Baack, Michelle L., Susan E. Puumala, Stephen E. Messier, Deborah K. Pritchett, & William S. Harris. (2015). What is the relationship between gestational age and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) levels? Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 100, 5-11.
Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are increasingly transferred from mother to fetus late in pregnancy. Infants born before this transfer is complete are at risk for deficiency. This study determines the relationship between gestational age (GA) and circulating LCPUFA levels to better understand the unique needs of premature infants born at various GAs. Whole blood was collected within the first 7 days of life from 60 preterm ( 34 weeks GA) and 30 term infants (<= 38 weeks GA) and FA levels were analyzed. Since concurrent intravenous lipid emulsion can skew composition data, blood LCPUFA concentrations were also measured. Levels were compared among groups, and linear regression models were used to examine the association between FA composition and GA. Preterm infants had significantly lower DHA and ARA levels than term peers, and whether assessed as concentrations or compositions, both directly correlated with GA (p < 0.0001). Moreover, FA comparisons suggest that premature infants have impaired synthesis of LCPUFAs from precursors and may require preformed DHA and ARA. This study confirms that essential FA status is strongly related to GA, and that those babies born the earliest are at the greatest risk of LCPUFA deficiency. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Dahdul, Wasila, T. Alexander Dececchi, N. Ibrahim, H. Lapp, & Paula Mabee. (2015). Moving the mountain: analysis of the effort required to transform comparative anatomy into computable anatomy. Database-the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation, 7.
The diverse phenotypes of living organisms have been described for centuries, and though they may be digitized, they are not readily available in a computable form. Using over 100 morphological studies, the Phenoscape project has demonstrated that by annotating characters with community ontology terms, links between novel species anatomy and the genes that may underlie them can be made. But given the enormity of the legacy literature, how can this largely unexploited wealth of descriptive data be rendered amenable to large-scale computation? To identify the bottlenecks, we quantified the time involved in the major aspects of phenotype curation as we annotated characters from the vertebrate phylogenetic systematics literature. This involves attaching fully computable logical expressions consisting of ontology terms to the descriptions in character-bytaxon matrices. The workflow consists of: (i) data preparation, (ii) phenotype annotation, (iii) ontology development and (iv) curation team discussions and software development feedback. Our results showed that the completion of this work required two person-years by a team of two post-docs, a lead data curator, and students. Manual data preparation required close to 13% of the effort. This part in particular could be reduced substantially with better community data practices, such as depositing fully populated matrices in public repositories. Phenotype annotation required similar to 40% of the effort. We are working to make this more efficient with Natural Language Processing tools. Ontology development (40%), however, remains a highly manual task requiring domain (anatomical) expertise and use of specialized software. The large overhead required for data preparation and ontology development contributed to a low annotation rate of approximately two characters per hour, compared with 14 characters per hour when activity was restricted to character annotation. Unlocking the potential of the vast stores of morphological descriptions requires better tools for efficiently processing natural language, and better community practices towards a born-digital morphology.
Wang, Guojian, Mark Amman, Hao Mei, Dongming Mei, Klaus Irmscher, Yutong Guan, & Gang Yang. (2015). Crystal growth and detector performance of large size High-purity Ge crystals. Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 39, 54-60.
High-purity germanium crystals approximately 12 cm in diameter were grown in a hydrogen atmosphere using the Czochralski method. The dislocation density of the crystals was determined to be in the range of 2000–4200 cm −2 , which meets a requirement for use as a radiation detector. The axial and radial distributions of impurities in the crystals were measured and are discussed. A planar detector was also fabricated from one of the crystals and then evaluated for electrical and spectral performance. Measurements of gamma-ray spectra from Cs-137 and Am-241 sources demonstrate that the detector has excellent energy resolution.
Balasanthiran, Choumini, Bo Zhao, Cuikon Lin, P. Stanley May, Mary T. Berry, & James D. Hoefelmeyer. (2015). Self-limiting adsorption of Eu3+ on the surface of rod-shape anatase TiO2 nanocrystals and post-synthetic sensitization of the europium-based emission. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 459, 63-69.
The surface of oleic acid stabilized rod-shape anatase TiO2 nanocrystals was modified by adsorption of Eu3+ ions. The Eu3+ attachment showed Langmuir adsorption behavior, thus the loading of Eu3+ could be controlled precisely up to surface saturation coverage. The Eu3+-TiO2 nanorods show weak Eu3+ based luminescence. However, addition of thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA) leads to coordination of the ligand to the Eu3+ centers and the TTFA-Eu3+-TiO2 materials exhibit strong Eu3+ fluorescence sensitized by the TTFA ligand. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Richardson, Maurine V., Margaret B. Miller, James A. Richardson, & Mary Kathleen Sacks. (2015). LITERARY BAGS TO ENCOURAGE FAMILY INVOLVEMENT. Reading Improvement, 52(3), 126-131.
The article focuses on the use of literacy bags by the parents for early child’s language and literacy development. It mentions the use of several literacy bags according to different grade levels which include Book Bags, which are like a writing briefcase, Family Literacy Bags, which have a parent letter attached to it and Bluebird Baggage, which could be used by second and third graders.
School of Education [all 3 USD authors are emeritus faculty members]
Horton, Thomas J. (2015). Efficiencies and Antitrust Reconsidered: An Evolutionary Perspective. Antitrust Bulletin, 60(2), 168-187.
The author reconsiders the issue of efficiencies and antitrust from the perspectives of evolutionary biology and the growing field of evolutionary economics. He begins by discussing how the term efficiency as currently used in antitrust today is more of a term of social science and economic ideology than a meaningful scientific concept. He then moves on to address how the lessons of evolutionary biology and economics, including the need for systemic diversity and unremitting competition at all systemic levels, can be applied to structural antitrust and efficiencies analyses. The author concludes that it is time to bring fresh perspectives to the study of efficiencies and antitrust. He recommends a series of reforms, including increased and more aggressive enforcement against horizontal mergers between competitors; renewed interest in vertical mergers and agreements; and more aggressive guarding of competitive diversity and opportunity against unfair predatory conduct by dominant firms, monopolies, and oligopolies.
School of Law.
Brown-Rice, Kathleen, & Susan Furr. (2015). Gatekeeping Ourselves: Counselor Educators’ Knowledge of Colleagues’ Problematic Behaviors. Counselor Education & Supervision, 54(3), 176-188.
Counselor educators in programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs ( N = 335) were surveyed about their knowledge of colleagues’ problems of professional competency (PPC). Findings suggest most participants are aware of colleagues with PPC. Professional behavior standards must be developed for those entrusted with counselor preparation.
School of Education.
Battaglia, Agatino, J. C. Carey, & S. T. South. (2015). Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome: A review and update. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C-Seminars in Medical Genetics, 169(3), 216-223.
Since 4p- was first described in 1961, significant progress has been made in our understanding of this classic deletion disorder. We have been able to establish a more complete picture of the WHS phenotype associated with distal 4p monosomy, and we are working to delineate the phenotypic effects when each gene on distal 4p is hemizygous. Our aim is to provide genotype-specific anticipatory guidance and recommendations to families of individuals with a diagnosis of WHS. In addition, establishing the molecular underpinnings of the disorder will potentially suggest targets for molecular treatments. Thus, the next step is to determine the precise effects of specific gene deletions. As we look forward to deepening our understanding of distal 4p deletion, our focus will continue to be on the establishment of robust genotype-phenotype correlations and the penetrance of these phenotypes. We will continue to follow our WHS cohort closely as they age to determine the presence or absence of some of these comorbidities, including hepatic neoplasms, hematopoietic dysfunction, and recurrence of seizures. We will also continue to refine the critical regions for other phenotypes as we enroll additional (hopefully informative) participants into the research study and as the mechanisms of the genes in these regions are elucidated. New animal models will also be developed to further our understanding of the effects of hemizygosity as well as to serve as models for treatment development. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Davis, Dona L., A. Maurstad, & S. Dean. (2015). My Horse Is My Therapist: The Medicalization of Pleasure among Women Equestrians. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 29(3), 298-315.
