquatic, Jollyville Plateau salamander ( Eurycea tonkawae ) is found in urbanized and rural catchments within central Texas and has experienced population declines in heavily urbanized areas. We tested the prediction that salamanders from urbanized sites would have different levels of baseline corticosterone (CORT) and muted or no stress responsiveness (to an external stressor, agitation) compared to salamanders from rural sites. We collected water-borne hormones to measure baseline CORT release rates ( n = 3 years) and stress responsiveness ( n = 2 years) in salamanders inhabiting urbanized and rural sites. We also measured “background” CORT from stream water alone at each visit. For the first two years we found that baseline CORT was higher in urbanized sites but not in the third year. Across years and populations, salamanders showed stress responsiveness, suggesting that, even if physiological stress is higher in urbanized areas, it has not resulted in the impairment of the hypothalamic–pituitary–interrenal axis. Background CORT was higher in urban than in rural streams and was positively correlated with mean baseline CORT of salamanders across populations and years. Our results contribute to the goal of finding early warning indicators of environmental threats by demonstrating a relationship between urbanization and the physiological status of E. tonkawae , using a rapid, non-invasive measure of stress.

Biology Department.

 

Hou, N., Y. Wen, X. Yuan, H. D. Xu, Xuejun Wang, F. Q. Li, & B. Ye. (2017). “Activation of Yap1/Taz signaling in ischemic heart disease and dilated cardiomyopathy.” Experimental and Molecular Pathology, 103(3), 267-275.

Genetic manipulation of key components of the evolutionally conserved Hippo pathway has shown that the precise control of these signaling molecules is critical to cardiac development and response to stresses. However, how this pathway is involved in the progression of cardiac dysfunction in different heart diseases remains unclear. We investigated the expressional levels and subcellular localization of Yap1, Taz, and Tead1 and determined Hippo target gene expression in failing human hearts with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) and mouse desmin-related cardiomyopathy (DES). Our results demonstrated that Yap1, Taz, and Tead1 were significantly increased in failing human and DES hearts compared with the non failing controls (NM) or wild type (WI’) mouse hearts at both mRNA and protein levels. Interestingly, adult human and mouse hearts had more Taz than Yap1 by mRNA and protein expression and their increases in diseased hearts were proportional and did not change Yap1/Taz ratio. Yap1, Taz, and Tead1 were accumulated in the nuclear fraction and cardiomyocyte nuclei of diseased hearts. The ratio of Yap1 phosphorylated at serine 127 (human) or serine 112 (mouse) to the total Yap1 (pYap1/Yap1) was significantly lower in the nuclear fraction of diseased hearts than that in normal controls. More importantly, Hippo downstream targets Ankrd1, Ctgf, and Cyr61 were transcriptionally elevated in the diseased hearts. These results suggest that Yap1/Taz signaling is activated in human and mouse dysfunctional hearts. Further investigation with relevant animal models will determine whether this pathway is a potential target for preventing and reversing abnormal remodeling during the progression of different cardiac disorders.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Jain, Amit, P. Kratimenos, I. Koutroulis, A. Jain, A. Buddhavarapu, & J. Ara. (2017). “Effect of Intranasally Delivered rh-VEGF165 on Angiogenesis Following Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia in the Cerebral Cortex of Newborn Piglets.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 18(11), 10.

Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates vascular genesis and angiogenesis. Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia (HI) leads to the reduction of vasculature in the cerebral cortex of newborn piglets. Objective: The present study tests the hypothesis that post-hypoxia intranasal administration of recombinant human VEGF(165) (rh-VEGF165) for 3 days increases the vascular density in the cerebral cortex of newborn piglets without promoting neovascularization. Design/Methods: Ventilated newborn piglets were divided into three groups (n = 5/group): normoxic (Nx), hypoxic-ischemic (HI), and HI treated with intranasal rh-VEGF165rh-VEGF165 (HI-VEGF). HI piglets were exposed to HI (0.05 FiO2) for 30 min. Recombinant h-VEGF165 (100 ng/kg) was administered 15 min after HI and then once daily for 3 days. The animals were perfused transcardially and coronal brains sections were processed for Isolectin, Hoechst, and ki-67 cell proliferation marker staining. To assess the vascular density, 30-35 fields per animal section were manually counted using image J software. Results: The vascular density (vessels/mm(2)) was 42.0 +/- 8.0 in the Nx group, 26.4 +/- 4.8 (p < 0.05 vs. Nx) in the HI group, and 46.0 +/- 11.9 (p < 0.05 vs. HI) in the HI-VEGF group. When stained for newly formed vessels, via Ki-67 staining, the vascular density was 5.4 +/- 3.6 in the Nx group (p < 0.05 vs. HI), 10.2 +/- 2.1 in the HI group, and 10.9 +/- 2.9 in the HI-VEGF group (p = 0.72 vs. HI). HI resulted in a decrease in vascular density. Intranasal rh-VEGF165rh-VEGF165 resulted in the attenuation of the HI-induced decrease in vascular density. However, rh-VEGF165 did not result in the formation of new vascularity, as evident by ki-67 staining. Conclusions: Intranasal rh-VEGF165 may prevent the HI-induced decrease in the vascular density of the brain and could serve as a promising adjuvant therapy for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Kaplan, D. E., M. K. Chapko, R. Mehta, …., Christine Pocha, A. Valderrama, T. H. Taddei, & Vocal Study Grp. (2018). “Healthcare Costs Related to Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Among Veterans With Cirrhosis in the United States.” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 16(1), 106-+.

BACKGROUND & AIMS: It is important to quantify medical costs associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the incidence of which is rapidly increasing in the United States, for development of rational healthcare policies related to liver cancer surveillance and treatment of chronic liver disease. We aimed to comprehensively quantify healthcare costs for HCC among patients with cirrhosis in an integrated health system and develop a model for predicting costs that is based on clinically relevant variables. METHODS: Three years subsequent to liver cancer diagnosis, costs accrued by patients included in the Veteran’s Outcome and Cost Associated with Liver disease cohort were compiled by using the Department of Veterans Affairs Corporate Data Warehouse. The cohort includes all patients with HCC diagnosed in 2008-2010 within the VA with 100% chart confirmation as well as chart abstraction of tumor and clinical characteristics. Cancer cases were matched 1: 4 with non-cancer cirrhosis controls on the basis of severity of liver disease, age, and comorbidities to estimate background cirrhosis-related costs. Univariable and multivariable generalized linear models were developed and used to predict cancer-related overall cost. RESULTS: Our analysis included 3188 cases of HCC and 12,722 controls. The mean 3-year total cost of care in HCC patients was $154,688 (standard error, $150,953-$158,422) compared with $69,010 (standard error, $67,344-$70,675) in matched cirrhotic controls, yielding an incremental cost of $85,679; 64.9% of this value reflected increased inpatient costs. In univariable analyses, receipt of transplantation, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage, liver disease etiology, hospital academic affiliation, use of multidisciplinary tumor board, and identification through surveillance were associated with cancer-related costs. Multivariable generalized linear models incorporating transplantation status, BCLC stage, and multidisciplinary tumor board presentation accurately predicted liver cancer-related costs (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit; P value congruent to 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: In a model developed to comprehensively quantify healthcare costs for HCC among patients with cirrhosis in an integrated health system, we associated receipt of liver transplantation, BCLC stage, and multidisciplinary tumor board with higher costs. Models that predict total costs on the basis of receipt of liver transplantation were constructed and can be used to model costeffectiveness of therapies focused on HCC prevention.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Kariyawasam, Udeshika Lakmini, Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu, Rai, Keshav, Wani, Tasaduq Hussain, Ahuja, Kavita, Beg, Mizra Adil, Premathilake, Hasitha Upendra, Bhattarai, Narayan Raj, Siriwardena, Yamuna Deepani, Zhong, Daibin, Zhou, Guofa, Rijal, Suman, Nakhasi, Hira, & Karunaweera, Nadira D. (2017). “Genetic diversity of Leishmania donovani that causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka: a cross sectional study with regional comparisons.” BMC Infectious Diseases, 17, 1-11.

Leishmania donovani is the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent. However, it is also known to cause cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka. Sri Lankan L. donovani differs from other L. donovani strains, both at the molecular and biochemical level. To investigate the different species or strain-specific differences of L. donovani in Sri Lanka we evaluated sequence variation of the kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA).<bold>Methods: </bold>Parasites isolated from skin lesions of 34 CL patients and bone marrow aspirates from 4 VL patients were genotyped using the kDNA minicircle PCR analysis. A total of 301 minicircle sequences that included sequences from Sri Lanka, India, Nepal and six reference species of Leishmania were analyzed.<bold>Results: </bold>Haplotype diversity of Sri Lankan isolates were high (H d  = 0.757) with strong inter-geographical genetic differentiation (F ST  > 0.25). In this study, L. donovani isolates clustered according to their geographic origin, while Sri Lankan isolates formed a separate cluster and were clearly distinct from other Leishmania species. Within the Sri Lankan group, there were three distinct sub-clusters formed, from CL patients who responded to standard antimony therapy, CL patients who responded poorly to antimony therapy and from VL patients. There was no specific clustering of sequences based on geographical origin within Sri Lanka.<bold>Conclusion: </bold>This study reveals high levels of haplotype diversity of L. donovani in Sri Lanka with a distinct genetic association with clinically relevant phenotypic characteristics. The use of genetic tools to identify clinically relevant features of Leishmania parasites has important therapeutic implications for leishmaniasis.

Biology Department.

 

Leggio, L. E., M. S. Ryan, C. B. Peltier, J. Belkowitz, M. A. Barone, J. S. Byerley, Archana Chatterjee, K. T. Nakamura, J. M. Stirling, & G. P. Rabalais. (2017). “Recruitment and Retention: Recommendations from the Association of Medical School Pediatric Department Chairs Education Committee and the Council on Medical Student Education in Pediatrics Task Force on Community Preceptors.” Journal of Pediatrics, 191(x), 4-+.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Lio, Y. L., Tzong-Ru Tsai, Nan Jiang, & Narayanaswamy Balakrishnan. (2018). “A dynamic system for Gompertz model.” Journal of Statistical Computation & Simulation, 88(4), 752-768.

Two-parameter Gompertz distribution has been introduced as a lifetime model for reliability inference recently. In this paper, the Gompertz distribution is proposed for the baseline lifetimes of components in a composite system. In this composite system, failure of a component induces increased load on the surviving components and thus increases component hazard rate via a power-trend process. Point estimates of the composite system parameters are obtained by the method of maximum likelihood. Interval estimates of the baseline survival function are obtained by using the maximum-likelihood estimator via a bootstrap percentile method. Two parametric bootstrap procedures are proposed to test whether the hazard rate function changes with the number of failed components. Intensive simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed estimation procedure.

Mathematics Department.

 

Mechels, Keegan B., M. D. Greenwood, Ramu G. Sudhagoni, & J. P. Berdahl. (2017). “Influences on rebubble rate in Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty.” Clinical Ophthalmology, 11(x), 6.

Purpose: Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) is a minimally invasive partial corneal transplant procedure used in patients with failing endothelial membranes. This study aims to identify those factors which influence the need for a rebubble of the corneal graft. Methods: A total of 94 eyes that received DMEK between March 2014 and January 2016 at Vance Thompson Vision were used in the study. Demographic and graft data were collected from the patients and donors, and perioperative statistics of the procedures. A logistical regression was used to compare eyes that did and did not require a rebubble. Results: Among those characteristics that were included (patient age/sex, donor age/sex, death to processing time, donation to surgery time, death to procurement time, specular cell count density, burping procedure, postoperative day 1 intraocular pressure [IOP], and postoperative week 1 IOP, concurrent phacoemulsification, and how well the Descemet graft was centered), only a lower specular cell count density of the corneal graft, and a graft that was not well-centered correlated with needing a rebubble due to partial graft detachment (p=0.021) and (p=0.023), respectively. Conclusion: An increased specular cell count density may allow for better placement of the corneal graft by allowing for better unfolding in DMEK procedures. A well-centered graft may decrease postoperative complications by increasing adherence. Additionally, postoperative management of IOP may not affect the rebubble rate, and therefore should be left to the discretion of the provider to determine whether it is necessary.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Messerli, Shanta M., Mariah M. Hoffman, Etienne Z. Gnimpieba, H. Kohlhof, & Ratan D. Bhardwaj. (2017). “4SC-202 as a Potential Treatment for the Pediatric Brain Tumor Medulloblastoma.” Brain Sciences, 7(11), 6.

This project involves an examination of the effect of the small molecule inhibitor 4SC-202 on the growth of the pediatric brain cancer medulloblastoma. The small molecule inhibitor 4SC-202 significantly inhibits the viability of the pediatric desmoplastic cerebellar human medulloblastoma cell line DAOY, with an IC50 = 58.1 nM, but does not affect the viability of noncancerous neural stem cells (NSC). 4SC-202 exposure inhibits hedgehog expression in the DAOY cell line. Furthermore, microarray analysis of human medulloblastoma patient tumors indicate significant upregulation of key targets in the Hedgehog signaling pathway and Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK7).

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Mosher, Brittany A., Kathryn P. Huyvaert, Tara Chestnut, Jacob L. Kerby, Joseph D. Madison, & Larissa L. Bailey. (2017). “Design- and model-based recommendations for detecting and quantifying an amphibian pathogen in environmental samples.” Ecology & Evolution (20457758), 7(24), 10952-10962.

Accurate pathogen detection is essential for developing management strategies to address emerging infectious diseases, an increasingly prominent threat to wildlife. Sampling for free-living pathogens outside of their hosts has benefits for inference and study efficiency, but is still uncommon. We used a laboratory experiment to evaluate the influences of pathogen concentration, water type, and qPCR inhibitors on the detection and quantification of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ( Bd) using water filtration. We compared results pre- and post-inhibitor removal, and assessed inferential differences when single versus multiple samples were collected across space or time. We found that qPCR inhibition influenced both Bd detection and quantification in natural water samples, resulting in biased inferences about Bd occurrence and abundance. Biases in occurrence could be mitigated by collecting multiple samples in space or time, but biases in Bd quantification were persistent. Differences in Bd concentration resulted in variation in detection probability, indicating that occupancy modeling could be used to explore factors influencing heterogeneity in Bd abundance among samples, sites, or over time. Our work will influence the design of studies involving amphibian disease dynamics and studies utilizing environmental DNA (eDNA) to understand species distributions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Biology Department.

 

Otterpohl, K. L., R. G. Hart, C. Evans, Kameswaran Surendran, & Indra Chandrasekar. (2017). “Nonmuscle myosin 2 proteins encoded by Myh9, Myh10, and Myh14 are uniquely distributed in the tubular segments of murine kidney.” Physiological Reports, 5(23), 13.

The diverse epithelial cell types of the kidneys are segregated into nephron segments and the collecting ducts in order to endow each tubular segment with unique functions. The rich diversity of the epithelial cell types is highlighted by the unique membrane channels and receptors expressed within each nephron segment. Our previous work identified a critical role for Myh9 and Myh10 in mammalian endocytosis. Here, we examined the expression patterns of Nonmuscle myosin 2 (NM2) heavy chains encoded by Myh9, Myh10, and Myh14 in mouse kidneys as these genes may confer unique nephron segmentspecific membrane transport properties. Interestingly, we found that each segment of the renal tubules predominately expressed only two of the three NM2 isoforms, with isoform-specific subcellular localization, and different levels of expression within a nephron segment. Additionally, we identify Myh14 to be restricted to the intercalated cells and Myh10 to be restricted to the principal cells within the collecting ducts and connecting segments. We speculate that the distinct expression pattern of the NM2 proteins likely reflects the diversity of the intracellular trafficking machinery present within the different renal tubular epithelial segments.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Sayre, Matthew, T. Stenner, & A. Argumedo. (2017). “You Can’t Grow Potatoes in the Sky: Building Resilience in the Face of Climate Change in the Potato Park of Cuzco, Peru.” Culture Agriculture Food and Environment, 39(2), 100-108.

Although Quechua farmers contribute little to climate change, they are disproportionately experiencing the impacts of rapid changes in the high-altitude environment of the Andes. We describe how Quechua farmers and Association ANDES, a local non-profit organization, are rising to the challenge in Peru, using traditional knowledge and science in community-led research to mitigate and adapt to the impacts of climate change. A globally important food crop, the potato (Solanum sp.) originated in the central Andean Mountains. Indigenous farmers collectively manage the Potato Park as a Biocultural Heritage Territory, and together with ANDES, are implementing the Pluriversity for Biocultural Landscapes and Resilient Food Systems to facilitate knowledge exchange and creative solution seeking for complex global problems such as climate change. We describe programs that support community resilience, local biocultural heritage, biocultural products and services, and global policy processes strengthening the rights of Pacha Mama (Mother Earth) and world indigenous peoples.

Social Behavior.

 

Schoenleber, Michelle, Christopher R. Berghoff, Kim L. Gratz, & Matthew T. Tull. (2018). “Emotional lability and affective synchrony in posttraumatic stress disorder pathology.” Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 53, 68-75.

This study examined the relations of PTSD pathology to both the lability of three specific emotions (anxiety, anger, self-conscious emotions [SCE]) and the extent to which changes in one emotional state co-occur with changes in another emotional state (i.e. affective synchrony). Moreover, given evidence that emotional responding in PTSD may be heightened in response to trauma-related cues, these relations were explored in the context of a trauma cue versus neutral cue. Trauma-exposed patients in residential substance use disorder treatment ( N = 157) completed a diagnostic interview and two laboratory sessions involving presentation of neutral and individualized trauma scripts. State anxiety, anger, and SCE were assessed at five points throughout each laboratory session. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that participants (regardless of PTSD status) exhibited greater lability of all emotions following the trauma script versus neutral script. Only anger lability was elevated among those with (versus without) a current PTSD diagnosis following the neutral script. Results also revealed synchrony (i.e., positive covariation) between each possible pair of emotions, regardless of PTSD status. Findings suggest that concurrent changes in anxiety and anger may be especially relevant to PTSD symptom severity.

Psychology Department.

 

Selvaratnam, Balaranjan, & Ranjit T. Koodali. (2018). “TiO2-MgO mixed oxide nanomaterials for solar energy conversion.” Catalysis Today, 300, 39-49.

Mixed oxide materials have been intensely investigated in catalysis. In recent years, photoactive species have been deposited on high surface area supports and investigated for a variety of applications that include Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC), photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical splitting of water, and photocatalytic degradation of organics. Basic materials like MgO are attractive as supports for the above mentioned applications, since they can be synthesized conveniently with relatively large surface areas and porosities. The wide band gap (>7 eV) and hence the insulating nature of MgO also lends itself to interesting uses in several applications involving solar energy conversion. The presence of low amounts of MgO has been found to be beneficial for DSSC, photo-electrochemical splitting of water, and photocatalytic degradation of dye molecules and will be discussed in-depth in this review. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

 

Strouse, Gabrielle A., G. L. Troseth, K. D. O’Doherty, & M. M. Saylor. (2018). “Co-viewing supports toddlers’ word learning from contingent and noncontingent video.” Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 166, 310-326.

Social cues are one way young children determine that a situation is pedagogical in nature containing information to be learned and generalized. However, some social cues (e.g., contingent gaze and responsiveness) are missing from prerecorded video, a potential reason why toddlers’ language learning from video can be inefficient compared with their learning directly from a person. This study explored two methods for supporting children’s word learning from video by adding social-communicative cues. A sample of 88 30-month-olds began their participation with a video training phase. In one manipulation, an on-screen actress responded contingently to children through a live video feed (similar to Skype or FaceTime “video chat”) or appeared in a prerecorded demonstration. In the other manipulation, parents either modeled responsiveness to the actress’s on-screen bids for participation or sat out of their children’s view. Children then viewed a labeling demonstration on video, and their knowledge of the label was tested with three-dimensional objects. Results indicated that both on-screen contingency and parent modeling increased children’s engagement with the actress during training. However, only parent modeling increased children’s subsequent word learning, perhaps by revealing the symbolic (representational) intentions underlying this video. This study highlights the importance of adult co-viewing in helping toddlers to interpret communicative cues from video. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

School of Education.

 

Tjarks, Brian J., Brandy R. Pownell, C. Evans, Paul A. Thompson, Amy M. Kerkvliet, Michael R. D. Koch, & Ali D. Jassim. (2018). “Evaluation and comparison of staining patterns of factor XIIIa (AC-1A1), adipophilin and GATA3 in sebaceous neoplasia.” Journal of Cutaneous Pathology, 45(1), 1-7.

Background: Reliable nuclear immunohistochemical stains for sebaceous neoplasms have not been readily available. Positive nuclear staining has been reported for GATA3 and factor XIIIa (AC-1A1). We sought to determine the diagnostic utility of these nuclear stains by comparing their staining pattern to adipophilin, a consistently positive cytoplasmic stain. Methods: Cases with the diagnosis of sebaceous hyperplasia, sebaceous adenoma, sebaceous epithelioma/sebaceoma, sebaceous carcinoma, and nonsebaceous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma) were examined. Intensity and extent of staining of the basal cells and mature sebocytes were evaluated for each stain. Results: Factor XIIIa (AC-1A1) was 87.3% sensitive and 95.1% specific for all sebaceous neoplasms and showed high inter-observer reliability. Adipophilin was 83.2% sensitive and 87.8% specific. GATA3 was the least sensitive (80.9%) and specific (75.6%) marker. When factor XIIIa was compared against composite staining of all three markers its staining was still uniquely significant (P =.0210). Conclusion: Factor XIIIa (AC-1A1) is a sensitive and specific nuclear marker for sebaceous differentiation. Its diagnostic utility exceeds that of adipophilin. Factor XIIIa should be included in the expanding group of immunohistochemical and special stains which can be utilized to aid in the diagnosis of sebaceous neoplasms.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Walters, David M., Jeff S. Wesner, Robert E. Zuellig, Dan A. Kowalski, & Matt C. Kondratieff. (2018). “Holy flux: spatial and temporal variation in massive pulses of emerging insect biomass from western U.S. rivers.” Ecology, 99(1), 238-240.

The article analyzes massive synoptic emergence of salmonflies from some western rivers and discuss how large and temporally variable these fluxes might be. It states that the variation is likely to singnificantly alter the press-pulse phenology of subsidies within and among river-riparian ecosystems. It also anlyzes concern for rapid decline of salmonfly populations.

Biology Department.

 

Wang, X. T., Ryan N. Reed, Lee A. Baugh, & Kelene A. Fercho. (2018). “Resource forecasting: Differential effects of glucose taste and ingestion on delay discounting and self-control.” Appetite, 121, 101-110.

We tested a novel hypothesis that glucose taste acts as a signal for resource acquisition, motivating preference for immediate rewards while actual glucose ingestion prompts resource conservation, promoting future-orientated self-regulation. In Study 1, participants were engaged in a delay-discounting task and a grip-control task before and after a beverage intervention (glucose drink, water drink, or glucose mouth-rinse). Glucose ingestion decreased delay discounting, making larger-and-later rewards more attractive. In contrast, glucose rinse increased delay discounting. Water ingestion had none of the effects. In the grip-control task, only glucose ingestion improved the performance. Study 2 using fMRI revealed that glucose rinse and glucose ingestion resulted in distinct brain activational patterns. Compared to glucose rinse, glucose ingestion deactivated a few brain regions (e.g., the anterior cingulate gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus) that are previously shown to be more active when making more difficult intertemporal choices, suggesting that glucose ingestion eases the process of making intertemporal choice. In sum, our behavioral and neuroimaging findings together suggest a dual signaling role of glucose sensation and ingestion in regulating delay discounting and self-control.

Psychology Department.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Weichman, M. L., Bess Vlaisavljevich, J. A. DeVine, N. S. Shuman, S. G. Ard, T. Shiozaki, D. M. Neumark, & A. A. Viggiano. (2017). “Electronic structure of SmO and SmO- via slow photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy and spin-orbit CASPT2 calculations.” Journal of Chemical Physics, 147(23), 8.

The chemi-ionization reaction of atomic samarium, Sm + O -> SmO++ e(-), has been investigated by the Air Force Research Laboratory as a means to modify local electron density in the ionosphere for reduction of scintillation of high-frequency radio waves. Neutral SmO is a likely unwanted byproduct. The spectroscopy of SmO is of great interest to aid in interpretation of optical emission spectra recorded following atmospheric releases of Sm as part of the Metal Oxide Space Cloud (MOSC) observations. Here, we report a joint experimental and theoretical study of SmO using slow photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy of cryogenically cooled SmO- anions (cryo-SEVI) and high-level spin-orbit complete active space calculations with corrections from second order perturbation theory (CASPT2). With cryo-SEVI, we measure the electron affinity of SmO to be 1.0581(11) eV and report electronic and vibrational structure of low-lying electronic states of SmO in good agreement with theory and prior experimental work. We also obtain spectra of higher-lying excited states of SmO for direct comparison to the MOSC results. Published by AIP Publishing.

Chemistry Department.

 

Xiao, L. H., A. Yobi, Karen L. Koster, Y. K. He, & M. J. Oliver. (2018). “Desiccation tolerance in Physcomitrella patens: Rate of dehydration and the involvement of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA).” Plant Cell and Environment, 41(1), 275-284.

The moss Physcomitrella patens, a model system for basal land plants, tolerates several abiotic stresses, including dehydration. We previously reported that Physcomitrella patens survives equilibrium dehydration to -13MPa in a closed system at 91% RH. Tolerance of desiccation to water potentials below -100MPa was only achieved by pretreatment with exogenous abscisic acid (ABA). We report here that gametophores, but not protonemata, can survive desiccation below -100MPa after a gradual drying regime in an open system, without exogenous ABA. In contrast, faster equilibrium drying at 90% RH for 3-5days did not induce desiccation tolerance in either tissue. Endogenous ABA accumulated in protonemata and gametophores under both drying regimes, so did not correlate directly with desiccation tolerance. Gametophores of a Ppabi3a/b/c triple knock out transgenic line also survived the gradual dehydration regime, despite impaired ABA signaling. Our results suggest that the initial drying rate, and not the amount of endogenous ABA, may be critical in the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. Results from this work will provide insight into ongoing studies to uncover the role of ABA in the dehydration response and the underlying mechanisms of desiccation tolerance in this bryophyte. The moss Physcomitrella patens, as a model system for basal land plants, has an important role in efforts aimed at understanding the evolutionary dynamics of genes that constitute cellular signaling pathways involved in abiotic stress responses. We report that both gametophores and protonemata are sensitive to slow dehydration under equilibrium drying regimes but desiccation tolerance can be induced in gametophores during gradual drying in an open system. Endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation did not correlate directly with desiccation tolerance, and impairment of ABA signaling pathways did not render the gametophores sensitive to desiccation. It appears that the initial drying rate, and not endogenous ABA amounts, is critical for the acquisition of desiccation tolerance.

Biology Department.

Posted by: tadeterman | December 2, 2017

December 2017

Assam, Jed H., Ashlie Bernhisel, & Amy Lin. (2018). “Intraoperative and postoperative pain in cataract surgery.” Survey of Ophthalmology, 63(1), 75-85.

Technologic improvements in cataract surgery have not only improved visual outcomes, but also have minimized intraoperative and postoperative pain. We review the mechanisms, risk factors, and management of intraoperative and postoperative pain. Summaries of less common sources of physiologic pain have been included to reinforce recognition of when pain represents an expected physiologic reaction to surgery as opposed to signaling a more serious complication. We also discuss various current and emerging anesthetic and analgesic modalities.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Beraldi, Rosanna, Meyerholz, David K., Savinov, Alexei, Kovács, Attila D., Weimer, Jill M., Dykstra, Jordan A., Geraets, Ryan D., & Pearce, David A. (2017). “Genetic ataxia telangiectasia porcine model phenocopies the multisystemic features of the human disease.” BBA – Molecular Basis of Disease, 1863(11), 2862-2870.

Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a progressive multisystem autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the AT-mutated ( ATM ) gene. Early onset AT in children is characterized by cerebellar degeneration, leading to motor impairment. Lung disease and cancer are the two most common causes of death in AT patients. Accelerated thymic involution may contribute to the cancer, and recurrent and/or chronic respiratory infections may be a contributing factor to lung disease in AT. AT patients have fertility issues, are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation and they present oculocutaneous telangiectasia. Current treatments only slightly ameliorate disease symptoms; therapy that alters or reverses the course of the disease has not yet been discovered. Previously, we have shown that ATM −/− pigs, a novel model of AT, present with a loss of Purkinje cells, altered cerebellar cytoarchitecture and motor coordination deficits. ATM −/− porcine model not only recapitulates the neurological phenotype, but also other multifaceted clinical features of the human disease. Our current study shows that ATM −/− female pigs are infertile, with anatomical and functional signs of an immature reproductive system. Both male and female ATM −/− pigs show abnormal thymus structure with decreased cell cycle and apoptosis markers in the gland. Moreover, ATM −/− pigs have an altered immune system with decreased CD8 + and increased natural killer and CD4 + CD8 + double-positive cells. Nevertheless, ATM −/− pigs manifest a deficient IgG response after a viral infection. Based on the neurological and peripheral phenotypes, the ATM −/− pig is a novel genetic model that may be used for therapeutic assessments and to identify pathomechanisms of this disease.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Caplan, M. A., G. Purser, & Peter A. Kindle. (2017). “Personal Accounts of Poverty: A Thematic Analysis of Social Media.” Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work, 14(6), 433-456.

The field of social work seeks to enhance human well-being by addressing the needs of people living in poverty. Three billion people around the world use the internet daily, and 65% of them use social media. This article qualitatively identifies emergent themes about the lived experiences of poverty from people who reported either being poor or having have been poor, using selected social media posts (N = 1,495) on the website Reddit. We found that the experiences of poverty bring arduousness and hardship, which necessitates an arsenal of survival strategies and skills. It was also found that some people who were poor experienced the saving grace of unexpected charitable acts, which eased their burden. Moreover, these experiences manifest in vestigial feelings and behaviors even when one is no longer poor. An understanding of the lived experiences by poor people themselves is a foundational task for social work educators, practitioners, and researchers.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Chen, X., Zhang, X. L., Chen, J. H., Yang, Q. Q., Yang, L., Xu, D. C., Zhang, P. Q., Wang, Xuejun, & Liu, J. B. (2017). “Hinokitiol copper complex inhibits proteasomal deubiquitination and induces paraptosis-like cell death in human cancer cells.”European Journal of Pharmacology, 815, 147-155.

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a central role in the regulation of proteins that control cell growth and apoptosis and has therefore become an important target for anticancer therapy. Several constitutive subunits of the 19S proteasome display deubiquitinase (DUB) activity, suggesting that ubiquitin modification of proteins is dynamically regulated. Our study and others have shown that metal complexes, such as copper complexes, can induce cancer cell apoptosis through inhibiting 19S proteasome-associated DUBs and/or 20S proteasome activity. In this study, we found that (1) Hinokitiol copper complex (HK-Cu) induces striking accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in A549 and K562 cells (2) HK-Cu potently inhibits the activity of the 19S proteasomal DUBs much more effectively than it does to the chymotrypsin-like activity of the 20S proteasome (3) HK-Cu effectively induces caspase-independent and paraptosis-like cell death in A549 and K562 cells, and (4) HK-Cuinduced cell death depends on ATF4-assosiated ER stress but is apparently not related to ROS generation. Altogether, these data indicate that HK-Cu can inhibit the activity of the 19S proteasomal DUBs and induce paraptosis-like cell death, representing a new drug candidate for cancer treatment.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Cheviron, Z. A., & Swanson, David L. (2017). “Comparative Transcriptomics of Seasonal Phenotypic Flexibility in Two North American Songbirds.”Integrative & Comparative Biology, 57(5), 1040-1054.

Phenotypic flexibility allows organisms to reversibly alter their phenotypes to match the changing demands of seasonal environments. Because phenotypic flexibility is mediated, at least in part, by changes in gene regulation, comparative transcriptomic studies can provide insights into the mechanistic underpinnings of seasonal phenotypic flexibility, and the extent to which regulatory responses to changing seasons are conserved across species. To begin to address these questions, we sampled individuals of two resident North American songbird species, American goldfinch (Spinus tristis) and black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) in summer and winter to measure seasonal variation in pectoralis transcriptomic profiles and to identify conserved and species-specific elements of these seasonal profiles. We found that very few genes exhibited divergent responses to changes in season between species, and instead, a core set of over 1200 genes responded to season concordantly in both species. Moreover, several key metabolic pathways, regulatory networks, and gene functional classes were commonly recruited to induce seasonal phenotypic shifts in these species. The seasonal transcriptomic responses mirror winter increases in pectoralis mass and cellular metabolic intensity documented in previous studies of both species, suggesting that these seasonal phenotypic responses are due in part to changes in gene expression. Despite growing evidence of muscle nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) in young precocial birds, we did not find strong evidence of upregulation of genes putatively involved in NST during winter in either species, suggesting that seasonal modification of muscular NST is not a prominent contributor to winter increases in thermogenic capacity for adult passerine birds. Together, these results provide the first comprehensive overview of potential common regulatory mechanisms underlying seasonally flexible phenotypes in wild, free-ranging birds.

Biology Department.

 

Coloma, Pilar, Pedro A. N. Machado, Ivan Martinez-Soler, & Ian M. Shoemaker. (2017). “Double-Cascade Events from New Physics in Icecube.” Physical Review Letters, 119(20), 1-1.

A variety of new physics models allows for neutrinos to up-scatter into heavier states. If the incident neutrino is energetic enough, the heavy neutrino may travel some distance before decaying. In this work, we consider the atmospheric neutrino flux as a source of such events. At IceCube, this would lead to a “double-bang” (DB) event topology, similar to what is predicted to occur for tau neutrinos at ultrahigh energies. The DB event topology has an extremely low background rate from coincident atmospheric cascades, making this a distinctive signature of new physics. Our results indicate that IceCube should already be able to derive new competitive constraints on models with GeV-scale sterile neutrinos using existing data.

Physics Department.

 

Ferris, Daron G., Rudiwilai Samakoses, Stanley L. Block, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce, Amita Jaime Alberto Restrepo, Jesper Mehlsen, Archana Chatterjee, Ole-Erik Iversen, Amita Joshi, Chu Jian-Li, Andrea Likos Krick, Alfred Saah, & Rituparna Das. (2017). “4-Valent Human Papillomavirus (4vHPV) Vaccine in Preadolescents and Adolescents After 10 Years.” Pediatrics, 140(6), 1-9.

