Posted by: reganenosusd | August 31, 2015

Fall 2015

Ghersa, F., J. Burdisso, S. S. Vallcaneras, …., Carlos M. Telleria, & M. Casais. (2015). Neuromodulation of the luteal regression: presence of progesterone receptors in coeliac ganglion. Experimental Physiology, 100(8), 935-946.

New Findings What is the central question of this study? The processes involved in luteal involution have not yet been clarified and, in general, have been studied only from a hormonal point of view. We investigated whether progesterone, from the coeliac ganglion through the superior ovarian nerve, is able to modify the luteal regression of late pregnancy in the rat. What is the main finding and its importance? We showed that the luteal regression might be reversed by the neural effect of progesterone and demonstrated the presence of its receptors in the coeliac ganglion. This suggests that the peripheral neural pathway, through neuron-hormone interaction, represents an additional mechanism to control luteal function in addition to the classical endocrine regulation. The corpus luteum (CL) is a transitory endocrine gland that produces progesterone (P). At the end of its useful life, it suffers a process of functional and structural regression until its complete disappearance from the ovary. To investigate whether P is able to regulate the process of luteal regression through the peripheral neural pathway, we used the coeliac ganglion (CG)-superior ovarian nerve-ovary system from rats on day21 of pregnancy. We stimulated the CG with P and analysed the functional regression through ovarian P release measured by radioimmunoassay, expression by RT-PCR and activity of luteal 3- and 20-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (anabolic and catabolic P enzymes, respectively). The luteal structural regression was evaluated through a study of apoptosis measured by TUNEL assay and the expression of apoptotic factors, such as Bcl-2, Bax, Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) by RT-PCR. To explore whether the effects mediated by P on the CL may be associated with P receptors, their presence in the CG was investigated by immunohistochemistry. In the group stimulated with P in the CG, the ovarian P release and the 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity increased, whereas the expression and activity of 20-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase decreased. In addition, a decrease in the number of apoptotic nuclei and a decrease of the expression of FasL were observed. We demonstrated the presence of P receptors in the CG. Overall, our results suggest that the regression of the CL of late pregnancy may be reprogrammed through the peripheral neural pathway, and this effect might be mediated by P bound to its receptor in the CG.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Halaby, M. J., Y. Li, B. R. Harris, S. X. Jiang, W. Keith Miskimins, M. P. Cleary, & D. Q. Yang. (2015). Translational Control Protein 80 Stimulates IRES-Mediated Translation of p53 mRNA in Response to DNA Damage. Biomed Research International, 9.

Synthesis of the p53 tumor suppressor increases following DNA damage. This increase and subsequent activation of p53 are essential for the protection of normal cells against tumorigenesis. We previously discovered an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that is located at the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of p53 mRNA and found that the IRES activity increases following DNA damage. However, the mechanism underlying IRES-mediated p53 translation in response to DNA damage is still poorly understood. In this study, we discovered that translational control protein 80 (TCP80) has increased binding to the p53 mRNA in vivo following DNA damage. Overexpression of TCP80 also leads to increased p53 IRES activity in response to DNA damage. TCP80 has increased association with RNA helicase A (RHA) following DNA damage and overexpression of TCP80, along with RHA, leads to enhanced expression of p53. Moreover, we found that MCF-7 breast cancer cells with decreased expression of TCP80 and RHA exhibit defective p53 induction following DNA damage and diminished expression of its downstream target PUMA, a proapoptotic protein. Taken together, our discovery of the function of TCP80 and RHA in regulating p53 IRES and p53 induction following DNA damage provides a better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate IRES-mediated p53 translation in response to genotoxic stress.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Novick, Andrew M., Gina L. Forster, James E. Hassell, Daniel R. Davies, Jamie L. Scholl, Kenneth J. Renner,& Michael J. Watt. (2015). Increased dopamine transporter function as a mechanism for dopamine hypoactivity in the adult infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex following adolescent social stress. Neuropharmacology, 97, 194-200.