Pink t-shirts that proclaim My horse is my therapist are for sale in a wide variety of horse-sport catalogues. Literature on the healing power of human-nonhuman animal encounters and the practice of a variety of animal-assisted therapy programs, such as hippotherapy and equine-facilitated therapy, show dramatic growth over the last 30 years. Less attention is paid to the role that horse-human interactions may play in more popular accountings of well-being and impairment among a sample of everyday riders. Analysis of 50 lifecycle narratives, collected from accomplished but nonprofessional equestriennes, demonstrates the complex and ambiguous ways in which women draw from their experience of human-horse relationships as they challenge and transgress the borderlands between pleasure and impairment. Combining the perspectives of multispecies ethnography and medical anthropology that engages the complexities of well-being, analysis is informed by and contributes to recent controversies concerning the medicalization of normality and pleasure in DSM 5.
Anthropology and Sociology Department [Emeritus].
Davis, Drew R., J. L. Watters, G. Kohler, C. Whitsett, N. A. Huron, R. M. Brown, . . . C. D. Siler. (2015). Redescription of the rare Philippine false gecko Pseudogekko brevipes (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) and description of a new species. Zootaxa, 4020(2), 357-374.
Recent investigations into the species diversity of false geckos (genus Pseudogekko Taylor) have revealed several cryptic species, highlighting the need for a more thorough understanding of diversity within this enigmatic genus of endemic Philippine geckos. Newly available genetic data reveal that two of the four currently recognized species are complexes of multiple deeply divergent evolutionary lineages. In this paper we evaluate species diversity in one of these complexes, P. brevipes Boettger, and describe one additional new species. For nearly a century, P. brevipes has been recognized as a single, “widespread” species with a geographic range spanning two major faunal regions and several island groups. Poor understanding of this species has persisted due to both limited sampling and its apparent rarity. We evaluate both morphological and genetic data to define species limits in P. brevipes, and find character-based evidence to justify the recognition of two unique evolutionary lineages, one of which we describe as a new species (P. atiorum sp. nov.). The species included in this study have allopatric distributions and differ from congeners by numerous diagnostic characters of external morphology, and therefore should be recognized as full species in accordance with lineage-based species concepts. This newly described species increases the total number of species of Pseudogekko to seven.
Foss, Berit L., Niranjan Ghimire, Ruogu Tang, Yuyu Sun, & Ying Deng. (2015). Bacteria and osteoblast adhesion to chitosan immobilized titanium surface: A race for the surface. Colloids & Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 134, 370-376.
In order to evaluate the anti-infective efficacy of the titanium implant materials, two co-culture systems, a low-bacteria/osteoblast (L-B) and a high-bacteria/osteoblast system (H-B), were established. Untreated (UN-Ti), sulfuric acid-treated (SA-Ti), and chitosan immobilized titanium (SA-CS-Ti) materials were developed and evaluated. Bacteria and osteoblast behaviors, including initial attachment (evaluated at 30 mins), adhesion (evaluated at 4 h), and osteoblast spreading on each material surface were evaluated using quantification assays, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and confocal microscopy. Quantification analysis at 30 mins showed significantly higher number of osteoblast present on SA-CS-Ti in both L-B (10,083 ± 2626) and H-B (23,592 ± 2233) than those on the UN-Ti ( p < 0.05). SEM observation and confocal microscopy results showed more surface area was occupied by adhered osteoblasts on SA-CS-Ti than UN-Ti and SA-Ti in both co-culture systems at 30 mins. At all time points, SA-CS-Ti had the lowest level of bacterial adhesion compared to UN-Ti and SA-Ti in both co-culture systems. A significantly ( p < 0.05) lower number of bacteria were recovered from SA-CS-Ti (2233 ± 681) in the H-B system compared to UN-Ti (5367 ± 1662) and SA-Ti (4533 ± 680) at 4 h. Quantitative and qualitative co-culture results show the great potential of chitosan immobilization onto implant materials to prevent implant-associated infections.
Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.
Simons, Raluca M., Austin M. Hahn, Jeffrey S. Simons, & Sam Gaster. (2015). Control and Alcohol-Problem Recognition Among College Students. Journal of American College Health, 63(6), 373-379.
Objective: This study examined negative control (ie, perceived lack of control over life outcomes) and need for control as predictors of alcohol-problem recognition, evaluations (good/ bad), and expectancies (likely/unlikely) among college students. The study also explored the interaction between the need for control and alcohol consumption in alcohol-related outcomes. Participants: Participants were a convenience sample of 500 college students from a rural Midwest university. Data were collected during the 2009-2010 academic year. Methods: Participants completed a survey assessing control and alcohol-problem recognition, evaluations, and expectancies. Results: Negative control demonstrated a significant positive association with alcohol-problem recognition, evaluations, and expectancies after controlling for gender and alcohol consumption. Need for control did not have a main effect. However, the interaction was significant in that the association between need for control and negative evaluation of alcohol problems was strongest among participants with the highest levels of alcohol consumption. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that individuals’ differences in sense of control are associated with alcohol-problem recognition, evaluations, and expectancies in young adults.
Larson, Katie E., & Maria Carrillo-Marquez. (2015). Endogenous methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus endophthalmitis after leg trauma. Journal of Aapos, 19(4), 387-389.
We present a case of endogenous endophthalmitis in a 13-year-old boy with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sepsis. The patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain after intermittent anisocoria was noted on examination, leading to a diagnosis of endophthalmitis with a chorodial abscess.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Roh, Soonhee, Lee Yeon-Shim, Kim Youseung, Park So-Young, & Chaudhuri Anoshua. (2015). Gender Differences in the Roles of Religious Support and Social Network Support in Reducing Depressive Symptoms Among Older Korean Americans. Journal of Social Service Research, 41(4), 484-497.
This study examined gender differences in the interaction effects of religious support and social network support on depressive symptoms among older Korean Americans. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 85 Korean American women and 115 Korean American men aged 65 years or older living in New York City. A 2-step hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that the associations between religious support, social network support, and depressive symptoms were different for older Korean men and women. Among men, social network support was identified as a strong predictor for depressive symptoms. Conversely, religious support was identified as a predictor for depressive symptoms among women. The interaction between social network support and religious support was found to be statistically significant only for women. Additionally, the association of social networks with fewer depressive symptoms was stronger for women with high religious support. Our findings highlight the importance of gender differences in understanding psychological effects of social network support within a religious-cultural context and the need for geriatric practitioners to assess carefully the quality and types of social support systems. Further studies are needed to identify common and gender-specific risk/protective factors among older Korean Americans to develop gender-targeted preventions and interventions to improve their psychological well-being.
School of Health Sciences.
Bubak, Andrew N., Nathaniel S. Rieger, Michael J. Watt, Kenneth J. Renner, & John G. Swallow. (2015). David vs. Goliath: Serotonin modulates opponent perception between smaller and larger rivals. Behavioural Brain Research, 292, 521-527.
During agonistic encounters, the perception of a larger opponent through morphological signaling typically suppresses aggression in the smaller individual, preventing contest intensity escalation. However, non-morphological factors such as central serotonin (5-HT) activity can influence individual aggression, potentially altering contest intensity despite initial size discrepancies. When male stalk-eyed flies ( Teleopsis dalmanni ) fight, contest escalation is directly proportional to similarity in body size, with escalation being lower in size-mismatched contests. We have shown that both high-intensity aggression and the probability of winning are increased in males with pharmacologically elevated 5-HT relative to size-matched non-treated opponents. Here, we hypothesized that, in size-mismatched contests, increasing brain 5-HT in the smaller opponent could similarly increase aggression and counteract the low contest intensity normally driven by size discrepancy. Size-mismatched male pairs (greater than 5% difference in eyestalk length) engaged in a forced fight paradigm, with the smaller fly either untreated or with pharmacologically elevated 5-HT levels. The expression of high-intensity aggressive behaviors was significantly increased in smaller treated opponents, but the probability of winning was not altered. This suggests that while elevated serotonergic activity can increase aggression and intensity despite perception of a larger opponent, this is not sufficient to overcome size biases with respect to contest outcome. However, the fact that larger opponents continued to win against smaller treated flies was not simply a function of size. Instead, untreated larger males adjusted their fighting strategy to match the increased aggression of their smaller treated opponent, suggesting contextual flexibility in behavior based on individual opponent assessment.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Manda, P., J. P. Balhoff, H. Lapp, Paula Mabee, & T. J. Vision. (2015). Using the phenoscape knowledgebase to relate genetic perturbations to phenotypic evolution. Genesis, 53(8), 561-571.