OBJECTIVES: We describe the final 10-year data for the long-term follow-up study of the 4-valent human papillomavirus (4vHPV) vaccine in preadolescents and adolescents. METHODS: In the base study (V501-018), 1661 sexually inactive boys and girls received the 4vHPV vaccine (early vaccination group [EVG], managed for 9.9 years) or a placebo at day 1, month 2, and month 6. Thereafter, at month 30, the placebo group (catch-up vaccination group [CVG], managed for 7.4 years) received the 4vHPV vaccine by using the same dosing schedule. Long-term anti-HPV type 6, 11, 16, and 18 immune responses were assessed. Effectiveness was estimated by calculating the incidence rate of the primary endpoints (HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18-related disease or persistent infection). RESULTS: For HPV types 6, 11, and 16, 89% to 96% of subjects remained seropositive through 10-years postvaccination. The preadolescents had 38% to 65% higher geometric mean titers at month 7, which remained 16% to 42% higher at 10 years compared with adolescents. No cases of HPV type 6, 11, 16, and 18–related diseases were observed. Ten subjects had a persistent infection of ≥6 months duration with vaccine-type HPV and 2 subjects had persistent infection for ≥12 months. No new serious adverse events were reported through 10 years. CONCLUSIONS: A 3-dose regimen of the 4vHPV vaccine was immunogenic, clinically effective, and generally well tolerated in preadolescents and adolescents during 10 years of follow-up. These long-term findings support efforts to vaccinate this population against HPV before exposure.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Fox, Matthew, & Wade-Benzoni, Kimberly. (2017). “The creation of opportunity is an opportunity to create: Entrepreneurship as an outlet for the legacy motive.” Research in Organizational Behavior, 37, 167-184.

As evidence has accumulated that entrepreneurs may pay a financial penalty for their career choice, researchers have struggled to explain the motivation that might lead individuals to pursue the creation of new firms, technologies, and opportunities. We introduce the desire to leave a legacy as both a common source of motivation for many entrepreneurs, and a source of variation, as entrepreneurs who wish to leave a legacy must decide what they would like to leave behind, and whom they wish to benefit from that act. We discuss the implications of the different kinds of legacies for entrepreneurs and their organizations, particularly at founding and exit, when the legacy motive is likely to be particularly salient.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Gao, HongboHartnett, Sigrud, & Li, Yifan. (2017). “Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase L1 regulates myoblast proliferation and differentiation.” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 492(1), 96-102.

Skeletal muscles are dynamic tissues that possess regenerative abilities, which require multiple processes and regulatory factors. Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase L1 (UCHL1), which is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues, was upregulated in skeletal muscles in disease conditions but its functional role in skeletal muscles is unknown. Using mouse myoblast cells C2C12 as an in vitro model, this study reported that UCHL1 elicits different regulation in myoblast cell proliferation and differentiation. We first observed that UCHL1 protein level was continuously declined during cell differentiation. Gene knock-down of UCHL1 by siRNA resulted in a significant decrease in cell proliferation but marked acceleration of cell differentiation and myotube formation. Meanwhile, UCHL1 gene knockdown upregulated myogenic factors myoD and Myogenin (MyoG). In mice, UCHL1 was significantly upregulated in denervated skeletal muscle. Overall, these novel data suggest that UCHL1 may play a role in myogenesis by promoting myoblast proliferation and inhibiting differentiation. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Hanson, Elizabeth K., & Fager, Susan K. (2017). “Communication Supports for People With Motor Speech Disorders.” Topics in Language Disorders, 37(4), 375-388.

Communication supports for people with motor speech disorders can include strategies and technologies to supplement natural speech efforts, resolve communication breakdowns, and replace natural speech when necessary to enhance participation in all communicative contexts. This article emphasizes communication supports that can enhance participation, as described in the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. The article begins with a discussion of partner and patient-reported assessments to evaluate participation levels and barriers to participation. Then, it provides an overview of communication supports for speakers with motor speech disorders, organized by the status of the disorder as stable, improving, or degenerative. The article includes nine case examples to illustrate principles and provide examples of how to address stable and changing needs.

Communication Disorders Department.

 

Herrera, Andrea L.Suso, KutaAllison, StephanieSimon, AbbySchlenker, Evelyn,Huber, Victor C., & Chaussee, Michael S. (2017). “Binding host proteins to the M protein contributes to the mortality associated with influenza-Streptococcus pyogenes superinfections.” Microbiology-Sgm, 163(10), 1445-1456.

The mortality associated with influenza A virus (IAV) is often due to the development of secondary bacterial infections known as superinfections. The group A streptococcus (GAS) is a relatively uncommon cause of IAV superinfections, but the mortality of these infections is high. We used a murine model to determine whether the surface-localized GAS M protein contributes to the outcome of IAV-GAS superinfections. A comparison between wild-type GAS and an M protein mutant strain (emm3) showed that the M3 protein was essential to virulence. To determine whether the binding, or recruitment, of host proteins to the bacterial surface contributed to virulence, GAS was suspended with BALF collected from mice that had recovered from a sub-lethal infection with IAV. Following intranasal inoculation of naive mice, the mortality associated with the wild-type strain, but not the emm3 mutant strain, was greater compared to mice inoculated with GAS suspended with either BALF from uninfected mice or PBS. Further analyses showed that both albumin and fibrinogen (Fg) were more abundant in the respiratory tract 8 days after IAV infection, that M3 bound both proteins to the bacterial surface, and that suspension of GAS with either protein increased GAS virulence in the absence of antecedent IAV infection. Overall, the results showed that M3 is essential to the virulence of GAS in an IAV superinfection and suggested that increased abundance of albumin and Fg in the respiratory tract following IAV infection enhanced host susceptibility to secondary GAS infection.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Hou, Ning, Ying Wen, Xun Yuan, Haodong Xu, Xuejun Wang, Faqian Li, & Bo Ye. (2017). “Activation of Yap1/Taz signaling in ischemic heart disease and dilated cardiomyopathy.” Experimental & Molecular Pathology, 103(3), 267-275.

Genetic manipulation of key components of the evolutionally conserved Hippo pathway has shown that the precise control of these signaling molecules is critical to cardiac development and response to stresses. However, how this pathway is involved in the progression of cardiac dysfunction in different heart diseases remains unclear. We investigated the expressional levels and subcellular localization of Yap1, Taz, and Tead1 and determined Hippo target gene expression in failing human hearts with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) and mouse desmin-related cardiomyopathy (DES). Our results demonstrated that Yap1, Taz, and Tead1 were significantly increased in failing human and DES hearts compared with the non-failing controls (NFH) or wild type (WT) mouse hearts at both mRNA and protein levels. Interestingly, adult human and mouse hearts had more Taz than Yap1 by mRNA and protein expression and their increases in diseased hearts were proportional and did not change Yap1/Taz ratio. Yap1, Taz, and Tead1 were accumulated in the nuclear fraction and cardiomyocyte nuclei of diseased hearts. The ratio of Yap1 phosphorylated at serine 127 (human) or serine 112 (mouse) to the total Yap1 (pYap1/Yap1) was significantly lower in the nuclear fraction of diseased hearts than that in normal controls. More importantly, Hippo downstream targets Ankrd1, Ctgf, and Cyr61 were transcriptionally elevated in the diseased hearts. These results suggest that Yap1/Taz signaling is activated in human and mouse dysfunctional hearts. Further investigation with relevant animal models will determine whether this pathway is a potential target for preventing and reversing abnormal remodeling during the progression of different cardiac disorders.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

James, C. Roger, Lee T. Atkins, Hyung Suk Yang, Janet S. Dufek, & Barry T. Bates. (2017). “Prediction of calcaneal bone competence from biomechanical accommodation variables measured during weighted walking.” Human Movement Science, 56, 37-45.

Carrying weight while walking is a common activity associated with increased musculoskeletal loading, but not all individuals accommodate to the weight in the same way. Different accommodation strategies could lead to different skeletal forces, stimuli for bone adaptation and ultimately bone competence. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationships between calcaneal bone competence and biomechanical accommodation variables measured during weighted walking. Twenty healthy men and women (10 each; age 27.8 ± 6.8 years) walked on a treadmill at 1.34 m/s while carrying 0, 44.5 and 89 N weights with two hands in front of the body. Peak vertical ground reaction force and sagittal plane angular displacements of the trunk and left lower extremity during weight acceptance were measured and used to quantify accommodation. Calcaneal bone stiffness index T-score (BST) was measured using quantitative ultrasound. Correlation and stepwise multiple regression were used to predict calcaneal BST from the accommodation variables. Accommodations of the foot and ankle explained 29 and 54% (p ≤ .015) of the variance in calcaneal BST in different regression models. Statistical resampling using 1000 replications confirmed the strength and consistency of relationships, with the best model explaining 94% of the variance in calcaneal BST. Individuals who change foot and ankle function when carrying heavier weight likely alter the control of gravitational and muscular forces, thereby affecting calcaneal loading, bone adaptation and bone competence. These novel findings illustrate the importance of gait accommodation strategies and highlight a potential clinical consequence that requires further investigation.

School of Education.

 

Keifer, Joyce, & Zheng Zhaoqing. (2017). “Cold block of in vitro eyeblink reflexes: evidence supporting the use of hypothermia as an anesthetic in pond turtles.” Journal of Experimental Biology, 220(23), 4370-4373.

Use of hypothermia as a means of anesthesia for amphibians and reptiles is prohibited by agencies that establish veterinary guidelines. This has recently been called into question by members of the scientific community based on reviews of published literature. Using pond turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans), hypothermia as a method for anesthesia to precede euthanasia by decapitation was assessed. Turtles were subjected to hypothermia using a cooling followed by freezing protocol. Body temperature measurements ranged between -1 and -2°C while core body temperature was -1°C. Ice crystal formation was never observed. A protective reflex to noxious stimuli, the eyeblink response, was recorded from in vitro brainstem preparations subjected to cold. At 5-6°C, reflex responses were suppressed, demonstrating minimal synaptic transmission in brain circuits above temperatures used for hypothermia induction. These and previous data indicate that a re-evaluation of the use of hypothermia as an anesthetic in amphibians and reptiles is warranted.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Lee, Kyoung Hag, Jun, Jung Sim, Kim, Yi Jin, Roh, Soonhee, Moon, Sung Seek, Bukonda, Ngoyi, & Hines, Lisa. (2017). “Mental health, substance abuse, and suicide among homeless adults.” Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work, 14(4), 229-242.

This study explored the role of mental health and substance abuse problems on the suicidal ideation and suicide attempts of 156 homeless adults. The logistic regression results indicated that homeless adults with anxiety were significantly more likely than those without anxiety to have both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Also, homeless adults with drug abuse were significantly more likely than those without drug abuse to have suicidal ideation. The study suggests that to reduce the suicide of the homeless, case managers need to screen mental health and substance abuse issues and to provide appropriate treatment services at homeless shelters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

School of Health Sciences.

 

Liu, YangingQiao, Fangfang, Leiferman, P. C., Ross, A., Schlenker, Evelyn H., & Wang, Hongmin. (2017). “FOXOs modulate proteasome activity in human-induced pluripotent stem cells of Huntington’s disease and their derived neural cells.”Human Molecular Genetics, 26(22), 4416-4428.

Although it has been speculated that proteasome dysfunction may contribute to the pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease (HD), a devastating neurodegenerative disorder, how proteasome activity is regulated in HD affected stem cells and somatic cells remains largely unclear. To better understand the pathogenesis of HD, we analyzed proteasome activity and the expression of FOXO transcription factors in three wild-type (WT) and three HD induced-pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines. HD iPSCs exhibited elevated proteasome activity and higher levels of FOXO1 and FOXO4 proteins. Knockdown of FOXO4 but not FOXO1 expression decreased proteasome activity. Following neural differentiation, the HD-iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) demonstrated lower levels of proteasome activity and FOXO expressions than their WT counterparts. More importantly, overexpression of FOXO4 but not FOXO1 in HD NPCs dramatically enhanced proteasome activity. When HD NPCs were further differentiated into DARPP32-positive neurons, these HD neurons were more susceptible to death than WT neurons and formed Htt aggregates under the condition of oxidative stress. Similar to HD NPCs, HD-iPSC-derived neurons showed reduced proteasome activity and diminished FOXO4 expression compared to WT-iPSC-derived neurons. Furthermore, HD iPSCs had lower AKT activities than WT iPSCs, whereas the neurons derived from HD iPSC had higher AKT activities than their WT counterparts. Inhibiting AKT activity increased both FOXO4 level and proteasome activity, indicating a potential role of AKT in regulating FOXO levels. These data suggest that FOXOs modulate proteasome activity, and thus represents a potentially valuable therapeutic target for HD.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Louw, A., E. J. Puentedura, Kory Zimney, T. Cox, & D. Rico. (2017). “The clinical implementation of pain neuroscience education: A survey study.”Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 33(11), 869-879.

Pain neuroscience education (PNE) has gained considerable attention in research. Three systematic reviews have shown increasing efficacy of PNE decreasing pain, disability, pain catastrophization, movement restrictions, and healthcare utilization. In the development of any new therapeutic approach, it is proposed that there are three stages: development, validation, and implementation. To date, the development and validation of PNE have been well-established. The third stage, implementation, however, lacks when it comes to PNE. The purpose of this study was to survey physical therapists (PT) on their experience and implementation of PNE, following a 15-hour PNE class. Upon development and validation of a PT-PNE survey, a random sample of PTs was invited to take the online survey. Two hundred and eighty-six PTs (female 56%) completed the PNE questionnaire. Ninety-one percent of PTs reported not being taught PNE in PT school. PT’s are applying PNE into clinical practice to a variety of patients, experience outcomes in line with the current best-evidence, but struggle establishing which patients are ideal for PNE. The same five patient characteristics associated with success were also associated with failure, albeit in a different ranking order. This finding highlight the need to further investigate the factors associated with success and failure of PNE.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Louw, A., Zimney, Kory, Johnson, E. A., Kraemer, C., Fesler, J., & Burcham, T. (2017). “De-educate to re-educate: aging and low back pain.” Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 29(6), 1261-1269.

Patients’ beliefs about their condition have been shown to play a significant role in their pain experience and response to treatment, especially when a patient sees their tissue health as vulnerable or aged. Educational can alter these beliefs. Prior to new information, patients often have to be de-educated regarding common misbeliefs to undergo re-education. To determine if a brief de-education session regarding aging and low back pain (LBP) can shift pain ratings, fear-avoidance beliefs, beliefs regarding aging and LBP, and limited active trunk flexion. Fifty adults ranging from 50 to 93 years of age (SD = 10.73) with a 15.1 years of LBP were education on the poor correlation between aging and LBP. Prior to and immediately after the education pain ratings for LBP and leg pain (numeric pain rating scale-NPRS), fear-avoidance (fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire-FABQ), beliefs regarding aging and LBP (Likert scale) and active trunk flexion were measured. Significant changes were found in positive shifts with LBP (p = 0.002), leg pain (p = 0.042), FABQ-physical activity subscale (p = 0.004) and active trunk forward flexion (p < 0.001). The results show that education aimed at altering beliefs regarding LBP and aging result in a positive shift in pain, fear avoidance related to physical activity and active trunk flexion. Prior to providing patients with new healthcare information, de-educating them regarding poor beliefs may be helpful in shifting them towards new, healthier paradigms associated with their condition.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Massarczyk, R., P. Chu, C. Dugger, S. R. Elliott, K. Rielage, & W. Xu. (2017). “Paschen’s law studies in cold gases.” Journal of Instrumentation, 12, 13.

The break-through voltage behavior over small gaps has been investigated for differing gap distances, gas pressures, and gas temperatures in nitrogen, neon, argon and xenon gases. A deviation from Paschen’s law at micro gap distances has been found. At lower temperatures, a significant shift of the curve relative to the results at room temperature was observed. This behavior can be explained by combining Paschen’s law and the ideal gas law.

Physics Department.

 

Myers, Angela, Du Souich, C., Yang, C. L., Borovik, L., Mwenifumbo, J., Rupps, R., Lehman, A., & Boerkoel, C. F. (2017). “FOXP1 haploinsufficiency: Phenotypes beyond behavior and intellectual disability?” American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 173(12), 3172-3181.

The forkhead box (FOX) transcription factors have roles in development, carcinogenesis, metabolism, and immunity. In humans FOXP1 mutations have been associated with language and speech defects, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, facial dysmorphisms, and congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. In mice, Foxp1 plays critical roles in development of the spinal motor neurons, lymphocytes, cardiomyocytes, foregut, and skeleton. We hypothesized therefore that mutations of FOXP1 affect additional tissues in some humans. Supporting this hypothesis, we describe two individuals with novel variants of FOXP1 (NM_032682.5:c.975-2A>C and NM_032682.5:c.1574G>A) and additional features. One had a lung disease resembling neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI), and the second had a skeletal disorder with undertubulation of the long bones and relapsing-remitting fevers associated with flushing and edema. Although attribution of these traits to mutation of FOXP1 requires ascertainment of additional patients, we hypothesize that the variable expression of these additional features might arise by means of stochastic developmental variation.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Nilsen, D. W. T., Aarsetoey, H., Ponitz, V., Brugger-Andersen, T., Staines, H., Harris, William S., & Grundt, H. (2017). “The prognostic utility of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) in patients with acute coronary heart disease.”International Journal of Cardiology, 249, 12-17.

Background: We previously investigated the prognostic utility of red blood cell (RBC) n-3 fatty acids (FAs) in survivors of an acute myocardial syndrome (ACS) but found no relationship with all-cause mortality and cardiac death or MI after two years. Here we extend our follow-up to 7 years, focusing on the potential predictive power of RBC n-6 FAs. Methods: We included 398 ACS patients presenting with increased troponin-T (TnT) levels for whom baseline RBC FA data were available. Cox regression analysis was used to relate the risk of future events to RBC n-6 FA levels, both continuously and by quartile. Results: At 7-year follow-up, 183 (46.0%) had died, 128 (32.2%) had experienced another MI and 24 (6.0%) had had a stroke. Death or MI occurred in 227 patients (57.0%); and death, MI or stroke in 235 patients (59.0%). In a multivariable Cox regression model for total death, the hazard ratio (HR) in the highest as compared to the lowest quartile of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) was 0.55 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.35-0.88, p = 0.012, for death or MI [HR 0.62 (95% CI, 0.41-0.94), p = 0.025], and for the fully combined endpoint [HR 0.57 (95% CI, 0.38-0.86), p = 0.006]. Similar results were found in the per 1-SD analysis. No other RBC n-6 FAs significantly predicted these outcomes in multivariable models. Conclusion: RBC DGLA levels had significant independent prognostic value in post-ACS patients. These findings need confirmation, and the possible biochemical pathways by which higher DGLA membrane levels may be cardioprotective should be explored. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Ness, Brandon M.Zimney, Kory, & Schweinle, William E. (2017). “Analysis of Gauntlet Test Performance and Injury Risk in Intercollegiate Division I Female Soccer (Football) Players: A Retrospective Study.” Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 26(6), 536-543.

Context: Injury risk factors and relevant assessments have been identified in women’s soccer athletes. Other tests assess fitness (eg, the Gauntlet Test [GT]). However, little empirical support exists for the utility of the GT to predict time loss injury. Objectives: To examine the GT as a predictor of injury in intercollegiate Division I female soccer athletes. Design: Retrospective, nonexperimental descriptive cohort study. Setting: College athletic facilities. Participants: 71 female Division I soccer athletes (age 19.6 ± 1.24 y, BMI 23.0 ± 2.19). Main Outcome Measures: GT, demographic, and injury data were collected over 3 consecutive seasons. GT trials were administered by coaching staff each preseason. Participation in team-based activities (practices, matches) was restricted until a successful GT trial. Soccer-related injuries that resulted in time loss from participation were recorded. Results: 71 subjects met the inclusion criteria, with 12 lower body time loss injuries sustained. Logistic regression models indicated that with each unsuccessful GT attempt, the odds of sustaining an injury increased by a factor of 3.5 (P < .02). The Youden index was 2 GT trials for success, at which sensitivity = .92 and specificity = .46. For successive GT trials before success (1, 2, or 3), the predicted probabilities for injury were .063, .194, and .463, respectively. Conclusions: The GT appears to be a convenient and predictive screen for potential lower-body injuries among female soccer athletes in this cohort. Further investigation into the appropriate application of the GT for injury prediction is warranted given the scope of this study.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Olson, SethKathleen A. Brown-RiceAmy SchweinleKami PearsonJamie L. SchollKelene A. FerchoLee A. BaughGina L. Forster, Noah A. Kallsen, Gareth E. Davies, & Erik A. Ehli. (2018). “Neural and psychological characteristics of college students with alcoholic parents differ depending on current alcohol use.” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 81, 284-296.

A significant proportion of college students are adult children of an alcoholic parent (ACoA), which can confer greater risk of depression, poor self-esteem, alcohol and drug problems, and greater levels of college attrition. However, some ACoA are resilient to these negative outcomes. The goal of this study was to better understand the psychobiological factors that distinguish resilient and vulnerable college-aged ACoAs. To do so, scholastic performance and psychological health were measured in ACoA college students not engaged in hazardous alcohol use (resilient) and those currently engaged in hazardous alcohol use (vulnerable). Neural activity (as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging) in response to performing working memory and emotion-based tasks were assessed. Furthermore, the frequency of polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with substance use, risk taking and stress reactivity were compared between the two ACoA groups. College ACoAs currently engaged in hazardous alcohol use reported more anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms, and increased risky nicotine and marijuana use as compared to ACoAs resistant to problem alcohol use. ACoA college students with current problem alcohol showed greater activity of the middle frontal gyrus and reduced activation of the posterior cingulate in response to visual working memory and emotional processing tasks, which may relate to increased anxiety and problem alcohol and drug behaviors. Furthermore, polymorphisms of cholinergic receptor and the serotonin transporter genes also appear to contribute a role in problem alcohol use in ACoAs. Overall, findings point to several important psychobiological variables that distinguish ACoAs based on their current alcohol use that may be used in the future for early intervention.

School of Education

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Pan, BoZhang, Hanming, Cui, Taixing, & Wang, Xuejun. (2017). “TFEB activation protects against cardiac proteotoxicity via increasing autophagic flux.” Journal of Molecular & Cellular Cardiology, 113, 51-62.

Insufficient lysosomal removal of autophagic cargoes in cardiomyocytes has been suggested as a main cause for the impairment of the autophagic-lysosomal pathway (ALP) in many forms of heart disease including cardiac proteinopathy and may play an important pathogenic role; however, the molecular basis and the correcting strategy for the cardiac ALP insufficiency require further investigation. The present study was sought to determine whether myocardial expression and activity of TFEB, the recently identified ALP master regulator, are impaired in a cardiac proteinopathy mouse model and to determine the effect of genetic manipulation of TFEB expression on autophagy and proteotoxicity in a cardiomyocyte model of proteinopathy. We found that increased myocardial TFEB mRNA levels and a TFEB protein isoform switch were associated with marked decreases in the mRNA levels of representative TFEB target genes and increased mTORC1 activation, in mice with cardiac transgenic expression of a missense (R120G) mutant αB-crystallin (CryAB R120G ), a well-established model of cardiac proteinopathy. Using neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocyte cultures, we demonstrated that downregulation of TFEB decreased autophagic flux in cardiomyocytes both at baseline and during CryAB R120G overexpression and increased CryAB R120G protein aggregates. Conversely, forced TFEB overexpression increased autophagic flux and remarkably attenuated the CryABR 120G overexpression-induced accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, caspase 3 cleavage, LDH leakage, and decreases in cell viability. Moreover, these protective effects of TFEB were dramatically diminished by inhibiting autophagy. We conclude that myocardial TFEB signaling is impaired in cardiac proteinopathy and forced TFEB overexpression protects against proteotoxicity in cardiomyocytes through improving ALP activity.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Pyles, Timothy. (2017). “DIONYSUS IN THE MIRROR: HAMLET AS NIETZSCHE’S DIONYSIAN MAN.” Philosophy and Literature, 41(1A), A128-A141.

This Nietzschean reading of Hamlet will provide clarification of what Nietzsche meant in The Birth of Tragedy by such concepts as the Dionysian man and metaphysical comfort, and why and how the performance of tragedy, and the presence of music in and around such a performance, is central-in fact, is necessary-to the transition from Dionysian despair to metaphysical comfort. My application of Nietzsche to Hamlet, then, will illuminate both Hamlet and The Birth of Tragedy.

Theatre Department.

 

Rood, Brian A., Reisner, Sari L., Puckett, Jae A., Surace, Francisco I., Berman, Ariel K., & Pantalone, David W. (2017). “Internalized transphobia: Exploring perceptions of social messages in transgender and gender-nonconforming adults.” International Journal of Transgenderism, 18(4), 411-426.

Background: Transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) individuals encounter a variety of minority stressors that have yet to be fully articulated or explored within the research literature. The purpose of this study is to better understand internalized stigma—the experience of accepting and internalizing negative social messages and experiences about one’s identity—an underexplored minority stressor for TGNC people. Method: We conducted in-depth interviews with 30 diverse TGNC participants using consensual qualitative research (CQR) methodology. Results: Following data saturation and analysis, six distinct themes emerged across participants: (1) TGNC identities are regarded negatively by society; (2) social messages are perceived as originating from the media and religious ideology; (3) TGNC individuals report emotional distress; (4) negative self-perceptions in response to social messages; (5) TGNC individuals report resilience processes in response to negative social messages; and (6) social messages are perceived generally to differentially impact TGNC people of color. Conclusion: Findings highlight the common experience of encountering social marginalization for TGNC individuals. Structural interventions that target pervasive sociocultural messages regarding TGNC identities are warranted.

Psychology Department.

 

Rood, B. A., Maroney, M. R., Puckett, Jae A., Berman, A. K., Reisner, S. L., & Pantalone, D. W. (2017). “Identity Concealment in Transgender Adults: A Qualitative Assessment of Minority Stress and Gender Affirmation.” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 87(6), 704-713.

Minority individuals might conceal their identity in social contexts in an effort to avoid stigma and victimization. Unfortunately, identity concealment is thought to impact psychological distress in transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) individuals. Thus, through 30 in-depth interviews, we sought to understand if and how identity concealment was experienced by TGNC individuals. Findings indicated that (a) TGNC identity concealment is a source of stress, (b) individuals might conceal their TGNC identity based on social context, (c) concealment of assigned sex and gender history can function to affirm one’s true gender identity, and (d) concealment of gender history is a rejection of one’s assigned sex. In addition, (a) passing/blending is an important interpersonal and intrapersonal process, (b) the importance of passing/blending can change over time, and (c) not passing/blending may result in worrying about personal safety. The authors discuss how concealment can both inhibit and promote psychological health for TGNC individuals, and they offer clinical applications for health providers. Public Policy Relevance Statement Concealing one’s transgender identity appears to be associated with psychological distress; however, concealing one’s assigned physical body and gender history might function to affirm one’s true gender. Thus, policymakers in different social contexts-schools, employment, health care-should work to promote transgender inclusivity and create supportive settings where transgender individuals can affirm their true gender without fear of retribution.

Psychology Department.

 

Schlenker, Evelyn H. (2017). “Sexual dimorphism of cardiopulmonary regulation in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.” Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 245, 37-44.

The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ANH) interacts with other hypothalamic nuclei, forebrain regions, and downstream brain sites to affect autonomic nervous system outflow, energy balance, temperature regulation, sleep, arousal, neuroendocrine function, reproduction, and cardiopulmonary regulation. Compared to studies of other ANH functions, how the ANH regulates cardiopulmonary function is less understood. Importantly, the ANH exhibits structural and functional sexually dimorphic characteristics and contains numerous neuroactive substances and receptors including leptin, neuropeptide Y, glutamate, acetylcholine, endorphins, orexin, kisspeptin, insulin, Agouti-related protein, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript, dopamine, somatostatin, components of renin-angiotensin system and gamma amino butyric acid that modulate physiological functions. Moreover, several clinically relevant disorders are associated with ANH ventilatory control dysfunction. This review highlights how ANH neurotransmitter systems and receptors modulate breathing differently in male and female rodents. Results highlight the significance of the ANH in cardiopulmonary regulation. The paucity of studies in this area that will hopefully spark investigations of sexually dimorphic ANH-modulation of breathing. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Schroeder, Michael J., & Lloyd, M. S. (2017). “Tissue Engineering Strategies for Auricular Reconstruction.” Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 28(8), 2007-2011.

Simulating natural characteristics and aesthetics in reconstructed ears has provided a complex 3-dimensional puzzle for those treating patients with microtia. Costochondral grafts remain the gold standard for autologous reconstruction. However, other options such as Medpor and prosthetics are indicated depending on patient circumstances and personal choice. Research into tissue engineering offers an alternative method to a traditional surgical approach that may reduce donor-site morbidity. However, tissue engineering for microtia reconstruction brings new challenges such as cell sourcing, promotion of chondrogenesis, scaffold vascularization, and prevention of scaffold contraction. Advancements in 3D printing, nanofiber utilization, stem cell technologies, and decellularization techniques have played significant roles in overcoming these challenges. These recent advancements and reports of a successful clinical-scale study in an immunocompetent animal suggest a promising outlook for future clinical application of tissue engineering for auricular reconstruction.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Simmons, Thomas E. (2017). “PREQUEL TO HOMESTEAD.” South Dakota Law Review, 62(2), 332-396.

Homestead laws reflect value judgments which balance the free functioning of commercial enterprise and business transactions against a family’s interests in shelter and a home. In South Dakota’s history, this tension has been displayed in legislative enactments, judicial reasoning, and even statewide referendums. An examination of the significant events at two ends of this chronology reveals the expression of societal values in law and the dynamics of the pre-statehood origins of homestead laws in the context of competing policies and interests. This article proceeds by outlining the general purposes and sources for homestead laws, followed by a sketch of existing homestead laws under the contemporary statutory framework. Next, the history leading up to the enactment of constitutional homestead protections in South Dakota’s 1889 Constitution is considered. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

School of Law.

 

Simons, Jeffrey S.Emery, Noah N.Simons, Raluca M., Wills, Thomas A., & Webb, Michael K. (2017). “Effects of alcohol, rumination, and gender on the time course of negative affect.” Cognition & Emotion, 31(7), 1405-1418.

This study modelled associations between gender, ruminative cognitive style, alcohol use, and the time course of negative affect over the course of 43,111 random assessments in the natural environment. Participants (N = 263) completed 49 days of experience sampling over 1.3 years. The data indicated that rumination at baseline was positively associated with alcohol dependence symptoms at baseline as well as higher negative affect over the course of the study. Consistent with negative reinforcement models, drinking served to decrease the persistence of negative affect from moment to moment. However, this ameliorative effect of drinking was evident only among women, suggesting an increased risk for negative reinforcement driven drinking behaviour. In addition, rumination appeared to counteract the desired effects of alcohol on mood among women. This suggests that women who ruminate more may be motivated to consume larger amounts of alcohol to achieve the desired effects. Overall, the results indicate that ruminative cognitive style and the persistence of negative affect from moment to moment may reflect an individual vulnerability for the development of alcohol use disorder especially among women.

Psychology Department.

 

Struckman-Johnson, CindyNalan-Sheffield, KaylaGaster, Samuel, & Struckman-Johnson, Dave. (2017). “Sexual behavior in parked cars reported by Midwestern college men and women.” Journal of Sex Research, 54(8), 1064-1076.

In an anonymous survey of 195 men and 511 women (Mage = 19.8) at a small Midwestern university, 119 men (61%) and 303 women (59.5%) reported that they had engaged in sex while parked. Of these 422, 14% lost their virginity in a parked car. Having sex in parked cars was more likely to involve relational dating partners than hookups. In most recent incidents, the majority of respondents were with a serious but noncohabiting romantic partner (56.9%) in the back seat (63.4%) of a standard car (56.4%) parked out in the country (56.0%). The most common sexual acts were penile-vaginal sex and genital touching, reported by 84.6% and 57.5% of respondents, respectively. Condoms were used by 58.2% of respondents. Less than 1% of respondents reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or pregnancy outcomes. These data, including personal stories of memorable incidents, revealed that despite discomfort, body bumps, and risk of being caught, sex while parked was primarily a positive sexual and romantic experience for both men and women. A dark side of parked-car sex existed in that 2.5% of men and 4.3% of women reported being sexually coerced. The future study of sex in parked cars in urban environments is recommended. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Psychology Department.

 

Swanson, David, Andrew McKechnie, & François Vézina. (2017). “How low can you go? An adaptive energetic framework for interpreting basal metabolic rate variation in endotherms.” Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic & Environmental Physiology, 187(8), 1039-1056.

Adaptive explanations for both high and low body mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR) in endotherms are pervasive in evolutionary physiology, but arguments implying a direct adaptive benefit of high BMR are troublesome from an energetic standpoint. Here, we argue that conclusions about the adaptive benefit of BMR need to be interpreted, first and foremost, in terms of energetics, with particular attention to physiological traits on which natural selection is directly acting. We further argue from an energetic perspective that selection should always act to reduce BMR (i.e., maintenance costs) to the lowest level possible under prevailing environmental or ecological demands, so that high BMR per se is not directly adaptive. We emphasize the argument that high BMR arises as a correlated response to direct selection on other physiological traits associated with high ecological or environmental costs, such as daily energy expenditure (DEE) or capacities for activity or thermogenesis. High BMR thus represents elevated maintenance costs required to support energetically demanding lifestyles, including living in harsh environments. BMR is generally low under conditions of relaxed selection on energy demands for high metabolic capacities (e.g., thermoregulation, activity) or conditions promoting energy conservation. Under these conditions, we argue that selection can act directly to reduce BMR. We contend that, as a general rule, BMR should always be as low as environmental or ecological conditions permit, allowing energy to be allocated for other functions. Studies addressing relative reaction norms and response times to fluctuating environmental or ecological demands for BMR, DEE, and metabolic capacities and the fitness consequences of variation in BMR and other metabolic traits are needed to better delineate organismal metabolic responses to environmental or ecological selective forces.

Biology Department.

 

Thornburg, Danielle A.Paulson, Wade E.Thompson, Paul. A., & Bjordahl, Paul M.(2017). “Pretransfer CT scans are frequently performed, but rarely helpful in rural trauma systems.” American Journal of Surgery, 214(6), 1061-1064.

Background: Rural trauma patients often undergo workup prior to transfer to a trauma center. Repeat and redundant imaging at the trauma center is common. Methods: Two hundred consecutive adult trauma patients transferred to a regional trauma center were retrospectively evaluated. Results: 197 patients met criteria. 152 underwent CT scan prior to transfer and CT was the indication for transfer in 88 patients (44.7%). One intervention was performed as a result of CT imaging. 84 patients (55.3%) received repeat CT imaging. There were no statistically significant differences in rates of CT imaging at the outside facility based on injury severity, mechanism of injury, or age. The most common reason for repeat CT scans was incomplete initial imaging. The ability to obtain initial imaging was not a significant factor. Conclusions: Repeat CT imaging in transferred trauma patients is very common. The majority of reimaging is done for incomplete initial imaging. Rural trauma systems may benefit from improved protocols for more efficient care. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Tirabassi, Christine K.Caraway, S. Jean, & Simons, Raluca M. (2017). “Women’s Behavioral Responses to Sexual Aggression: The Role of Secondary Cognitive Appraisals and Self-Regulation.” Violence against Women, 23(14), 1689-1709.

Sexual assault history, secondary cognitive appraisals, and a dual-process model of self-regulation were examined as predictors of women’s intended behavioral responses to hypothetical sexual aggression. College women (N = 435) read a sexually aggressive scenario and rated their intentions to engage in assertive, polite, and passive behavioral responses. Results indicated secondary cognitive appraisals predicted less assertive, more polite, and more passive responses. Good self-control predicted assertive and polite responses, while sexual assault history and poor regulation predicted passive responses. Poor regulation significantly moderated the relationship between secondary cognitive appraisals and passive behavioral responses. Implications for the prevention of sexual assault are discussed.