Being bullied during adolescence is associated with later mental illnesses characterized by deficits in cognitive tasks mediated by prefrontal cortex (PFC) dopamine (DA). Social defeat of adolescent male rats, as a model of teenage bullying victimization, results in medial PFC (mPFC) dopamine (DA) hypofunction in adulthood that is associated with increased drug seeking and working memory deficits. Increased expression of the DA transporter (DAT) is also seen in the adult infralimbic mPFC following adolescent defeat. We propose the functional consequence of this increased DAT expression is enhanced DA clearance and subsequently decreased infralimbic mPFC DA availability. To test this, in vivo chronoamperometry was used to measure changes in accumulation of the DA signal following DAT blockade, with increased DAT-mediated clearance being reflected by lower DA signal accumulation. Previously defeated rats and controls were pre-treated with the norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor desipramine (20 mg/kg, ip.) to isolate infralimbic mPFC DA clearance to DAT, then administered the selective DAT inhibitor GBR-12909 (20 or 40 mg/kg, sc.). Sole NET inhibition with desipramine produced no differences in DA signal accumulation between defeated rats and controls. However, rats exposed to adolescent social defeat demonstrated decreased DA signal accumulation compared to controls in response to both doses of GBR-12909, indicating greater DAT-mediated clearance of infralimbic mPFC DA. These results suggest that protracted increases in infralimbic mPFC DAT function represent a mechanism by which adolescent social defeat stress produces deficits in adult mPFC DA activity and corresponding behavioral and cognitive dysfunction.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Ranek, Mark J., Hanqiao Zheng, Wei Huang, Asangi R. Kumarapeli, Jie Li, Jinbao Liu, & Xuejun Wang. (2015). Genetically induced moderate inhibition of 20S proteasomes in cardiomyocytes facilitates heart failure in mice during systolic overload. Journal of Molecular & Cellular Cardiology, 85, 273-281.

The in vivo function status of the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) in pressure overloaded hearts remains undefined. Cardiotoxicity was observed during proteasome inhibitor chemotherapy, especially in those with preexisting cardiovascular conditions; however, proteasome inhibition (PsmI) was also suggested by some experimental studies as a potential therapeutic strategy to curtail cardiac hypertrophy. Here we used genetic approaches to probe cardiac UPS performance and determine the impact of cardiomyocyte-restricted PsmI (CR-PsmI) on cardiac responses to systolic overload. Transgenic mice expressing an inverse reporter of the UPS (GFPdgn) were subject to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to probe myocardial UPS performance during systolic overload. Mice with or without moderate CR-PsmI were subject to TAC and temporally characterized for cardiac responses to moderate and severe systolic overload. After moderate TAC (pressure gradient: ~ 40 mm Hg), cardiac UPS function was upregulated during the first two weeks but turned to functional insufficiency between 6 and 12 weeks as evidenced by the dynamic changes in GFPdgn protein levels, proteasome peptidase activities, and total ubiquitin conjugates. Severe TAC (pressure gradients > 60 mm Hg) led to UPS functional insufficiency within a week. Moderate TAC elicited comparable hypertrophic responses between mice with and without genetic CR-PsmI but caused cardiac malfunction in CR-PsmI mice significantly earlier than those without CR-PsmI. In mice subject to severe TAC, CR-PsmI inhibited cardiac hypertrophy but led to rapidly progressed heart failure and premature death, associated with a pronounced increase in cardiomyocyte death. It is concluded that cardiac UPS function is dynamically altered, with the initial brief upregulation of proteasome function being adaptive; and CR-PsmI facilitates cardiac malfunction during systolic overload.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Broadbent, C. D., D. S. Brookshire, Mark D. Dixon, & …. (2015). Valuing preservation and restoration alternatives for ecosystem services in the southwestern USA. Ecohydrology, 8(5), 851-862.

Conservation of freshwater ecosystems in the semi-arid southwestern USA is a critical issue as these systems support habitat for wildlife and provide consumptive use for humankind. Economists have utilized stated preference techniques to value non-marketed goods and services such as freshwater ecosystems for much of the last four decades. Recently, Boyd and Banzhaf (2007) have advocated for ecosystem accounting units to be created in valuing ecosystem services such as freshwater ecosystems. Working collectively, a team of physical and social scientists developed a set of ecological endpoints for two river regions in the southwestern USA and used these ecological endpoints in a contingent valuation survey to obtain willingness to pay values for restoration and preservation alternatives. The results demonstrate statistically significant preservation and restoration estimates for the Upper San Pedro and restoration estimates for the Middle Rio Grande ecosystems. Copyright (c) 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Biology Department.