The abundance of phenotypic diversity among species can enrich our knowledge of development and genetics beyond the limits of variation that can be observed in model organisms. The Phenoscape Knowledgebase (KB) is designed to enable exploration and discovery of phenotypic variation among species. Because phenotypes in the KB are annotated using standard ontologies, evolutionary phenotypes can be compared with phenotypes from genetic perturbations in model organisms. To illustrate the power of this approach, we review the use of the KB to find taxa showing evolutionary variation similar to that of a query gene. Matches are made between the full set of phenotypes described for a gene and an evolutionary profile, the latter of which is defined as the set of phenotypes that are variable among the daughters of any node on the taxonomic tree. Phenoscape’s semantic similarity interface allows the user to assess the statistical significance of each match and flags matches that may only result from differences in annotation coverage between genetic and evolutionary studies. Tools such as this will help meet the challenge of relating the growing volume of genetic knowledge in model organisms to the diversity of phenotypes in nature. The Phenoscape KB is available at . genesis 53:561-571, 2015. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Muthusamy, N., L. J. Sommerville, …., Jill M. Weimer, & H. T. Ghashghaei. (2015). MARCKS-dependent mucin clearance and lipid metabolism in ependymal cells are required for maintenance of forebrain homeostasis during aging. Aging Cell, 14(5), 764-773.
Ependymal cells (ECs) form a barrier responsible for selective movement of fluids and molecules between the cerebrospinal fluid and the central nervous system. Here, we demonstrate that metabolic and barrier functions in ECs decline significantly during aging in mice. The longevity of these functions in part requires the expression of the myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate (MARCKS). Both the expression levels and subcellular localization of MARCKS in ECs are markedly transformed during aging. Conditional deletion of MARCKS in ECs induces intracellular accumulation of mucins, elevated oxidative stress, and lipid droplet buildup. These alterations are concomitant with precocious disruption of ependymal barrier function, which results in the elevation of reactive astrocytes, microglia, and macrophages in the interstitial brain tissue of young mutant mice. Interestingly, similar alterations are observed during normal aging in ECs and the forebrain interstitium. Our findings constitute a conceptually new paradigm in the potential role of ECs in the initiation of various conditions and diseases in the aging brain.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Zhang, Yufeng, Marisa O. King, Erin Harmon, Kathleen Eyster, & David L. Swanson. (2015). Migration-induced variation of fatty acid transporters and cellular metabolic intensity in passerine birds. Journal of Comparative Physiology B-Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology, 185(7), 797-810.
Because lipids are the main fuel supporting avian endurance activity, lipid transport and oxidation capacities may increase during migration. We measured enzyme activities, mRNA expression and protein levels in pectoralis and heart for several key steps of lipid transport and catabolism pathways to investigate whether these pathways were upregulated during migration. We used yellow-rumped (Setophaga coronata) and yellow (S. petechia) warblers and warbling vireos (Vireo gilvus) as study species because they all show migration-induced increases in organismal metabolic capacities. For yellow-rumped warblers, beta-hydroxyacyl CoA-dehydrogenase (HOAD) activities and fatty acid transporter mRNA and/or protein levels were higher during spring than fall in pectoralis and heart, except that fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) protein levels showed the opposite pattern in heart. Lipid transporter protein levels, but not mRNA expression, in pectoralis and heart of warbling vireos were higher either during spring or fall than summer, but this was not true for HOAD activities. For yellow warblers, pectoralis, but not heart, protein levels of lipid transporters were upregulated during migration relative to summer, but this pattern was not evident for mRNA expression or HOAD activity. Finally, muscle and heart citrate synthase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase activities showed little seasonal variation for any species. These data suggest that pectoralis and heart lipid transport and catabolism capacities are often, but not universally, important correlates of elevated organismal metabolic capacity during migration. In contrast, migration-induced variation in cellular metabolic intensity and mitochondrial membrane transport are apparently not common correlates of the migratory phenotype in passerines.
Fu, Y. Y., D. M. Zhao, Bo Pan, J. H. Wang, Y. Y. Cui, F. S. Shi, . . . L. F. Yang. (2015). Proteomic Analysis of Protein Expression Throughout Disease Progression in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Alzheimers Disease, 47(4), 915-926.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Mice in the transgenic A beta PPswe/PS1dE9 mouse line express a chimeric mouse/human amyloid-beta protein precursor (Mo/HuA beta PP695swe) and mutant human presenilin 1 (PS1-dE9) associated with early-onset AD. Knowing the protein expression in these mice may offer better understanding of the pathological changes in AD. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry techniques to compare protein expression in A beta PPswe/PS1dE9 mice with age-matched wild-type mice throughout the disease progression. We identified 15 proteins that were significantly different between the A beta PPswe/PS1dE9 mice and age-matched controls and also changed with disease development. Among those, the expression levels of the following proteins in A beta PPswe/PS1dE9 mice were at least 1.5 times higher than those in normal mice: DCC-interacting protein 13-beta, serum albumin, creatine kinase B-type, heat shock 70 kDa protein 1A, T-complex protein 1 subunit beta, adenylate kinase isoenzyme 1, pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit beta mitochondrial, and V-type proton ATPase catalytic subunit A. Levels of the following proteins in A beta PPswe/PS1dE9 mice were at least 1.5 times lower than those in normal mice: dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2, actin cytoplasmic 2, isoform 1 of V-type proton ATPase catalytic subunit, tubulin alpha-1C chain, F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-2, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1, and actin cytoplasmic 1. These proteins are involved in regulating various cellular functions, including cytoskeletal structure, energy metabolism, synaptic components, and protein degradation. These findings indicate altered protein expression in the pathogenesis of AD and illuminate novel therapeutic avenues for treatment in AD.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Lio, Yuhlong, J. C. Lu, & L. Y. Ruan. (2015). Robust Parameter Design for Quality and Reliability Issues Based on Accelerated Degradation Measurements. Ieee Transactions on Reliability, 64(3), 949-959.
Manufacturing quality and lifetime testing conditions may affect product reliability measurements. The literature for the design of experiments (DOE) and robust product optimization considering both quality and reliability issues is scarce. This article develops a model to include both manufacturing variables and accelerated degradation test (ADT) conditions. A simple algorithm provides calculations of the maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of these model parameters and percentile lifetimes. Variances of these estimates are derived based on large sample theory. Our DOE plans focus on deciding replication sizes and proportions of the test-units allocated at three stress levels for various manufacturing and ADT conditions. This work also explores robust parameter design (RPD) optimizations for selected controllable manufacturing variables to achieve the longest product lifetime and smallest variation in lifetime distributions.
Pauli, Jonathan N., Wynne E. Moss, …., & Timothy H. Heaton. (2015). Examining the uncertain origin and management role of martens on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. Conservation Biology, 29(5), 1257-1267.
Conservation biologists are generally united in efforts to curtail the spread of non-native species globally. However, the colonization history of a species is not always certain, and whether a species is considered non-native or native depends on the conservation benchmark. Such ambiguities have led to inconsistent management. Within the Tongass National Forest of Alaska, the status of American marten ( Martes americana) on the largest, most biologically diverse and deforested island, Prince of Wales (POW), is unclear. Ten martens were released to POW in the early 1930s, and it was generally believed to be the founding event, although this has been questioned. The uncertainty surrounding when and how martens colonized POW complicates management, especially because martens were selected as a design species for the Tongass. To explore the history of martens of POW we reviewed other plausible routes of colonization; genetically and isotopically analyzed putative marten fossils deposited in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene to verify marten occupancy of POW; and used contemporary genetic data from martens on POW and the mainland in coalescent simulations to identify the probable source of the present-day marten population on POW. We found evidence for multiple routes of colonization by forest-associated mammals beginning in the Holocene, which were likely used by American martens to naturally colonize POW. Although we cannot rule out human-assisted movement of martens by Alaskan Natives or fur trappers, we suggest that martens be managed for persistence on POW. More generally, our findings illustrate the difficulty of labeling species as non-native or native, even when genetic and paleo-ecological data are available, and support the notion that community resilience or species invasiveness should be prioritized when making management decisions rather than more subjective and less certain conservation benchmarks.
Earth Sciences Department.
Tsai, T. R., Yuhlong Lio, N. Jiang, Y. J. Lin, & Y. Y. Fan. (2015). Economical sampling plans with warranty based on truncated data from Burr type XII distribution. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 66(9), 1511-1518.