Psychology Department.

 

Tiwari, AshokC. ZhangD. M. Mei, & P. Cushman. (2017). “Observation of annual modulation induced by gamma rays from (alpha, gamma) reactions at the Soudan Underground Laboratory.” Physical Review C, 96(4), 7.

Annual modulation of gamma rays from (alpha, gamma) reactions in the Soudan Underground Laboratory was observed using a 12-liter scintillation detector. This significant annual modulation, measured over 4 years, can mimic the signature for dark matter and can also generate potential background events for neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. The measured annual modulation of the event rate from (alpha, gamma) reactions is strongly correlated with the time-varying radon concentration observed independently in the laboratory. The alpha flux from radon decay is simulated starting from the measured radon concentration, and the gamma-ray flux is determined using the convolution of the alpha flux and the cross sections for (alpha, gamma) reactions. The calculated gamma-ray flux is sufficient to generate the measured event rate that exhibits an annual modulation.

Physics Department.

 

Valentine, Matthew, Dustin C. J. Bihm, Lior Wolf, H. Eugene Hoyme, Philip A. May, David Buckley, Wendy Kalberg, & Omar A. Abdul-Rahman. (2017). “Computer-Aided Recognition of Facial Attributes for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.” Pediatrics, 140(6), 1-8.

OBJECTIVES: To compare the detection of facial attributes by computer-based facial recognition software of 2-D images against standard, manual examination in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). METHODS: Participants were gathered from the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Epidemiology Research database. Standard frontal and oblique photographs of children were obtained during a manual, in-person dysmorphology assessment. Images were submitted for facial analysis conducted by the facial dysmorphology novel analysis technology (an automated system), which assesses ratios of measurements between various facial landmarks to determine the presence of dysmorphic features. Manual blinded dysmorphology assessments were compared with those obtained via the computer-aided system. RESULTS: Areas under the curve values for individual receiver-operating characteristic curves revealed the computer-aided system (0.88 ± 0.02) to be comparable to the manual method (0.86 ± 0.03) in detecting patients with FASD. Interestingly, cases of alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) were identified more efficiently by the computer- aided system (0.84 ± 0.07) in comparison to the manual method (0.74 ± 0.04). A facial gestalt analysis of patients with ARND also identified more generalized facial findings compared to the cardinal facial features seen in more severe forms of FASD. CONCLUSIONS: We found there was an increased diagnostic accuracy for ARND via our computer-aided method. As this category has been historically difficult to diagnose, we believe our experiment demonstrates that facial dysmorphology novel analysis technology can potentially improve ARND diagnosis by introducing a standardized metric for recognizing FASD-associated facial anomalies. Earlier recognition of these patients will lead to earlier intervention with improved patient outcomes.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Vinzant, NathanScholl, Jamie L.Wu, Chia-MingKindle, TrevorKoodali, Ranjit, &Forster, Gina L. (2017). “Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Delivery of Peptides to the Brain: Reversal of Anxiety during Drug Withdrawal.” Frontiers in Neuroscience, 11.

Targeting neuropeptide systems is important for future advancements in treatment of neurological and psychiatric illnesses. However, many of the peptides and their analogs do not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) efficiently. Nanoparticles such as iron oxide can cross the BBB, and here we describe a novel method for the conjugation of a peptide antisauvagine-30 (ASV-30) to iron oxide nanoparticles. Previous research has shown that direct infusion of ASV-30 into the brain reduces anxiety-like behavior in animal models via actions on corticotropin releasing factor type 2 (CRF2) receptors. Therefore, we tested whether iron oxide+ASV-30 complexes cross the BBB of rats and then determined whether iron oxide+ASV-30 nanoparticles are localized with CRF2-expressing neurons. Finally we tested the hypothesis that systemic infusion of iron oxide+ASV-30 can reduce anxiety-like behavior. First we describe the synthesis and demonstrate the stability of iron oxide-peptide nanoparticle complexes. Next, nanoparticles (87.7 mu g/kg Fe2O3) with or without ASV-30 (200 it mu g/kg, ip) were injected into male rats 30 min prior to transcardial perfusion and brain fixation for immunohistochemical analysis, or before testing on the elevated plus maze (EPM) in an amphetamine withdrawal model of anxiety. Systemically administered iron oxide+ASV-30 particles were present in the brain and associated with neurons, including those that express CRF2 receptors, but did not localize with the iron storage protein ferritin. Furthermore, systemic administration of ironoxide+ASV-30 reduced amphetamine withdrawal-induced anxiety without affecting locomotion, suggesting that the anxiolytic effects of ASV-30 were preserved and the bioavailability of ASV-30 was sufficient. The findings demonstrate a novel approach to peptide delivery across the BBB and provide insight as to the neural distribution and efficacy of this nanotechnology.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Chemistry Department.

 

Wang, GuojianMei, HaoMeng, XianghuaMei, Dongming, & Yang, Gang. (2018). “The electrical properties and distribution of indium in germanium crystals.” Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 74, 342-346.

Indium doped germanium crystals were grown in a hydrogen atmosphere using the Czochralski method. The electrical properties of indium doped germanium crystals were measured by Hall effect at 77 K. The axial and radial distributions of indium in the germanium crystals were investigated. The effective segregation coefficient of indium in germanium is determined to be 0.0009 with the concentration of indium from 3 × 10 12 ~1 × 10 19 cm −3 . The interface shape between melt and crystal determined the radial distribution of indium in germanium crystals.

Physics Department.

 

Watt, Michael J.Weber, Matthew A.Davies, Shaydel R., & Forster, Gina L. (2017). “Impact of juvenile chronic stress on adult cortico-accumbal function: Implications for cognition and addiction.” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 79(Part B), 136-154.

Repeated exposure to stress during childhood is associated with increased risk for neuropsychiatric illness, substance use disorders and other behavioral problems in adulthood. However, it is not clear how chronic childhood stress can lead to emergence of such a wide range of symptoms and disorders in later life. One possible explanation lies in stress-induced disruption to the development of specific brain regions associated with executive function and reward processing, deficits in which are common to the disorders promoted by childhood stress. Evidence of aberrations in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens function following repeated exposure of juvenile (pre- and adolescent) organisms to a variety of different stressors would account not only for the similarity in symptoms across the wide range of childhood stress-associated mental illnesses, but also their persistence into adulthood in the absence of further stress. Therefore, the goal of this review is to evaluate the current knowledge regarding disruption to executive function and reward processing in adult animals or humans exposed to chronic stress over the juvenile period, and the underlying neurobiology, with particular emphasis on the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. First, the role of these brain regions in mediating executive function and reward processing is highlighted. Second, the neurobehavioral development of these systems is discussed to illustrate how juvenile stress may exert long-lasting effects on prefrontal cortex-accumbal activity and related behavioral functions. Finally, a critical review of current animal and human findings is presented, which strongly supports the supposition that exposure to chronic stress (particularly social aggression and isolation in animal studies) in the juvenile period produces impairments in executive function in adulthood, especially in working memory and inhibitory control. Chronic juvenile stress also results in aberrations to reward processing and seeking, with increased sensitivity to drugs of abuse particularly noted in animal models, which is in line with greater incidence of substance use disorders seen in clinical studies. These consequences are potentially mediated by monoamine and glutamatergic dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, providing translatable therapeutic targets. However, the predominant use of male subjects and social-based stressors in preclinical studies points to a clear need for determining how both sex differences and stressor heterogeneity may differentially contribute to stress-induced changes to substrates mediating executive function and reward processing, before the impact of chronic juvenile stress in promoting adult psychopathology can be fully understood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Wei, W. Z.D. M. Mei, & C. Zhang. (2017). “Cosmogenic activation of germanium used for tonne-scale rare event search experiments.” Astroparticle Physics, 96, 24-31.

We report a comprehensive study of cosmogenic activation of germanium used for tonne-scale rare event Search experiments. The germanium exposure to cosmic rays on the Earth’s surface are simulated with and without a shielding container using Geant4 for a given cosmic muon, neutron, and proton energy spectrum. The production rates of various radioactive isotopes are obtained for different sources separately. We find that fast neutron induced interactions dominate the production rate of cosmogenic activation. Geant4-based simulation results are compared with the calculation of ACTIVIA and the available experimental data. A reasonable agreement between Geant4 simulations and several experimental data sets is presented. We predict that cosmogenic activation of germanium can set limits to the sensitivity of the next generation of tonne-scale experiments. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Physics Department.

Posted by: tadeterman | October 19, 2017

August 2017

Abgrall, N., E. Aguayo, F. T. Iiiavignone, …., D. Byram, A. S. Caldwell, Y. D. Chan, C. D. Christofferson, P. H. Chu, C. Cuesta, J. A. Detwiler, C. Dunagan, Yu Efremenko, H. Ejiri, & S. R. Elliott. (2017). Muon flux measurements at the davis campus of the sanford underground research facility with the majorana demonstrator veto system. Astroparticle Physics, 93, 70-75.

We report the first measurement of the total muon flux underground at the Davis Campus of the Sanford Underground Research Facility at the 4850 ft level. Measurements were performed using the Majorana Demonstrator muon veto system arranged in two different configurations. The measured total flux is ( 5.31 ± 0.17 ) × 10 − 9 μ /s/cm 2 .

Physics Department.

 

Adegoke, OludotunFangfang QiaoYanying LiuKristy LongleyShelley Feng, & Hongmin Wang. (2017). Overexpression of Ubiquilin-1 Alleviates Alzheimer’s Disease-Caused Cognitive and Motor Deficits and Reduces Amyloid-beta Accumulation in Mice.Journal of Alzheimers Disease, 59(2), 575-590.

Ubiquilin-1 (Ubqln1) is a ubiquitin-like protein that has been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, whether Ubqln1 modulates learning and memory and alters AD-like behavior and/or pathology has not been determined in animal models. To understand the function of Ubqln1 in vivo, we previously generated Ubqln1 transgenic (TG) mice that overexpress mouse Ubqln1. With the model, we here characterized the TG mouse cognitive behaviors and found that Ubqln1 TG mice showed better spatial learning and memory capabilities than their wild-type littermates in both radial arm water maze and Y-maze tests. Additionally, we crossed the Ubqln1 TG mice with the A beta PPswe/PSEN1dE9 double transgenic AD mouse to generate the AD/Ubqln1 triple TG (AD/TG) mice. Our results suggest that at 12 months of age following the onset of AD, AD/TG mice showed better spatial learning and memory than AD mice. AD/TG mice also exhibited better motor function than AD mice at the same age. Furthermore, compared to AD mice, AD/TG mice showed significant reduction in amyloid-beta 40 (A beta(40)) and A beta(42) levels in the cerebral cortex and in the hippocampus at the post-onset stage. The number of A beta plaques was significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex of AD/TG mice at this post-onset stage. Moreover, mature A beta PP level in AD/TG hippocampus was lower than that in AD hippocampus. These data not only provide a direct link between overexpression of Ubqln1 and altered learning and memory, but also raise the possibility that Ubqln1 is a potential therapeutic target for treating AD and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Allaire, J., William S. Harris, C. Vors, A. Charest, J. Marin, K. H. Jackson, A. Tchernof, P. Couture, & B. Lamarche. (2017). Supplementation with high-dose docosahexaenoic acid increases the Omega-3 Index more than high-dose eicosapentaenoic acid. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 120, 8-14.

Background: Recent studies suggest that eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids have distinct effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. The Omega-3 Index (030, which is calculated as the proportion of EPA and DHA in red blood cell (RBC) membranes, has been inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart diseases and coronary mortality. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of EPA and DHA supplementation on the 031 in men and women with abdominal obesity and subclinical inflammation. Methods: In a double-blind controlled crossover study, 48 men and 106 women with abdominal obesity and subclinical inflammation were randomized to a sequence of three-treatment phases: 1-2.7 g/d of EPA, 2-2.7 g/d of DHA, and 3-3 g/d of corn oil (0 g of EPA +DHA). All supplements were provided as 3 x 1 g capsules for a total of 3 g/d. The 10-week treatment phases were separated by nine-week washouts. RBC membrane fatty acid composition and 031 were assessed at baseline and the end of each phase. Differences in 031 between treatments were assessed using mixed models for repeated measures. Results: The increase in the 031 after supplementation with DHA (+ 5.6% compared with control, P < 0.0001) was significantly greater than after EPA (+ 3.3% compared with control, P < 0.0001; DHA vs. EPA, P < 0.0001). Compared to control, DHA supplementation decreased (-0.8%, P < 0.0001) while EPA increased (+ 2.5%, P < 0.0001) proportion of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in RBCs (DHA vs. EPA, P < 0.0001). The baseline 031 was higher in women than in men (6.3% vs. 5.8%, P = 0.011). The difference between DHA and EPA in increasing the 031 tended to be higher in men than in women (+ 2.6% vs. + 2.2% respectively, P for the treatment by sex interaction = 0.0537). Conclusions: The increase in the 031 is greater with high dose DHA supplementation than with high dose EPA, which is consistent with the greater potency of DHA to modulate cardiometabolic risk factors. The extent to which such differences between EPA and DHA in increasing the 031 relates to long-term cardiovascular risk needs to be investigated in the future.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Ammann, E. M., James V. Pottala, J. G. Robinson, M. A. Espeland, & William S. Harris. (2017). Erythrocyte omega-3 fatty acids are inversely associated with incident dementia: Secondary analyses of longitudinal data from the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS). Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 121, 68-75.

Objective: To assess whether red blood cell (RBC) docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid (DHA + EPA) levels have a protective association with the risk of dementia in older women. Methods: RBC DHA + EPA levels were assessed at baseline, and cognitive status was evaluated annually in a cohort of 6706 women aged >= 65 years who participated in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS). Cox regression was used to quantify the association between RBC DHA + EPA and the risk of probable dementia, independent of major dementia risk factors. Results: During a median follow-up period of 9.8 years, 587 incident cases of probable dementia were identified. After adjusting for demographic, clinical, and behavioral risk factors, a one standard deviation increase in DHA + EPA levels was associated with a significantly lower risk of dementia (HR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.00; p < 0.05). This effect estimate did not meaningfully change after further adjustment for baseline cognitive function and APOE genotype. For women with high DHA + EPA exposure (1 SD above mean) compared to low exposure (1 SD below mean), the adjusted 15-year absolute risk difference for dementia was 2.1% (95% CI: 0.2%, 4.0%). In secondary analyses, we also observed a protective association with longitudinal change in Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) Exam scores, but no significant association with incident MCI, PD/MCI, or baseline 3MS scores. Discussion: Higher levels of DHA + EPA may help protect against the development of dementia. Results from prospective randomized controlled trials of DHA + EPA supplementation are needed to help clarify whether this association is causal.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Borja, Mark S., Bradley Hammerson, Chongren Tang, Olga V. SavinovaGregory C. Shearer, & Michael N. Oda. (2017). Apolipoprotein A-I exchange is impaired in metabolic syndrome patients asymptomatic for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PLoS ONE, 12(8), 1-16.

Objective: We tested the hypothesis that HDL-apolipoprotein A-I exchange (HAE), a measure of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function and a key step in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), is impaired in metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) patients who are asymptomatic for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We also compared HAE with cell-based cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) to address previous reports that CEC is enhanced in MetSyn populations. Methods: HAE and ABCA1-specific CEC were measured as tests of HDL function in 60 MetSyn patients and 14 normolipidemic control subjects. Predictors of HAE and CEC were evaluated with multiple linear regression modeling using clinical markers of MetSyn and CVD risk. Results: HAE was significantly reduced in MetSyn patients (49.0 ± 10.9% vs. 61.2 ± 6.1%, P < 0.0001), as was ABCA1-specific CEC (10.1 ± 1.6% vs. 12.3 ± 2.0%, P < 0.002). Multiple linear regression analysis identified apoA-I concentration as a significant positive predictor of HAE, and MetSyn patients had significantly lower HAE per mg/dL of apoA-I (P = 0.004). MetSyn status was a negative predictor of CEC, but triglyceride (TG) was a positive predictor of CEC, with MetSyn patients having higher CEC per mg/dL of TG, but lower overall CEC compared to controls. Conclusions: MetSyn patients have impaired HAE that contributes to reduced capacity for ABCA1-mediated CEC. MetSyn status is inversely correlated with CEC but positively correlated with TG, which explains the contradictory results from earlier MetSyn studies focused on CEC. HAE and CEC are inhibited in MetSyn patients over a broad range of absolute apoA-I and HDL particle levels, supporting the observation that this patient population bears significant residual cardiovascular disease risk.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Bula, Fernando, & M. H. Rathore. (2016). Is the Birth PCR Still Necessary for HIV Exposed Newborns? Annals of King Edward Medical University Lahore Pakistan, 22(4), 333-334.

In 2009 the Unites States Public Health Service (USPHS) changed its recommendations for diagnostic testing of HIV exposed infants. However, barriers for compliance to testing remain. We evaluated the compliance with the 2009 USPHS recommendation at our center. A total of 244 HIV exposed infants were identified from 2009 to 2012. HIV DNA PCR was done in less than 48 hours of life in 216 (90.7%) infants, between 14-21 days in 143 (60.1%). We believe it remains important to perform HIV testing at birth especially when testing at 14 to 21 days of life cannot be assured.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Burrell, Brian D. (2017). Comparative biology of pain: What invertebrates can tell us about how nociception works. Journal of Neurophysiology, 117(4), 1461-1473.

The inability to adequately treat chronic pain is a worldwide health care crisis. Pain has both an emotional and a sensory component, and this latter component, nociception, refers specifically to the detection of damaging or potentially damaging stimuli. Nociception represents a critical interaction between an animal and its environment and exhibits considerable evolutionary conservation across species. Using comparative approaches to understand the basic biology of nociception could promote the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat pain, and studies of nociception in invertebrates can provide especially useful insights toward this goal. Both vertebrates and invertebrates exhibit segregated sensory pathways for nociceptive and nonnociceptive information, injury-induced sensitization to nociceptive and nonnociceptive stimuli, and even similar antinociceptive modulatory processes. In a number of invertebrate species, the central nervous system is understood in considerable detail, and it is often possible to record from and/or manipulate single identifiable neurons through either molecular genetic or physiological approaches. Invertebrates also provide an opportunity to study nociception in an ethologically relevant context that can provide novel insights into the nature of how injury-inducing stimuli produce persistent changes in behavior. Despite these advantages, invertebrates have been underutilized in nociception research. In this review, findings from invertebrate nociception studies are summarized, and proposals for how research using invertebrates can address questions about the fundamental mechanisms of nociception are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Chen, Hui-Hua, Yi-Ching Liang, Susan C. GappLisa A. Newland, Jarod T. Giger, & Chunn-Ying Lin. (2017). Direct and Indirect Links Between the Couple Relationship and Child School Outcomes. Journal of Experimental Education, 85(4), 658-673.

This study measured aspects of the couple relationship to examine direct and indirect relations with parental involvement in education and children’s school outcomes. The sample (n= 100) consisted of families that have at least one child between the ages of 8 and 11 in urban central Taiwan. Findings indicated that couple relationship quality is related to parent involvement and parent involvement is related to child school outcomes. Aspects of the couple relationship were also related to children’s negative attitudes toward school. Path analyses showed a direct path from dyadic consensus to school success and an indirect path from coparenting strategy use to child school success through parental involvement in education. Bootstrap analyses confirmed the reliability of the models.

School of Education.

 

Chiang, J. Y., Y. L. Lio, & T. R. Tsai. (2017). MEWMA Control Chart and Process Capability Indices for Simple Linear Profiles with Within-profile Autocorrelation. Quality and Reliability Engineering International, 33(5), 1083-1094.

A multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) control chart is proposed for detecting process shifts during the phase II monitoring of simple linear profiles (SLPs) in the presence of within-profile autocorrelation. The proposed control chart is called MEWMA-SLP. Furthermore, two process capability indices are proposed for evaluating the capability of in-control SLP processes, and their utilization is demonstrated through examples. Intensive simulations reveal that the MEWMA-SLP chart is more sensitive than existing control charts in detecting profile shifts. Copyright (c) 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Mathematics Department.

 

Chiang, J. Y., J. P. Zhu, T. R. Tsai, Y. L. Lio, & Nan Jiang. (2017). An innovative sampling scheme for resubmitted lots by attributes. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 91(9-12), 4019-4031.

Govindaraju and Ganesalingam (Govindaraju and Ganesalingam in Commun Stat-Simul Comput 26(3)1163-1176, 1997) proposed a single-sampling plan for resubmitted lots, referred as resubmitted single-sampling plan (RSSP). This study introduces an innovative sampling scheme for refining the performance of RSSP, and we denote the new resubmitted single-sampling plan by NRSSP. The NRSSP incorporates all information in the sequence of the numbers of defective products from testing all resubmitted lots to make lot acceptance decision. Moreover, a sufficient condition such that three competitive optimisation procedures reach identical resampling plan is determined. Compared with the RSSP, the NRSSP is more powerful to reach a lot acceptance decision. The NRSSPs are established for three real examples to minimise the average sampling number function and a total cost function and to meet the specific risks of producer and consumer, respectively. Moreover, the performance of the NRSSP is compared with the repetitive-sampling plan and double-sampling plan.

Mathematics Department.

 

De Jong, David, Trent Grundmeyer, & Julie Yankey. (2017). Identifying and addressing themes of job dissatisfaction for secondary principals. School Leadership & Management, 37(4), 354-371.

Secondary principals serve in important roles that are complex, high-stress, and include demanding job responsibilities. Key stakeholders such as superintendents, school board members, and legislators must understand the challenges facing secondary principals in order to address the current themes of job dissatisfaction. Using new survey data compiled from 176 secondary principals across a state in the Midwest United States, this study shows four themes of job dissatisfaction are plaguing secondary principals: high job demands with unreasonable expectations, managing difficult stakeholders, problematic work/life balance, and lack of support. This study concludes with practical suggestions to address each theme of job dissatisfaction.

School of Education.

 

Emery, Noah N., & Jeffrey S. Simons. (2017). A Reinforcement Sensitivity Model of Affective and Behavioral Dysregulation in Marijuana Use and Associated Problems.Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 25(4), 281-294.

This study tested a model linking sensitivity to punishment (SP) and reward (SR) to marijuana use and problems via affect lability and poor control. A 6-month prospective design was used in a sample of 2,270 young-adults (64% female). The hypothesized SP x SR interaction did not predict affect lability or poor control, but did predict use likelihood at baseline. At low levels of SR, SP was associated with an increased likelihood of abstaining, which was attenuated as SR increased. SP and SR displayed positive main effects on both affect lability and poor control. Affect lability and poor control, in turn, mediated effects on the marijuana outcomes. Poor control predicted both increased marijuana use and, controlling for use level, greater intensity of problems. Affect lability predicted greater intensity of problems, but was not associated with use level. There were few prospective effects. SR consistently predicted greater marijuana use and problems. SP however, exhibited both risk and protective pathways. Results indicate that SP is associated with a decreased likelihood of marijuana use. However, once use is initiated SP is associated with increased risk of problems, in part, due to its effects on both affect and behavioral dysregulation.

Psychology Department.

 

Emken, T., C. Kouvaris, & Ian M. Shoemaker. (2017). Terrestrial effects on dark matter-electron scattering experiments. Physical Review D, 96(1), 7.

A well-studied possibility is that dark matter may reside in a sector secluded from the Standard Model, except for the so-called photon portal: kinetic mixing between the ordinary and dark photons. Such interactions can be probed in dark matter direct detection experiments, and new experimental techniques involving detection of dark matter-electron scattering offer new sensitivity to sub-GeV dark matter. Typically however it is implicitly assumed that the dark matter is not altered as it traverses the Earth to arrive at the detector. In this paper we study in detail the effects of terrestrial stopping on dark photon models of dark matter, and find that they significantly reduce the sensitivity of XENON10 and DAMIC. In particular we find that XENON10 only excludes masses in the range (5-3000) MeV while DAMIC only probes (20-50) MeV. Their corresponding cross section sensitivity is reduced to a window of cross sections between (5x 10(- 38)-10(- 30)) cm(2) for XENON10 and a small window around similar to 10(- 31) cm(2) for DAMIC. We also examine implications for a future DAMIC run.

Physics Department.

 

Fleischman, G. M., Teresa Stephenson, K. B. Walker, & K. A. Cook. (2017). Factors That Influence Accounting Faculty Career Satisfaction: Comparisons by Program Prestige and Tenure Status. Accounting Horizons, 31(3), 1-20.

We report results of 266 surveys from untenured and tenured accounting faculty employed by both elite and non-elite accounting programs concerning factors that influence career satisfaction. We find that accounting academics are somewhat satisfied with their jobs, although factors that enhance or impair career satisfaction differ for faculty at elite versus non-elite programs and for untenured versus tenured faculty. Our findings suggest noteworthy implications for the accounting academy and provide insights about cultural differences between elite versus non-elite accounting programs.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Goodman, Barbara E. (2017). How do the Institutes on Teaching and Learning (ITLs) nurture the members of the Physiology Educators Community of Practice (PECOP)?Advances in Physiology Education, 41(3), 354-356.

Do you teach physiology? Do you use best practices when you teach physiology? Have you ever thought about conducting educational research? Do you need collaborators to help with ideas for educational research or to expand your research populations? The American Physiological Society (APS) Teaching Section has developed a biennial Institute on Teaching and Learning (ITL) through the APS Conference Program to address these issues. The first institute was held in June 2014, and the second institute was held in June 2016. A Physiology Education Community of Practice (PECOP) was created to help connect the institute participants and other physiology educators and to share evidence-based teaching in physiology at all education levels. The 2018 APS ITL will be the next meeting to learn best practices, to share ideas with colleagues, and to find collaborators in improving the teaching of physiology for students. The meeting will include workshops modeling best practices, plenary talks about hot new issues in physiology and science education, and poster sessions and informal meals to discuss interests with colleagues. Even if one’s primary responsibility is bench research or administration, the training from the institute will improve efficiency and effectiveness when teaching. The two prior ITLs (2014 and 2016) were highly evaluated by educators of both undergraduate and professional students who spent a week together emphasizing improvement in their teaching.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Grausam, Katie B., S. D. R. Dooyema, L. Bihannic, Hasitha Premathilake, A. S. Morrissy, A. Forget, A. M. Schaefer, J. H. Gundelach, S. Macura, D. M. Maher, X. Wang, Alex H. Heglin, X. J. Ge, E. L. Zeng, S. Puget, Indra ChandrasekarKameswaran Surendran, R. J. Bram, U. Schuller, M. D. Talyor, O. Ayrault, & Haotian Zhao. (2017). ATOH1 Promotes Leptomeningeal Dissemination and Metastasis of Sonic Hedgehog Subgroup Medulloblastomas. Cancer Research, 77(14), 3766-3777.

Medulloblastoma arising from the cerebellum is the most common pediatric brain malignancy, with leptomeningeal metas-tases often present at diagnosis and recurrence associated with poor clinical outcome. In this study, we used mouse medulloblastoma models to explore the relationship of tumor pathophysiology and dysregulated expression of the NOTCH pathway transcription factor ATOH1, which is present in aggressive medulloblastoma subtypes driven by aberrant Sonic Hedgehog/Patched (SHH/PTCH) signaling. In experiments with conditional ATOH1 mouse mutants crossed to Ptch1(-/-) mice, which develop SHH-driven medulloblastoma, animals with Atoh1 transgene expression developed highly penetrant medulloblastoma at a young age with extensive leptomeningeal disease and metastasis to the spinal cord and brain, resembling xenografts of human SHH medulloblastoma. Metastatic tumors retained abnormal SHH signaling like tumor xenografts. Conversely, ATOH1 expression was detected consistently in recurrent and metastatic SHH medulloblastoma. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and gene expression profiling identified candidate ATOH1 targets in tumor cells involved in development and tumorigenesis. Among these targets specific to metastatic tumors, there was an enrichment in those implicated in extracellular matrix remodeling activity, cytoskeletal network and interaction with microenvironment, indicating a shift in transcriptomic and epigenomic landscapes during metastasis. Treatment with bone morphogenetic protein or SHH pathway inhibitors decreased tumor cell proliferation and suppressed metastatic tumor growth, respectively. Our work reveals a dynamic ATOH1-driven molecular cascade underlying medullo-blastomametastasis that offers possible therapeutic opportunities.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Hagen, Benjamin D. (2017). Feeling Shadows: Virginia Woolf’s Sensuous Pedagogy. Pmla-Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, 132(2), 266-+.

Virginia Woolf’s “A Sketch of the Past” (1939-40) develops her most radical ontological and pedagogical insights, which are inseparably connected by her concept “moments of being” redefined in this essay as pedagogical accidents. This redefinition opens readers to an unexplored dimension of Woolf’s late thought: namely, the reorientation of learning and teaching around the creative function of accidents, the unhinged temporality of “sudden violent shock[s]” that repeat their difference across one’s lifespan, and the prioritization of feeling. The nonlinear, nonrealist, and nonsequential temporality of these events serves Woolf as a model not only for the memoir but for the double task of learning how to write her life otherwise and of teaching her potential readers the shapes and intensities of their own selves and lives. My reading of Woolf’s memoir as a work of “sensuous pedagogy” attempts to account for the importance of feeling to this task.

English Department.

 

Han, Yulun, B. Rasulev, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2017). Photofragmentation of Tetranitromethane: Spin-Unrestricted Time-Dependent Excited-State Molecular Dynamics. Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 8(14), 3185-3192.

In this study, the photofragmentation dynamics of tetranitromethane (TNM) is explored by a spin-unrestricted time-dependent excited-state molecular dynamics (u-TDESMD) algorithm based on Rabi oscillations and principles similar to trajectory surface hopping, with a midintensity field approximation. The leading order process is represented by the molecule undergoing cyclic excitations and de excitations. During excitation cycles, the nuclear kinetic energy is accumulated to overcome the dissociation barriers in the reactant and a sequence of intermediates. The dissociation pathway includes the ejection of NO2 groups followed by the formation of NO and CO. The simulated mass spectra at the ab initio level, based on the bond length in possible fragments, are extracted from simulation trajectories. The recently developed methodology has the potential to model and monitor photoreactions with open-shell intermediates and radicals.

Chemistry Department.

 

Hong, Q. I. N., Kittipong Boonme, Benjamin George, & Victor Prybutok. (2017). The Moderating Effect of Gender in Urgent Care Service Satisfaction. Quality Management Journal, 24(3), 20-30.

The objective of this study is to investigate the extent to which gender serves as a moderator in the relationships between healthcare service quality, patient satisfaction, and behavioral intention in the urgent care industry. Using the data collected from 253 male and 209 female urgent care patients, the moderating effect of gender was examined through partial least square structural equation modeling. Gender was found significant in the relationship between urgent care quality and patient satisfaction. To improve patient satisfaction among males, urgent care providers should focus on reducing negative emotions among male patients. This can be done by reducing the gap between their expectations and their perceptions, creating a warm environment in the urgent care facility, and alleviating patients’ emotional vulnerability. The female community is more willing to pay a premium price and recommend the urgent care providers if they are satisfied. The practical implication is that urgent care providers should employ different strategies across gender to improve their perceptions of care quality and satisfaction level.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Hsu, Benson S.Benjamin D. Meyer, & Saquib A. Lakhani. (2017). Financial, Resource Utilization and Mortality Impacts of Teaching Hospital Status on Pediatric Patients Admitted for Sepsis. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 36(8), 712-719.

Background: With the changing healthcare landscape in the United States, teaching hospitals face increasing pressure to provide medical education as well as cost-effective care. Our study investigated the financial, resource utilization and mortality impact of teaching hospital status on pediatric patients admitted with sepsis. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, weighted statistical analysis of hospitalized children with the diagnosis of sepsis. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 2009 Kids’ Inpatient Database provided the data for analysis. Diagnosis of sepsis and severity of illness levels were based on All Patient Refined Diagnosis-Related Groups of 720: Septicemia and Disseminated Infections. Teaching hospital status was based on presence of training programs. Statistical analysis was conducted using STATA 12.1 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX). Results: Weighted analysis revealed 17,461 patients with sepsis-9982 in teaching and 7479 in nonteaching hospitals. When comparing all patients, length of stay (8.2 vs. 4.8, P < 0.001), number of procedures received (2.03 vs. 0.87, P < 0.001), mortality (4.7% vs. 1.6%, P < 0.001), costs per day ($ 2326 vs. $ 1736, P < 0.001) and total costs ($ 20,428 vs. $ 7960, P < 0.001) were higher in teaching hospitals. Even when stratified by severity classes, length of stay, number of procedures received and total costs were higher in teaching hospitals with no difference in mortality. Conclusions: Our study suggested that teaching hospitals provide pediatric inpatient care for sepsis at greater costs and resource utilization without a clear improvement in overall mortality rates in comparison with nonteaching hospitals.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Huang, H. B., M. X. Guo, N. N. Liu, C. Zhao, …., Xuejun Wang, C. E. Zhang, & J. B. Liu. (2017). Bilirubin neurotoxicity is associated with proteasome inhibition. Cell Death & Disease, 8, 12.

The molecular mechanism underlying bilirubin neurotoxicity remains obscure. Ubiquitin-proteasome system-mediated proteolysis is pivotal to virtually all cellular processes and cell survival. Here we report for the first time that bilirubin at a clinically relevant elevated level impairs proteasomal function via inhibiting both the 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (USP14 and UCHL5) and the chymotrypsin-like (CT-like) peptidase activity of 20S proteasomes, thereby contributing to bilirubin neurotoxicity. This is supported by multiple lines of evidence. First, sera from patients with hyperbilirubinemia were able to inhibit the peptidase activity of purified 20S proteasome in vitro in a bilirubin concentration-dependent manner; meanwhile, the blood cells of these patients showed significantly increased levels of ubiquitinated proteins (Ub-prs), consistent with proteasome inhibition. Second, intracerebroventricular injection to adult rats or intraperitoneal injections to neonatal rats of bilirubin-induced neural accumulation of Ub-prs, concurrent with other neural pathology; and brain malfunction and pathology induced by neonatal exposure to hyperbilirubinemia were detectable in the rats during their adulthood. Third, in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons, bilirubin strikingly induced Ub-pr accumulation before the activation of cell death pathway becomes discernible. Finally, bilirubin in vitro directly inhibited both the deubiquitination activity of proteasome-associated USP14 and UCHL5 and the CT-like peptidase activity of purified 20S proteasomes, in a dose-dependent manner. Hence, this study has discovered that increased bilirubin at a clinically achievable level can act as a proteasome inhibitor via targeting the 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (DUBs) and, perhaps to a less extent, the 20S proteasome, identifying a novel mechanism for bilirubin neurotoxicity.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Jenks, Christopher J. (2017). The semiotics of learning Korean at home: an ecological autoethnographic perspective. International Journal of Bilingual Education & Bilingualism, 20(6), 688-703.

This autoethnographic study examines how I re-learn Korean in, and through, interactions with family members at home. The analysis, which is informed by language ecology and sociocultural concepts of development, shows how semiotic and human resources, including material objects and more proficient speakers, play a mediating role in how I deal with the social and linguistic challenges of re-learning Korean. My findings uncover how temporally displaced events are interconnected and demonstrate that language learning can follow a non-linear trajectory. The paper ends with a number of methodological observations regarding the benefits of investigating language learning from an ecological, autoethnographic perspective.