Dixon, Mark D., Christopher J. Boever, Victoria L. Danzeisen, Christopher L. Merkord, Eszter C. Munes, Michael L. Scott, . . . Tim C. Cowman. (2015). Effects of a “natural’ flood event on the riparian ecosystem of a regulated large-river system: the 2011 flood on the Missouri River, USA. Ecohydrology, 8(5), 812-824.

Flow regulation has significantly altered hydrological, geomorphic, and ecological processes on the Missouri River. Cumulative effects are evident in declines in cottonwood (Populus deltoides) recruitment and in altered forest age structure and composition. Record runoff in 2011 exceeded reservoir capacity on the Upper and Middle Missouri, leading to a 500-year recurrence interval flood in terms of volume, with the highest peak discharge in 59years and flood durations of up to 3months. We assessed the effects of this large infrequent disturbance’ by comparing pre-flood (2006-2009) to post-flood (2012) changes in riparian forests along two unchannelized segments of the Missouri River. Live shrub and tree density declined sharply within young forest stands (<30years). Higher proportions of non-native (Elaeagnus angustifolia) and upland (Juniperus virginiana) trees showed evidence of recent mortality than did the native cottonwood. Sandbar area increased sharply from 2006 to 2012 and area of young forests declined, with particularly sharp declines in sapling stands that had established following the previous post-dam record flow releases in 1997. Cottonwood recruitment was widespread in 2012, but nearly all seedling patches occurred on sandbars in the active channel rather than on overbank sites, with moderately high (61-77%) seedling mortality over 2012-2013. Physical and operational constraints within the regulated Missouri River limited the restorative effects of the 2011 flood and will likely limit future forest recovery. Process-based riparian restoration would require restoring flow and sediment regimes that more closely mimic historical conditions, as well as overcoming the physical legacies of decades of flow regulation. Copyright (c) 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Biology Department.

Harmon, Erin, Marisa O. King, Zhang Yufeng,& David L. Swanson. (2015). Summer-to-Winter Phenotypic Flexibility of Fatty Acid Transport and Catabolism in Skeletal Muscle and Heart of Small Birds. Physiological& Biochemical Zoology, 88(5), 535-549.

Prolonged shivering in birds is mainly fueled by lipids. Consequently, lipid transport and catabolism are vital for thermogenic performance and could be upregulated along with thermogenic capacity as part of the winter phenotype. We investigated summer-to-winter variation in lipid transport and catabolism by measuring mRNA expression, protein levels, and enzyme activities for several key steps of lipid transport and catabolic pathways in pectoralis muscle and heart in two small temperate-zone resident birds, American goldfinches (Spinus tristis) and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Cytosolic fatty acid binding protein (FABPc; a key component of intramyocyte lipid transport) mRNA and/or protein levels were generally higher in winter for pectoralis muscle and heart for both species. However, seasonal variation in plasma membrane lipid transporters, fatty acyl translocase, and plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein in pectoralis and heart differed between the two species, with winter increases for chickadees and seasonal stability or summer increases for goldfinches. Catabolic enzyme activities generally showed limited seasonal differences for both tissues and both species. These data suggest that FABPc is an important target of upregulation for the winter phenotype in pectoralis and heart of both species. Plasma membrane lipid transporters and lipid catabolic capacity were also elevated in winter for chickadees but not for goldfinches. Because the two species show differential regulation of distinct aspects of lipid transport and catabolism, these data are consistent with other recent studies documenting that different bird species or populations employ a variety of strategies to promote elevated winter thermogenic capacity.

Biology Department.

Johnson, W. C., M. A. Volke, Michael L. Scott, & Mark D. Dixon. (2015). The dammed Missouri: prospects for recovering Lewis and Clark’s River. Ecohydrology, 8(5), 765-771.

The world’s dams and reservoirs are aging. The ecological effects of a half-century or more of flow regulation and sediment alteration are becoming apparent. What remains of the highly dynamic channel and riparian ecosystem of the Missouri River described by Lewis and Clark has become static. Recent long-term studies have determined that some of the impacts on the Missouri River ecosystem turned out as predicted, such as the failure of cottonwood-dominated riparian forests to successfully establish and survive on a broad scale. Other changes were surprises, such as the effect of disease eliminating a formerly dominant tree species and the appearance of mainstem and tributary deltas affecting channel slope, floodplain hydrology, and vegetation. Restoration of the river’s hydrologic and sediment regime has been delayed long enough that the chances of functional ecosystem restoration have been greatly reduced and complicated. Two phases are now needed to attempt to restore the riparian ecosystem: one to repair the effects of post-dam changes (channel incision, bank stabilization) and another to reestablish pre-dam flow and sediment regimes. The prospects for restoration of this valuable ecosystem, rich in history and in goods and services provided to the public, are dim. Time has diminished the chances that restoration or even rehabilitation can be achieved. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Biology Department.