Economical sampling plans to ensure the qualities of Burr type XII distributed lifetimes were established using a truncated life test. The Bayesian inference method was used to address the lot-to-lot variation of products. The sampling plan was characterized by the sample size and the acceptance number to minimize the expected total cost. A simple empirical Bayesian estimation method was provided to estimate the hyperparameters of prior distribution, and simulation studies were conducted to validate the proposed empirical Bayesian estimation method. Lastly, the application of this proposed method was illustrated using two examples.
Cárcel-Trullols, Jaime, Attila D. Kovács, & David A. Pearce. (2015). Cell biology of the NCL proteins: What they do and don’t do. BBA – Molecular Basis of Disease, 1852(10), 2242-2255.
The fatal, primarily childhood neurodegenerative disorders, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), are currently associated with mutations in 13 genes. The protein products of these genes (CLN1 to CLN14) differ in their function and their intracellular localization. NCL-associated proteins have been localized mostly in lysosomes (CLN1, CLN2, CLN3, CLN5, CLN7, CLN10, CLN12 and CLN13) but also in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (CLN6 and CLN8), or in the cytosol associated to vesicular membranes (CLN4 and CLN14). Some of them such as CLN1 (palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1), CLN2 (tripeptidyl-peptidase 1), CLN5, CLN10 (cathepsin D), and CLN13 (cathepsin F), are lysosomal soluble proteins; others like CLN3, CLN7, and CLN12, have been proposed to be lysosomal transmembrane proteins. In this review, we give our views and attempt to summarize the proposed and confirmed functions of each NCL protein and describe and discuss research results published since the last review on NCL proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: “Current Research on the Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (Batten Disease)”.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Hooper, D. R., L. L. Dulkis, P. J. Secola, …., Brett A. Comstock, T. K. Szivak, . . . W. J. Kraemer. (2015). Roles of an Upper-Body Compression Garment on Athletic Performances. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29(9), 2655-2660.
Hooper, DR, Dulkis, LL, Secola, PJ, Holtzum, G, Harper, SP, Kalkowski, RJ, Comstock, BA, Szivak, TK, Flanagan, SD, Looney, DP, DuPont, WH, Maresh, CM, Volek, JS, Culley, KP, and Kraemer, WJ. Roles of an upper-body compression garment on athletic performances. J Strength Cond Res 29(9): 2655-2660, 2015-Compression garments (CGs) have been previously shown to enhance proprioception; however, this benefit has not been previously shown to transfer to improved performance in sports skills. The purpose of this study was to assess whether enhanced proprioception and comfort can be manifested in improved sports performance of high-level athletes. Eleven Division I collegiate pitchers (age: 21.0 +/- 2.9 years; height: 181.0 +/- 4.6 cm; weight: 89.0 +/- 13.0 kg; body fat: 12.0 +/- 4.1%) and 10 Division I collegiate golfers (age: 20.0 +/- 1.3 years; height: 178.1 +/- 3.9 cm; weight: 76.4 +/- 8.3 kg; body fat: 11.8 +/- 2.6%) participated in the study. A counterbalanced within-group design was used. Subjects performed the respective baseball or golf protocol wearing either typical noncompressive (NC) or the experimental CG. Golfers participated in an assessment of driving distance and accuracy, as well as approach shot, chipping, and putting accuracy. Pitchers were assessed for fastball accuracy and velocity. In pitchers, there was a significant (p <= 0.05) improvement in fastball accuracy (NC: 0.30 +/- 0.04 vs. CG: 0.21 +/- 0.07 cm). There were no differences in pitching velocity. In golfers, there were significant (p <= 0.05) improvements in driving accuracy (NC: 86.7 +/- 30.6 vs. CG: 68.9 +/- 18.5 feet), as well as approach shot accuracy (NC: 26.6 +/- 11.9 vs. CG: 22.1 +/- 8.2 feet) and chipping accuracy (NC: 2.9 +/- 0.6 vs. CG: 2.3 +/- 0.6 inch). There was also a significant (p <= 0.05) increase in comfort for the golfers (NC: 3.7 +/- 0.8 vs. CG: 4.5 +/- 1.0). These results demonstrate that comfort and performance can be improved with the use of CGs in high-level athletes being most likely mediated by improved proprioceptive cues during upper-body movements.
School of Education.
Shan, L. L., Ming Liu, C. Wu, L. Zhao, S. W. Li, L. S. Xu, . . . Y. Q. Gu. (2015). Multi-small molecule conjugations as new targeted delivery carriers for tumor therapy. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 10, 5571-5591.
In response to the challenges of cancer chemotherapeutics, including poor physicochemical properties, low tumor targeting ability, and harmful side effects, we developed a new tumor-targeted multi-small molecule drug delivery platform. Using paclitaxel (PTX) as a model therapeutic, we prepared two prodrugs, ie, folic acid-fluorescein-5(6)-isothiocyanate-arginine-paclitaxel (FA-FITC-Arg-PTX) and folic acid-5-aminofluorescein-glutamic-paclitaxel (FA-5AF-Glu-PTX), composed of folic acid (FA, target), amino acids (Arg or Glu, linker), and fluorescent dye (fluorescein in vitro or near-infrared fluorescent dye in vivo) in order to better understand the mechanism of PTX prodrug targeting. In vitro and acute toxicity studies demonstrated the low toxicity of the prodrug formulations compared with the free drug. In vitro and in vivo studies indicated that folate receptor-mediated uptake of PTX-conjugated multi-small molecule carriers induced high antitumor activity. Notably, compared with free PTX and with PTX-loaded macromolecular carriers from our previous study, this multi-small molecule-conjugated strategy improved the water solubility, loading rate, targeting ability, antitumor activity, and toxicity profile of PTX. These results support the use of multi-small molecules as tumor-targeting drug delivery systems.
Skulas-Ray, A. C., M. R. Flock, C. K. Richter, William S. Harris, S. G. West, & P. M. Kris-Etherton. (2015). Red Blood Cell Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA n-3) is Inversely Associated with Triglycerides and C-reactive Protein (CRP) in Healthy Adults and Dose-Dependently Increases Following n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation. Nutrients, 7(8), 6390-6404.
The role of the long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in lipid metabolism and inflammation has been extensively studied; however, little is known about the relationship between docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3) and inflammation and triglycerides (TG). We evaluated whether n-3 DPA content of red blood cells (RBC) was associated with markers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting TG prior to n-3 supplementation in two studies (Study 1: n = 115, aged 20-44 years, body mass index (BMI) 20-30 kg/m(2), TG = 34-176 mg/dL; Study 2: n = 28, aged 22-65 years, BMI 24-37 kg/m(2), TG = 141-339 mg/dL). We also characterized the dose-response effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on RBC n-3 DPA after five months of supplementation with fish oil (Study 1: 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1800 mg/day EPA + DHA) and eight weeks of prescription n-3 ethyl esters (Study 2: 0, 850, and 3400 mg/day EPA + DHA). In Study 1, RBC n-3 DPA was inversely correlated with CRP (R-2 = 36%, p < 0.001) and with fasting TG (r = -0.30, p = 0.001). The latter finding was replicated in Study 2 (r = -0.33, p = 0.04). In both studies, n-3 supplementation significantly increased RBC n-3 DPA dose-dependently. Relative increases were greater for Study 1, with increases of 29%-61% vs. 14%-26% for Study 2. The associations between RBC n-3 DPA, CRP, and fasting TG may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis and chronic inflammatory diseases and warrant further study.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Hanlon, S. M., K. J. Lynch, Jacob L. Kerby, & M. J. Parris. (2015). The effects of a fungicide and chytrid fungus on anuran larvae in aquatic mesocosms. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(17), 12929-12940.