English Department.

 

Kyoung Hag, Lee, Jun Jung Sim, Kim Yi Jin, Roh Soonhee, Moon Sung Seek, Bukonda Ngoyi, & Hines Lisa. (2017). Mental Health, Substance Abuse, and Suicide Among Homeless Adults. Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work, 14(4), 229-242.

This study explored the role of mental health and substance abuse problems on the suicidal ideation and suicide attempts of 156 homeless adults. The logistic regression results indicated that homeless adults with anxiety were significantly more likely than those without anxiety to have both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Also, homeless adults with drug abuse were significantly more likely than those without drug abuse to have suicidal ideation. The study suggests that to reduce the suicide of the homeless, case managers need to screen mental health and substance abuse issues and to provide appropriate treatment services at homeless shelters.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Lamichhane, SujanJordan A. Anderson, T. Vierhout, T. Remund, Hongli Sun, & P. Kelly. (2017). Polytetrafluoroethylene topographies determine the adhesion, activation, and foreign body giant cell formation of macrophages. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 105(9), 2441-2450.

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is one of the commonly used materials in making various cardiovascular implants. However, the success rates of these implants in several occasions are hindered by unwanted immune responses from immune cells, such as macrophages. In this study, we investigated the response of macrophages with different structures (flat, expanded, and electrospun) of PTFE having varied surface topographies: smooth planar surface (flat PTFE), node-fibrils (ePTFE), and randomly oriented microfibers (electrospun PTFE). The electrospun PTFE showed the least adhesion of macrophages. Also, the morphology of macrophages adhered on electrospun PTFE exhibited minimal activation. The macrophage pro-inflammatory cytokine secretions showed that the lowest level of TNF- was produced on electrospun PTFE whereas IP-10 was produced in lowest levels on expanded PTFE (ePTFE). The production of IL-6 and MCP-1 cytokines was also dependent on the structure of PTFE that the macrophages interacted with, but in a time-dependent manner. Confocal microscopy images taken at 7, 14, and 21 days showed that the electrospun PTFE resulted in the lowest percentage of macrophage fusion, thus indicating the least possible chance of foreign body giant cell (FBGC) formation. Therefore, this study showed that electrospun PTFE with randomly oriented microfibers can provide reduced adhesion, activation, and FBGC formation of macrophages compared to the smooth and planar surface of flat PTFE and node-fibril structured surface of ePTFE. (C) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Biomedical Engineering Department, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Lan, X. Y., C. Zhao, X. Chen, …., Xuejun Wang, X. P. Shi, & J. B. Liu. (2017). Platinum pyrithione induces apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia cells resistant to imatinib via DUB inhibition-dependent caspase activation and Bcr-Abl downregulation. Cell Death & Disease, 8, 12.

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is characterized by the chimeric tyrosine kinase Bcr-Abl. T315I Bcr-Abl is the most notorious point mutation to elicit acquired resistance to imatinib (IM), leading to poor prognosis. Therefore, it is urgent to search for additional approaches and targeting strategies to overcome IM resistance. We recently reported that platinum pyrithione (PtPT) potently inhibits the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) via targeting the 26 S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (DUBs), without effecting on the 20 S proteasome. Here we further report that (i) PtPT induces apoptosis in Bcr-Abl wild-type and Bcr-Abl-T315I mutation cells including the primary mononuclear cells from CML patients clinically resistant to IM, as well as inhibits the growth of IM-resistant Bcr-Abl-T315I xenografts in vivo; (ii) PtPT downregulates Bcr-Abl level through restraining Bcr-Abl transcription, and decreasing Bcr-Abl protein mediated by DUBs inhibition-induced caspase activation; (iii) UPS inhibition is required for PtPT-induced caspase activation and cell apoptosis. These findings support that PtPT overcomes IM resistance through both Bcr-Abl-dependent and -independent mechanisms. We conclude that PtPT can be a lead compound for further drug development to overcome imatinib resistance in CML patients.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Lane, David C. (2017). Understanding body modification: A process-based framework.Sociology Compass, 11(7), 15.

This manuscript evaluates existing literature on body modification. Prior research has focused on the modification itself, either the motivation for attaining it or the meanings behind it from the perspective of the wearer. Considering these prior findings, scholars have neglected to examine how body modifications are the outcome of a complex social process. This manuscript rectifies these weaknesses by addressing the field of body modification through the framework of cultural production. This shifts the focus from the outcome of a social process, the modification, to an analysis of the processes by which modifications are produced. By examining these processes, a more coherent theoretical understanding can be developed.

Social Behavior Department.

 

Lee, K. H., J. S. Jun, Y. J. Kim, Soonhee Roh, S. S. Moon, N. Bukonda, & L. Hines. (2017). Mental Health, Substance Abuse, and Suicide Among Homeless Adults. Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work, 14(4), 229-242.

This study explored the role of mental health and substance abuse problems on the suicidal ideation and suicide attempts of 156 homeless adults. The logistic regression results indicated that homeless adults with anxiety were significantly more likely than those without anxiety to have both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Also, homeless adults with drug abuse were significantly more likely than those without drug abuse to have suicidal ideation. The study suggests that to reduce the suicide of the homeless, case managers need to screen mental health and substance abuse issues and to provide appropriate treatment services at homeless shelters.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Louw, A., K. Zimney, M. R. Landers, M. Luttrell, Bob Clair, & J. Mills. (2016). A randomised controlled trial of ‘clockwise’ ultrasound for low back pain. South African Journal of Physiotherapy, 72(1), 7.

To examine how the choice of words explaining ultrasound (US) may influence the outcome of physiotherapy treatment for low back pain (LBP). Methods: Sixty-seven patients with LBP < 3 months were randomly allocated to one of three groups – traditional education about US (control group [CG]), inflated education about US (experimental group [EG]) or extra-inflated education about US (extra-experimental group [EEG]). Each patient received the exact same application of US that has shown clinical efficacy for LBP (1.5 Watts/cm(2) for 10 minutes at 1 Megahertz, pulsed 20% over a 20 cm(2) area), but received different explanations (CG, EG or EEG). Before and immediately after US, measurements of LBP and leg pain (numeric rating scale), lumbar flexion (distance to floor) and straight leg raise (SLR) (inclinometer) were taken. Statistical analysis consisted of mixedfactorial analyses of variance and chi-square analyses to measure differences between the three groups, as well as meeting or exceeding minimal detectable changes (MDCs) for pain, lumbar flexion and SLR. Results: Both EG and EEG groups showed a statistically significant improvement for SLR (p < 0.0001), while the CG did not. The EEG group participants were 4.4 times (95% confidence interval: 1.1 to 17.5) more likely to improve beyond the MDC than the CG. No significant differences were found between the groups for LBP, leg pain or lumbar flexion. Conclusion: The choice of words when applying a treatment in physiotherapy can alter the efficacy of the treatment.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Mackenzie, Lynette, Susan Coppola, Liliana Alvarez, …., Moses N. Ikiugu, Zdenka Pihlar, Sarinya Sriphetcharawut, Sue Baptiste, & Richard Ledgerd. (2017). International occupational therapy research priorities: A Delphi study. OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health, 37(2), 72-81.

Occupational therapy is a global profession represented by the World Federation of Occupational Therapists (WFOT). International research priorities are needed for strategic guidance on global occupational therapy practice. The objective of this study was to develop international research priorities to reflect global occupational therapy practice. A Delphi study using three rounds of electronic surveys, distributed to WFOT member organizations and WFOT accredited universities, was conducted. Data were analyzed after each round, and priorities were presented for rating and ranking in order of importance. Forty-six (53%) out of 87 WFOT member countries participated in the Delphi process. Eight research priorities were confirmed by the final electronic survey round. Differences were observed in rankings given by member organizations and university respondents. Despite attrition at Round 3, the final research priorities will help to focus research efforts in occupational therapy globally. Follow-up research is needed to determine how the research priorities are being adopted internationally. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

School of Health Sciences.

 

May, Philip A., Barbara Tabachnick, Julie M. Hasken, Anna-Susan Marais, …., & H. Eugene Hoyme. (2017). Who is most affected by prenatal alcohol exposure: Boys or girls?Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 177, 258-267.

To examine outcomes among boys and girls that are associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. Methods: Boys and girls with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and randomly-selected controls were compared on a variety of physical and neurobehavioral traits. Results: Sex ratios indicated that heavy maternal binge drinking may have significantly diminished viability to birth and survival of boys postpartum more than girls by age seven. Case control comparisons of a variety of physical and neurobehavioral traits at age seven indicate that both sexes were affected similarly for a majority of variables. However, alcohol-exposed girls had significantly more dysmorphology overall than boys and performed significantly worse on non-verbal IQ tests than males. A three-step sequential regression analysis, controlling for multiple covariates, further indicated that dysmorphology among girls was significantly more associated with five maternal drinking variables and three distal maternal risk factors. However, the overall model, which included five associated neurobehavioral measures at step three, was not significant (p=0.09, two-tailed test). A separate sequential logistic regression analysis of predictors of a FASD diagnosis, however, indicated significantly more negative outcomes overall for girls than boys (Nagelkerke R2=0.42 for boys and 0.54 for girls, z=-2.9, p=0.004).<bold>Conclusion: </bold>Boys and girls had mostly similar outcomes when prenatal alcohol exposure was linked to poor physical and neurocognitive development. Nevertheless, sex ratios implicate lower viability and survival of males by first grade, and girls have more dysmorphology and neurocognitive impairment than boys resulting in a higher probability of a FASD diagnosis.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Mayer, Aaron J.Matthew P. Sayre, & J. Jennings. (2017). Coming Together to Toast and Feed the Dead in the Cotahuasi Valley of Peru. Ethnobiology Letters, 8(1), 46-53.

There has been little discussion on the macrobotanical remains from Andean Middle Horizon sites. In this article, we present macrobotanical data from archaeological excavations at Tenahaha, a small mortuary center in the Cotahuasi Valley of Peru. While the people who attended Tenahaha may not have definitively been Wari, evidence suggests that they were likely influenced by the Wari. Our analysis revealed new insights into site use and the distribution of botanical staples during the Andean past. People used plants differently across time and how people chose to utilize plant resources from their environment provides insights into cultural practices. The local plant staples of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) and maize (Zea mays) were found in high densities in concentrated areas of the site. In addition, local plants such as Echinocactus (Echinocactus sp.), tubers (e.g., Solanum sp.), and the Peruvian peppertree (Schinus molle) were recovered in abundance. These remains provide insights into past public ceremonies and how the inhabitants used different areas of the site. The occurrence of sprouted maize and the fruit of peppertree in certain areas of the site seems to indicate ritual and/or ceremonial use of chicha during the Middle Horizon (AD 600-1050). The analysis of these macrobotanical remains provides a glimpse into the importance placed on bringing people together to commemorate the dead within the ancient Andes.

Social Behavior Department.

 

Mei, H.G. J. WangG. Yang, & D. M. Mei. (2017). The impact of neutral impurity concentration on charge drift mobility in n-type germanium. Journal of Instrumentation, 12, 14.

The impact of neutral impurity scattering of electrons on the charge drift mobility in high purity n-type germanium crystals at 77Kelvin is investigated. We calculated the contributions from ionized impurity scattering, lattice scattering, and neutral impurity scattering to the total charge drift mobility using theoretical models. The experimental data such as charge carrier concentration, mobility and resistivity are measured by Hall Effect system at 77Kelvin. The neutral impurity concentration is derived from the Matthiessen’s rule using the measured Hall mobility and ionized impurity concentration. The radial distribution of the neutral impurity concentration in the self-grown crystals is determined. Consequently, we demonstrated that neutral impurity scattering is a significant contribution to the charge drift mobility, which has a dependence on the concentration of neutral impurities in high purity n-type germanium crystal.

Physics Department.

 

Messerli, Shanta M.Mariah M. HoffmanEttienne Z. Gnimpieba, & Ratan D. Bhardwaj. (2017). Therapeutic Targeting of PTK7 is Cytotoxic in Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumors. Molecular Cancer Research, 15(8), 973-983.

Novel discoveries involving the evaluation of potential therapeutics are based on newly identified molecular targets for atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT), which are the most common form of infantile brain tumors. Central nervous system ATRTs are rare, aggressive, and fast growing tumors of the brain and spinal cord and carry a very poor prognosis. Currently, the standard of care for ATRT patients is based on surgical resection followed by systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which result in severe side effects. As protein tyrosine kinases have proven to be actionable targets that reduce tumor growth in a number of cancers, we examined how inhibiting tyrosine kinases affected ATRT tumor growth. Here, we examine the therapeutic efficacy of the broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor vatalanib in the treatment of ATRT. Vatalanib significantly reduced the w growth of ATRT tumor cell lines, both in two-dimensional cell culture and in three-dimensional cell culture using a spheroid model. As vatalanib had a remarkable effect on the growth of ATRT, we decided to use a transcriptomic approach to therapy by examining new actionable targets, such as tyrosine kinases. Next-generation RNA-sequencing and NanoString data analysis showed a significant increase in PTK7 RNA expression levels in ATRT tumors. Inhibition of PTK7 by siRNA treatment significantly decreases the viability of ATRT patient-derived tumor cell lines.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Myers, Michael M., Amy J. Elliott, Hein J. Odendaal, Larry Burd, Jyoti Angal, Coen Groenewald, James David Nugent, Joel S. Yang, Joseph R. Isler, Kim A. Dukes, Fay Robinson, William P. Fifer, & Pass Network. (2017). Cardiorespiratory physiology in the safe passage study: protocol, methods and normative values in unexposed infants. Acta Paediatrica, 106(8), 1260-1272.

The Safe Passage Study, conducted by the Prenatal Alcohol in SIDS and Stillbirth Network, is investigating contributions of prenatal alcohol exposure to foetal and infant demise. This current report presents physiological data from full-term infants with no prenatal exposure to alcohol or maternal smoking.<bold>Methods: </bold>Data are from 666 infants from the Northern Plains (North and South Dakota) and South Africa. A standardised protocol assessed cardiorespiratory function during baseline and head-up tilts shortly after birth and at one month of age.<bold>Results: </bold>Analyses revealed significant increases in heart rate and decreases in BP from the newborn to one-month time period as well as diminished heart rate responses to head-up tilt in one-month-old infants.<bold>Conclusion: </bold>The Safe Passage Study was successful in characterising physiology in a large number of infants at sites known to have elevated risks for SIDS. Results demonstrate that even with low prenatal adverse exposures, there are significant changes in cardiorespiratory function as infants enter the window of increased risk for SIDS.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Pickett, Andrew C., & George B. Cunningham. (2017). Creating Inclusive Physical Activity Spaces: The Case of Body-Positive Yoga. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 88(3), 329-338.

Within the modern cultural climate, those in larger bodies face high levels of weight stigma, particularly in sport and physical activity spaces, which serves as a strong barrier to their participation. However, given the strong link between physical activity and general health and well-being for participants, it is important to explore strategies that encourage participation of these individuals. Thus, the current research examined strategies that physical activity instructors use to develop inclusive exercise spaces for all body sizes.<bold>Method: </bold>This study employed a series of semistructured qualitative interviews (n = 9) with instructors of body-inclusive yoga classes to explore the ways in which they encourage participation for those in larger bodies.<bold>Results: </bold>Emergent themes from the current study suggested support for 6 factors for creating body-inclusive physical activity spaces: authentic leadership, a culture of inclusion, a focus on health, inclusive language, leader social activism, and a sense of community.<bold>Conclusion: </bold>This study revealed that leaders must intentionally cultivate inclusion in their spaces to encourage those in nonconforming bodies to participate. These findings have important health and management implications for the sport and physical activity context and provide a basic outline of practical strategies that practitioners can use to foster inclusion in their spaces.

School of Education.

 

Puckett, Jae A., Peter Cleary, Kinton Rossman, Brian Mustanski, & Michael E. Newcomb. (2017). Barriers to gender-affirming care for transgender and gender nonconforming individuals. Sexuality Research & Social Policy: A Journal of the NSRC.

Gender-affirming care, including hormone therapy, ‘top’ (e.g., chest reconstruction surgery) and ‘bottom’ (e.g., vaginoplasty, phalloplasty, metoidioplasty, etc.) surgeries, and puberty blockers, is an efficacious treatment of gender dysphoria for transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) individuals. However, many TGNC people encounter significant barriers in accessing gender-affirming care, which we detail via results from on online study. Participants included 256 TGNC individuals (78.9% White, ages 16–73, M age = 28.4). Among participants, 61.3% were receiving hormone therapy, 22.7% had undergone top surgery, and 5.5% had undergone bottom surgery. Open-ended responses (n = 201) were thematically analyzed and common barriers included finances and insurance issues, a lack of service availability, and fears or worries. Participants reported various systemic issues and incidents of bias within medical and mental health fields, as well as a lack of medical provider awareness and education. Other themes were interpersonal barriers (e.g., fears of rejection); age and need of parental consent for minors; other medical issues; and a lack of information about how to acquire care. These findings can be utilized to educate professionals in medical and mental health fields about barriers their TGNC patients may encounter in receiving affirming care and suggest a number of ways to improve access to these services. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Psychology Department.

 

Sandin, B., Jeffrey S. Simons, R. M. Valiente, Raluca M. Simons, & P. Chorot. (2017). Psychometric properties of the spanish version of The Distress Tolerance Scale and its relationship with personality and psychopathological symptoms. Psicothema, 29(3), 421-428.

Distress tolerance is defined as the individual’s capacity to experience and withstand negative psychological states. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and the factor structure of the Spanish version of the Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS) and to test its relationship with psychopathological symptoms and personality. Method: A sample of 650 participants completed the DTS, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised Abbreviated) (EPQR-A), and the Symptom Assessment-45 Questionnaire (SA-45). Results: The DTS showed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) and adequate temporal stability (7-month test-retest). Results of a confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized 4-factor structure (tolerance, appraisal, absorption, and regulation) that load onto a higher-order general factor. A structural equation model (SEM) was tested to provide evidence of construct validity. Neuroticism was inversely associated with distress tolerance, and distress tolerance partially mediated the effects of neuroticism on current symptoms. Results indicated that the Spanish DTS mediated associations between personality traits and current psychiatric symptoms. Conclusions: Results support the use of this version as a useful tool for assessing distress tolerance in clinical and research settings in Spanish-speaking countries. In addition, we found that distress tolerance may form a link between neuroticism and psychopathology.

Psychology Department.

 

Simons, Raluca M.Austin M. HahnJeffrey S. Simons, & Hanako Murase. (2017). Emotion dysregulation and peer drinking norms uniquely predict alcohol-related problems via motives. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 177, 54-58.

This study examined the relationships between emotion dysregulation, peer drinking norms, drinking motives, and alcohol-related outcomes among 435 college students. We examined the mediating roles of drinking motives when predicting alcohol consumption and related problems from the subscales of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz and Roemer, 2004) via negative and positive reinforcement models. First, we hypothesized that individuals who lack in emotion regulation strategies or have difficulties in accepting negative emotions are more likely to drink to cope. Additionally, we hypothesized that individuals who act impulsively or become distracted when upset as well as those with higher peer drinking norms are more likely to drink for social and enhancement motives. The results of the path model indicated that limited access to emotion regulation strategies significantly predicted alcohol-related problems via both depression and anxiety coping motives, but did not predict alcohol consumption. Nonacceptance of emotional responses was not significantly associated with coping motives. Impulsivity had a significant direct relationship with alcohol problems. Difficulty in engaging in goal-directed behaviors predicted both enhancement and social motives, but only enhancement motives in turn predicted consumption. Norms indirectly predicted problems via enhancement motives and consumption. The results indicated that using alcohol to reduce negative or to increase positive emotions increases alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Overall, results advance our understanding of the mechanisms of increased alcohol use and problems among college students.

Psychology Department.

 

Summers, TorrieBrandon HantenWarren Peterson, & Brian Burrell. (2017). Endocannabinoids Have Opposing Effects On Behavioral Responses To Nociceptive And Non-nociceptive Stimuli. Scientific Reports, 7, 9.

The endocannabinoid system is thought to modulate nociceptive signaling making it a potential therapeutic target for treating pain. However, there is evidence that endocannabinoids have both pro- and anti-nociceptive effects. In previous studies using Hirudo verbana (the medicinal leech), endocannabinoids were found to depress nociceptive synapses, but enhance non-nociceptive synapses. Here we examined whether endocannabinoids have similar bidirectional effects on behavioral responses to nociceptive vs. non-nociceptive stimuli in vivo. Hirudo were injected with either the 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) or anandamide and tested for changes in response to nociceptive and non-nociceptive stimuli. Both endocannabinoids enhanced responses to non-nociceptive stimuli and reduced responses to nociceptive stimuli. These pro- and anti-nociceptive effects were blocked by co-injection of a TRPV channel inhibitor, which are thought to function as an endocannabinoid receptor. In experiments to determine the effects of endocannabinoids on animals that had undergone injury-induced sensitization, 2-AG and anandamide diminished sensitization to nociceptive stimuli although the effects of 2-AG were longer lasting. Sensitized responses to non-nociceptive stimuli were unaffected 2-AG or anandamide. These results provide evidence that endocannabinoids can have opposing effects on nociceptive vs. non-nociceptive pathways and suggest that cannabinoid-based therapies may be more appropriate for treating pain disorders in which hyperalgesia and not allodynia is the primary symptom.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Suttie, M., L. Wetherill, S. W. Jacobson, J. L. Jacobson, H. Eugene Hoyme, E. R. Sowell, C. Coles, J. R. Wozniak, E. P. Riley, K. L. Jones, T. Foroud, P. Hammond, & Cifasd. (2017). Facial Curvature Detects and Explicates Ethnic Differences in Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure. Alcoholism-Clinical and Experimental Research, 41(8), 1471-1483.

Our objective is to help clinicians detect the facial effects of prenatal alcohol exposure by developing computer-based tools for screening facial form. MethodsAll 415 individuals considered were evaluated by expert dysmorphologists and categorized as (i) healthy control (HC), (ii) fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), or (iii) heavily prenatally alcohol exposed (HE) but not clinically diagnosable as FAS; 3D facial photographs were used to build models of facial form to support discrimination studies. Surface curvature-based delineations of facial form were introduced. Results(i) Facial growth in FAS, HE, and control subgroups is similar in both cohorts. (ii) Cohort consistency of agreement between clinical diagnosis and HC-FAS facial form classification is lower for midline facial regions and higher for nonmidline regions. (iii) Specific HC-FAS differences within and between the cohorts include: for HC, a smoother philtrum in Cape Coloured individuals; for FAS, a smoother philtrum in Caucasians; for control-FAS philtrum difference, greater homogeneity in Caucasians; for control-FAS face difference, greater homogeneity in Cape Coloured individuals. (iv) Curvature changes in facial profile induced by prenatal alcohol exposure are more homogeneous and greater in Cape Coloureds than in Caucasians. (v) The Caucasian HE subset divides into clusters with control-like and FAS-like facial dysmorphism. The Cape Coloured HE subset is similarly divided for nonmidline facial regions but not clearly for midline structures. (vi) The Cape Coloured HE subset with control-like facial dysmorphism shows orbital hypertelorism. ConclusionsFacial curvature assists the recognition of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and helps explain why different facial regions result in inconsistent control-FAS discrimination rates in disparate ethnic groups. Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure can give rise to orbital hypertelorism, supporting a long-standing suggestion that prenatal alcohol exposure at a particular time causes increased separation of the brain hemispheres with a concomitant increase in orbital separation.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Upadhyay, N., H. Chen, O. Mgbere, Vinod S. Bhatara, & R. R. Aparasu. (2017). The Impact of Pharmacotherapy on Substance Use in Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Variations Across Subtypes. Substance Use & Misuse, 52(10), 1266-1274.

The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) pharmacotherapy on the risk of substance use within each ADHD subtype. Methods: The study used data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent supplement, a nationally representative sample of US adolescents (ages 13-18) collected from 6,483 adolescent-parent interviews conducted between 2001 and 2004. ADHD was categorized into three subtypes: ADHD-predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (ADHD-H); ADHD-predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I); and ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria. Substance use information was obtained from the adolescents’ interview. The impact of ADHD-pharmacotherapy on substance use was examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results: Among the adolescents with ADHD, ADHD pharmacotherapy significantly associated with reduced risk of substance use (OR = 0.53, 95% CI [0.31-0.90]); with regards to ADHD subtypes, ADHD pharmacotherapy is negatively associated with substance use in adolescents with ADHD-C (OR = 0.53, 95% CI [0.24-0.97]) and those with ADHD-H (OR = 0.23, 95% CI [0.07-0.78]), but it did not have statistically significant effect on risk of substance use in those with ADHD-I subtype (OR = 0.49, 95% CI [0.17-1.39]). Among the group who never received ADHD-pharmacotherapy before the interview, individuals with ADHD-H and ADHD-C had a similar risk of substance use compared to adolescents with ADHD-I (ADHD-C: OR= 1.5, 95% CI [0.77-2.95] and ADHD-H: OR= 2.10, 95% CI [0.87-4.95]). Conclusions: Adolescents with ADHD were equally susceptible to future substance use disregard their ADHD subtypes. Receipt of pharmacotherapy could decrease risk of substance use in adolescentswith ADHD-H and ADHD-C, but it may not affect risk of substance use among individuals with ADHD-I.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Wei, W. Z., & D. M. Mei. (2017). Average energy expended per e-h pair for germanium-based dark matter experiments. Journal of Instrumentation, 12, 12.

We report a new method, which allows us to derive the temperature dependence of the average energy expended per electron-hole (e-h) pair, epsilon, for germanium detectors. Applying energy partition mechanism in ionization for a given energy deposition, the Fano factor and the value of epsilon can be determined separately. Subsequently, we illustrate the variation of epsilon as a function of temperature. The impact of epsilon on the energy threshold for germanium detectors at a given temperature is evaluated.

Physics Department.

 

Wu, Penglong, X. Yuan, F. Q. Li, J. H. Zhang, W. Zhu, M. Wei, J. B. Li, & Xuejun Wang. (2017). Myocardial Upregulation of Cathepsin D by Ischemic Heart Disease Promotes Autophagic Flux and Protects Against Cardiac Remodeling and Heart Failure.Circulation-Heart Failure, 10(7), 28.

Lysosomal dysfunction is implicated in human heart failure for which ischemic heart disease is the leading cause. Altered myocardial expression of CTSD (cathepsin D), a major lysosomal protease, was observed in human heart failure, but its pathophysiological significance has not been determined. METHODS AND RESULTS: Western blot analyses revealed an increase in the precursor but not the mature form of CTSD in myocardial samples from explanted human failing hearts with ischemic heart disease, which is recapitulated in chronic myocardial infarction produced via coronary artery ligation in Ctsd(+/+) but not Ctsd(+/-) mice. Mice deficient of Ctsd displayed impaired myocardial autophagosome removal, reduced autophagic flux, and restrictive cardiomyopathy. After induction of myocardial infarction, weekly serial echocardiography detected earlier occurrence of left ventricle chamber dilatation, greater decreases in ejection fraction and fractional shortening, and lesser wall thickening throughout the first 4 weeks; pressure-volume relationship analyses at 4 weeks revealed greater decreases in systolic and diastolic functions, stroke work, stroke volume, and cardiac output; greater increases in the ventricular weight to body weight and the lung weight to body weight ratios and larger scar size were also detected in Ctsd(+/-) mice compared with Ctsd(+/+) mice. Significant increases of myocardial autophagic flux detected at 1 and 4 weeks after induction of myocardial infarction in the Ctsd(+/+) mice were diminished in the Ctsd(+/-) mice. CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial CTSD upregulation induced by myocardial infarction protects against cardiac remodeling and malfunction, which is at least in part through promoting myocardial autophagic flux.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Yang, BoWei Lv, & Ying Deng. (2017). Drug loaded poly(glycerol sebacate) as a local drug delivery system for the treatment of periodontal disease. Rsc Advances, 7(59), 37426-37435.

Periodontal disease is a widely distributed disease worldwide. It affects life quality and causes many health problems. The cause of periodontal disease is bacterial infection. The key to treating periodontal disease is killing bacteria and thus using a local antibiotic agent is a good way of treating periodontal disease. In our work, we loaded berberine and chlorhexidine into biodegradable elastomer poly(glycerol-sebacate) (PGS) using a swell drug loading method. Drug(s) showed sustained release properties in vitro. Mechanical testing showed that neither drug loading method nor loaded drug(s) changed the Young’s modulus and maximum strain of PGS. Loaded drugs changed the surface wettability and cell compatibility. The general antimicrobial test showed that chlorhexidine loaded PGS groups were good against typical Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Berberine loaded PGS groups showed good antibacterial ability against periodontal disease pathogens. These results indicate that our drug loaded PGS can be used in the treatment of periodontal disease.

Biomedical Engineering Department, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Posted by: tadeterman | April 19, 2017

April 2017

Boullata, J. I., A. L. Carrera, …., Carol McGinnis, J. J. Wessel, S. Bajpai, M. L. Beebe, T. J. Kinn, M. G. Klang, L. Lord, K. Martin, C. Pompeii-Wolfe, J. Sullivan, A. Wood, A. Malone, P. Guenter, & Nutr Amer Soc Parenteral Enteral. (2017). ASPEN Safe Practices for Enteral Nutrition Therapy. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 41(1), 15-103.

Enteral nutrition (EN) is a valuable clinical intervention for patients of all ages in a variety of care settings. Along with its many outcome benefits come the potential for adverse effects. These safety issues are the result of clinical complications and of process-related errors. The latter can occur at any step from patient assessment, prescribing, and order review, to product selection, labeling, and administration. To maximize the benefits of EN while minimizing adverse events requires that a systematic approach of care be in place. This includes open communication, standardization, and incorporation of best practices into the EN process. This document provides recommendations based on the available evidence and expert consensus for safe practices, across each step of the process, for all those involved in caring for patients receiving EN.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Boyd, T. K., C. A. Wright, H. J. Odendaal, Amy J. Elliott, M. A. Sens, R. D. Folkerth, D. J. Roberts, H. C. Kinney, & Pass Network. (2017). The Stillbirth Classification System for the Safe Passage Study: Incorporating Mechanism, Etiology, and Recurrence.Pediatric and Developmental Pathology, 20(2), 120-132.

Objective: Describe the classification system for assigning the cause of stillbirth in the Safe Passage Study, an international, multi-institutional, prospective analysis conducted by the NIAAA/NICHD-funded Prenatal Alcohol in SIDS and Stillbirth (PASS) Research Network. The study mission is to determine the role of prenatal alcohol and/or cigarette smoke exposure in adverse pregnancy outcomes, including stillbirth, in a high-risk cohort of 12,000 maternal/fetal dyads. Methods: The PASS Network classification system is based upon 5 “sites of origin” for cause of stillbirth, further subdivided into mechanism subcategories; both are employed to assign an ultimate cause of death. Each PASS stillbirth was assigned a cause of death and status of sporadic versus recurrent. Adjudication involved review of maternal and obstetrical records; fetal autopsy and placental findings; and required complete consensus in each case. Two published classification systems, ie, INCODE and ReCoDe, were used for comparison. Results: Causes of stillbirth classified were fetal (26%), placental (53%), external (5%), and undetermined (16%). Nine cases (47%) had placental causes of death due to maternal disorders that carry recurrence risks. There was full agreement for cause of death across the 3 classification systems in 26% of cases and partial agreement among them in 42% of cases. Conclusions: The proposed PASS schema employs a user-friendly classification that provides comparable information to previously published systems. Advantages include its simplicity, mechanistic formulations, tight clinicopathologic integration, provision for an undetermined category, and its wide applicability to perinatal mortality review boards with access to information routinely collected during clinicopathologic evaluations.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Cheng, Li-Ji, Xin-Xia Fan, Yi-Peng Li, Qiao-Hua Wei, Feng-Rong Dai, Zhong-Ning Chen, & Zhenqiang Wang. (2017). Engineering solid-state porosity of synthetic supercontainers via modification of exo-cavities. Inorganic Chemistry Communications, 78, 61-64.

Two new coordination supercontainers have been successfully isolated from the self-assembly reactions of the container precursor p -phenylsulfonylcalix [4]arene, Ni(II) or Co(II) ion, and diphenylmethane-4,4′-dicarboxylic acid. Crystal structure analysis revealed that these two coordination supercontainers possess a similar endo cavity and two deeper exo cavities compared to the related supercontainers based on p – tert -butylsulfonylcalix [4]arene. Gas and vapor adsorption studies indicated that the new compounds are permanently porous and show much better CO 2 /O 2 and CO 2 /N 2 selectivity and higher vapor adsorption than the tert -butyl analogues.

Chemistry Department.

 

Cross, Suzanne L., Drywater-Whitekiller, Virginia, Holder, Lea Ann, Norris, Debra, Caringi, James, & Trautman, Ashley. (2015). NCWWI Tribal Traineeship Programs: Promoting Diversity in the Child Welfare Workforce. Journal of Social Work Education, 51(/), S225-S238.

Twelve universities and one American Indian (AI) tribal college were selected for the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute’s 5-year stipend traineeship program. These tribal traineeships were designed to provide social work child welfare education for tribal and nontribal students. Twenty-two AI students and 58 nontribal students completed a bachelor or master’s of social work degree. The students’ field placements were in tribal agencies or public agencies that served a segment of the AI population. These programs were enhanced through the use of valuable relationships (i.e., partnerships, mentorships, allies), and cultural competence was a key aspect of the students’ education. The students’ education was enriched with a specific child welfare curriculum, cultural teachings, tribal traineeship collaborations, and tribal community events.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Disrud, B., Yulun Han, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2017). Molecular dynamics of laser-assisted decomposition of unstable molecules at the surface of carbon nanotubes: case study of CH2(NO2)(2) on CNT(4,0). Molecular Physics, 115(5), 674-682.

In this study, photoreactions of the dinitromethane molecule noncovalently adsorbed on the (4, 0) carbon nanotube (CNT) have been investigated by time-dependent, excited-state molecular dynamics, which takes into account simultaneous evolution of electronic excitation and nuclear positions under periodic optical excitations. It is found that desorption of molecular adsorbate from CNT surface can be controlled by UV-vis photoexcitations. In addition, it is shown that the presence of CNT substrate facilitates photodecomposition of the adsorbate molecule, related to optically controlled explosion. This model demonstrates potential of photoinduced charge transfer between the adsorbate and substrate, which can affect efficiency of desorption and decomposition reactions. This process has a potential use as a remote trigger for larger scale detonations, or as a mechanism for cleaning’ CNTs of unwanted functionalisation.

Chemistry Department.

 

Ferguson, Tanner J., Swan, Russell, Sudhagoni, Ramu, & Berdahl, John P. (2017). Microbypass stent implantation with cataract extraction and endocyclophotocoagulation versus microbypass stent with cataract extraction for glaucoma. Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery, 43(3), 377-382.