The amphibian disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has been linked to significant amphibian declines over the past three decades. The most severe effects of the pathogen have been primarily observed in relatively pristine areas that are not affected by many anthropogenic factors. One hypothesis concerning improved amphibian persistence with Bd in disturbed landscapes is that contaminants may abate the effects of Bd on amphibians. Recent laboratory studies have shown that pesticides, specifically the fungicide thiophanate-methyl (TM), can kill Bd outside of hosts and clear Bd infections within hosts. Using aquatic mesocosms, we tested the hypothesis that TM (0.43 mg/L) would alter growth and development of Lithobates sphenocephalus (southern leopard frog) tadpoles and Bd-infection loads in infected individuals. We hypothesized that the scope of such alterations and infection clearing would be affected by aquatic community variables, specifically zooplankton. TM altered zooplankton diversity (reduced cladoceran and increased copepod and ostracod abundances) and caused mortality to all tadpoles in TM-exposed tanks. In TM-free tanks, Bd-exposed tadpoles in high-density treatments metamorphosed smaller than Bd-unexposed, effects that were reversed in low-density treatments. Our study demonstrates the potential adverse effects of a fungicide and Bd on tadpoles and aquatic systems.
Gonzalez-Olivares, E., & Jose D. Flores. (2015). CONSEQUENCES OF MULTIPLE ALLEE EFFECT IN AN OPEN ACCESS FISHERY MODEL. Journal of Biological Systems, 23, S101-S121.
This work deals with the dynamics of a bioeconomic continuous time model, where the combined action of the fishing effort exerted by men (as a predator) and multiple Allee effect or depensation on the growth rate of a self-regenerating resource (the prey) are considered. It has been recently established that a depensation phenomenon appears by diverse causes and new functions have been proposed to describe multiple Allee effects. One of these formalizations is here incorporated in the well-known Smith’s model, one of the simplest models to open access fisheries. We prove that this new and complex expression is topologically equivalent to a simpler form. Then, we postulate that the parsimony principle must be used to describe this phenomenon. It is also shown that in the phase plane of biomass-effort on the proposed model, the origin is an attractor equilibrium for all parameters values as a consequence of the Allee effect. Moreover, there is a subset of the parameter values, for which two limit cycles exist surrounding the unique positive equilibrium point of the system, one of them being asymptotically stable (the non damped oscillatory tragedy of the commons); hence, multiestability exists, particularly three-stability.
Hahn, Austin M., Raluca M. Simons, & Jeffrey S. Simons. (2015). Childhood maltreatment and sexual risk taking: The mediating role of alexithymia. Archives of Sexual Behavior.
Childhood maltreatment is a significant predictor of sexual risk taking. The nature of this relationship is not fully understood; however, emotion dysregulation may play an important role. We tested the role of difficulty identifying and describing feelings (i.e., alexithymia) on the relationship between childhood maltreatment and sexual risk taking. Specifically, we hypothesized two mechanisms, one in which alexithymia is related to sexual risk taking via negative urgency and alcohol use and a second one in which alexithymia is related to sexual risk taking via neediness. The participants for this study were 425 sexually active college undergraduates (303 females, 122 males) between the ages of 18 and 25 years. The results of a structural equation model indicated that alexithymia accounted for a significant part of the relationship between child maltreatment and sexual risk behavior. Moreover, the relationship between alexithymia and sexual risk taking was fully accounted for by two separate paths. First, negative urgency and subsequent alcohol use partially mediated the relationship, and the second effect was accounted for by needy interpersonal style. Adverse experiences during childhood can impair emotional functioning and contribute to behavioral and interpersonal dysregulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)
Kindle, Karen J. (2015). Selecting Words for Instruction During Primary Read-alouds. Reading Horizons, 54(1), 48-77.
Reading aloud is a wide-spread practice in early childhood and primary classrooms that is purported to develop a range of literacy skills, including vocabulary. Since it is not feasible to teach all of the words in a given text, efforts to maximize the instructional power of read-aloud events have included research regarding word selection. This study explores the extent to which research-based practices for selecting words for instruction have been incorporated into the practices of four primary grade teachers. Findings indicate that teachers may rely more on intuition and personal experience to select words rather than following expert’s recommendations. Implications for practice, teacher preparation programs, and further research are discussed.
School of Education.
Monroe, Emy M., & Hugh B. Britten. (2015). Single-sample estimation of effective population size in several populations of the endangered Hine’s emerald dragonfly. Freshwater Science, 34(3), 1058-1064.
Hine’s emerald dragonfly (Somatochlora hineana) is the only odonate on the US Endangered Species list. It prefers discrete fen-and-wet-meadow habitat from Ontario, Canada, to Missouri, USA. This habitat has been destroyed across much of S. hineana’s range. Its conservation genetics were assessed by microsatellite analysis in a previous study. We applied 2 common single-sample estimators to the same data set to estimate effective population size (Ne), or effective number of breeders, in 5 populations (separated into adult and naiad stage classes) across the species’ range in 2008 and 2010-2011. Populations of the species in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, the Door Peninsula of Wisconsin, and along the Des Plaines River Valley in Illinois are made up of individuals collected from multiple sites, but the other 2 populations, at Cedarburg Bog, Wisconsin, and along the Lower Wisconsin River, consist of samples from single habitats disjunct from other known sites. Ne for S. hineana were similar to those for other endangered insects and ranged from 22 adults in the Des Plaines River Valley population in 2010 to 200 adults in the Door Peninsula population in 2010 based on approximate Bayesian estimation in ONeSAMP and from 8 naiads in the Door Peninsula population to 419 adults in the Des Plaines River Valley population based on the linkage disequilibrium method in NeEstimator. These Ne values confirm the endangered status of this species and indicate that efforts to maintain current habitats and connectivity to suitable habitat are essential to maintaining genetic diversity.
Jungho, Son, Sem Raj Tamang, & James D. Hoefelmeyer. (2015). Crystal structure of bis(3-bromomesityl)(quinolin-1 ‘ium-8-yl)boron(lll) tribromide. Acta Crystallographica: Section E (International Union of Crystallography – IUCr), 71(9), 1114-1116.
The title compound, C27H26.82BBr2.18N+·Br3-, is a cationic triarylborane isolated as its tribromide salt. The aryl substituents include a protonated 8-quinolyl group and two 3-bromomesityl groups. The molecule was prepared on combination of 3:1 Br2 and dimesityl(quinolin-8-yl)borane in hexanes. The refinement of the structure indicated a degree of ‘over-bromination’ (beyond two bromine atoms) for the cation. There are two tribromide ions in the asymmetric unit, both completed by crystallographic inversion symmetry.
Emery, Noah N., & Jeffrey S. Simons. (2015). Mood & alcohol-related attentional biases: New considerations for gender differences and reliability of the visual-probe task. Addictive Behaviors, 50, 1-5.
Introduction: Alcohol-related attentional biases are positively associated with drinking history and may represent a mechanism by which alcohol use behavior is maintained over time. This study was designed to address two unresolved issues regarding alcohol-related attention biases. Specifically, this study tested whether acute changes in positive and negative mood increase attentional biases toward alcohol cues and whether coping and enhancement drinking motives moderate these effects. Methods: Participants were 100 college students aged 18–25, who drank alcohol at least once in the last 90days. In a 2×3 mixed design, participants were randomized to one of three mood conditions (neutral, negative, or positive) and completed visual-probe tasks pre- and post-mood-induction. Results: Attentional biases toward alcohol cues were significantly associated with alcohol consumption among men, but not women. Although the mood manipulation was highly successful, attentional biases did not vary as a function of mood condition and hypothesized moderating effects of drinking motives were not significant. Conclusions: The largely null findings of the experiment are discussed in light of the fact that the visual probe task had poor reliability. Issues related to the reliability of visual-probe task are discussed, as more research is needed to evaluate and improve the psychometrics of this method. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)
Novick, Andrew M., Gina L. Forster, James E. Hassell, Daniel R. Davies, Jamie L. Scholl, Kenneth J. Renner, & Michael J. Watt. (2015). Increased dopamine transporter function as a mechanism for dopamine hypoactivity in the adult infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex following adolescent social stress. Neuropharmacology, 97(x), 194-200.