Purpose To compare the outcomes of combined microbypass stent implantation, cataract extraction, and endocyclophotocoagulation (ECP) with those of implantation of the same microbypass stent with concomitant cataract surgery in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Setting Private Practice, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA. Design Retrospective consecutive case series. Methods Patients from January 2015 to August 2016 were included. The study group comprised eyes that had implantation of a microbypass stent in combination with cataract extraction and ECP. To compare outcomes, a control group of eyes with similar baseline characteristics that had implantation of a stent in combination with cataract surgery was established. Data were collected preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 day, 1 week, and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Data included intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of glaucoma medications. Results The mean preoperative IOP was 21.49 mm Hg ± 9.56 (SD) in the study group (51 eyes) and 20.66 ± 3.23 mm Hg in the control group (50 eyes). Twelve months postoperatively, the mean IOP reduction was 7.14 mm Hg in the study group and 4.48 mm Hg in the control group and the medication reduction was 38% (0.68) and 63% (1.06), respectively. Conclusions Patients who had implantation of the microbypass stent in combination with cataract surgery and ECP had significantly better IOP reduction than those who did not have ECP. The combination procedure was also effective in patients with severe OAG.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Gallivan, J. P., B. M. Stewart, Lee A. Baugh, D. M. Wolpert, & J. R. Flanagan. (2017). Rapid Automatic Motor Encoding of Competing Reach Options. Cell Reports, 18(7), 1619-1626.

Mounting neural evidence suggests that, in situations in which there are multiple potential targets for action, the brain prepares, in parallel, competing movements associated with these targets, prior to implementing one of them. Central to this interpretation is the idea that competing viewed targets, prior to selection, are rapidly and automatically transformed into corresponding motor representations. Here, by applying target-specific, gradual visuomotor rotations and dissociating, unbeknownst to participants, the visual direction of potential targets from the direction of the movements required to reach the same targets, we provide direct evidence for this provocative idea. Our results offer strong empirical support for theories suggesting that competing action options are automatically represented in terms of the movements required to attain them. The rapid motor encoding of potential targets may support the fast optimization of motor costs under conditions of target uncertainty and allow the motor system to inform decisions about target selection.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Gerrish, Ed. (2017). The Effect of the Child Support Performance and Incentive Act of 1998 on Rewarded and Unrewarded Performance Goals. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 36(1), 65-+.

This paper examines the impact of the Child Support Performance and Incentive Act (CSPIA) of 1998 on child support performance measures that are rewarded financially as well as outcomes that are not rewarded. Three of the five performance measures explicitly rewarded by CSPIA are reconstructed in this analysis, as are two child support outcomes that were considered for financial rewards but were ultimately rejected. Using a panel interrupted time series model with state fixed effects and state-specific trends, this analysis finds that CSPIA had a statistically positive impact on just one rewarded performance goal, cost-effectiveness, and negatively impacted an unrewarded child support outcome-collections sent to other states. Effect sizes suggest that CSPIA had little impact on child support performance, on balance. These results provide more evidence to the ongoing debate about the ability of performance incentives to improve public sector performance. It also suggests that reforming performance systems in response to perceived problems may create new gaming responses. (C) 2016 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.

Political Science Department

 

Gnimpieba, Etienne Z.Menno S. VanDiermenShayla M. GustafsonBill Conn, & Carol M. Lushbough. (2017). Bio-TDS: bioscience query tool discovery system. Nucleic Acids Research, 45(D1), D1117-D1122.

Bioinformatics and computational biology play a critical role in bioscience and biomedical research. As researchers design their experimental projects, one major challenge is to find the most relevant bioinformatics toolkits that will lead to new knowledge discovery from their data. The Bio-TDS (Bioscience Query Tool Discovery Systems, http://biotds.org/) has been developed to assist researchers in retrieving the most applicable analytic tools by allowing them to formulate their questions as free text. The Bio-TDS is a flexible retrieval system that affords users from multiple bioscience domains (e.g. genomic, proteomic, bio-imaging) the ability to query over 12 000 analytic tool descriptions integrated from well-established, community repositories. One of the primary components of the Bio-TDS is the ontology and natural language processing workflow for annotation, curation, query processing, and evaluation. The Bio-TDS’s scientific impact was evaluated using sample questions posed by researchers retrieved from Biostars, a site focusing on biological data analysis. The Bio-TDS was compared to five similar bioscience analytic tool retrieval systems with the Bio-TDS outperforming the others in terms of relevance and completeness. The Bio-TDS offers researchers the capacity to associate their bioscience question with the most relevant computational toolsets required for the data analysis in their knowledge discovery process.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Hiller, K. M., D. Franzen, L. Lawson, …., Arleigh Trainor, D. Wald, & J. Jung. (2017). Clinical Assessment of Medical Students in the Emergency Department, a National Consensus Conference (http://westjem. com/articles/clinical-assessment-of-medical-students-in-theemergency-dep artment-a-nationalconsensus-conference.html). Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 18(1), 8.

Baisc Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Hsu, Benson S., & Sarah A. Jones-Sapienza. (2017). Air in All the Wrong Places. Pediatric Emergency Care, 33(2), 107-108.

Extraluminal air can occur through a wide variety of mechanisms. Often, the free air resides in isolated regions including the thorax, the peritoneum, or the mediastinum. We present a pediatric case where there was extensive extraluminal air simultaneously within several regions, one of which has never been reported in the literature.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Huyser, Kimberly R., Jillian Medeiros Pérez, Vickie D. Ybarra, Julia Marin Hellwege, & Lisa Sanchez. (2017). Differential influence of the great recession on political participation among race and ethnic groups. Social Science Quarterly, x(x), x-x.

Objective Our study seeks to understand the role of perceived economic stress of the Great Recession on political participation among blacks, whites, and Latinos. Methods We use the 2012 Collaborative Multi‐Racial Political Study and negative binomial regression to examine the impact of financial hardship on black, Hispanic, and white political participation. Results We find that political participation among whites is unaffected by the Great Recession and is largely motivated by political interest. Blacks are mobilized by financial hardship even after controlling for political enthusiasm and linked fate. Hispanics have the lowest level of political participation. Conclusion Overall, we conclude that the Great Recession did affect political behavior but differently across race and ethnic groups; specifically, Hispanics were least likely to politically engage if they experienced negative consequences of the Great Recession. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Political Science Department.

 

Jiang, Nan. (2017). ON THE CONVERGENCE OF beta-SCHEMES. International Journal of Numerical Analysis and Modeling, 14(1), 103-125.

Yang’s wavewise entropy inequality [19] is verified for beta-schemes which, when m = 2 and under a mild technique condition, guarantees the convergence of the schemes to the entropy solutions of convex conservation laws in one-dimensional scalar case. These schemes, constructed by S. Osher and S. Chakravarthy [13], are based on unwinding principle and use E-schemes as building blocks with simple flux limiters, without which all of them are even linearly unstable. The total variation diminishing property of these methods was established in the original work of S. Osher and S. Chakravarthy.

Mathematics Department.

 

Kaldenberg, J., & Stacy Smallfield. (2017). Training older adults with low vision to use a computer tablet: A feasibility study. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 80(2), 117-122.

Introduction: The purpose of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential use of a computer tablet as a low vision device to facilitate performance of and satisfaction with daily activities for older adults with low vision. Method: A repeated measures design was used to measure outcomes. Four older adult women with low vision completed 10 weekly sessions of group training in tablet use. The feasibility of this research method and intervention was examined by evaluating recruitment capability, data collection procedures, outcome measures, intervention procedures, resources, and preliminary responses to intervention. Results: The four participants were all women, with a mean age of 74.25 years (68-81). Visual acuity ranged from 20/160 to 20/4000. Mean change in performance and satisfaction on the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure were 3.45 and 3.65, respectively. Daily tablet use increased from 15 minutes at pretest to 3 hours at posttest to 4.5 hours at follow-up. Conclusion: Group training in computer tablet use for older adults with low vision shows promise to improve performance and satisfaction in a variety of daily activities. With appropriate resources, the research method is feasible for a larger study examining this community-based intervention for older adults with low vision.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Keifer, JoyceNeeraj K. TiwariLeah Buse, & Zhaoqing Zheng. (2017). Subunit-specific synaptic delivery of AMPA receptors by auxiliary chaperone proteins TARPγ8 and GSG1L in classical conditioning. Neuroscience Letters, 645, 53-59.

AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking has emerged as a fundamental concept for understanding mechanisms of learning and memory as well as many neurological disorders. Classical conditioning is a simple and highly conserved form of associative learning. Our studies use an ex vivo brainstem preparation in which to study cellular mechanisms underlying learning during a neural correlate of eyeblink conditioning. Two stages of AMPAR synaptic delivery underlie conditioning utilizing sequential trafficking of GluA1-containing AMPARs early in conditioning followed by replacement with GluA4 subunits later. Subunit-selective trafficking of AMPARs is poorly understood. Here, we focused on identification of auxiliary chaperone proteins that traffic AMPARs. The results show that auxiliary proteins TARPγ8 and GSG1L are colocalized with AMPARs on abducens motor neurons that generate the conditioning. Significantly, TARPγ8 was observed to chaperone GluA1-containing AMPARs during synaptic delivery early in conditioning while GSG1L chaperones GluA4 subunits later in conditioning. Interestingly, TARPγ8 remains at the membrane surface as GluA1 subunits are withdrawn and associates with GluA4 when they are delivered to synapses. These data indicate that GluA1- and GluA4-containing AMPARs are selectively chaperoned by TARPγ8 and GSG1L, respectively. Therefore, sequential subunit-selective trafficking of AMPARs during conditioning is achieved through the timing of their interactions with specific auxiliary proteins.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Lakhssassi, N., S. M. Liu, S. Bekal, …., Abdelali Barakat, & K. Meksem. (2017). Characterization of the Soluble NSF Attachment Protein gene family identifies two members involved in additive resistance to a plant pathogen. Scientific Reports, 7, 1-11.

Proteins with Tetratricopeptide-repeat (TPR) domains are encoded by large gene families and distributed in all plant lineages. In this study, the Soluble NSF-Attachment Protein (SNAP) subfamily of TPR containing proteins is characterized. In soybean, five members constitute the SNAP gene family: GmSNAP18, GmSNAP11, GmSNAP14, GmSNAP02, and GmSNAP09. Recently, GmSNAP18 has been reported to mediate resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN). Using a population of recombinant inbred lines from resistant and susceptible parents, the divergence of the SNAP gene family is analysed over time. Phylogenetic analysis of SNAP genes from 22 diverse plant species showed that SNAPs were distributed in six monophyletic clades corresponding to the major plant lineages. Conservation of the four TPR motifs in all species, including ancestral lineages, supports the hypothesis that SNAPs were duplicated and derived from a common ancestor and unique gene still present in chlorophytic algae. Syntenic analysis of regions harbouring GmSNAP genes in soybean reveals that this family expanded from segmental and tandem duplications following a tetraploidization event. qRT-PCR analysis of GmSNAPs indicates a co-regulation following SCN infection. Finally, genetic analysis demonstrates that GmSNAP11 contributes to an additive resistance to SCN. Thus, GmSNAP11 is identified as a novel minor gene conferring resistance to SCN.

Biology Department.

 

Lane, David C., & W. DeCamp. (2017). ‘SPORTS WILL KEEP ‘EM OUT OF TROUBLE.: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SUBSTANCE USE AMONG ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS. Journal of Sport and Health Research, 9(1), 41-52.

Objective: The purpose of this research is to examine cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, steroids, and other drug use among high school and college students in the state of Delaware. This builds on previous research examining the dynamics of substance use and sports participation. Methods: The data come from the Delaware High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS-HS) and the College Risk Behaviors Study (CRBS), which are used to compare athletes and non-athletes. There were 7,781 high school students from the YRBS-HS and 4,019 college students from the CRBS in the sample. Results: Findings indicate that participants in team sports at the college level are significantly more likely to use alcohol and engage in binge drinking when compared to those who do not participate in team sports, but this effect is not found in most pre-college grades and other substances use rates are similar. High school athletes are significantly less likely to use cigarettes when compared to their non-athlete peers. Conclusion: These results suggest that those who participate in team sports are more likely to drink alcohol and engage in binge drinking at the high school and university level, especially males who participate in team sports at the university level. Second, efforts to construct meaningful comparison groups, a practice that has been underemployed when examining the relationship between sports participation and substance use, reveal a more complex picture about the relationship between substance use and participation in team sports.

Social Behavior Department.

 

Lawler, Michael J.Lisa A. NewlandJarod T. GigerSoonhee Roh, & Barbara L. Brockevelt. (2017). Ecological, Relationship-Based Model of Children’s Subjective Well-Being: Perspectives of 10-Year-Old Children in the United States and 10 Other Countries. Child Indicators Research, 10(1), 1-18.

The purpose of this study is to further assess the international relevance of an ecological, relationship-based model of children’s subjective well-being with samples of 10-year-old children from the United States (n = 502, M (age) = 10.66, SD = .55) and 10 other countries: Algeria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Israel, Nepal, Romania, Rwanda, South Korea, and Uganda (n = 502, M (age) = 10.12, SD = .48). All children completed the Children’s Worlds survey, which includes individual factors, contextual factors of home and family, life and neighborhood, school, and peers, and subjective well-being measures for life satisfaction, mental health, and self-image. The strongest predictors of children’s subjective well-being were family and peer relationships, school, and neighborhood quality. Findings support the international relevance of an ecological, relationship-based model of children’s subjective well-being.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Love, Heather A. (2017). Newsreels, Novels, and Cybernetics: Reading the Random Patterns of John Dos Passos’s U.S.A. Journal of Modern Literature, 40(2), 112-131.

The novels of Dos Passos’s U.S.A.trilogy (1930/1932/1936) are part of a cultural dialogue about the status of communication and information-processing in the early twentieth century. This dialogue includes cybernetics theories, which align information with both pattern and randomness. In Dos Passos’s trilogy, recognizable and predictable patterns jostle with random chance as key catalysts for change and progress in American culture. The novels’ ‘Newsreel’ sections (like the technology for which they are named) epitomize the perplexing, interconnected logic of cybernetic information, in which pattern meets randomness and fiction bleeds into history.

English Department.

 

Madison, Joseph D.Elizabeth A. Berg, J. G. Abarca, S. M. Whitfield, O. Gorbatenko, A. Pinto, & Jacob L. Kerby. (2017). Characterization of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Inhibiting Bacteria from Amphibian Populations in Costa Rica.Frontiers in Microbiology, 8, 13.

Global amphibian declines and extinction events are occurring at an unprecedented rate. While several factors are responsible for declines and extinction, the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been cited as a major constituent in these events. While the effects of this chytrid fungus have been shown to cause broad scale population declines and extinctions, certain individuals and relict populations have shown resistance. This resistance has been attributed in part to the cutaneous bacterial microbiome. Here, we present the first study characterizing anti-Bd bacterial isolates from amphibian populations in Costa Rica, including the characterization of two strains of Serratiamarcescens presenting strong anti-Bd activity. Transcriptome sequencing was utilized for delineation of shifts in gene expression of the two previously uncharacterized strains of S. marcescens grown in three different treatments comprising Bd, heat-killed Bd, and a no Bd control. These results revealed up- and down-regulation of key genes associated with different metabolic and regulatory pathways. This information will be valuable in continued efforts to develop a bacterial-based approach for amphibian protection as well as providing direction for continued mechanistic inquiries of the bacterial anti-Bd response.

Biology Department.

 

Maki, Kevin C., Johns, Colleen, Harris, William S., Puder, Mark, Freedman, Steven D., Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn, . . . Sancilio, Frederick D. (2017). Bioequivalence Demonstration for Ω-3 Acid Ethyl Ester Formulations: Rationale for Modification of Current Guidance. Clinical Therapeutics, 39(3), 652-658.

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance for establishing bioequivalence (BE) of ω-3 acid ethyl esters (containing both eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] as ethyl esters), used to treat severe hypertriglyceridemia, recommends the conduct of 2 studies: one with participants in the fasting state and one with participants in the fed state. For the fasting study, the primary measures of BE are baseline-adjusted EPA and DHA levels in total plasma lipids. For the fed study, the primary measures of BE are EPA and DHA ethyl esters in plasma. This guidance differs from that established for icosapent ethyl (EPA ethyl esters) in which the primary measure of BE is baseline-adjusted total EPA in plasma lipids for both the fasting and fed states. The FDA guidance for ω-3 acid ethyl esters is not supported by their physiologic characteristics and triglyceride-lowering mechanisms because EPA and DHA ethyl esters are best characterized as pro-drugs. This article presents an argument for amending the FDA draft guidance for ω-3 acid ethyl esters to use baseline-adjusted EPA and DHA in total plasma lipids as the primary measures of BE for both fasting and fed conditions. This change would harmonize the approaches for demonstration of BE for ω-3 acid ethyl esters and icosapent ethyl (EPA ethyl esters) products for future development programs and is the most physiologically rational approach to BE testing.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Malo, J., E. Holbrook, T. Zangeneh, C. Strawter, E. Oren, I. Robey, H. Erickson, R. Chahal, M. Durkin, C. Thompson, Susan E. Hoover, N. M. Ampel, L. J. Wheat, & K. S. Knox. (2017). Enhanced Antibody Detection and Diagnosis of Coccidioidomycosis with the MiraVista IgG and IgM Detection Enzyme Immunoassay. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 55(3), 893-901.

Coccidioidomycosis is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in areas of the southwestern United States in which the disease is endemic. Clinical presentations range from self-limited disease to severe disseminated disease. Therefore, early and accurate diagnosis is essential to ensure appropriate treatment and monitoring. Currently available diagnostic tests have variable accuracy, particularly in certain patient populations, and new tests may offer improved accuracy for the diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis. Serum samples from 103 cases of coccidioidomycosis and 373 controls were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies using the MVista anti-Coccidioides antibody enzyme immunoassay. Serum specimens from 170 controls from areas in which the disease is endemic and 44 cases were tested by immunodiffusion at MiraVista Diagnostics. The sensitivity of the MVista antibody assay was 88.3%, and the specificity was 90%. The sensitivity was maintained in the presence of immunocompromising conditions or immunosuppressive therapies. The sensitivity of immunodiffusion was 60.2%, and the specificity was 98.8%. The sensitivity of complement fixation ( 62 cases) was 66.1%, but the specificity could not be determined. The MVista anti-Coccidioides antibody enzyme immunoassay offers improved sensitivity, compared with immunodiffusion and complement fixation, is not impaired in immunocompromised patients, and permits highly reproducible semiquantification.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Melvin, S. A., N. H. Brito, Luke J. Mack, L. E. Engelhardt, W. P. Fifer, Amy J. Elliott, & K. G. Noble. (2017). Home Environment, But Not Socioeconomic Status, is Linked to Differences in Early Phonetic Perception Ability. Infancy, 22(1), 42-55.

Infants perceptually tune to the phonemes of their native languages in the first year of life, thereby losing the ability to discriminate non-native phonemes. Infants who perceptually tune earlier have been shown to develop stronger language skills later in childhood. We hypothesized that socioeconomic disparities, which have been associated with differences in the quality and quantity of language in the home, would contribute to individual differences in phonetic discrimination. Seventy-five infants were assessed on measures of phonetic discrimination at 9 months, on the quality of the home environment at 15 months, and on language abilities at both ages. Phonetic discrimination did not vary according to socioeconomic status (SES), but was significantly associated with the quality of the home environment. This association persisted when controlling for 9-month expressive language abilities, rendering it less likely that infants with better expressive language skills were simply engendering higher quality home interactions. This suggests that infants from linguistically richer home environments may be more tuned to their native language and therefore less able to discriminate non-native contrasts at 9 months relative to infants whose home environments are less responsive. These findings indicate that home language environments may be more critical than SES in contributing to early language perception, with possible implications for language development more broadly.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Min, Jia Wei, L. H. Lu, Jessica L. FreelingDoug S. Martin, & Hongmin Wang. (2017). USP14 inhibitor attenuates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury in mice. Journal of Neurochemistry, 140(5), 826-833.

Stroke is associated with over-production of misfolded and aggregating proteins. However, it remains largely unclear whether enhanced removal of protein aggregates following ischemic stroke is neuroprotective. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) are a large group of proteases that regulate protein degradation. The ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (USP14) is a DUB that is associated with the proteasome and negatively regulates proteasome activity. In this study, we examined the effect of 1-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2,5-dimethylpyrrol-3-yl]-2-pyrrolidin-1-ylethanone (IU1), a specific small molecule inhibitor of USP14, on mouse focal cerebral ischemic stroke-induced neuronal injury in mice. We found that IU1 treatment attenuated ischemic stroke-caused neuronal injury, which was reflected by increased survival rate, reduced infarct volume, as well as decreased neuronal loss in the IU1-treated mice compared to the control-treated mice. Additionally, IU1 treatment is associated with reduced protein aggregates and enhanced proteasome functionality. These data not only highlight the significance of protein homeostasis in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury but also extend the therapeutic role of DUB inhibitors.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Newswander, Chad B.Matson, Aaron, & Newswander, Lynita K. (2017). The Recovery of Self-Interest Well Understood as a Regime Value: What Is at Stake/Why This Is Important? Administration & Society, 49(4), 552-574.

Understood in economic terms, interest elevates baser human impulses and degrades higher human potential as it motivates individuals to value material gains over moral ones. Because of this influence, it is difficult to consider interest as a regime value. But just because it is beleaguered does not mean it ought to be abandoned, especially because interest is placed front and center in the constitutional order. Providing a perspective of the merits of interest, Alexis de Tocqueville offers a conceptualization that allows this regime value to be relevant even for contemporary administrators operating in spaces of diffused public responsibility.

Political Science Department.

 

Obaidullah, S. M., C. Goswami, K. C. Santosh, N. Das, C. Halder, & K. Roy. (2017). Separating Indic Scripts with matra for Effective Handwritten Script Identification in Multi-Script Documents. International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence, 31(5), 17.

We present a novel approach for separating Indic scripts with ‘matra’, which is used as a precursor to advance and/or ease subsequent handwritten script identification in multi-script documents. In our study, among state-of-the-art features and classifiers, an optimized fractal geometry analysis and random forest are found to be the best performer to distinguish scripts with ‘matra’ from their counterparts. For validation, a total of 1204 document images are used, where two different scripts with ‘matra’: Bangla and Devanagari are considered as positive samples and the other two di r erent scripts: Roman and Urdu are considered as negative samples. With this precursor, an overall script identification performance can be advanced by more than 5.13% in accuracy and 1.17 times faster in processing time as compared to conventional system.

Computer Science Department.

 

Peters, H. J., Haley N. Schwenk, Z. R. Ahlstrom, & L. N. McIalwain. (2017). Microaggressions: The experience of individuals with mental illness. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 30(1), 86-112.

The main objective of the study was to investigate the types of microaggressions experienced by individuals with mental illness (MI) based on this marginalized group status. This study included 4 focus groups, comprised of 18 individuals diagnosed with MI(es). The researchers qualitatively identified four themes (a) conveying stereotypes against individuals with MI (i.e. assumptions of inferiority, seeking attention or being dramatic, assumptions of coldness, bringing MI upon themselves, and using MI as an excuse), (b) invalidating the experience of having a MI (i.e. doubting existence, doubting severity, and avoiding acknowledgment of the MI), (c) defining a person by their disorder, and (d) misuse of terminology. Participants revealed the main perpetrators (i.e. family, friends, and professionals) of the microaggressions. The researchers discuss: how the identified themes compare to the three categories of microaggressions (i.e. microinsults, microinvalidations, and microassaults); similarities and differences between the current results and previously identified racial, gender, and sexual orientation microaggressions perpetrated in daily interactions and in therapeutic settings; and the perpetrators of microaggressions as they relate to prejudicial attitudes and social distance. Finally, the authors make recommendations for practitioners and researchers.

Psychology Department.

 

Puckett, Jae A., Sharon G. Horne, Francisco Surace, Alice Carter, Nicole Noffsinger-Frazier, Julie Shulman, Pam Detrie, Audrey Ervin, & Chad Mosher. (2017). Predictors of Sexual Minority Youth’s Reported Suicide Attempts and Mental Health. Journal of Homosexuality, 64(6), 697-715.

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth (LGBY) report higher rates of mental health concerns compared to heterosexual youth due to minority stressors. This study examined the interpersonal and intrapersonal variables that predict psychological distress and self-reported suicide attempts in a sample of 61 LGBY in the Mid-South, which is a highly overlooked regional area for LGBY research. Youth who lost friends when coming out were 29 times more likely to report suicide attempts, and those who experienced psychological maltreatment from caregivers were 9.5 times more likely to report a suicide attempt. Internalized heterosexism, feelings of guilt or shame, and psychological maltreatment from caregivers were significant predictors of depression and anxiety symptoms. This study highlights the importance of creating affirming spaces for LGBY, particularly in areas of the country that experience greater political oppression of sexual minorities, such as the Mid-South.

Psychology Department.

 

Riebschleger, Joanne, Norris, Debra, Pierce, Barbara, Pond, Debora L., & Cummings, Cristy. (2015). Preparing Social Work Students for Rural Child Welfare Practice: Emerging Curriculum Competencies. Journal of Social Work Education, 51, S209-S224.

Multiple issues that are unique to child welfare social work practice in rural areas markedly affect workforce recruitment and retention, yet little attention is given to the proficiencies needed to equip emerging social workers for this growing area of the field. Curriculum content is needed that provides students with the opportunity to master the skills needed to thrive as child welfare social workers in rural areas. Using an evidence-based practice critical thinking model as a guide, a systematic review of literature and documents addresses many of the competencies needed to prepare social work students for child welfare practice in rural areas. These competencies are identified. Suggestions for integration into the social work curriculum are offered.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Rivers, J. W., Gretchen N. Newberry, C. J. Schwarz, & D. R. Ardia. (2017). Success despite the stress: violet-green swallows increase glucocorticoids and maintain reproductive output despite experimental increases in flight costs. Functional Ecology, 31(1), 235-244.

Glucocorticoid steroid hormones play a central role in regulating the metabolic state of animals, especially when they cope with unanticipated stressors in their environment. The cort-adaptation hypothesis predicts that baseline concentrations of glucocorticoids are adjusted upward to match energetic needs and promote fitness when individuals are faced with physiological challenges, including those associated with reproduction. 2. We tested the cort-adaptation hypothesis in the violet-green swallow (Tachycineta thalassina) by experimentally increasing flight costs during the offspring rearing period. Individual females were assigned to one of three treatments: light feather clipping (removal of four wing feathers), heavy feather clipping (removal of eight wing feathers) or a sham-clip control. 3. We measured baseline corticosterone and body mass immediately prior to implementing treatments during the offspring rearing period and then 10 days after initial manipulations took place. We also quantified risk-taking behaviour, offspring feeding rate and the number of offspring fledged. Finally, we examined how treatments influenced offspring phenotype via measurements of nestling body mass and baseline corticosterone, as both measures have been associated with post-fledging survival. 4. We found that handicapped females significantly increased baseline corticosterone between the two sampling periods, with the magnitude of change in the light clipping and heavy clipping treatments 2.59 and 6.19 greater than controls, respectively. All individuals lost mass between the two sampling periods, but the degree of loss was greater for females in both clipping treatments relative to unmanipulated controls. 5. In contrast, we found no evidence of treatment differences in female risk-taking, offspring provisioning or in the number of offspring fledged. Offspring raised by females in both handicapped treatments did have significantly elevated baseline corticosterone relative to those in control broods, but we detected no treatment differences in offspring body mass. 6. Our study found that handicapped females increased circulating glucocorticoids and were able to maintain critical parental care behaviours and raise a similar number of offspring as unmanipulated controls. Thus, increases in baseline cort of handicapped females appeared to have allowed them to maintain fitness despite increased physiological challenges, providing support for the cort-adaptation hypothesis.

Biology Department.

 

Roat, R., M. M. Hossain, J. Christopherson, C. Free, S. Jain, C. Guay, R. Regazzi, & Z. Guo. (2017). Identification and Characterization of micro RNAs Associated With Human β-Cell Loss in a Mouse Model. American Journal of Transplantation, 17(4), 992-1007.

Currently there is no effective approach for monitoring early β-cell loss during islet graft rejection following human islet transplantation (HIT). Due to ethical and technical constraints, it is difficult to directly study biomarkers of islet destruction in humans. Here, we established a humanized mouse model with induced human β-cell death using adoptive lymphocyte transfer (ALT). Human islet grafts of ALT-treated mice had perigraft lymphocyte infiltration, fewer insulin+ β cells, and increased β-cell apoptosis. Islet-specific miR-375 was used to validate our model, and expression of miR-375 was significantly decreased in the grafts and increased in the circulation of ALT-treated mice before hyperglycemia. A NanoString expression assay was further used to profile 800 human miRNAs in the human islet grafts, and the results were validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We found that miR-4454 and miR-199a-5p were decreased in the human islet grafts following ALT and increased in the circulation prior to hyperglycemia. These data demonstrate that our in vivo model of induced human β-cell destruction is a robust method for identifying and characterizing circulating biomarkers, and suggest that miR-4454 and miR-199a-5p can serve as novel biomarkers associated with early human β-cell loss following HIT.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Rucks, Elizabeth A.Macy G. OlsonLisa M. JorgensonRekha R. Srinivasan, & Scot P. Ouellette. (2017). Development of a Proximity Labeling System to Map the Chlamydia trachomatis Inclusion Membrane. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 7, 17.

Chlamydia grows within a membrane-bound vacuole termed an inclusion. The cellular processes that support the biogenesis and integrity of this pathogen-specified parasitic organelle are not understood. Chlamydia secretes integral membrane proteins called Incs that insert into the chlamydial inclusion membrane (IM). Incs contain at least two hydrophobic transmembrane domains flanked by termini, which vary in size and are exposed to the host cytosol. In addition, Incs are temporally expressed during the chlamydial developmental cycle. Data examining Inc function are limited because of (i) the difficulty in working with hydrophobic proteins and (ii) the inherent fragility of the IM. We hypothesize that Incs function collaboratively to maintain the integrity of the chlamydial inclusion with small Incs organizing the IM and larger Incs interfacing with host cell machinery. To study this hypothesis, we have adapted a proximity-labeling strategy using APEX2, a mutant soybean ascorbate peroxidase that biotinylates interacting and proximal proteins within minutes in the presence of H2O2 and its exogenous substrate, biotin-phenol. We successfully expressed, from an inducible background, APEX2 alone, or fusion proteins of IncA(TM) (TM = transmembrane domain only), IncA, and IncF with APEX2 in Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2. IncF-APEX2, IncA(TM)-APEX2, and IncA-APEX2 localized to the IM whereas APEX2, lacking a secretion signal, remained associated with the bacteria. We determined the impact of overexpression on inclusion diameter, plasmid stability, and Golgi-derived sphingomyelin acquisition. While there was an overall impact of inducing construct expression. IncF-APEX2 overexpression most negatively impacted these measurements. Importantly. Inc-APEX2 expression in the presence of biotin-phenol resulted in biotinylation of the IM. These data suggest that Inc expression is regulated to control optimal IM biogenesis. We subsequently defined lysis conditions that solubilized known Incs and were compatible with pulldown conditions. Importantly, we have created powerful tools to allow direct examination of the dynamic composition of the IM, which will provide novel insights into key interactions that promote chlamydial growth and development within the inclusion.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Sapp, Wendi, B. Gifford, Zhenqiang Wang, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2017). Mathematical modeling of gas desorption from a metal-organic supercontainer cavity filled with stored N-2 gas at critical limits. Rsc Advances, 7(18), 11180-11190.

Metal-organic supercontainer (MOSC) molecules are ideal candidates for gas storage applications due to their construction with customizable ligands and tunable cavity and window sizes, which are found to be elastic in nature. Force field molecular dynamics (MD) are used to evaluate the utilization of MOSCs as nanoporous structures for gas storage. A MOSC, with nitrogen gas molecules filling the cavity, progresses through MD and releases gas molecules by applying temperature to the MOSC. It is the MOSC’s elasticity which is responsible for the desorption of guests at elevated temperatures. Data obtained from MD serves as a guide for the derivation of analytical equations that can be used to describe and explain the mechanism of gas desorption from within the cavity. Mathematical modeling of gas desorption from the center cavity can provide a method of predicting MOSC behavior for a broader range of pressures and temperatures, which is challenging for direct atomistic modeling. The utilization of MD can provide data for a wide variety of properties and processes in various materials under different conditions for a broad range of technology-related applications.

Chemistry Department.

 

Sathyanesan, MonicaHaiar, Jacob M.Watt, Michael J., & Newton, Samuel S. (2017). Restraint stress differentially regulates inflammation and glutamate receptor gene expression in the hippocampus of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Stress: The International Journal on the Biology of Stress, 20(2), 197-204.

The inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6 and BALB/c have been used widely in preclinical psychiatric research. The differences in stress susceptibility of available strains has provided a useful platform to test pharmacological agents and behavioral responses. Previous brain gene profiling efforts have indicated that the inflammation and immune response gene pathway is the predominant gene network in the differential stress response of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. The implication is that a composite stress paradigm that includes a sequence of extended, varied and unpredictable stressors induces inflammation-related genes in the hippocampus. We hypothesized that the regulation of inflammation genes in the brain could constitute a primary stress response and tested this by employing a simple stress protocol, repeated exposure to the same stressor for 10 days, 2 h of restraint per day. We examined stress-induced regulation of 13 proinflammatory cytokine genes in male BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice using quantitative PCR. Elevated cytokine genes included tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL6), interleukin 10 (IL10), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) super family members and interleukin 1 receptor 1 (IL1R1). In addition, we examined restraint stress-induced regulation of 12 glutamate receptor genes in both strains. Our results show that restraint stress is sufficient to elevate the expression of inflammation-related genes in the hippocampus of both BABLB/c and C57BL/6 mice, but they differ in the genes that are induced and the magnitude of change. Cell types that are involved in this response include endothelial cells and astrocytes.Lay summaryRepeated exposure to a simple restraint stress altered the activities of genes involved in inflammation and the functions of the excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate. These changes in the hippocampus of the mouse brain showed differences that were dependent on the strain of mice and the length of the stress exposure. The effects of stress on activity of these genes may lead to alterations in behavior.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Sazama, Eric J.Michael J. BoschCarmelita S. ShouldisScot P. Ouellette, & Jeff S. Wesner. (2017). Incidence of Wolbachia in aquatic insects. Ecology and Evolution, 7(4), 1165-1169.

Wolbachia is a genus of intracellular bacteria typically found within the reproductive systems of insects that manipulates those systems of their hosts. While current estimates of Wolbachia incidence suggest that it infects approximately half of all arthropod species, these estimates are based almost entirely on terrestrial insects. No systematic survey of Wolbachia in aquatic insects has been performed. To estimate Wolbachia incidence among aquatic insect species, we combined field-collected samples from the Missouri River (251 samples from 58 species) with a global database from previously published surveys. The final database contained 5,598 samples of 2,687 total species (228 aquatic and 2,459 terrestrial). We estimate that 52% (95% CrIs: 44%-60%) of aquatic insect species carry Wolbachia, compared to 60% (58%-63%) of terrestrial insects. Among aquatic insects, infected orders included Odonata, Coleoptera, Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, and Plecoptera. Incidence was highest within aquatic Diptera and Hemiptera (69%), Odonata (50%), and Coleoptera (53%), and was lowest within Ephemeroptera (13%). These results indicate that Wolbachia is common among aquatic insects, but incidence varies widely across orders and is especially uncertain in those orders with low sample sizes such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera.