Being bullied during adolescence is associated with later mental illnesses characterized by deficits in cognitive tasks mediated by prefrontal cortex (PFC) dopamine (DA). Social defeat of adolescent male rats, as a model of teenage bullying victimization, results in medial PFC (mPFC) dopamine (DA) hypofunction in adulthood that is associated with increased drug seeking and working memory deficits. Increased expression of the DA transporter (DAT) is also seen in the adult infralimbic mPFC following adolescent defeat. We propose the functional consequence of this increased DAT expression is enhanced DA clearance and subsequently decreased infralimbic mPFC DA availability. To test this, in vivo chronoamperometry was used to measure changes in accumulation of the DA signal following DAT blockade, with increased DAT-mediated clearance being reflected by lower DA signal accumulation. Previously defeated rats and controls were pre-treated with the norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor desipramine (20 mg/kg, ip.) to isolate infralimbic mPFC DA clearance to DAT, then administered the selective DAT inhibitor GBR-12909 (20 or 40 mg/kg, sc.). Sole NET inhibition with desipramine produced no differences in DA signal accumulation between defeated rats and controls. However, rats exposed to adolescent social defeat demonstrated decreased DA signal accumulation compared to controls in response to both doses of GBR-12909, indicating greater DAT-mediated clearance of infralimbic mPFC DA. These results suggest that protracted increases in infralimbic mPFC DAT function represent a mechanism by which adolescent social defeat stress produces deficits in adult mPFC DA activity and corresponding behavioral and cognitive dysfunction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Simons, Jeffrey S., Thomas A. Wills, Noah N. Emery, & Russell M. Marks. (2015). Quantifying alcohol consumption: Self-report, transdermal assessment, and prediction of dependence symptoms. Addictive Behaviors, 50, 205-212.
Research on alcohol use depends heavily on the validity of self-reported drinking. The present paper presents data from 647days of self-monitoring with a transdermal alcohol sensor by 60 young adults. We utilized a biochemical measure, transdermal alcohol assessment with the WrisTAS, to examine the convergent validity of three approaches to collecting daily self-report drinking data: experience sampling, daily morning reports of the previous night, and 1-week timeline follow-back (TLFB) assessments. We tested associations between three pharmacokinetic indices (peak concentration, area under the curve (AUC), and time to reach peak concentration) derived from the transdermal alcohol signal and within- and between- person variation in alcohol dependence symptoms. The WrisTAS data corroborated 85.74% of self-reported drinking days based on the experience sampling data. The TLFB assessment and combined experience sampling and morning reports agreed on 87.27% of drinking days. Drinks per drinking day did not vary as a function of wearing or not wearing the sensor; this indicates that participants provided consistent reports of their drinking regardless of biochemical verification. In respect to self-reported alcohol dependence symptoms, the AUC of the WrisTAS alcohol signal was associated with dependence symptoms at both the within- and between- person level. Furthermore, alcohol dependence symptoms at baseline predicted drinking episodes characterized in biochemical data by both higher peak alcohol concentration and faster time to reach peak concentration. The results support the validity of self-report alcohol data, provide empirical data useful for optimal design of daily process sampling, and provide an initial demonstration of the use of transdermal alcohol assessment to characterize drinking dynamics associated with risk for alcohol dependence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)
Anderson, Carla, & Karen Card. (2015). Effective practices of financial education for college students: Students’ perceptions of credit card use and financial responsibility. College Student Journal, 49(2), 271-279.
The purpose of this quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group study was to determine the influence that a financial education intervention administered in First Year Experience courses had on students’ perceptions of their financial behavior such as compulsive spending and credit card use. This study utilized the five-point Likert-type scales: Compulsive Buying Scale (d’Astous, Maltais, & Roberge, 1990) and the Degree of Irrational Credit Use Scale (d’Astous, 1990) to assess a student’s predisposition to spend compulsively and to make unwise decisions with credit cards. This study included 502 students who were enrolled in a First Year Experience course at a mid-sized land-grant Great Plains university. The data were analyzed using t tests and analysis of covariance to determine if a significant difference existed between the groups. There were significant differences in the Compulsive Buying Scale pretest scores between the men and women, indicating that women may have a higher propensity to compulsively spend than men. Analysis of covariance found significant differences between the control group and both treatment groups for many individual questions on the Compulsive Buying Scale posttest as well as the composite posttest score (p <. 05). This revealed that the inclusion of financial education in first-year seminars makes a positive difference on the student’s perception of their financial behavior regarding compulsive spending decisions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)
School of Education. Anderson graduated from EDAD/AHED program with doctorate and remains with SDSU.
Maisto, Stephen A., & Jeffrey S. Simons. (2015). Research on the effects of alcohol and sexual arousal on sexual risk in men who have sex with men: Implications for hiv prevention interventions. AIDS and Behavior, x(x), xcxxxxxxx.
The purpose of this paper was to describe and appraise the research evidence on the effects of acute alcohol intoxication and sexual arousal on sexual risk behaviors in men who have sex with men (MSM) and to examine its implications for design of HIV prevention interventions that target MSM. Toward that end, the paper begins with a discussion of research on sexual arousal in men and alcohol and their acute effects on sexual behaviors. This is followed by a review of empirical evidence on the combined acute effects of alcohol and sexual arousal in heterosexual men (the large majority of studies) and then in MSM. The empirical evidence and related theoretical developments then are integrated to derive implications for developing effective HIV prevention interventions that target MSM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)
Dou, Wei-Dong, Shu-Ping Huang, & Chun-Sing Lee. (2015). Graphene-enhanced intermolecular interaction at interface between copper- and cobalt-phthalocyanines. Journal of Chemical Physics, 143(13), 1-7.
Interfacial electronic structures of copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc), cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPc), and graphene were investigated experimentally by using photoelectron spectroscopy. While the CuPc/graphene interface shows flat band structure and negligible interfacial dipole indicating quite weak molecule-substrate interaction, the CuPc/CoPc/graphene interface shows a large interfacial dipole and obvious energy level bending. Controlled experiments ruled out possible influences from the change in film structure of CuPc and pure π-π interaction between CoPc and CuPc. Analysis based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory reveals that the decrease in the work function for the CuPc/CoPc/graphene system is induced by the intermolecular interaction between CuPc and CoPc which is enhanced owning to the peculiar electronic properties at the CoPc-graphene interface.
Goyeneche, Alicia A., Michael Koch, Maria C. Bell, & Carlos M. Telleria. (2015). Long-term primary culture of a clear cell ovarian carcinoma reveals an epithelial-mesenchymal cooperative interaction. Cancer Cell International, 15(1), 1-9.
Background: We studied a primary culture developed from a biopsy of a clear cell carcinoma of the ovary (O-CCC) by (a) assessing its capacity to retain in vitro pathological features of the tumor of origin; (b) characterizing the main cells released from the complex mass without forced purification of any particular cellular entity; and (c) investigating its long-term proliferative capacity. Methods: A primary cell culture was developed from a pelvic mass diagnosed as an O-CCC. The morphological analysis of the cell culture was carried out by phase contrast microscopy. Markers of epithelial, mesenchymal, and tumor initiating cells were evaluated by immunocytochemistry. Cell proliferation was studied by detection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporated into newly synthesized DNA. As a biomarker of O-CCC, we assessed the expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 1β. Results: We show that cells with epithelial morphological features express E-cadherin and expand with time in culture, a fact that the incorporation of BrdU confirms. Cells with mesenchymal-like characteristics that express the mesenchymal marker vimentin, however, allocate to the edges of the epithelial compartment. Moreover, we found that some cells with epithelial features also expressed vimentin. At the beginning of incubation, over 60 % of primary cells expressed the O-CCC marker HNF1β; such percentage declined upon passaging. We show that epithelial not mesenchymal cells undergo DNA replication, and that few cells in both epithelial and mesenchymal compartments express the stem-like tumor antigen CD133. Conclusions: We provide proof-of-principle that cells separated in bulk from a biopsy of an O-CCC can be maintained in culture for several months, and that two consistent cellular compartments–one epithelial that retains the O-CCC marker HNF1β, and another mesenchymal–persist, and seem to have a cooperative interaction leading to the multiplication of epithelial cells within a mesenchymal cellular environment.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Sathyanesan, Monica, M. J. Girgenti, J. Warner-Schmidt, & Samuel S. Newton. (2015). Indomethacin induced gene regulation in the rat hippocampus. Molecular Brain, 8, 12.
Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as indomethacin are widely used to treat inflammatory diseases and manage pain, fever and inflammation in several conditions, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Although they predominantly function by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, important COX-independent actions also occur. These actions could be responsible for the adverse side effects associated with chronic and/or high dose usage of this popular drug class. Results: We examined gene regulation in the hippocampus after peripheral administration of indomethacin by employing a microarray approach. Secondary confirmation and the brain expression pattern of regulated genes was examined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Transglutaminase 2, serum glucocorticoid inducible kinase, Inhibitor of NF-kappa B and vascular endothelial growth factor were among genes that were prominently upregulated, while G-protein coupled receptor 56 and neuropeptide Y were among genes that were downregulated by indomethacin. Co-localization studies using blood vessel markers revealed that transglutaminase 2 was induced specifically in brain vasculature. Conclusions: The data demonstrate that COX-inhibitors can differentially regulate gene transcription in multiple, functionally distinctly cell types in the brain. The results provide additional insight into the molecular actions of COX-inhibitors and indicate that their effects on vasculature could influence cerebral blood flow mechanisms.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Hall, P., Heather A. Love, & S. Uesugi. (2015). 21CW: Norbert Wiener in the 21st Century. Ieee Technology and Society Magazine, 34(3), 33-34.
Hopkins, Paul N., James V. Pottala, & M. Nazeem Nanjee. (2015). A comparative study of four independent methods to measure LDL particle concentration. Atherosclerosis (00219150), 243(1), 99-106.
Background Low-density lipoprotein particle concentration (LDL-P) is generally more predictive of clinical cardiovascular endpoints than LDL cholesterol (LDL-C). Few studies have directly compared multiple LDL-P methods, particularly with ultracentrifugation. Objective Examine comparability and precision of 4 LDL-P methods. Methods We divided serum from 48 subjects into blinded triplicates and measured LDL-P in 3 separate laboratories by 4 methods: ultracentrifugation (reference method), a novel electrophoretic method, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) by 2 independent methods: a 400 MHz Vantera ® instrument supplied by Liposcience (LS-NMR) and operated at ARUP Laboratories, and a 600 MHz Bruker instrument (ASCEND 600) operated at Health Diagnostic Laboratory (HD-NMR). Results Of the 4 methods, ultracentrifugation was the most precise and LS-NMR the least; the latter had a significantly greater CV (p < 0.0001) as compared with all 3 of the other methods, although all CVs were clinically acceptable. The electrophoretic method showed similar precision to ultracentrifugation, while HD-NMR was intermediate. The HD-NMR had the slope closest to 1 (0.90, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.09) and the intercept closest to 0 (−48, −353 to 256) compared to the ultracentrifugation method in Deming regression models. While the two NMR methods correlated well (r = 0.95) with each other and had a slope equivalent to 1 (1.08, 0.98 to 1.19), their intercept in Deming regression excluded 0 (194, 53 to 335) indicating a vertical shift between the two methods. Conclusions This LDL-P method comparison may prove useful for future research and clinical applications. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Copyright of Atherosclerosis (00219150) is the property of Elsevier Science and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Shalowitz, David I., Allison G. Smith, Maria C. Bell, & Randall K. Gibb. (2015). Teleoncology for gynecologic cancers. Gynecologic Oncology, 139(1), 172-177.
Teleoncology describes cancer care provided remotely to improve access to care in rural or underserved areas. In the United States, 14.8 million women live more than 50 miles away from the closest gynecologic oncologist; 4.3 million women live more than 100 miles distant. Teleoncology may therefore partially relieve the geographic barriers to high-quality gynecologic cancer care these women experience. Little has been published on the feasibility of remote provision of high-quality care for gynecologic cancers, perhaps owing to the particular difficulties inherent in remote management of patients who may require both medical and surgical intervention. In this article, we review the data supporting the use of telemedicine in the treatment of cancer patients with a specific focus on applicability to management of gynecologic malignancies. We further add our group’s experience with the treatment of rural, underserved gynecologic cancer patients. We believe that development of teleoncologic systems is critical to ensure that all women have access to high-quality gynecologic cancer care, regardless of where they reside.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus
Gaher, Raluca M., Ashley M. Arens, & Hanako Shishido. (2015). Alexithymia as a Mediator Between Childhood Maltreatment and Impulsivity. Stress & Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 31(4), 274-280.
The article discusses the study regarding the association between childhood maltreatment (CM), negative urgency, and alexithymia. The method for the analysis on the role of alexithymia as mediator between impulsivity and childhood maltreatment was developed considering the examination on the effects of maltreatment and alexithymia subscales. It mentions that the analyses indicates that children growing in a punishing environment was indirectly associated with negative urgency.
Teng, Yanfen, Khosrow Rezvani, & Mariella De Biasi. (2015). UBXN2A regulates nicotinic receptor degradation by modulating the E3 ligase activity of CHIP. Biochemical Pharmacology, 97(4), 518-530.
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the α3 subunit are known for their prominent role in normal ganglionic transmission while their involvement in the mechanisms underlying nicotine addiction and smoking-related disease has been emerging only in recent years. The amount of information available on the maturation and trafficking of α3-containing nAChRs is limited. We previously showed that UBXN2A is a p97 adaptor protein that facilitates the maturation and trafficking of α3-containing nAChRs. Further investigation of the mechanisms of UBXN2A actions revealed that the protein interacts with CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsc70 interacting protein), whose ubiquitin E3 ligase activity regulates the degradation of several disease-related proteins. We show that CHIP displays E3 ligase activity toward the α3 nAChR subunit and contributes to its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. UBXN2A interferes with CHIP-mediated ubiquitination of α3 and protects the nicotinic receptor subunit from endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD). UBXN2A also cross-talks with VCP/p97 and HSC70/HSP70 proteins in a complex where α3 is likely to be targeted by CHIP. Overall,we identify CHIP as an E3 ligase for α3 and UBXN2A as a protein that may efficiently regulate the stability of CHIP’s client substrates.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Newswander, Chad B. (2015). Administrative Character: Hard and Soft Look Considerations. American Review of Public Administration, 45(6), 746-759.
Managerial competence expressed in the promise of science provides administrators with a set of dispositions. In attempting to achieve such a character, the Supreme Court set up a hard look orientation that used rational means to justify the substance of administrative power. Even though this mode of operation grants legitimacy resulting from meeting a high threshold, it also began to cripple administrative reasoning and movement. When problems are multifaceted, administrative character must be given room to explore. Taking this into consideration, the court also established an alternative space rooted in a soft look that encouraged a different type of administrative character. It has done this by establishing the foundations of a legal framework that privileges deference, which allows for prudence to emerge. Rooted in classical origin and updated in modern parlance, prudence can be leveraged as a way to not only deal with questions of law but also with substance.
Political Science and Criminal Justice Department.
Yampolsky, Lev Y., Erliang Zeng, Jacqueline Lopez, Patricia J. Williams, Kenneth B. Dick, John K. Colbourne, & Michael E. Pfrender. (2014). Functional genomics of acclimation and adaptation in response to thermal stress in Daphnia. BMC Genomics, 15(1), 859-870.
Background: Gene expression regulation is one of the fundamental mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity and is expected to respond to selection in conditions favoring phenotypic response. The observation that many organisms increase their stress tolerance after acclimation to moderate levels of stress is an example of plasticity which has been long hypothesized to be based on adaptive changes in gene expression. We report genome-wide patterns of gene expression in two heat-tolerant and two heat-sensitive parthenogenetic clones of the zooplankton crustacean Daphnia pulex exposed for three generations to either optimal (18°C) or substressful (28°C) temperature. Results: A large number of genes responded to temperature and many demonstrated a significant genotype-by-environment (GxE) interaction. Among genes with a significant GxE there were approximately equally frequent instances of canalization, i.e. stronger plasticity in heat-sensitive than in heat-tolerant clones, and of enhancement of plasticity along the evolutionary vector toward heat tolerance. The strongest response observed is the across-the-board down-regulation of a variety of genes occurring in heat-tolerant, but not in heat-sensitive clones. This response is particularly obvious among genes involved in core metabolic pathways and those responsible for transcription, translation and DNA repair. Conclusions: The observed down-regulation of metabolism, consistent with previous findings in yeast and Drosophila, may reflect a general compensatory stress response. The associated down-regulation of DNA repair pathways potentially creates a trade-off between short-term benefits of survival at high temperature and long-term costs of accelerated mutation accumulation.
Computer Science Department.
Rivera, Peter, Melinda Gonzales-Backen, …., S. Jean Caraway, Robert Weisskirch, Su Kim, & Lindsay Ham. (2015). Family Violence Exposure and Sexual Risk-Taking Among Latino Emerging Adults: The Role of Posttraumatic Stress Symptomology and Acculturative Stress. Journal of Family Violence, 30(8), 967-976.