Biology Department.

 

Stamper, Christopher E., Hassell, James E., Kapitz, Adam J., Renner, Kenneth J., Orchinik, Miles, & Lowry, Christopher A. (2017). Activation of 5-HT 1A receptors in the rat dorsomedial hypothalamus inhibits stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. Stress: The International Journal on the Biology of Stress, 20(2), 223-230.

Acute activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, leading to the release of corticosteroid hormones into the circulation, is an adaptive response to perceived threats. Persistent activation of the HPA axis can lead to impaired physiological or behavioral function with maladaptive consequences. Thus, efficient control and termination of stress responses is essential for well-being. However, inhibitory control mechanisms governing the HPA axis are poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that serotonergic systems, acting within the medial hypothalamus, play an important role in inhibitory control of stress-induced HPA axis activity. To test this hypothesis, we surgically implanted chronic jugular cannulae in adult male rats and conducted bilateral microinjection of vehicle or the 5-HT1Areceptor agonist, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT; 8 nmol, 0.2 μL, 0.1 μL/min, per side) into the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) immediately prior to a 40 min period of restraint stress. Repeated blood sampling was conducted using an automated blood sampling system and plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bilateral intra-DMH microinjections of 8-OH-DPAT suppressed stress-induced increases in plasma corticosterone within 10 min of the onset of handling prior to restraint and, as measured by area-under-the-curve analysis of plasma corticosterone concentrations, during the 40 min period of restraint. These data support an inhibitory role for serotonergic systems, acting within the DMH, on stress-induced activation of the HPA axis. Lay summary:Inhibitory control of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) stress hormone response is important for well-being. One neurochemical implicated in inhibitory control of the HPA axis is serotonin. In this study we show that activation of serotonin receptors, specifically inhibitory 5-HT1Areceptors in the dorsomedial hypothalamus, is sufficient to inhibit stress-induced HPA axis activity in rats.

Biology Department.

 

Terrell, T. R., R. Bostick, J. Barth, …., Verle Valentine, & G. Nichols. (2017). Multicenter cohort study on association of genotypes with prospective sports concussion: methods, lessons learned, and recommendations. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 57(1-2), 77-89.

BACKGROUND: Approximately 3.8 million sports related TBIs occur per year. Genetic variation may affect both TBI risk and post-TBI clinical outcome. Limited research has focused on genetic risk for concussion among athletes. We describe the design, methods, and baseline characteristics of this prospective cohort study designed to investigate a potential association between genetic polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E gene, APOE promoter G-219T, and Tau gene exon 6 polymorphisms (Ser(53) Pro and (Hist)47(yr)) with: 1) the risk of prospective concussion; 2) concussion severity; and 3) postconcussion neurocognitive recovery. METHODS: The prospective cohort study included a final population of 2947 college, high school, and professional athletes. Baseline data collection included a concussion/medical history questionnaire, neuropsychological (NP) testing, and genetic sampling for the genetic polymorphisms. Data collection on new concussions experienced utilized post-concussion history/mental status form, Lovell post-concussion symptom score, Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) and/or the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT)-1/SCAT-2, and post-concussion NP testing. RESULTS: This paper is focused on discussing the important methodological considerations, organizational challenges and lessons learned in the completion of a multi-center prospective cohort study. A total of 3740 subjects enrolled, with a total of 335 concussions experienced. CONCLUSIONS: Of critical importance to the success of a study of this type is to successfully recruit committed institutions with qualified local study personnel, obtain “buy-in” from study sites, and cultivate strong working relationships with study sites. The use of approved incentives may improve study site recruitment, enhance retention, and enhance compliance with study protocols. Future publications will detail the specific findings of this study. Collaborative research is very likely needed given the nature of this study population.

Sanford SChool of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Wang, L., & Dongming Mei. (2017). A comprehensive study of low-energy response for xenon-based dark matter experiments. Journal of Physics: G Nuclear & Particle Physics, 44(5), 1-1.

We report a comprehensive study of the energy response to low-energy recoils in dual-phase xenon-based dark matter experiments. A recombination model is developed to explain the recombination probability as a function of recoil energy at zero field and non-zero field. The role of e-ion recombination is discussed for both parent recombination and volume recombination. We find that the volume recombination under a non-zero field is constrained by a plasma effect, which is caused by a high density of charge carriers along the ionization track forming a plasma-like cloud of charge that shields the interior from the influence of the external electric field. Subsequently, the plasma time that determines the volume recombination probability at non-zero field is demonstrated to be different between electronic recoils (ERs) and nuclear recoils (NRs) due to the difference of ionization density between two processes. We show a weak field dependence of the plasma time for NRs and a stronger field dependence of the plasma time for ERs. As a result, the time-dependent recombination is implemented in the determination of charge and light yield with a generic model. Our model agrees well with the available experimental data from xenon-based dark matter experiments.

Physics Department.

 

Wang, X. T., Li-Lin Rao, & Hongming Zheng. (2017). Neural substrates of framing effects in social contexts: A meta-analytical approach. Social Neuroscience, 12(3), 268-279.

We hypothesize that framing effects (risk-averse in the positive frame and risk-seeking in the negative frame) are likely to occur when ambiguous social contexts result in ambiguous or ambivalent risk preferences, leading the decision-maker to search for more subtle cues, such as verbal framing. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we examined framing effects in both unambiguous homogeneous group and more ambiguous heterogeneous group contexts. We began by conducting a meta-analysis and identified three regions of interest: the right inferior frontal gyrus, the left anterior cingulate (ACC)/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and the left amygdala. Our own fMRI data were collected while the participants made choices between a sure option and a gamble framed in terms of the number of lives to either save or die. The framing effect was evident in a heterogeneous context with a mixture of kin and strangers, but disappeared in a homogeneous group of either all kin-members or all strangers. The fMRI results revealed a greater activation in theright middle/inferior frontal gyrusunder the negative than the positive framing, and lessACC/vmPFCdeactivation under positive framing in the heterogamous/ambiguous context. The activation of theamygdalawas correlated with greater risk-seeking preference in homogeneous kinship contexts.

Psychology Department.

 

Wesner, Jeff S., D. M. Walters, T. S. Schmidt, J. M. Kraus, C. A. Stricker, W. H. Clements, & R. E. Wolf. (2017). Metamorphosis Affects Metal Concentrations and Isotopic Signatures in a Mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus): Implications for the Aquatic-Terrestrial Transfer of Metals. Environmental Science & Technology, 51(4), 2438-2446.

Insect metamorphosis often results in substantial chemical changes that can alter contaminant concentrations and fractionate isotopes. We exposed larval mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus) and their food (periphyton) to an aqueous zinc gradient (3-340 mu g Zn/l) and measured zinc concentrations at different stages of metamorphosis: larval, subimago, and imago. We also measured changes in stable isotopes (delta N-15 and delta C-13) in unexpoSed mayflies. Larval zinc concentrations were positively related to aqueous zinc, increasing 9-fold across the exposure gradient. Adult zinc concentrations were also positively related to aqueous zinc, but were 7-fold lower than larvae. This relationship varied according to adult substage and sex Tissue concentrations in female imagoes were not related to exposure concentrations, but the converse was true for all other stage-by-sex combinations. Metamorphosis also increased delta N-15 by similar to 0.8 parts per thousand, but not delta C-13. Thus, the main effects of metamorphosis on insect chemistry were large declines in zinc concentrations coupled with increased delta N-15 signatures. For zinc, this change was largely consistent across the aqueous exposure gradient. However, differences among sexes and stages suggest that caution is warranted when using nitrogen isotopes or metal concentrations measured in one insect stage (e.g., larvae) to assess risk to wildlife that feed on subsequent life stages (e.g., adults).

Biology Department.

 

Yao, B., P. Kolla, Ranjit Koodali, Y. C. Ding, Selvaratnam BalaranjanSunav Shrestha, & A. Smirnova. (2017). Enzymatic decomposition and electrochemical study of alkali lignin by laccase (Trametes versicolor) in the presence of a natural mediator (methyl syringate). New Journal of Chemistry, 41(3), 958-964.

The aerobic-enzymatic decomposition of alkali lignin in the presence of laccase from Trametes versicolor (LTV) and the natural mediator methyl syringate in acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer solution (pH = 4.5) at 40 degrees C in an oxygen-rich (aerobic) environment is studied. SEM and BET analyses are used to characterize the changes in the surface area and morphology of lignin that occurred during the exposure to the laccase-mediator system (LMS) for 72 h. The LMS interaction causes a 2-fold improvement in the surface area from 4.9 to 9.8 m(2) g(-1), due to significant changes in the mesoporous structure of lignin within a pore size of 2-120 nm. This could be due to an efficient interaction of the surface phenolic groups and internal mesoporous beta-O-4 network of lignin with the LMS in an aerobic environment. To further understand the enzymatic degradation of lignin, electrochemical oxidation of a thin film of lignin on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) is performed under aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions in the presence of the LMS. A synergistic lignin electrooxidation in the aerobic environment is observed due to the promotion of LMS activity by a parallel oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Based on the electrochemical studies, a mechanism for understanding the role of oxygen in the enzymatic oxidation of lignin in an aerobic environment and the stability of the mediator radical (MS center dot) is proposed.

Chemistry Department.

 

Yobi, A., K. A. Schlauch, R. L. Tillett, W. C. Yim, C. Espinoza, Bernard W. M. Wone, J. C. Cushman, & M. J. Oliver. (2017). Sporobolus stapfianus: Insights into desiccation tolerance in the resurrection grasses from linking transcriptomics to metabolomics. Bmc Plant Biology, 17, 30.

Background: Understanding the response of resurrection angiosperms to dehydration and rehydration is critical for deciphering the mechanisms of how plants cope with the rigors of water loss from their vegetative tissues. We have focused our studies on the C-4 resurrection grass, Sporobolus stapfianus Gandoger, as a member of a group of important forage grasses. Methods: We have combined non-targeted metabolomics with transcriptomics, via a NimbleGen array platform, to develop an understanding of how gene expression and metabolite profiles can be linked to generate a more detailed mechanistic appreciation of the cellular response to both desiccation and rehydration. Results: The rehydration transcriptome and metabolome are primarily geared towards the rapid return of photosynthesis, energy metabolism, protein turnover, and protein synthesis during the rehydration phase. However, there are some metabolites associated with ROS protection that remain elevated during rehydration, most notably the tocopherols. The analysis of the dehydration transcriptome reveals a strong concordance between transcript abundance and the associated metabolite abundance reported earlier, but only in responses that are directly related to cellular protection during dehydration: carbohydrate metabolism and redox homeostasis. The transcriptome response also provides strong support for the involvement of cellular protection processes as exemplified by the increases in the abundance of transcripts encoding late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, anti-oxidant enzymes, early light-induced proteins (ELIP) proteins, and cell-wall modification enzymes. There is little concordance between transcript and metabolite abundance for processes such as amino acid metabolism that do not appear to contribute directly to cellular protection, but are nonetheless important for the desiccation tolerant phenotype of S. stapfianus. Conclusions: The transcriptomes of both dehydration and rehydration offer insight into the complexity of the regulation of responses to these processes that involve complex signaling pathways and associated transcription factors. ABA appears to be important in the control of gene expression in both the latter stages of the dehydration and the early stages of rehydration. These findings add to the growing body of information detailing how plants tolerate and survive the severe cellular perturbations of dehydration, desiccation, and rehydration.

Biology Department.

 

Zhao, C., X. Chen, C. S. Yang, …., Xuejun Wang, & J. B. Liu. (2017). Repurposing an antidandruff agent to treating cancer: zinc pyrithione inhibits tumor growth via targeting proteasome-associated deubiquitinases. Oncotarget, 8(8), 13942-13956.

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a central role in various cellular processes through selectively degrading proteins involved in critical cellular functions. Targeting UPS has been validated as a novel strategy for treating human cancer, as inhibitors of the 20S proteasome catalytic activity are currently in clinical use for treatment of multiple myeloma and other cancers, and the deubiquitinase activity associated with the proteasome is also a valid target for anticancer agents. Recent studies suggested that zinc pyrithione, an FDA-approved antidandruff agent, may have antitumor activity, but the detailed molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) targets the proteasome-associated DUBs (USP14 and UCHL5) and inhibits their activities, resulting in a rapid accumulation of protein-ubiquitin conjugates, but without inhibiting the proteolytic activities of 20S proteasomes. Furthermore, ZnPT exhibits cytotoxic effects against various cancer cell lines in vitro, selectively kills bone marrow cells from leukemia patients ex vivo, and efficiently inhibits the growth of lung adenocarcinoma cancer cell xenografts in nude mice. This study has identified zinc pyrithione, an FDA-approved pharmacological agent with potential antitumor properties as a proteasomal DUB inhibitor.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus

 

 

Posted by: tadeterman | March 31, 2017

March 2017

Dag, Ali, Oztekin, A., Yucel, A., Bulur, S., & Megahed, F. M. (2017). Predicting heart transplantation outcomes through data analytics. Decision Support Systems, 94, 42-52.

Predicting the survival of heart transplant patients is an important, yet challenging problem since it plays a crucial role in understanding the matching procedure between a donor and a recipient. Data mining models can be used to effectively analyze and extract novel information from large/complex transplantation datasets. The objective of this study is to predict the 1-, 5-, and 9-year patient’s graft survival following a heart transplant surgery via the deployment of analytical models that are based on four powerful classification algorithms (i.e. decision trees, artificial neural networks, support vector machines, and logistic regression). Since the datasets used in this study has a much larger number of survival cases than deaths for 1- and 5-year survival analysis and vice versa for 9-year survival analysis, random under sampling (RUS) and synthetic minority over-sampling (SMOTE) are employed to overcome the data-imbalance problems. The results indicate that logistic regression combined with SMOTE achieves the best classification for the 1-, 5-, and 9-year outcome prediction, with area-under-the-curve (AUC) values of 0.624, 0.676, and 0.838, respectively. By applying sensitivity analysis to the data analytical models, the most important predictors and their associated contribution for the 1-, 5-, and 9-year graft survival of heart transplant patients are identified. By doing so, variables, whose importance changes over time, are differentiated. Not only this proposed hybrid approach gives superior results over the literature but also the models and identification of the variables present important retrospective findings, which can be the basis for a prospective medical study. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Freeling, Jessica L., & Rezvani, Khosrow. (2016). Assessment of murine colorectal cancer by micro-ultrasound using three dimensional reconstruction and non-linear contrast imaging. Molecular Therapy-Methods & Clinical Development, 3, 11.

The relatively low success rates of current colorectal cancer (CRC) therapies have led investigators to search for more specific treatments. Vertebrate models of colorectal cancer are essential tools for the verification of new therapeutic avenues such as gene therapy. The evaluation of colorectal cancer in mouse models has been limited due to the lack of an accurate quantitative and longitudinal noninvasive method. This work introduces a method of three-dimensional micro-ultrasound reconstruction and – microbubble administration for the comprehensive and longitudinal evaluation of CRC progression. This approach enabled quantification of both tumor volume and relative vascularity using a well-established inducible murine model of colon carcinogenesis. This inducible model recapitulated the adenocarcinoma sequence that occurs in human CRC allowing systematic in situ evaluation of the ultrasound technique. The administration of intravenous microbubbles facilitated enhancement of colon vascular contrast and quantification of relative vascularity of the mid and distal colon of the mouse in three dimensions. In addition, two-dimensional imaging in the sagittal orientation of the colon using Non-Linear Contrast Mode enabled calculation of relative blood volume and perfusion as the microbubbles entered the colon microvasculature. Quantitative results provided by the outlined protocol represent a noninvasive tool that can more accurately define CRC development and progression. This ultrasound technique will allow the practical and economical longitudinal study of murine CRC in both basic and preclinical studies.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Grassmeyer, Justin, Mukherjee, Malini, …., Zhao, Haotian,Fogarty, Eric, & Surendran, Kameswaran. (2017). Elf5 is a principal cell lineage specific transcription factor in the kidney that contributes to Aqp2 and Avpr2 gene expression. Developmental Biology, 424(1), 77-89.

The mammalian kidney collecting ducts are critical for water, electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis and develop as a branched network of tubular structures composed of principal cells intermingled with intercalated cells. The intermingled nature of the different collecting duct cell types has made it challenging to identify unique and critical factors that mark and/or regulate the development of the different collecting duct cell lineages. Here we report that the canonical Notch signaling pathway components, RBPJ and Presinilin1 and 2, are involved in patterning the mouse collecting duct cell fates by maintaining a balance between principal cell and intercalated cell fates. The relatively reduced number of principal cells in Notch-signaling-deficient kidneys offered a unique genetic leverage to identify critical principal cell-enriched factors by transcriptional profiling. Elf5 , which codes for an ETS transcription factor, is one such gene that is down-regulated in kidneys with Notch-signaling-deficient collecting ducts. Additionally, Elf5 is among the earliest genes up regulated by ectopic expression of activated Notch1 in the developing collecting ducts. In the kidney, Elf5 is first expressed early within developing collecting ducts and remains on in mature principal cells. Lineage tracing of Elf5 -expressing cells revealed that they are committed to the principal cell lineage by as early as E16.5. Over-expression of ETS Class IIa transcription factors, including Elf5, Elf3 and Ehf, increase the transcriptional activity of the proximal promoters of Aqp2 and Avpr2 in cultured ureteric duct cell lines. Conditional inactivation of Elf5 in the developing collecting ducts results in a small but significant reduction in the expression levels of Aqp2 and Avpr2 genes. We have identified Elf5 as an early maker of the principal cell lineage that contributes to the expression of principal cell specific genes.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Jacobs, Gerard A.Gray, Brandon L.Erickson, Sara E.,Gonzalez, Elvira D., & Quevillon, Randal P. (2016). Disaster Mental Health and Community-Based Psychological First Aid: Concepts and Education/Training. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 72(12), 1307-1317.

Any community can experience a disaster, and many traumatic events occur without warning. Psychologists can be an important resource assisting in psychological support for individuals and communities, in preparation for and in response to traumatic events. Disaster mental health and the community-based model of psychological first aid are described. The National Preparedness and Response Science Board has recommended that all mental health professionals be trained in disaster mental health, and that first responders, civic officials, emergency managers, and the general public be trained in community-based psychological first aid. Education and training resources in these two fields are described to assist psychologists and others in preparing themselves to assist their communities in difficult times and to help their communities learn to support one another. (C) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Psychology Department.

 

Liao, Y. N., Liu, N. N., Hua, X. L., Cai, J. Y., Xia, X. H., Wang, Xuejun, . . . Liu, J. B. (2017). Proteasome-associated deubiquitinase ubiquitin-specific protease 14 regulates prostate cancer proliferation by deubiquitinating and stabilizing androgen receptor. Cell Death & Disease, 8, 9.

Androgen receptor (AR) is frequently over-expressed and plays a critical role in the growth and progression of human prostate cancer. The therapy attempting to target AR signalling was established in decades ago but the treatment of prostate cancer is far from being satisfactory. The assignable cause is that our understanding of the mechanism of AR regulation and re-activation remains incomplete. Increasing evidence suggests that deubiquitinases are involved in the regulation of cancer development and progression but the specific underlying mechanism often is not elucidated. In the current study, we have identified ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (USP14) as a novel regulator of AR, inhibiting the degradation of AR via deubiquitinating this oncoprotein in the androgen-responsive prostate cancer cells. We found that (i) USP14 could bind to AR, and additionally, both genetic and pharmacological inhibition of USP14 accelerated the ubiquitination and degradation of AR; (ii) downregulation or inhibition of USP14 suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation of LNcap cells and, conversely, overexpression of USP14 promoted the proliferation; and (iii) reduction or inhibition of USP14 induced G0/G1 phase arrest in LNcap prostate cancer cells. Hence, we conclude that USP14 promotes prostate cancer progression likely through stabilization of AR, suggesting that USP14 could be a promising therapeutic target for prostate cancer.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Li, Jie, Ma, Wenxia, Yue, Guihua, …., Wang, Xuejun, & Su, Huabo. (2017). Cardiac proteasome functional insufficiency plays a pathogenic role in diabetic cardiomyopathy.Journal of Molecular & Cellular Cardiology, 102, 53-60.

Background Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a major risk factor in diabetic patients but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) facilitates protein quality control by degrading unnecessary and damaged proteins in eukaryotic cells, and dysfunction of UPS is implicated in various cardiac diseases. However, the overall functional status of the UPS and its pathophysiological role in diabetic cardiomyopathy have not been determined. Methods and results Type I diabetes was induced in wild-type and transgenic mice expressing a UPS functional reporter (GFPdgn) by injections of streptozotocin (STZ). STZ-induced diabetes progressively impaired cardiac UPS function as evidenced by the accumulation of GFPdgn proteins beginning two weeks after diabetes induction, and by a buildup of total and lysine (K) 48-linked polyubiquitinated proteins in the heart. To examine the functional role of the UPS in diabetic cardiomyopathy, cardiac overexpression of PA28α (PA28αOE) was used to enhance proteasome function in diabetic mouse hearts. PA28αOE diabetic mice displayed exhibited restoration of cardiac UPS function, as demonstrated by the diminished accumulation of GFPdgn and polyubiquitinated proteins. Moreover, PA28αOE diabetic mice exhibited reduced myocardial collagen deposition, decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and improved cardiac systolic and diastolic function. Conclusion Impairment of cardiac UPS function is an early event in STZ-induced diabetes. Overexpression of PA28α attenuates diabetes-induced proteotoxic stress and cardiomyopathy, suggesting a potential therapeutic role for enhancement of cardiac proteasome function in this disorder.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Puckett, Jae A., Horne, Sharon G., Maroney, Meredith R., Herbitter, Cara, & Levitt, Heidi M. (2017). Differences Across Contexts. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 41(1), 8-19.

Minority stressors encountered by lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) women are inherently connected to contextual experiences. Although there is a growing body of research on the benefits of gaining political rights and the costs of their denial, little research has focused on the effects of access to LGB-affirmative resources. In the current study with 1,017 women in same-sex relationships, we created profiles using latent class analysis to characterize the contexts in which participants were raised and the contexts in which they lived at the time of the study. We examined differences in interpersonal relationships, internalized heterosexism (IH), and outness across these profiles. Class 1 (28%) included participants who always lived in affirmative contexts with LGB-supportive resources. Class 2 participants (28%) always lived in more heterosexist contexts with few resources. Class 3 participants (44%) originally lived in more heterosexist contexts with few resources but shifted to more affirmative contexts. Class 3 individuals had greater social support and lower IH than Class 2 participants. Classes 1 and 3 had greater outness than Class 2. This study provides evidence linking IH to the lack of contextual supports. Our data also suggest that the quality of relationships for LGB women may remain strong even in heterosexist contexts. Actions that increase affirming resources will provide avenues for more positive identity development and interpersonal relationships for LGB individuals.

Psychology Department.

 

Quevillon, Randal P.Gray, Brandon L.Erickson, Sara E.,Gonzalez, Elvira D., & Jacobs, Gerard A. (2016). Helping the Helpers: Assisting Staff and Volunteer Workers Before, During, and After Disaster Relief Operations. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 72(12), 1348-1363.

Self-care strategies and system supports employed in preparation for, during, and after disaster relief operations (DROs) are crucial to relief worker well-being and the overall effectiveness of relief efforts. Relief organizations and management must structure DROs in a manner that promotes self-care and workers must implement proper self-care strategies. Proper self-care before, during, and after a DRO can reduce negative reactions to stressful emergency work and promote growth, mastery, and self-efficacy after the experience. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to discuss the importance of organizational supports and self-care strategies in disaster relief settings. This article emphasizes the role of both individual and management participation and commitment to relief worker support and positive experience in DROs and provides suggestions for doing so. These suggestions are derived from the empirical and experiential literature and extensions from the theoretical background, and from our experience as managers in DROs. (C) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Psychology Department.

 

Roh, Soonhee, Burnette, Catherine E., Lee, Kyoung Hag, Lee, Yeon-Shim, & Easton, Scott D. (2016). Risk and protective factors for depressive symptoms among indigenous older adults: Intimate partner violence (IPV) and social support. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 59(4), 316-331.

Research on depression and intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by Indigenous older adults is virtually nonexistent. Given the associations between IPV and depression and their disproportionately high rates among Indigenous peoples in a context of historical oppression, the purpose of this inquiry is to examine how IPV and social support are associated with depressive symptoms for Indigenous older adults. We expand the knowledge base on IPV in later life, which primarily focuses on female samples, by including older men. We predicted: (a) IPV will be positively associated with depressive symptoms and (b) levels of social support will be negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses of data from a sample of Indigenous older adults (N = 233) in the Upper Midwest indicated that physical aggression (but not psychological aggression, sexual coercion, injury, or negotiation) was positively associated with depressive symptoms, whereas social support was negatively associated with depressive symptoms.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Son, Jung-HoTamang, Sem RajFostvedt, Jade, &Hoefelmeyer, James D. (2017). Dehydrodechlorination of Methylene Chloride, Chloroform, and Chlorodiphenylmethane in the Presence of Ga/N Lewis Pairs. Organometallics, 36(2), 474-479.

Transmetalation occurs upon addition of GaCl3 to (quinolin-8-yl)trimethylstannane. The compound dissolves immediately in pyridine, and recrystallization gives dichloropyridinyl(quinolin-8-yl)gallium(III). In chloroform, the compound bis-mu-(quinolin-8-y1)-mu-chloro-dichlorodigallium(III) tetrachloro-gallate could be isolated in small quantities; however, the major product was trichloro(quinolinium-8-yl)gallate(III) zwitterion. The zwitterion also formed upon addition of methylene chloride or chlorodiphenylmethane. We hypothesize that the highly electrophilic digallyl cation abstracts chloride to form a carbocation and that proton transfer from the carbocation to the quinoline nitrogen affords transient carbenes. In particular, diphenyl carbene forms from dehydrodechlorination of chlorodiphenylmethane in toluene/cyclohexene to give a well-defined mixture of products due to cyclopropanation and C-H insertion reactions. Dichloropyridinyl(quinolin-8-yl)gallium(III) undergoes reaction with chloroform only at elevated temperature to yield quinolinium tetrachlorogallate salt as the product. This salt also forms in the reaction of chloroform with GaCl3 and quinoline at elevated temperature. The zwitterion could be converted to quinolinium tetrachlorogallate upon heating, which supports the idea that it was formed initially as an intermediate. Thus, the Ga/N Lewis pairs appear capable of dehydrodechlorination of chloroalkanes.

Chemistry Department.

 

Swanson, David L.King, Marisa O.Culver Iii, William, & Yufeng, Zhang. (2017). Within-Winter Flexibility in Muscle Masses, Myostatin, and Cellular Aerobic Metabolic Intensity in Passerine Birds. Physiological & Biochemical Zoology, 90(2), 210-222.

Metabolic rates of passerine birds are flexible traits that vary both seasonally and among and within winters. Seasonal variation in summit metabolic rates (Msum = maximum thermoregulatory metabolism) in birds is consistently correlated with changes in pectoralis muscle and heart masses and sometimes with variation in cellular aerobicmetabolic intensity, so these traits might also be associated with shorter-term, within-winter variation in metabolic rates. To determine whether these mechanisms are associated with within-winter variation in Msum, we examined the effects of short-term (ST; 0-7 d), medium-term (MT; 14-30 d), and long-term (LT; 30-yr means) temperature variables on pectoralis muscle and heart masses, pectoralis expression of the muscle-growth inhibitor myostatin and its metalloproteinase activators TLL-1 and TLL-2, and pectoralis and heart citrate synthase (CS; an indicator of cellular aerobic metabolic intensity) activities for two temperate-zone resident passerines, house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). For both species, pectoralis mass residuals were positively correlated with ST temperature variables, suggesting that cold temperatures resulted in increased turnover of pectoralis muscle, but heart mass showed little within-winter variation for either species. Pectoralis mRNA and protein expression of myostatin and the TLLs were only weakly correlated withSTandMTtemperature variables, which is largely consistent with trends in muscle masses for both species. Pectoralis and heart CS activities showed weak and variable trends with ST temperature variables in both species, suggesting only minor effects of temperature variation on cellular aerobic metabolic intensity. Thus, neither muscle or heart masses, regulation by the myostatin system, nor cellular aerobicmetabolic intensity varied consistently with winter temperature, suggesting that other factors regulate within-winter metabolic variation in these birds.

Biology Department.

 

Tjarks, B. Joel, Somani, N., Piliang, M., & Bergfeld, W. F. (2017). A proposed classification for follicular involvement by melanoma. Journal of Cutaneous Pathology, 44(1), 45-52.

Background: Folliculotropism in melanoma is poorly characterized and standard categorization for follicular involvement by melanoma is unavailable. We propose a logical categorization system. Methods: We conducted a search of our archives over a 24-year period for cases mentioning the terms follicle, follicular, folliculotropic, folliculocentric and melanoma. Results: We identified 90 cases of melanoma with involvement of the hair follicle. Distinct patterns were identified. The invasive patterns were primary follicular, folliculotropic and invasive arising from melanoma in situ (MIS) with extensive follicular involvement. Follicular involvement by MIS was either lentiginous, nested or a combination of both. A total of 29 invasive melanomas were identified. Of these 12 had invasive melanoma around the hair follicle, 2 were primary follicular melanomas, 7 showed folliculotropism and 3 were invasive melanomas arising from MIS around the follicle. Seventeen invasive melanomas had follicles only involved by MIS (9 nested, 6 nested and lentiginous and 2 lentiginous). A total of 61 cases of MIS with follicular involvement were identified; of these 33 were lentiginous, 10 nested and 18 both lentiginous and nested. Conclusion: We propose that the three distinct patterns of follicular involvement by invasive melanoma and the three distinct patterns of MIS will be valuable for logically categorizing involvement of the hair follicle by melanoma.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Wang, X. T., & Gang, H. F. (2017). Glucose-specific signaling effects on delay discounting in intertemporal choice.Physiology & Behavior, 169, 195-201.

We propose that decisions related to resource management (e.g., intertemporal choice between a smaller-and-sooner reward and a larger-and-later reward) are sensitive to and regulated by fluctuating blood glucose levels. Circulating glucose affects intertemporal choice by means of signaling body energy condition instead of serving as a replenishing resource for effortful cognitive processing. We intend to dissociate calorie-supplying functions from glucose-unique anticipatory effects on behavioral resource management, measured by delay discounting in making intertemporal choices. Regarding the anticipatory functions of the glucose-insulin system in regulating the degree of delay discounting, we tested three predictions: First, we predict that the signaling effects of circulating glucose on delay discounting do not need to be dose-dependent as long as glucose fluctuation indicates a directional trend in body energy budget. Second, such effects of glucose fluctuation on delay discounting are phagic (appetite related) instead of dipsian (thirst related). Third, this glucose-insulin signaling system requires glucose as the specific input, thus is insensitive to other forms of sugar that are not insulin regulated. In Study 1, fasting participants were randomly assigned to one of five groups: water consumption, zero-consumption, and three glucose consumption (18 g, 36 g, and 72 g cane sugar/250 ml water) groups. The participants competed two sets of intertemporal choice questions with varying delay discounting rates before and after a beverage intervention. The results showed that the rate of delay discounting was negatively correlated to blood glucose levels. The effects of circulating glucose on delay discounting closely followed the changes in blood glucose levels showing a plateau on both dose-response curies (i.e., the sugar dose-blood glucose level curve and the sugar does-delay discounting curve). Secondly, the effects of circulating glucose on delay discounting were significant only in the glucose ingestion group, but not in the Zero consumption and the water consumption groups, suggesting that the behavioral effects were in fact related to hunger-reduction instead of thirst-reduction. Study 2 revealed that glucose ingestion, but not Water or another form of sugar (xylitol matched to glucose either for sweetness or for calories), reduced delay discounting, making future options more attractive. This result suggests that signaling of body energy budget is indeed glucose -unique. Our results suggest a forecasting mechanism of the glucose-insulin system for both metabolic and behavioral regulations of resource acquisition and allocation. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Psychology Department.

 

Xu, Wenqin, & Elliott, Steven R. (2017). Solar axion search technique with correlated signals from multiple detectors.Astroparticle Physics, 89, 39-50.

The coherent Bragg scattering of photons converted from solar axions inside crystals would boost the signal for axion-photon coupling enhancing experimental sensitivity for these hypothetical particles. Knowledge of the scattering angle of solar axions with respect to the crystal lattice is required to make theoretical predications of signal strength. Hence, both the lattice axis angle within a crystal and the absolute angle between the crystal and the Sun must be known. In this paper, we examine how the experimental sensitivity changes with respect to various experimental parameters. We also demonstrate that, in a multiple-crystal setup, knowledge of the relative axis orientation between multiple crystals can improve the experimental sensitivity, or equivalently, relax the precision on the absolute solar angle measurement. However, if absolute angles of all crystal axes are measured, we find that a precision of 2 ∘ − 4 ∘ will suffice for an energy resolution of σ E = 0.04 E and a flat background. Finally, we also show that, given a minimum number of detectors, a signal model averaged over angles can substitute for precise crystal angular measurements, with some loss of sensitivity.

Physics Department.

Posted by: tadeterman | March 31, 2017

February 2017

Anderson, Jordan A., Remund, T., Pohlson, K., Lamichhane, Sujan, Evans, C., Evans, R., . . . Mani, Gopinath. (2017). In vitro and in vivo evaluation of effect of excipients in local delivery of paclitaxel using microporous infusion balloon catheters.Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B-Applied Biomaterials, 105(2), 376-390.

Drug-infusion balloons are one of the currently used local drug delivery devices for preventing restenosis after endovascular treatments. An antiproliferative drug (paclitaxel, PAT) is infused through the balloon using a cremophor-based formulation to control restenosis. However, the major limitations of this approach are poor in vivo drug uptake and a limit in the amount of PAT delivered because of cremophor toxicity. In this study, we have investigated the use of different excipients for effectively infusing PAT out of the balloon for improved drug uptake in the tissue. The excipients include nanoparticle albumin-bound PAT (nab-PAT, a nanobiomaterial used in cancer therapy), urea (a hydrophilic agent used for faster drug transfer), iodixanol (a contrast agent used for coronary angiography), and cremophor-PAT (the most commonly used PAT formulation). An in vitro drug release, smooth muscle cell (SMC) response, endothelial cell (EC) response, and in vivo drug uptake were investigated for all the different excipients of PAT infused through the balloon. The nab-PAT was as effective as cremophor in infusing out of the balloon and inhibiting SMC growth. Also, nab-PAT showed a significantly greater amount of in vivo PAT uptake than that of cremophor-PAT. Urea and iodixanol were not effective in delivering a clinically relevant dose of PAT due to the poor solubility of PAT in these excipients. Urea eradicated all the SMCs and ECs, suggesting a toxic effect, which impedes its use in balloon-based therapy. Thus, this study demonstrated that nab-PAT is an effective formulation to locally deliver PAT through infusion balloons. (C) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Burnette, Catherine Elizabeth,Soonhee, Roh, Kyoung Hag, Lee, Yeon-Shim, Lee, Newland, Lisa A., & Jung Sim, Jun. (2017). A Comparison of Risk and Protective Factors Related to Depressive Symptoms among American Indian and Caucasian Older Adults. Health & Social Work, 42(1), e15-e23.

Despite efforts to reduce health disparities, many American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations, including older adults, experience elevated levels of depression and associated suicide. Although adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and social support are well-documented risk and protective factors for depression in the general population, little is known about AI/AN populations, especially older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to depression among a sample of AI older adults in the Midwest. Data were collected using a self-administered survey completed by 479 AI and Caucasian respondents over the age of 50. The survey included standardized measures such as the Geriatric Depression Scale–Short Form, ACE Questionnaire, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the main hypotheses of the study. Results indicate that two dimensions of ACEs (childhood neglect and household dysfunction) were positively associated with depressive symptoms; social support was negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Perceived health and living alone were also significant predictors of depressive symptoms. ACEs may play a significant role in depression among AI/AN populations across the life course and into old age. Social support offers a promising mechanism to bolster resilience among AI/AN older adults.

School of Education.

 

De, P., Carlson, J. H., Jepperson, T., Willis, S., Leyland-Jones, B., &Dey, Nandini. (2017). RAC1 GTP-ase signals wnt-beta-catenin pathway mediated integrin-directed metastasis-associated tumor cell phenotypes in triple negative breast cancers. Oncotarget, 8(2), 3072-3103.

The acquisition of integrin-directed metastasis-associated (ID-MA) phenotypes by Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) cells is caused by an upregulation of the Wnt-beta-catenin pathway (WP). We reported that WP is one of the salient genetic features of TNBC. RAC-GTPases, small G-proteins which transduce signals from cell surface proteins including integrins, have been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis by their role in essential cellular functions like motility. The collective percentage of alteration(s) in RAC1 in ER+ve BC was lower as compared to ER-ve BC (35% vs 57%) (brca/tcga/pub2015). High expression of RAC1 was associated with poor outcome for RFS with HR= 1.48 [ CI: 1.15-1.9] p=0.0019 in the Hungarian ER-veBC cohort. Here we examined how WP signals are transduced via RAC1 in the context of ID-MA phenotypes in TNBC. Using pharmacological agents (sulindac sulfide), genetic tools (beta-catenin siRNA), WP modulators (Wnt-C59, XAV939), RAC1 inhibitors (NSC23766, W56) and WP stimulations (LWnt3ACM, Wnt3A recombinant) in a panel of 6-7 TNBC cell lines, we studied fibronectin-directed (1) migration, (2) matrigel invasion, (3) RAC1 and Cdc42 activation, (4) actin dynamics (confocal microscopy) and (5) podia-parameters. An attenuation of WP, which (a) decreased cellular levels of beta-catenin, as well as its nuclear active-form, (b) decreased fibronectin-induced migration, (c) decreased invasion, (d) altered actin dynamics and (e) decreased podia-parameters was successful in blocking fibronectin-mediated RAC1/Cdc42 activity. Both Wnt-antagonists and RAC1 inhibitors blocked fibronectin-induced RAC1 activation and inhibited the fibronectin-induced ID-MA phenotypes following specific WP stimulation by LWnt3ACM as well as Wnt3A recombinant protein. To test a direct involvement of RAC1-activation in WP-mediated ID-MA phenotypes, we stimulated brain-metastasis specific MDA-MB231BR cells with LWnt3ACM. LWnt3ACM-stimulated fibronectin-directed migration was blocked by RAC1 inhibition in MDA-MB231BR cells. In the light of our previous report that WP upregulation causes ID-MA phenotypes in TNBC tumor cells, here we provide the first mechanism based evidence to demonstrate that WP upregulation signals ID-MA tumor cell phenotypes in a RAC1-GTPase dependent manner involving exchange-factors like TIAM1 and VAV2. Our study demonstrates for the first time that betacatenin-RAC1 cascade signals integrin-directed metastasis-associated tumor cell phenotypes in TNBC.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Forred, B. J., Daugaard, D. R., Titus, B. K., …., & Vitiello, Peter F.(2017). Detoxification of Mitochondrial Oxidants and Apoptotic Signaling Are Facilitated by Thioredoxin-2 and Peroxiredoxin-3 during Hyperoxic Injury. Plos One, 12(1), 20.

Mitochondria play a fundamental role in the regulation of cell death during accumulation of oxidants. High concentrations of atmospheric oxygen (hyperoxia), used clinically to treat tissue hypoxia in premature newborns, is known to elicit oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury to pulmonary epithelial cells. A consequence of oxidative stress in mitochondria is the accumulation of peroxides which are detoxified by the dedicated mitochondrial thioredoxin system. This system is comprised of the oxidoreductase activities of peroxiredoxin-3 (Prx3), thioredoxin-2 (Trx2), and thioredoxin reductase-2 (TrxR2). The goal of this study was to understand the role of the mitochondrial thioredoxin system and mitochondrial injuries during hyperoxic exposure. Flow analysis of the redox-sensitive, mitochondrial-specific fluorophore, MitoSOX, indicated increased levels of mitochondrial oxidant formation in human adenocarcinoma cells cultured in 95% oxygen. Increased expression of Trx2 and TrxR2 in response to hyperoxia were not attributable to changes in mitochondrial mass, suggesting that hyperoxic upregulation of mitochondrial thioredoxins prevents accumulation of oxidized Prx3. Mitochondrial oxidoreductase activities were modulated through pharmacological inhibition of TrxR2 with auranofin and genetically through shRNA knockdown of Trx2 and Prx3. Diminished Trx2 and Prx3 expression was associated with accumulation of mitochondrial superoxide; however, only shRNA knockdown of Trx2 increased susceptibility to hyperoxic cell death and increased phosphorylation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1). In conclusion, the mitochondrial thioredoxin system regulates hyperoxic-mediated death of pulmonary epithelial cells through detoxification of oxidants and regulation of redox-dependent apoptotic signaling.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Hansen, John. (2017). Opiates for Chronic Pain. Pain Practice, 17(1), 147-148.

The article presents ten problems that would help improve patient-centered, multidisciplinary care for chronic pain, including structured opiate prescribing when indicated, in the U.S. Topics discussed include the poor outcomes of self-care, either individually or collectively, the challenge opiate prescribing risk reduction, and the problem of substance abuse and addiction.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Juber, Brian A., Harris Jackson, Kristina,Johnson, Kristopher B.Harris, William S., & Baack, Michelle L. (2017). Breast milk DHA levels may increase after informing women: a community-based cohort study from South Dakota USA. International Breastfeeding Journal, 12, 1-9.

Background: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid found in breast milk, has many health benefits for both mother and baby. A 2007 meta-analysis found U.S. women had breast milk DHA levels (0.20% of total fatty acids) below the worldwide mean (0.32%). In 2008, international dietary recommendations were made for pregnant and lactating women to consume 200 mg of DHA per day. This community-based study aimed to define current milk DHA levels from upper Midwest USA lactating mothers and to determine if providing information about their own level along with dietary recommendations would incite changes to increase breast milk DHA content. Methods: New mothers attending lactation classes or using hospital pumping rooms in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA participated by providing one drop of breast milk on a card for fatty acid analysis at baseline and 1 month after initial reporting. DHA levels were analyzed by gas chromatography. Mothers received a report of their own breast milk level along with dietary recommendations on DHA intake for lactating women. Median baseline and follow-up DHA levels were determined and differences were compared by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: At baseline, breast milk DHA content (n = 84) was highly variable (range 0.05 to 0.73%) with a median of 0.18% (IQR, 0.13, 0.28; mean ± SD, 0.22 ± 0.13%), well below the worldwide average (0.32%). Women who reported taking DHA supplements (n = 43) had higher levels than those who did not (0.23% vs. 0.15%, P < 0.0001). In a subset of 60 mothers who submitted a second sample, median breast milk DHA content increased from 0.19 to 0.22% (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Findings suggest that providing nursing mothers with their breast milk DHA level and education about DHA intake while breastfeeding motivates change to increase DHA levels.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Jung-Ho, SonTamang, Sem Raj,Fostvedt, Jade I., &Hoefelmeyer, James D. (2017). Dehydrodechlorination of Methylene Chloride, Chloroform, and Chlorodiphenylmethane in the Presence of Ga/N Lewis Pairs.Organometallics, 36(2), 474-479.

Transmetalation occurs upon addition of GaCl3 to (quinolin-8-yl)trimethylstannane. The compound dissolves immediately in pyridine, and recrystallization gives dichloropyridinyl(quinolin-8-yl)gallium(III). In chloroform, the compound bis-μ-(quinolin-8-yl)-μ-chloro-dichlorodigallium(III) tetrachlorogallate could be isolated in small quantities; however, the major product was trichloro(quinolinium-8-yl)gallate(III) zwitterion. The zwitterion also formed upon addition of methylene chloride or chlorodiphenylmethane. We hypothesize that the highly electrophilic digallyl cation abstracts chloride to form a carbocation and that proton transfer from the carbocation to the quinoline nitrogen affords transient carbenes. In particular, diphenyl carbene forms from dehydrodechlorination of chlorodiphenylmethane in toluene/cyclohexene to give a well-defined mixture of products due to cyclopropanation and C-H insertion reactions. Dichloropyridinyl(quinolin-8-yl)gallium(III) undergoes reaction with chloroform only at elevated temperature to yield quinolinium tetrachlorogallate salt as the product. This salt also forms in the reaction of chloroform with GaCl3 and quinoline at elevated temperature. The zwitterion could be converted to quinolinium tetrachlorogallate upon heating, which supports the idea that it was formed initially as an intermediate. Thus, the Ga/N Lewis pairs appear capable of dehydrodechlorination of chloroalkanes.

Chemistry Department.

 

Mayhan, William G., & Arrick, Denise M. (2017). Tetrahydrobiopterin rescues impaired responses of cerebral resistance arterioles during type 1 diabetes.Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research, 14(1), 33-39.

Our goal was to test the hypothesis that administration of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) would improve impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase-dependent dilation of cerebral arterioles during type 1 diabetes. In addition, we examined the influence of BH4 on levels of superoxide in brain tissue. In vivo diameter of cerebral arterioles in nondiabetic and diabetic rats was measured in response to endothelial nitric oxide synthase-dependent agonists (acetylcholine and adenosine 5-diphosphate) and an endothelial nitric oxide synthase-independent agonist (nitroglycerine) before and during application of BH4 (1.0 mu M). We also measured levels of superoxide from cortex tissue in nondiabetic and diabetic rats under basal states and during BH4. Acetylcholine and adenosine 5-diphosphate dilated cerebral arterioles in nondiabetic rats, but this vasodilation was significantly impaired in diabetic rats. In contrast, nitroglycerine produced similar vasodilation in nondiabetic and diabetic rats. Application of BH4 did not enhance vasodilation in nondiabetic rats but improved impaired cerebral vasodilation in diabetic rats. Basal superoxide levels were increased in cortex tissue from diabetic rats, and BH4 reduced these levels to that found in nondiabetic rats. Thus, BH4 is an important mediator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase-dependent responses of cerebral arterioles in diabetes and may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of cerebral vascular disease.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

McDougall, Matthew A.Walsh, MichaelWater, Kristina,Knigge, RyanMiller, Lindsey,Steverrner, Michalene, & Fogas, Bruce S. (2016). The effect of social networking sites on the relationship between perceived social support and depression.Psychiatry Research, 246, 223-229.

This study examined whether Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have a negative moderator effect on the established relationship between perceived social support and depression in psychiatric inpatients. Survey instruments assessing for depression, perceived social support, and SNS use, were filled out by 301 psychiatric inpatients. Additional data on age, gender, and primary psychiatric diagnosis were collected. A step-wise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine significant interactions. There was no significant interaction of SNS use on the relationship between perceived social support and depression when measured by Social Media Use Integration Scale or by hours of SNS use per day. There was a significant negative relationship between perceived social support and depression, and a significant positive relationship between hours of SNS use per day and depression, measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Limitations include a gender discrepancy among participants, generalizability, recall bias, and SNS measurement. This is the first study to look at SNS use and depression in psychiatric inpatients. SNS use did not affect perceived social support or the protective relationship between perceived social support and depression. Hours of SNS use per day were correlated with depression scores. Future studies between SNS use and depression should quantify daily SNS use. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

McDougall, Matthew A.Walsh, MichaelWattier, Kristina,Knigge, RyanMiller, Lindsey,Stevermer, Michalene, & Fogas, Bruce S. (2016). The effect of social networking sites on the relationship between perceived social support and depression.Psychiatry Research, 246, 223-229.

This study examined whether Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have a negative moderator effect on the established relationship between perceived social support and depression in psychiatric inpatients. Survey instruments assessing for depression, perceived social support, and SNS use, were filled out by 301 psychiatric inpatients. Additional data on age, gender, and primary psychiatric diagnosis were collected. A step-wise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine significant interactions. There was no significant interaction of SNS use on the relationship between perceived social support and depression when measured by Social Media Use Integration Scale or by hours of SNS use per day. There was a significant negative relationship between perceived social support and depression, and a significant positive relationship between hours of SNS use per day and depression, measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Limitations include a gender discrepancy among participants, generalizability, recall bias, and SNS measurement. This is the first study to look at SNS use and depression in psychiatric inpatients. SNS use did not affect perceived social support or the protective relationship between perceived social support and depression. Hours of SNS use per day were correlated with depression scores. Future studies between SNS use and depression should quantify daily SNS use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Meyer, M., Kovacs, Attila D., & Pearce, David A. (2017). Decreased sensitivity of palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1-deficient neurons to chemical anoxia.Metabolic Brain Disease, 32(1), 275-279.

Infantile CLN1 disease, also known as infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, is a fatal childhood neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the CLN1 gene. CLN1 encodes a soluble lysosomal enzyme, palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1), and it is still unclear why neurons are selectively vulnerable to the loss of PPT1 enzyme activity in infantile CLN1 disease. To examine the effects of PPT1 deficiency on several well-defined neuronal signaling and cell death pathways, different toxic insults were applied in cerebellar granule neuron cultures prepared from wild type (WT) and palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1-deficient (Ppt1 (-/-) ) mice, a model of infantile CLN1 disease. Glutamate uptake inhibition by t-PDC (L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid) or Zn2+-induced general mitochondrial dysfunction caused similar toxicity in WT and Ppt1 (-/-) cultures. Ppt1 (-/-) neurons, however, were more sensitive to mitochondrial complex I inhibition by MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium), and had significantly decreased sensitivity to chemical anoxia induced by the mitochondrial complex IV inhibitor, sodium azide. Our results indicate that PPT1 deficiency causes alterations in the mitochondrial respiratory chain.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Min, Jia-Wei, Lü, Lanhai, Freeling, Jessica L.Martin, Doug S., &Wang, Hongmin. (2017). USP14 inhibitor attenuates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury in mice. Journal of Neurochemistry, 140(5), 826-833.

Stroke is associated with over-production of misfolded and aggregating proteins. However, it remains largely unclear whether enhanced removal of protein aggregates following ischemic stroke is neuroprotective. Deubiquitinating enzymes ( DUBs) are a large group of proteases that regulate protein degradation. The ubiquitin-specific protease 14 ( USP14) is a DUB that is associated with the proteasome and negatively regulates proteasome activity. In this study, we examined the effect of 1-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2,5-dimethylpyrrol-3-yl]-2-pyrrolidin-1-ylethanone ( IU1), a specific small molecule inhibitor of USP14, on mouse focal cerebral ischemic stroke-induced neuronal injury in mice. We found that IU1 treatment attenuated ischemic stroke-caused neuronal injury, which was reflected by increased survival rate, reduced infarct volume, as well as decreased neuronal loss in the IU1-treated mice compared to the control-treated mice. Additionally, IU1 treatment is associated with reduced protein aggregates and enhanced proteasome functionality. These data not only highlight the significance of protein homeostasis in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury but also extend the therapeutic role of DUB inhibitors.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Pingree, M. J., Sole, Joshua S., O’ Brien, T. G., Eldrige, J. S., & Moeschler, S. M. (2017). Clinical Efficacy of an Ultrasound-Guided Greater Occipital Nerve Block at the Level of C2. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 42(1), 99-104.

Background and Objectives: The purpose of this prospective open-label study was to investigate the analgesic effects of an ultrasound-guided greater occipital nerve (GON) block at the level of C2, as the nerve courses superficially to the obliquus capitis inferior muscle. Methods: Patients with a diagnosis of occipital neuralgia or cervicogenic headache were recruited for the study. Ultrasound-guided GON blocks at the level of C2 were performed by experienced clinicians according to a standardized protocol. Numeric rating scale pain scores were recorded preinjection and at 30 minutes, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks after injection. Results: A total of 14 injections were performed with a mean procedure time of 3.75 minutes. Anesthesia in the GON distribution was achieved for 86% of patients at 30 minutes postinjection. Compared with baseline, numeric rating scale scores decreased by a mean of 3.78 at 30 minutes (P < 0.001), 2.64 at 2 weeks (P = 0.006), and 2.21 at 4 weeks (P = 0.01). There were no significant adverse events reported during the study period. Conclusions: This prospective open-label study demonstrated successful blockade of the GONat the level of C2 using a novel ultrasound-guided technique. Significant reductions in pain scores were observed over the 4-week study period, and no adverse events were reported. The observations from this study provide important preliminary data for future randomized trials involving patients with occipital neuralgia and cervicogenic headache.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Pitcher, Kristopher A., & Soluk, Daniel A. (2016). Inter-patch connectivity and intra-patch structure differentially alter prey consumption by multiple predators. Ecosphere, 7(11), 14.

Structural habitat complexity (SHC) and functional habitat connectivity (FHC) have important effects on predator-prey interactions and exert a strong influence on community structure/dynamics in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Although these factors vary simultaneously in most systems, their interactive effects are poorly understood. Using artificial pond mesocosms and multiple prey types, we manipulated plant density (SHC: low, high) and inter-patch distance (FHC: short, long) in a full factorial design to test for potential interactive effects of these factors on competition and predation by a dragonfly larva (Anax junius) and fish predator (Lepomis cyanallus). When inter-patch distances (FHC) were short, A. junius consumed more amphipods (36% +/- 4.6%) compared with long treatments (19% +/- 4.8%). We detected no significant effects of plant density (SHC) on prey consumption by A. junius. There were significant interactive effects of FHC and SHC on Lepomis cyanellus consumption of amphipods and damselflies. The most counterintuitive of these effects was that sunfish consumed more larval damselflies at high plant density (64% +/- 6.0%) than at low plant density (38% +/- 8.6%) but only in short connection treatments. This interactive effect of SHC and FHC on damselfly predation by L. cyanellus was likely because damselflies exhibited riskier behavior at higher SHC. Prey consumption with both predators present was additive, but no significant effect of either SHC or FHC on interspecific predation was detected, suggesting compensatory foraging responses. Structural habitat complexity and FHC interactively influence predator foraging behavior in complex, non-intuitive ways that are highly dependent on the predator/prey combination in question. Structural habitat complexity and FHC are currently being influenced by anthropogenic factors in multiple ways (e.g., habitat loss, global climate change), and being able to predict the responses of biotic communities to these changes should be an important consideration in restoration and conservation efforts.

Biology Department.

 

Posthumus, David C. (2016). Hereditary enemies? An examination of Sioux–Arikara relations prior to 1830. Plains Anthropologist, 61(240), 361-382.

Sociology and Anthropology Department.

 

Puckett, Jae A., Newcomb, M. E., Ryan, D. T., Swann, G., Garofalo, R., & Mustanski, B. (2017). Internalized Homophobia and Perceived Stigma: a Validation Study of Stigma Measures in a Sample of Young Men who Have Sex with Men. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 14(1), 1-16.

Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) experience minority stressors that impact their mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Internalized homophobia (IH) and perceived stigma represent two of these minority stressors, and there has been limited research empirically validating measures of these constructs. We validated measures of IH and perceived stigma with a sample of 450 YMSM (mean age = 18.9) and a sample of 370 YMSM (mean age = 22.9). Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported modifications to the IH and perceived stigma scales, ultimately revealing a three factor and one factor structure, respectively. Convergent and discriminant validity were examined utilizing correlations between IH, perceived stigma, and other variables related to minority stress (e.g., victimization). We evaluated predictive validity by examining relations with mental health, substance use, and risky sexual behaviors measured 12-months from baseline. There were mixed findings for IH, with subscales varying in their relations to mental health, drinking, and sexual risk variables. Perceived stigma was not related to mental health or substance use, but was associated with greater prevalence of STIs. Findings supported the use of these modified scales with YMSM and highlight the need for further measurement studies.

Psychology Department.

 

Puckett, Jae A., Newcomb, Michael E., Garofalo, Robert, & Mustanski, Brian. (2017). Examining the conditions under which internalized homophobia is associated with substance use and condomless sex in young msm: The moderating role of impulsivity. Annals of Behavioral Medicine.

Background: Internalized homophobia (IH) is the internalization of homophobic attitudes by sexual minorities due to social bias. IH has been inconsistently related to substance use and condomless sex for young men who have sex with men (YMSM).Purpose: We examined negative urgency (the tendency to act impulsively in response to negative emotional experiences), positive urgency (the tendency to act impulsively in response to positive emotional experiences), and sensation seeking as independent moderators of the association of IH with binge drinking, drug use, and condomless anal sex.Methods: Data were collected from 450 YMSM (mean age = 18.9) over the course of 18 months (baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up).Results: Hierarchical generalized linear modeling revealed that there was a significant moderation for binge drinking and receptive condomless anal sex, with the association between IH and these risk behaviors increased for those with higher levels of negative urgency and positive urgency.Conclusions: IH is important to the negative health outcomes of binge drinking and condomless anal sex for individuals high in negative and/or positive urgency, who may act impulsively to avoid subjective negative experiences or in the face of positive emotional experiences. Future research is needed to further establish additional conditions under which IH may be important to understanding risk behaviors in YMSM, which is essential to developing targeted prevention and intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Psychology Department.

 

Sariol, Ana M., & Abebe, Michael A. (2017). The influence of CEO power on explorative and exploitative organizational innovation. Journal of Business Research, 73, 38-45.

Despite the growing research evidence on the effect of powerful CEOs on organizational outcomes, their role in shaping the firm’s innovation agenda has received little scholarly attention. This study examines the effect of CEO power on exploratory and exploitative innovation. Drawing from core arguments of Behavioral Agency Theory, this study proposes that firms led by powerful CEOs are likely to pursue more exploratory and less exploitative innovations. Furthermore, these relationships are significantly strengthened by CEO Outsider Status. Using data from 150 U.S. firms, the results reveal a significant positive relationship between CEO power and explorative innovation. Contrary to predictions, firms led by powerful CEOs engage in more not less exploitative innovation when the CEO is appointed from outside the firm. Overall, the findings provide a more nuanced explanation of the link between CEO power and organizational innovation. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Sazama, Eric J., Bosch, Michael J.,Shouldis, Carmelita S.,Ouellette, Scot P., & Wesner, Jeff S. (2017). Incidence of Wolbachia in aquatic insects.Ecology & Evolution (20457758), 7(4), 1165-1169.

Wolbachia is a genus of intracellular bacteria typically found within the reproductive systems of insects that manipulates those systems of their hosts. While current estimates of Wolbachia incidence suggest that it infects approximately half of all arthropod species, these estimates are based almost entirely on terrestrial insects. No systematic survey of Wolbachia in aquatic insects has been performed. To estimate Wolbachia incidence among aquatic insect species, we combined field-collected samples from the Missouri River (251 samples from 58 species) with a global database from previously published surveys. The final database contained 5,598 samples of 2,687 total species (228 aquatic and 2,459 terrestrial). We estimate that 52% (95% CrIs: 44%-60%) of aquatic insect species carry Wolbachia, compared to 60% (58%-63%) of terrestrial insects. Among aquatic insects, infected orders included Odonata, Coleoptera, Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, and Plecoptera. Incidence was highest within aquatic Diptera and Hemiptera (69%), Odonata (50%), and Coleoptera (53%), and was lowest within Ephemeroptera (13%). These results indicate that Wolbachia is common among aquatic insects, but incidence varies widely across orders and is especially uncertain in those orders with low sample sizes such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Sheets, Jordan N., Iwanicki, M., Liu, J. F., Howitt, B. E., Hirsch, M. S., Gubbels, J. A. A., . . . Egland, Kristi A. (2016). SUSD2 expression in high-grade serous ovarian cancer correlates with increased patient survival and defective mesothelial clearance. Oncogenesis, 5, 12.

The cause of death among the majority of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients involves passive dissemination of cancer cells within the peritoneal cavity and subsequent implantation of cancer spheroids into adjacent organs. Thus, it is important to identify the factors that mediate EOC metastasis and implantation, including clearance of the mesothelium. Sushi domain containing 2 (SUSD2) encodes a type I transmembrane protein containing several functional domains inherent to adhesion molecules. Immunohistochemical analysis determined the presence of SUSD2 in several subtypes of EOC, with the strongest staining observed in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOCs). A high-density, clinically annotated HGSOC tissue microarray was stained with an anti-SUSD2 antibody. Patients with tumors that had a low percentage of SUSD2 staining cells had a shorter median survival (31.7 months) compared with patients who had tumors with extensive SUSD2 staining (49.1 months; P-value = 0.0083). To investigate the role of SUSD2 in HGSOCs, stable OVCAR3, OVSAHO and KURAMOCHI cell lines were established with knockdown (KD) or non-targeting (NT) of SUSD2. Boyden chamber and wound-healing assays demonstrated that OVCAR3, OVSAHO and KURAMOCHI SUSD2-KD cells migrated at significantly higher rates compared with their SUSD2 NT counterpart cell lines. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and western immunoblot analysis indicated an inverse relationship between SUSD2 and well-characterized mesenchymal proteins, including Twist-1, Zeb-1, N-cadherin, STEAP1, AHNAK, Snail-1, COL5A2 and Snail-3 in OVCAR3, OVSAHO and KURAMOCHI cell line models. In addition, OVCAR3 and KURAMOCHI SUSD2-KD spheroids displayed increased mesothelial clearance ability compared with cells that express endogenous levels of SUSD2. These data suggest that SUSD2 has a role in the inhibition of mesothelial clearance, which is required for metastasis. Altogether, our findings indicate that SUSD2 impedes migration, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitional and mesothelial clearance of HGSOC cells, consistent with prolonged survival of patients with SUSD2-expressing tumors.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Strouse, Gabrielle A., & Ganea, P. A. (2016). Are Prompts Provided by Electronic Books as Effective for Teaching Preschoolers a Biological Concept as Those Provided by Adults? Early Education and Development, 27(8), 1190-1204.

Research Findings: Prior research indicates that shared book reading is an effective method for teaching biological concepts to young children. Adult questioning during reading enhances children’s comprehension. We investigated whether adult prompting during the reading of an electronic book enhanced children’s understanding of a biological concept. Ninety-one 4-year- olds read about camouflage in 3 conditions. We varied how prompts were provided: (a) read by the book, (b) read by a researcher, or (c) given face to face by the researcher. There was an interaction between children’s initial vocabulary level and condition. Children with low vocabulary scores gave fewer camouflage responses than their high-vocabulary peers, and this effect was particularly pronounced in the book-read condition. Children’s executive function was also measured and discussed. Practice or Policy: Our findings indicate that under some circumstances electronic prompts built into touchscreen books can be as effective at supporting conceptual development as the same prompts provided by a coreading adult. However, children with low vocabulary skills may be particularly supported by adult-led prompting. We suggest that adult prompting be used to motivate children to test and revise their own biological theories. Once children have learned strategies for updating their concepts, electronic prompting may be useful for scaffolding children’s transition to using the strategies when reading alone.

School of Education.

 

Strouse, Gabrielle A., & Ganea, Patricia A. (2017). Toddlers’ word learning and transfer from electronic and print books.Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 156, 129-142.

Transfer from symbolic media to the real world can be difficult for young children. A sample of 73 toddlers aged 17 to 23 months were read either an electronic book displayed on a touchscreen device or a traditional print book in which a novel object was paired with a novel label. Toddlers in both conditions learned the label within the context of the book. However, only those who read the traditional format book generalized and transferred the label to other contexts. An older group of 28 toddlers aged 24 to 30 months did generalize and transfer from the electronic book. Across ages, those children who primarily used screens to watch prerecorded video at home transferred less from the electronic book than those with more diverse home media experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

School of Education.

 

Tamang, Sem Raj, & Hoefelmeyer, James D. (2016). Direct arylation catalysis with chloro 8-(dimesitylboryl)quinoline-kappa N copper(I). Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry, 12, 2757-2762.

We report direct arylation of arylhalides with unactivated sp(2) C-H bonds in benzene and naphthalene using a copper(I) catalyst featuring an ambiphilic ligand, (quinolin-8-yl) dimesitylborane. Direct arylation could be achieved with 0.2 mol % catalyst and 3 equivalents of base (KO(t-Bu)) at 80 degrees C to afford TON approximate to 160-190 over 40 hours.

Chemistry Department.

 

Villano, Ines, Messina, Antonietta, Valenzano, Anna, …., Summers, Cliff H., & Mallick, Birendra N. (2017). Basal Forebrain Cholinergic System and Orexin Neurons: Effects on Attention.Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 11, 1-11.

The basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic system has an important role in attentive functions. The cholinergic system can be activated by different inputs, and in particular, by orexin neurons, whose cell bodies are located within the postero-lateral hypothalamus. Recently the orexin-producing neurons have been proved to promote arousal and attention through their projections to the BF. The aim of this review article is to summarize the evidence showing that the orexin system contributes to attentional processing by an increase in cortical acetylcholine release and in cortical neurons activity.

Biology Department.

 

Wang, X. T., & Huangfu, Gang. (2017). Glucose-specific signaling effects on delay discounting in intertemporal choice.Physiology & Behavior, 169, 195-201.

We propose that decisions related to resource management (e.g., intertemporal choice between a smaller-and-sooner reward and a larger-and-later reward) are sensitive to and regulated by fluctuating blood glucose levels. Circulating glucose affects intertemporal choice by means of signaling body energy condition instead of serving as a replenishing resource for effortful cognitive processing. We intend to dissociate calorie-supplying functions from glucose-unique anticipatory effects on behavioral resource management, measured by delay discounting in making intertemporal choices. Regarding the anticipatory functions of the glucose–insulin system in regulating the degree of delay discounting, we tested three predictions: First, we predict that the signaling effects of circulating glucose on delay discounting do not need to be dose-dependent as long as glucose fluctuation indicates a directional trend in body energy budget. Second, such effects of glucose fluctuation on delay discounting are phagic (appetite related) instead of dipsian (thirst related). Third, this glucose–insulin signaling system requires glucose as the specific input, thus is insensitive to other forms of sugar that are not insulin regulated. In Study 1, fasting participants were randomly assigned to one of five groups: water consumption, zero-consumption, and three glucose consumption (18 g, 36 g, and 72 g cane sugar/250 ml water) groups. The participants competed two sets of intertemporal choice questions with varying delay discounting rates before and after a beverage intervention. The results showed that the rate of delay discounting was negatively correlated to blood glucose levels. The effects of circulating glucose on delay discounting closely followed the changes in blood glucose levels showing a plateau on both dose-response curves (i.e., the sugar dose-blood glucose level curve and the sugar does-delay discounting curve). Secondly, the effects of circulating glucose on delay discounting were significant only in the glucose ingestion group, but not in the zero consumption and the water consumption groups, suggesting that the behavioral effects were in fact related to hunger-reduction instead of thirst-reduction. Study 2 revealed that glucose ingestion, but not water or another form of sugar (xylitol matched to glucose either for sweetness or for calories), reduced delay discounting, making future options more attractive. This result suggests that signaling of body energy budget is indeed glucose-unique. Our results suggest a forecasting mechanism of the glucose-insulin system for both metabolic and behavioral regulations of resource acquisition and allocation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Psychology Department.

 

Wang, Z. F., Kedzierski, L., Nuessing, S., …., Huber, Victor C., Jackson, D. C., . . . Kedzierska, K. (2016). Establishment of memory CD8(+) T cells with live attenuated influenza virus across different vaccination doses. Journal of General Virology, 97, 3205-3214.

FluMist has been used in children and adults for more than 10 years. As pre-existing CD8(+) T cell memory pools can provide heterologous immunity against distinct influenza viruses, it is important to understand influenza-specific CD8(+) T cell responses elicited by different live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) regimens. In this study, we immunized mice intranasally with two different doses of live-attenuated PR8 virus (PR8 ts, H1N1), low and high, and then assessed protective efficacy by challenging animals with heterosubtypic X31-H3N2 virus at 6 weeks post-vaccination. Different LAIV doses elicited influenza-specific CD8(+) T cell responses in lungs and spleen, but unexpectedly not in bronchoalveolar lavage. Interestingly, the immunodominance hierarchy at the acute phase after immunization varied depending on the LAIV dose; however, these differences disappeared at 6 weeks post-vaccination, resulting in generation of comparable CD8(+) T cell memory pools. After vaccination with either dose, sufficient numbers of specific CD8(+) T cells were generated for recall and protection of mice against heterosubtypic H1N1 -> H3N2 challenge. As a result, immunized mice displayed reduced weight loss, diminished inflammatory responses and lower viral titres in lungs, when compared to unvaccinated animals. Interestingly, the higher dose led to enhanced viral clearance on day 5 post-challenge, though this was not associated with increased CD8(+) T cell responses, but with higher levels of non-neutralizing antibodies against the priming virus. Our study suggests that, while different LAIV doses result in distinct immune profiles, even a low dose produces sufficient protective CD8(+) T cell memory against challenge infection, though the high dose results in more rapid viral clearance and reduced inflammation.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Yao, Bin, Kolla, Praveen, Koodali, Ranjit, Ding, Yichun, Balaranjan, SelvaratnamShrestha, Sunav, & Smirnova, Alevtina. (2017). Enzymatic decomposition and electrochemical study of alkali lignin by laccase (Trametes versicolor) in the presence of a natural mediator (methyl syringate). New Journal of Chemistry, 41(3), 958-964.

The aerobic-enzymatic decomposition of alkali lignin in the presence of laccase from Trametes versicolor (LTV) and the natural mediator methyl syringate in acetic acid–sodium acetate buffer solution (pH = 4.5) at 40 °C in an oxygen-rich (aerobic) environment is studied. SEM and BET analyses are used to characterize the changes in the surface area and morphology of lignin that occurred during the exposure to the laccase–mediator system (LMS) for 72 h. The LMS interaction causes a 2-fold improvement in the surface area from 4.9 to 9.8 m2 g−1, due to significant changes in the mesoporous structure of lignin within a pore size of 2–120 nm. This could be due to an efficient interaction of the surface phenolic groups and internal mesoporous β-O-4 network of lignin with the LMS in an aerobic environment. To further understand the enzymatic degradation of lignin, electrochemical oxidation of a thin film of lignin on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) is performed under aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions in the presence of the LMS. A synergistic lignin electrooxidation in the aerobic environment is observed due to the promotion of LMS activity by a parallel oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Based on the electrochemical studies, a mechanism for understanding the role of oxygen in the enzymatic oxidation of lignin in an aerobic environment and the stability of the mediator radical (MSṖ) is proposed.

Chemistry Department.