This study proposes that posttraumatic stress symptomology and acculturative stress may further explain the relationship between family violence exposure and sexual risk-taking behaviors among Latino emerging adults ( N = 1,100). A moderated mediation analysis indicated that lifetime rates of family violence exposure were positively associated with sexual risk-taking via posttraumatic stress symptomology, and this mediation significantly varied as a function of acculturative stress. Overall, the findings of the current study underscore a need for a better understanding of how family violence exposure puts Latino emerging adults at risk for aversive health outcomes and suggest the use of an ecological systemic framework that examines the interactions between family, individual, and cultural systems in relation to health risk-taking behaviors.
Fercho, Kelene, Lee A. Baugh, & Elizabeth K. Hanson. (2015). Effects of Alphabet-Supplemented Speech on Brain Activity of Listeners: An fMRI Study. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, 58(5), 1452-1463.
Purpose: The purpose of this article was to examine the neural mechanisms associated with increases in speech intelligibility brought about through alphabet supplementation. Method: Neurotypical participants listened to dysarthric speech while watching an accompanying video of a hand pointing to the 1st letter spoken of each word on an alphabet display (treatment condition) or a scrambled display (control condition). Their hemodynamic response was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging, using a sparse sampling event-related paradigm. Speech intelligibility was assessed via a forced-choice auditory identification task throughout the scanning session. Results: Alphabet supplementation was associated with significant increases in speech intelligibility. Further, alphabet supplementation increased activation in brain regions known to be involved in both auditory speech and visual letter perception above that seen with the scrambled display. Significant increases in functional activity were observed within the posterior to mid superior temporal sulcus/superior temporal gyrus during alphabet supplementation, regions known to be involved in speech processing and audiovisual integration. Conclusion: Alphabet supplementation is an effective tool for increasing the intelligibility of degraded speech and is associated with changes in activity within audiovisual integration sites. Changes in activity within the superior temporal sulcus/superior temporal gyrus may be related to the behavioral increases in intelligibility brought about by this augmented communication method.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus AND Communication Disorders Department
Specker, B., N. W. Thiex, & Ramu G. Sudhagoni. (2015). Does Exercise Influence Pediatric Bone? A Systematic Review. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 473(11), 3658-3672.
Periods of growth are thought to be the best time to increase bone mineral content, bone area, and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) through increased loading owing to high rates of bone modeling and remodeling. However, questions remain regarding whether a benefit of exercise is seen at all bone sites, is dependent on pubertal status or sex of the child, or whether other factors such as diet modify the response to exercise. We asked: (1) Does bone-loading exercise in childhood consistently increase bone mineral content, bone area, or aBMD? (2) Do effects of exercise differ depending on pubertal status or sex? (3) Does calcium intake modify the bone response to exercise? A literature search identified 22 unique trials for inclusion in this meta-analysis of the effect of exercise on bone changes by bone site, pubertal status, and sex. Sample sizes ranged from 16 to 410 subjects 3 to 18 years old with length of intervention ranging from 3 to 36 months. Fifteen of 22 trials were randomized (child randomized in nine, classroom/school randomized in six) and seven were observational trials. Ten trials were Level 2 and 11 were Level 3 based on the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine criteria. Random effects models tested the difference (intervention mean effect-control mean effect) in percent change in bone mineral content, bone area, and aBMD. Meta-regression was used to identify sources of heterogeneity and funnel plots were used to assess publication bias. Children assigned to exercise had greater mean percent changes in bone mineral content and aBMD than children assigned to the control groups. Mean differences (95% CI) in bone mineral content percent change between intervention and control groups at total body (0.8; 95% CI, 0.3-1.3; p = 0.003), femoral neck (1.5; 95% CI, 0.5-2.5; p = 0.003), and spine (1.7; 95% CI, 0.4-3.1; p = 0.01) were significant with no differences in bone area (all p > 0.05). There were greater percent changes in aBMD in intervention than control groups at the femoral neck (0.6; 95% CI, 0.2-1.1; p = 0.006) and spine (1.2; 95% CI, 0.6-1.8; p < 0.001). Benefit of exercise was limited to children who were prepubertal (bone mineral content: total body [0.9; 95% CI, 0.2-1.7; p = 0.01], femoral neck [1.8; 95% CI, 0.0-3.5; p = 0.047], spine [3.7; 95% CI, 0.8-6.6; p = 0.01], and aBMD: femoral neck [0.6; 95% CI, -0.1-1.2; p = 0.07], spine [1.5; 95% CI, 0.7-2.3; p < 0.001]), with no differences among children who were pubertal (all p > 0.05). Changes in aBMD did not differ by sex (all p > 0.05), although the number of studies providing male-specific results was small (six of 22 eligible studies included boys). There was significant heterogeneity in bone mineral content and bone area for which a source could not be identified. Heterogeneity in spine aBMD was reduced by including calcium intake and intervention length as covariates. Three trials designed to determine whether calcium intake modified the bone response to exercise all reported a greater effect of exercise on leg bone mineral content in children randomized to receive supplemental calcium than those receiving placebo. Exercise interventions during childhood led to 0.6% to 1.7% greater annual increase in bone accrual, with effects predominantly among children who were prepubertal. If this effect were to persist into adulthood, it would have substantial implications for osteoporosis prevention. It is important to identify sources of heterogeneity among studies to determine factors that might influence the bone response to increased exercise during growth. Level II, therapeutic study.
School of Health Sciences.
Berry, Mary T., & P. Stanley May. (2015). Disputed Mechanism for NIR-to-Red Upconversion Luminescence in NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+. Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 119(38), 9805-9811.
The most commonly proposed mechanisms for NIR-to-red upconversion in the well-studied material beta-NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ are evaluated in order to resolve inconsistencies that persist in the literature. Each of four possible mechanisms is evaluated in terms of the direct analysis of spectroscopic data. It is shown that there are no important mechanisms that involve the first excited state of Er3+, I-4(13/2), as an intermediate state. A large body of evidence overwhelmingly supports the proposed mechanism of Anderson et al., which suggests an intimate connection between NIR-to-red and NIR-to-blue upconversion. Namely, both red and blue upconversion are produced primarily by a three-photon excitation process that proceeds through the green emitting state to a dense manifold of states, (4)G/K-2, above the blue emitting state, H-2(9/2). Competing relaxation mechanisms out of (4)G/K-2 determine the relative amounts of blue and red upconversion produced. Multiphonon relaxation from (4)G/K-2 results in blue upconversion, whereas back energy transfer from Er3+ ((4)G/K-2) to Yb3+ (F-2(7/2)) results in red emission.
Li, J., W. X. Ma, H. Z. Li, N. Hou, Xuejun Wang, I. M. Kim, . . . H. B. Su. (2015). NEDD8 Ultimate Buster 1 Long (NUB1L) Protein Suppresses Atypical Neddylation and Promotes the Proteasomal Degradation of Misfolded Proteins. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 290(39), 23850-23862.
Neddylation is a posttranslational modification that controls diverse biological processes by covalently conjugating the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 to specific targets. Neddylation is commonly mediated by NEDD8-specific enzymes (typical neddylation) and, sometimes, by ubiquitin enzymes (atypical neddylation). Although typical neddylation is known to regulate protein function in many ways, the regulatory mechanisms and biological consequence of atypical neddylation remain largely unexplored. Here we report that NEDD8 conjugates were accumulated in the diseased hearts from mouse models and human patients. Proteotoxic stresses induced typical and atypical neddylation in cardiomyocytes. Loss of NUB1L exaggerated atypical neddylation, whereas NUB1L overexpression repressed atypical neddylation through promoting the degradation of NEDD8. Activation of atypical neddylation accumulated a surrogate misfolded protein, GFPu. In contrast, suppression of atypical neddylation by NUB1L overexpression enhanced GFPu degradation. Moreover, NUB1L depletion accumulated a cardiomyopathy-linked misfolded protein, CryAB(R120G), whereas NUB1L overexpression promoted its degradation through suppressing neddylation of ubiquitinated proteins in cardiomyocytes. Consequently, NUB1L protected cells from proteotoxic stress-induced cell injury. In summary, these data indicate that NUB1L suppresses atypical neddylation and promotes the degradation of misfolded proteins by the proteasome. Our findings also suggest that induction of NUB1L could potentially become a novel therapeutic strategy for diseases with increased proteotoxic stress.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.