 

Yao, Qingqing, Cosme, J. G. L., Xu, T.,Miszuk, Jacob M., Picciani, P. H. S., Fong, H., & Sun, Hongli. (2017). Three dimensional electrospun PCL/PLA blend nanofibrous scaffolds with significantly improved stem cells osteogenic differentiation and cranial bone formation.Biomaterials, 115, 115-127.

Nanofibrous scaffolds that are morphologically/structurally similar to natural ECM are highly interested for tissue engineering; however, the electrospinning technique has the difficulty in directly producing clinically relevant 3D nanofibrous scaffolds with desired structural properties. To address this challenge, we have developed an innovative technique of thermally induced nanofiber self-agglomeration (TISA) recently. The aim of this work was to prepare (via the TISA technique) and evaluate 3D electrospun PCL/PLA blend (mass ratio: 4/1) nanofibrous scaffolds having high porosity of similar to 95.8% as well as interconnected and hierarchically structured pores with sizes from sub-micrometers to similar to 300 mu m for bone tissue engineering. The hypothesis was that the incorporation of PLA (with higher mechanical stiffness/modulus and bioactivity) into PCL nanofibers would significantly improve human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) osteogenic differentiation in vitro and bone formation in vivo. Compared to neat PCL-3D scaffolds, PCL/PLA-3D blend scaffolds had higher mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity; as a result, they not only enhanced the cell viability of hMSCs but also promoted the osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, our in vivo studies revealed that PCL/PLA-3D scaffolds considerably facilitated new bone formation in a critical-sized cranial bone defect mouse model. In summary, both in vitro and in vivo results indicated that novel 3D electrospun PCL/PLA blend nanofibrous scaffolds would be strongly favorable/desired for hMSCs osteogenic differentiation and cranial bone formation. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

Posted by: tadeterman | March 31, 2017

January 2017

Aloreidi, KhalilBhavesh Patel, & Muslim Atiq. (2016). Intraductal cholangioscopy-guided electrohydraulic lithotripsy as a rescue therapy for impacted common bile duct stones within a Dormia basket. Endoscopy, 48, E357-E358.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Anuwatworn, AmornpolMaheedhar GedelaEdgard BendalyJulia A. Prescott-FochtJimmy YeeRichard Clark, et al. (2016). Sinus Venosus Atrial Septal Defect Complicated by Eisenmenger Syndrome and the Role of Vasodilator Therapy. Case Reports in Cardiology, 5.

Sinus venosus atrial septal defect is a rare congenital, interatrial communication defect at the junction of the right atrium and the vena cava. It accounts for 5-10% of cases of all atrial septal defects. Due to the rare prevalence and anatomical complexity, diagnosing sinus venous atrial septal defects poses clinical challenges which may delay diagnosis and treatment. Advanced cardiac imaging studies are useful tools to diagnose this clinical entity and to delineate the anatomy and any associated communications. Surgical correction of the anomaly is the primary treatment. We discuss a 43-year-old Hispanic female patient who presented with dyspnea and hypoxia following a laparoscopic myomectomy. She had been diagnosed with peripartum cardiomyopathy nine years ago at another hospital. Transesophageal echocardiography and computed tomographic angiography of the chest confirmed a diagnosis of sinus venosus atrial septal defect. She was also found to have pulmonary arterial hypertension and Eisenmenger syndrome. During a hemodynamic study, she responded to vasodilator and she was treated with Ambrisentan and Tadalafil. After six months, her symptoms improved and her pulmonary arterial hypertension decreased. We also observed progressive reversal of the right-to-left shunt. This case illustrates the potential benefit of vasodilator therapy in reversing Eisenmenger physiology, which may lead to surgical repair of the atrial septal defect as the primary treatment.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Bubak, A. N., J. D. W. Yaeger, Kenneth J. Renner, J. G. Swallow, & M. J. Greene. (2016). Neuromodulation of Nestmate Recognition Decisions by Pavement Ants. Plos One, 11(11), 15.

Ant colonies are distributed systems that are regulated in a non-hierarchical manner. Without a central authority, individuals inform their decisions by comparing information in local cues to a set of inherent behavioral rules. Individual behavioral decisions collectively change colony behavior and lead to self-organization capable of solving complex problems such as the decision to engage in aggressive societal conflicts with neighbors. Despite the relevance to colony fitness, the mechanisms that drive individual decisions leading to cooperative behavior are not well understood. Here we show how sensory information, both tactile and chemical, and social context-isolation, nestmate interaction, or fighting non-nestmates-affects brain monoamine levels in pavement ants (Tetramorium caespitum). Our results provide evidence that changes in octopamine and serotonin in the brains of individuals are sufficient to alter the decision by pavement ants to be aggressive towards non-nestmate ants whereas increased brain levels of dopamine correlate to physical fighting. We propose a model in which the changes in brain states of many workers collectively lead to the self-organization of societal aggression between neighboring colonies of pavement ants.

Biology Department.

 

Cerny, Shana. (2016). The Role of Occupational Therapy within the Federal Strategic Action Plan on Services for Victims of Human Trafficking in the United States. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 32(4), 317-328.

The occupational injustices experienced by human trafficking survivors lead to immediate occupational performance deficits and promote long-term instability. Experience and previous patterns of behavior contribute to the deficits and instability. The occupational manifestations of complex trauma are reflected in the inability to participate in meaningful and necessary occupations. Occupational therapy intervention can be a means of empowering victims of human trafficking by using the occupational therapy process, occupational therapy theories, and models of practice. Occupational therapy practitioners can enable survivors to address the intrinsic and extrinsic barriers to achieving increased overall well-being and occupational performance.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Dag, Ali, Asil Oztekin, Ahmet Yucel, Serkan Bulur, & Fadel M. Megahed. (2017). Predicting heart transplantation outcomes through data analytics. Decision Support Systems, 94, 42-52.

Predicting the survival of heart transplant patients is an important, yet challenging problem since it plays a crucial role in understanding the matching procedure between a donor and a recipient. Data mining models can be used to effectively analyze and extract novel information from large/complex transplantation datasets. The objective of this study is to predict the 1-, 5-, and 9-year patient’s graft survival following a heart transplant surgery via the deployment of analytical models that are based on four powerful classification algorithms (i.e. decision trees, artificial neural networks, support vector machines, and logistic regression). Since the datasets used in this study has a much larger number of survival cases than deaths for 1- and 5-year survival analysis and vice versa for 9-year survival analysis, random under sampling (RUS) and synthetic minority over-sampling (SMOTE) are employed to overcome the data-imbalance problems. The results indicate that logistic regression combined with SMOTE achieves the best classification for the 1-, 5-, and 9-year outcome prediction, with area-under-the-curve (AUC) values of 0.624, 0.676, and 0.838, respectively. By applying sensitivity analysis to the data analytical models, the most important predictors and their associated contribution for the 1-, 5-, and 9-year graft survival of heart transplant patients are identified. By doing so, variables, whose importance changes over time, are differentiated. Not only this proposed hybrid approach gives superior results over the literature but also the models and identification of the variables present important retrospective findings, which can be the basis for a prospective medical study.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Fang, J. M., Benjamin George, Y. F. Shao, & C. Wen. (2016). Affective and cognitive factors influencing repeat buying in e-commerce. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 19, 44-55.

Drawing on means-end chain theory and feelings-as-information theory, we propose a moderation model, and offer a detailed analysis of how the affective factor perceived enjoyment influences perceived value and repeat buying in e-tailing contexts. Based upon survey data from 651 online shoppers, we observe the complex moderation effects of e-shopping enjoyment on the relations between perceived benefits, sacrifice and perceived value. However, the moderation effect of enjoyment only appears in shoppers with a task-focused motivation. Furthermore, this study applies fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) and uncovers several equifinal configurations associated with the perceived value and repeat buying intention. The results reveal that none of the above-mentioned factors provide sufficient or necessary conditions for the presence of high perceived value and repeat buying intention. The findings suggest complex substitutive and complementary relationships between the factors and demonstrate the complexities of consumers’ online repurchase decision. This study thus helps to gain a better understanding of the conditions leading to e-shopping value and repeat buying behavior.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Ferguson, Tanner J., J. P. Berdahl, J. A. Schweitzer, & Ramu Sudhagoni. (2016). Evaluation of a Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stent in Pseudophakic Patients With Open-Angle Glaucoma. Journal of Glaucoma, 25(11), 896-900.

Purpose of the Study:The purpose of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the iStent Trabecular Micro-Bypass stent in pseudophakic patients with open-angle glaucoma.Methods:Retrospective, consecutive case series from October 2012 to May 2015 with no exclusion criteria. The series comprised 42 pseudophakic eyes with open-angle glaucoma that were implanted with 1 iStent. Data were collected preoperatively, and postoperative data were collected at 1 day, 1 week, 1, 3 and 6 months, 1 year, 18 months and 2 years. Data included intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications, the incidence of postoperative IOP pressure spikes 15 mm Hg at any timepoint, and the need for additional surgery.Results:The mean preoperative IOP was 20.266.00 mm Hg. At 1 year postoperatively, the mean IOP was 16.34 +/- 3.78 mm Hg (P<0.01). At 2 years postoperatively, the mean IOP was 13.62 +/- 4.55 (P<0.01). The mean number of glaucoma medications was 1.95 +/- 1.01 preoperative and 1.69 +/- 1.28 (P>0.05) at 1 year postoperatively. Postoperatively, 3 eyes (7%) experienced an IOP increase of 15 mm Hg above their baseline IOP that responded to topical therapy. In total, 96% of patients with an IOP19 mm Hg achieved a reduction in IOP at their last collected follow-up.Conclusions:The insertion of the iStent Trabecular Micro-Bypass stent effectively lowers IOP in pseudophakic patients with open-angle glaucoma. Although medication use was not significantly reduced postoperatively at 1 year, 80% of patients either experienced a reduction or no change in medication use. The safety profile appears favorable with a low rate of IOP spikes and only 1 patient requiring additional surgery.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Gaher, Raluca M., Carol O’brien, Paul Smiley, & Austin M. Hahn. (2016). Alexithymia, coping styles and traumatic stress symptoms in a sample of veterans who experienced military sexual trauma. Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 32(1), 55-62.

The current study examined the association between alexithymia and coping styles (planning, positive reinterpretation and growth, social‐emotion coping, and denial), and trauma symptoms in a clinical sample of 170 male and female veterans who experienced sexual trauma during military service. Denial was the only coping style positively associated with trauma symptoms, and it mediated the relationship between alexithymia and trauma symptoms. Alexithymia was negatively associated with planning. Likewise, alexithymia was negatively associated with social‐emotional coping and with positive reinterpretation and growth. The results speak to the significant role that alexithymia has in predicting individual coping styles.

Psychology Department.

 

Goh, P. K., L. R. Doyle, …., H. Eugene Hoyme, J. A. Kable, P. A. May, et al. (2016). A Decision Tree to Identify Children Affected by Prenatal Alcohol Exposure. Journal of Pediatrics, 177, 121-+.

Objective To develop and validate a hierarchical decision tree model that combines neurobehavioral and physical measures to identify children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure even when facial dysmorphology is not present. Study design Data were collected as part of a multisite study across the US. The model was developed after we evaluated more than 1000 neurobehavioral and dysmorphology variables collected from 434 children (8-16 years of age) with prenatal alcohol exposure, with and without fetal alcohol syndrome, and nonexposed control subjects, with and without other clinically-relevant behavioral or cognitive concerns. The model subsequently was validated in an independent sample of 454 children in 2 age ranges (5-7 years or 10-16 years). In all analyses, the discriminatory ability of each model step was tested with logistic regression. Classification accuracies and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Results The model consisted of variables from 4 measures (2 parent questionnaires, an IQ score, and a physical examination). Overall accuracy rates for both the development and validation samples met or exceeded our goal of 80% overall accuracy. Conclusions The decision tree model distinguished children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure from nonexposed control subjects, including those with other behavioral concerns or conditions. Improving identification of this population will streamline access to clinical services, including multidisciplinary evaluation and treatment.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Hackemer, Kurt. (2017). Wartime Trauma and the Lure of the Frontier: Civil War Veterans in Dakota Territory. Journal of Military History, 81(1), 75-103.

This paper quantitatively analyzes an 1885 Dakota Territory census to draw larger conclusions about Civil War veterans who migrated to the frontier. A sample of almost 6,000 veterans suggests that a significant percentage experienced some degree of wartime trauma, needed to reestablish themselves socially and economically, and took advantage of what financial security they had when homesteading newly opened territory. They were more likely to move to newly opened counties by themselves rather than with comrades from the war, relying on prior relationships only when moving to more established regions of the frontier where those associations might prove useful.

History Department.

 

Hocking, Elise C.Raluca M. Simons, & Renata J. Surette. (2016). Attachment style as a mediator between childhood maltreatment and the experience of betrayal trauma as an adult. Child Abuse & Neglect, 52, 94-101.

Previous research has demonstrated a positive association between child maltreatment and adult interpersonal trauma (Arata, 2000; Crawford & Wright, 2007). From a betrayal trauma theory perspective, evidence suggests that the experience of trauma high in betrayal (e.g., child maltreatment by parents or guardians) increases ones risk of betrayal trauma as an adult (Gobin & Freyd, 2009). However, the mechanisms explaining these associations are not well understood; attachment theory could provide further insight. Child maltreatment is associated with insecure attachment (Baer & Martinez, 2006; Muller et al., 2000). Insecure attachment is also associated with deficits in interpersonal functioning and risk for intimate partner violence, suggesting insecure attachment may mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and the experience of betrayal trauma as an adult. The current study tested this hypothesis in a sample of 601 college students. Participants completed online questionnaires including the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS), the Experiences in Close Relationships—Revised (ECR-R) and the Brief Betrayal Trauma Survey (BBTS). Results indicated that child maltreatment is associated with adult betrayal trauma and anxious attachment partially mediates this relationship.

Psychology Department.

 

Hong, K., G. L. Zhao, Zhongkui Hong, Z. Sun, Y. Yang, P. S. Clifford, et al. (2016). Mechanical activation of angiotensin II type 1 receptors causes actin remodelling and myogenic responsiveness in skeletal muscle arterioles. Journal of Physiology-London, 594(23), 7027-7047.

The G(q/11) protein-coupled angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) has been shown to be activated by mechanical stimuli. In the vascular system, evidence supports the AT(1)R being a mechanosensor that contributes to arteriolar myogenic constriction. The aim of this study was to determine if AT(1)R mechanoactivation affects myogenic constriction in skeletal muscle arterioles and to determine underlying cellular mechanisms. Using pressure myography to study rat isolated first-order cremaster muscle arterioles the AT(1)R inhibitor candesartan (10(-7)-10(-5) M) showed partial but concentration-dependent inhibition of myogenic reactivity. Inhibition was demonstrated by a rightward shift in the pressure-diameter relationship over the intraluminal pressure range, 30-110 mmHg. Pressure-induced changes in global vascular smooth muscle intracellularCa(2+) (using Fura-2) were similar in the absence or presence of candesartan, indicating that AT(1)R-mediated myogenic constriction relies on Ca2+-independent downstream signalling. The diacylglycerol analogue 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG) reversed the inhibitory effect of candesartan, while this rescue effect was prevented by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF 109203X. Both candesartan and PKC inhibition caused increased G-actin levels, as determined by Western blotting of vessel lysates, supporting involvement of cytoskeletal remodelling. At the single vascular smooth muscle cell level, atomic force microscopy showed that cell swelling (stretch) with hypotonic buffer also caused thickening of cortical actin fibres and this was blocked by candesartan. Collectively, the present studies support growing evidence for novel modes of activation of the AT(1)R in arterioles and suggest that mechanically activated AT(1)R generates diacylglycerol, which in turn activates PKC which induces the actin cytoskeleton reorganization that is required for pressure-induced vasoconstriction.

Biomedical Engineering Department, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Huang, ShupingChoumini Balasanthiran, S. Tretiak, James D. Hoefelmeyer, S. V. Kilina, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2016). Dynamics of charge at water-to-semiconductor interface: Case study of wet 001 anatase TiO2 nanowire. Chemical Physics, 481, 184-190.

The behavior of water molecules on the surfaces of the TiO2 nanowire grown in [001] direction has been investigated by combining theoretical calculations and experiments. Calculated UV-visible absorption spectra reproduce the main features of the experimental spectra. Computations predict that a photoexcitation followed by a sequence of relaxation events results in photoluminescence across the gap. TiO2 nanowires in vacuum and aqueous environment exhibit different dynamics of photo-excited charge carriers. In water, computed relaxation of electrons (holes) is approximately 2 (4) times faster compared with vacuum environment. Faster relaxation of holes vs. electrons and specific spatial localization of holes result to formation of long lived charge transfer excitation with positive charge at the surface of the nanowire. Comparison of relaxation process in TiO2/water interfaces focusing on different surfaces and nanostructures has potential in identifying structural characteristics of TiO2 materials important for efficient photo-electrochemical water splitting. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

 

Jumbe, T., S. S. Comstock, William S. Harris, J. Kinabo, M. B. Pontifex, & J. I. Fenton. (2016). Whole-blood fatty acids are associated with executive function in Tanzanian children aged 4-6 years: a cross-sectional study. British Journal of Nutrition, 116(9), 1537-1545.

Essential fatty acids (EFA) are PUFA that are metabolised to long-chain PUFA and are important for brain development and cognitive function. The objective of this study was to determine the association between whole-blood EFA and cognitive function in Tanzanian children. A total of 325 2-6-year-old children attempted the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) tasks to assess executive function. Blood samples were collected for fatty acid (FA) analysis by GC. Associations between executive function and FA levels were assessed by regression. Among the 130 4-6-year-old children who attempted the DCCS tasks, whole-blood levels of linoleic acid were positively associated with executive function, whereas whole-blood levels of a-linolenic acid and nervonic acid were inversely associated with executive function. A full model including all twenty-five FA explained 38% of the variation in executive function, whereas a reduced model including only the EFA (a-linolenic acid and linoleic acid), DHA and EPA explained 25% of the variation in executive function. Children who had sufficient whole-blood levels of EFA were 3.8 times more likely to successfully complete all DCCS tasks compared with children with insufficient EFA. These results suggest that whole-blood FA levels are associated with cognitive abilities. Intervention trials that include assessment of whole-blood FA levels are required to determine the relationships between intake, blood levels and executive function in Tanzanian children.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Keifer, Joyce, & Cliff H. Summers. (2016). Putting the ‘biology’ back into ‘neurobiology’: The strength of diversity in animal model systems for neuroscience research. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 10(x), x-x.

Current trends in neuroscience research have moved toward a reliance on rodent animal models to study most aspects of brain function. Such laboratory-reared animals are highly inbred, have been disengaged from their natural environments for generations and appear to be of limited predictive value for successful clinical outcomes. In this Perspective article, we argue that research on a rich diversity of animal model systems is fundamental to new discoveries in evolutionarily conserved core physiological and molecular mechanisms that are the foundation of human brain function. Analysis of neural circuits across phyla will reveal general computational solutions that form the basis for adaptive behavioral responses. Further, we stress that development of ethoexperimental approaches to improve our understanding of behavioral nuance will help to realign our research strategies with therapeutic goals and improve the translational validity of specific animal models. Finally, we suggest that neuroscience has a role in environmental conservation of habitat and fauna that will preserve and protect the ecological settings that drive species-specific behavioral adaptations. A rich biodiversity will enhance our understanding of human brain function and lead in unpredicted directions for development of therapeutic treatments for neurological disorders.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Kelly, Shawn C.Shenjing LiTomasz StysPaul A. Thompson, & A.Dam T. Stys. (2016). Reduction in Contrast Nephropathy From Coronary Angiography and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Ultra-Low Contrast Delivery Using an Automated Contrast Injector System. Journal of Invasive Cardiology, 28(11), 446-450.

Objective. To evaluate the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) following coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) utilizing a novel ultra-low contrast delivery (ULCD) technique. Background. Current techniques for reducing contrast volumes during angiographic and PCI procedures require the use of advanced coronary imaging methods, such as intravascular ultrasound and coronary flow wires. We propose the use of the ACIST CVi automated contrast injector system (Bracco Diagnostics) with a novel programming technique that significantly reduces contrast volumes and CIN development. Methods. From 2013 to 2014, a total of 123 patients with stage III or higher chronic kidney disease (CKD) underwent coronary angiography, PCI, or a combined procedure using the ULCD technique. A retrospective analysis was conducted to evaluate contrast volumes and rate of CIN development. Patients developing CIN were compared using tests of proportions. Results. The median contrast volume was 17.9 mL (n = 123). The study cohorts comprised diagnostic (15.2 mL; n = 72), PCI (17.1 mL; n = 30), and PCI + diagnostic groups (27.9 mL; n = 21). The incidence of CIN observed in the entire cohort through day 7 was 3.3% (4/123). Seventy-five percent of the CIN cases occurred following diagnostic angiography alone. Longitudinal follow-up at 21 days identified an additional 5 cases of CIN. Compared to literature data, the ULCD technique delivers less contrast per case. Conclusion. The adaptation of the ULCD technique for coronary procedures significantly reduces contrast volume delivery when compared with conventional practice or previously described low-contrast techniques. The ULCD appears to be an efficacious method of limiting CIN development in a susceptible population with CKD.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Lan, X. Y., C. Zhao, X. Chen, …., X. J. Wang, X. P. Shi, et al. (2016). Nickel pyrithione induces apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia cells resistant to imatinib via both Bcr/Abl-dependent and Bcr/Abl-independent mechanisms. Journal of Hematology & Oncology, 9, 16.

Background: Acquired imatinib (IM) resistance is frequently characterized by Bcr-Abl mutations that affect IM binding and kinase inhibition in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Bcr-Abl-T315I mutation is the predominant mechanism of the acquired resistance to IM. Therefore, it is urgent to search for additional approaches and targeting strategies to overcome IM resistance. We recently reported that nickel pyrithione (NiPT) potently inhibits the ubiquitin proteasome system via targeting the 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (UCHL5 and USP14), without effecting on the 20S proteasome. In this present study, we investigated the effect of NiPT, a novel proteasomal deubiquitinase inhibitor, on cell survival or apoptosis in CML cells bearing Bcr-Abl-T315I or wild-type Bcr-Abl. Methods: Cell viability was examined by MTS assay and trypan blue exclusion staining assay in KBM5, KBM5R, K562, BaF3-p210-WT, BaF3-p210-T315I cells, and CML patients’ bone marrow samples treated with NiPT. Cell apoptosis in CML cells was detected with Annexin V-FITC/PI and rhodamine-123 staining followed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry and with western blot analyses for apoptosis-associated proteins. Expression levels of Bcr-Abl in CML cells were analyzed by using western blotting and real-time PCR. The 20S proteasome peptidase activity was measured using specific fluorogenic substrate. Active-site-directed labeling of proteasomal DUBs, as well as the phosphorylation of USP14 was used for evaluating the inhibition of the DUBs activity by NiPT. Mouse xenograft models of KBM5 and KBM5R cells were analyzed, and Bcr-Abl-related proteins and protein biomarkers related to proliferation, differentiation, and adhesion in tumor tissues were detected by western blots and/or immunohistological analyses. Results: NiPT induced apoptosis in CML cells and inhibited the growth of IM-resistant Bcr-Abl-T315I xenografts in nude mice. Mechanistically, NiPT induced decreases in Bcr-Abl proteins, which were associated with downregulation of Bcr-Abl transcription and with the cleavage of Bcr-Abl protein by activated caspases. NiPT-induced ubiquitin proteasome system inhibition induced caspase activation in both IM-resistant and IM-sensitive CML cells, and the caspase activation was required for NiPT-induced Bcr-Abl downregulation and apoptotic cell death. Conclusions: These findings support that NiPT can overcome IM resistance through both Bcr-Abl-dependent and Bcr-Abl-independent mechanisms, providing potentially a new option for CML treatment.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Landeen, Laurie B.Elizabeth M. HultgrenTaylor M. Kapsch, & Paul W. Mallory. (2016). Vaginal cuff dehiscence: a randomized trial comparing robotic vaginal cuff closure methods. Journal of Robotic Surgery, 10(4), 337-341.

The purpose of this study is to compare the rate of vaginal cuff dehiscence between two different methods of closure in patients undergoing robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy and explore variables related to postoperative breakdown. This was a prospective, randomized controlled study with two arms. The control group (Arm 1) underwent single-layer continuous closure while the study group (Arm 2) had three additional imbricating figure-of-X sutures placed in addition to the standard protocol. Of the 263 patients who completed the study, 4 patients (1.49 %) experienced dehiscence of the vaginal cuff. Three of the four patients with dehiscence received the standard single vaginal cuff closure (Arm 1) and the one remaining case of dehiscence underwent the protocol with additional sutures (Arm 2). All patients who experienced dehiscence were current smokers. Our study suggests that there may be benefit in adding additional sutures to the standard single-layer vaginal cuff closure procedure. Physicians should evaluate smoking status before deciding on a vaginal cuff closure method.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Lonsdale, Damian J. (2017). Intentions to Cheat: Ajzen’s Planned Behavior and Goal-Related Personality Facets. Journal of Psychology, 151(2), 113-129.

This study sought to test antecedents to college students’ intentions to cheat by utilizing Ajzen’s (1991) theory of planned behavior (TPB), and four goal-related personality facets. Those facets were behavioral approach, behavioral inhibition, need for achievement-hope of success, and need for achievement-fear of failure. As hypothesized, perceived friends’ and parents’ attitudes toward academic dishonesty (two subjective norms) and perceived ease of cheating (perceived behavioral control) all positively predicted overall intentions to cheat. Perceived friends’ attitudes seemed to play a more influential role than perceived parents’ attitudes. Interestingly, male students reported greater parental acceptance of academic misconduct than female students reported. Among the personality facets, behavioral approach and need for achievement-hope of success were positive and negative predictors of cheating intentions, respectively. A more finegrained examination of take-home assignments revealed that students considered them easier to cheat on and reported greater intentions to cheat on them in comparison to other forms of academic work (e.g., exams and papers). Also, need for achievement-fear of failure positively predicted intentions to cheat on take-home assignments, but not other cheating intentions. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Nan, Jiang. (2017). ON THE CONVERGENCE OF β-SCHEMES. International Journal of Numerical Analysis & Modeling, 14(1), 103-125.

Yang’s wavewise entropy inequality [19] is verified for β-schemes which, when m = 2 and under a mild technique condition, guarantees the convergence of the schemes to the entropy solutions of convex conservation laws in one-dimensional scalar case. These schemes, constructed by S. Osher and S. Chakravarthy [13], are based on unwinding principle and use E-schemes as building blocks with simple flux limiters, without which all of them are even linearly unstable. The total variation diminishing property of these methods was established in the original work of S. Osher and S. Chakravarthy.

Mathematics Department.

 

Rosenfeld, Silvana A., & Matthew P. Sayre. (2016). LLAMAS ON THE LAND: PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF MEAT AT CHAVIN DE HUANTAR, PERU. Latin American Antiquity, 27(4), 497-511.

Chavin de Huantar is a Formative-period site (broadly 1500-200 B.C.) in the Peruvian Andes known for its highly complex art and monumental architecture. Recent excavations in the La Banda sector uncovered domestic settlements. The zooarchaeological analysis demonstrates that meat was locally produced and many bone tools were manufactured in this sector. These results contrast with previous faunal analysis from other parts of the site in which it was argued that dry camelid meat on the bone (ch’arki) was traded in exchange for local crops. The local economy of Chavin de Huantar was complex, showing different economic strategies across the site. While there is abundant evidence for the trade of lightweight exotic goods at the site (seashells, marine bone, obsidian, and cinnabar), the subsistence economy was locally focused.

Social Behavior Department.

 

Rudolph, M. C., B. E. Young, K. H. Jackson, N. F. Krebs, William S. Harris, & P. S. Maclean. (2016). Human Milk Fatty Acid Composition: Comparison of Novel Dried Milk Spot Versus Standard Liquid Extraction Methods. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, 21(3-4), 131-138.

Accurate assessment of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) content of human milk (HM) provides a powerful means to evaluate the FA nutrient status of breastfed infants. The conventional standard for FA composition analysis of HM is liquid extraction, trans-methylation, and analyte detection resolved by gas chromatography. This standard approach requires fresh or frozen samples, storage in deep freeze, organic solvents, and specialized equipment in processing and analysis. Further, HM collection is often impractical for many studies in the free living environment, particularly for studies in developing countries. In the present study, we compare a novel and more practical approach to sample collection and processing that involves the spotting and drying similar to 50 mu L of HM on a specialized paper stored and transported at ambient temperatures until analysis. Deming regression indicated the two methods aligned very well for all LC-PUFA and the abundant HM FA. Additionally, strong correlations (r > 0.85) were observed for DHA, ARA, EPA, linoleic (LA), and alpha-linolenic acids (ALA), which are of particular interest to the health of the developing infant. Taken together, our data suggest this more practical and inexpensive method of collection, storage, and transport of HM milk samples could dramatically facilitate studies of HM, as well as understanding its lipid composition influences on human health and development.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Schwebach, A., & Jennifer Ball. (2016). Urine Drug Screening Minimizing False-Positives and False-Negatives to Optimize Patient Care. Us Pharmacist, 41(8), 26-30.

Urine drug screening is a common way to test for compliance with medications having high abuse potential. False-negatives and false-positives from immunoassays can lead to adverse consequences for patients and providers. By identifying medications that contribute to false-negatives and false-positives, pharmacists decrease misinterpretations from urine drug screens. Unexpected results from urine immunoassays should have a confirmatory gas chromatography-mass spectrometry or a high-performance liquid chromatography test performed. Pharmacists can provide guidance in selecting appropriate drug therapies that are less likely to cause false readings, thus decreasing the need for additional testing.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Shaikh, K.S. KellyM. GedelaV. KumarA. Stys, & T. Stys. (2016). Novel Use of an Orbital Atherectomy Device for In-Stent Restenosis: Lessons Learned. Case Reports in Cardiology, 4.

We present a case of a 67-year-old man with stage III chronic kidney disease, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and high surgical risk who presented with two episodes of acute coronary syndrome attributed to in-stent restenosis (ISR) associated with heavily calcified lesions. In this case, we were able to improve luminal patency with orbital atherectomy system (OAS); however, withdrawal of the device resulted in a device/stent interaction, causing failure of the device. Given limitations in current evidence and therapies, managing ISR can be a technical and cognitive challenge. Balloon expansion of the affected region often provides unsatisfactory results, possibly related to significant calcium burden. OAS could be an efficacious way of reestablishing luminal patency in ISR lesions, as these lesions are often heavily calcified.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Tjarks, B. Joel, Najwa Somani, Melissa Piliang, & Wilma F. Bergfeld. (2017). A proposed classification for follicular involvement by melanoma. Journal of Cutaneous Pathology, 44(1), 45-52.

Background Folliculotropism in melanoma is poorly characterized and standard categorization for follicular involvement by melanoma is unavailable. We propose a logical categorization system. Methods We conducted a search of our archives over a 24-year period for cases mentioning the terms follicle, follicular, folliculotropic, folliculocentric and melanoma. Results We identified 90 cases of melanoma with involvement of the hair follicle. Distinct patterns were identified. The invasive patterns were primary follicular, folliculotropic and invasive arising from melanoma in situ ( MIS) with extensive follicular involvement. Follicular involvement by MIS was either lentiginous, nested or a combination of both. A total of 29 invasive melanomas were identified. Of these 12 had invasive melanoma around the hair follicle, 2 were primary follicular melanomas, 7 showed folliculotropism and 3 were invasive melanomas arising from MIS around the follicle. Seventeen invasive melanomas had follicles only involved by MIS (9 nested, 6 nested and lentiginous and 2 lentiginous). A total of 61 cases of MIS with follicular involvement were identified; of these 33 were lentiginous, 10 nested and 18 both lentiginous and nested. Conclusion We propose that the three distinct patterns of follicular involvement by invasive melanoma and the three distinct patterns of MIS will be valuable for logically categorizing involvement of the hair follicle by melanoma.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Venkatesan, S., J. Y. Sun, L. J. Zhang, A. Dubey, Andrew Sykes, T. Y. Lin, et al. (2016). An oligothiophene chromophore with a macrocyclic side chain: synthesis, morphology, charge transport, and photovoltaic performance. Rsc Advances, 6(104), 102043-102056.

An oligothiophene chromophore RingBDT(T(3)A)(2) has been synthesized, where BDT is benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene, Ring is a 1,12-dodecylenedioxy cyclic side chain on the benzene of BDT, T-3 is 2,2′:5′,2 ”-terthiophene, and A is an electron acceptor. In single crystals, the immediate precursor of RingBDT(T(3)A)(2) formed pi-dimers and the ring prevented further p-stacking of the dimers. A differential scanning calorimetry study showed that BDT(T(3)A)(2), the ringless analog with two 2-ethylhexyloxy side chains on BDT, crystallized quickly from its melt upon cooling, while crystallization of RingBDT(T(3)A)(2) melt upon cooling was slow and incomplete. Interestingly, RingBDT(T(3)A)(2) solid crystallized fast at similar to 110 degrees C upon heating, but its thin films (200 nm) remained amorphous after annealing at 80 degrees C. Despite the amorphous nature, the hole mobility of RingBDT(T(3)A)(2) films (1.52 x 10(-3) cm(2) V-1 s(-1)) was 144% higher than that of the highly crystalline BDT(T(3)A)(2) films (200-80 nm). Solar cells were fabricated from blends of the chromophores and phenyl-C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM). Thermal annealing at 100 degrees C for 10 minutes enhanced chromophore p-p interaction, and improved device fill factor and efficiency for the RingBDT(T(3)A)(2) blend solar cells, while retaining the amorphous nature of blend. In stark contrast, thermal annealing under the same conditions caused the efficiency of BDT(T(3)A)(2) cell efficiency to drop by 82%. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of using a macrocyclic side chain as a strategy for developing amorphous molecular semiconducting materials with improved mobility and morphological stability.

Chemistry Department.

 

Yao, QingqingYangxi Liu, J. N. Tao, K. M. Baumgarten, & Hongli Sun. (2016). Hypoxia-Mimicking Nanofibrous Scaffolds Promote Endogenous Bone Regeneration. Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces, 8(47), 32450-32459.

Utilizing biomimetic materials to potentiate endogenous cell growth or signaling is superior to relying on exogenous cells or signals for bone formation. Desferoxamine (DFO), which is a hypoxia-mimetic agent that chelates iron (Fe3+), mimics hypoxia to encourage bone healing. However, high cytotoxicity, off-target effects, and the short half-life of DFO have significantly impeded its further applications. We mitigated these side effects by locally immobilizing DFO onto a gelatin nanofibrous (GF) scaffold that retained DFO’s ability to chelate Fe3+. Moreover, DFO-functionalized GF (GF-DFO) scaffolds, which have similar micro/macrostructures to GF scaffolds, not only demonstrated decreased cytotoxicity on both human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human mesenchymal stem cells but also significantly increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in vitro. Most importantly, in our in vivo experiments on a critical-sized cranial bone defect mouse model, a significant amount of bone was formed in most of the GF-DFO scaffolds after six weeks, while very little new bone was observed in the GF scaffolds. These data suggest that use of a hypoxia-mimicking nanofibrous scaffold is a promising strategy for promoting endogenous bone formation.

Biomedical Engineering Department, Sioux Falls Campus.

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