Zhang, Yufeng F., Kathy Eyster, J. S. Liu, & David L. Swanson. (2015). Cross-training in birds: cold and exercise training produce similar changes in maximal metabolic output, muscle masses and myostatin expression in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Journal of Experimental Biology, 218(14), 2190-2200.

Maximal metabolic outputs for exercise and thermogenesis in birds presumably influence fitness through effects on flight and shivering performance. Because both summit (M-sum, maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate) and maximum (MMR, maximum exercise metabolic rate) metabolic rates are functions of skeletal muscle activity, correlations between these measurements and their mechanistic underpinnings might occur. To examine whether such correlations occur, we measured the effects of experimental cold and exercise training protocols for 3 weeks on body (M-b) and muscle (M-pec) masses, basalmetabolic rate(BMR), M-sum, MMR, pectoralism RNA and protein expression for myostatin, and mRNA expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2 (metalloproteinase activators of myostatin) in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Both training protocols increased M-sum, MMR, M-b and M-pec, but BMR increased with cold training and decreased with exercise training. No significant differences occurred for pectoralis myostatin mRNA expression, but cold and exercise increased the expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2. Pectoralis myostatin protein levels were generally reduced for both training groups. These data clearly demonstrate cross-training effects of cold and exercise in birds, and are consistent with a role for myostatin in increasing pectoralis muscle mass and driving organismal increases in metabolic capacities.

Biology Department.

Zhang, Yufeng F., Marissa O. King, Erin Harmon, & David L. Swanson. (2015). Summer-to-Winter Phenotypic Flexibility of Fatty Acid Transport and Catabolism in Skeletal Muscle and Heart of Small Birds. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 88(5), 535-549.

Prolonged shivering in birds is mainly fueled by lipids. Consequently, lipid transport and catabolism are vital for thermogenic performance and could be upregulated along with thermogenic capacity as part of the winter phenotype. We investigated summer-to-winter variation in lipid transport and catabolism by measuring mRNA expression, protein levels, and enzyme activities for several key steps of lipid transport and catabolic pathways in pectoralis muscle and heart in two small temperate-zone resident birds, American goldfinches (Spinus tristis) and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Cytosolic fatty acid binding protein (FABP(c); a key component of intramyocyte lipid transport) mRNA and/or protein levels were generally higher in winter for pectoralis muscle and heart for both species. However, seasonal variation in plasma membrane lipid transporters, fatty acyl translocase, and plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein in pectoralis and heart differed between the two species, with winter increases for chickadees and seasonal stability or summer increases for goldfinches. Catabolic enzyme activities generally showed limited seasonal differences for both tissues and both species. These data suggest that FABP(c) is an important target of upregulation for the winter phenotype in pectoralis and heart of both species. Plasma membrane lipid transporters and lipid catabolic capacity were also elevated in winter for chickadees but not for goldfinches. Because the two species show differential regulation of distinct aspects of lipid transport and catabolism, these data are consistent with other recent studies documenting that different bird species or populations employ a variety of strategies to promote elevated winter thermogenic capacity.

Biology Department.

Eichler, B., J. Erickson, J. Keppen, Andrew Sykes, & Grigoriy Sereda. (2015). A non-planar crystal polymorph of 1,2-bis(9-anthracenyl)ethyne. Tetrahedron Letters, 56(31), 4574-4577.

1,2-Bis(9-anthracenyl)ethyne was synthesized and a new crystal polymorph was discovered. The previously reported structure was completely planar with a torsional angle between the two anthracenyl rings of 0.0 degrees, whereas the new polymorph had a torsional angle of 66.6 degrees. The new polymorph also stacks differently between molecules and has greater pi-electron overlap. In solution, the spectroscopic characteristics of both polymorphs were identical, but in the solid-state, results of red-shifted spectra for the co-planar polymorph indicate a strikingly simple example of the effect on UV-vis and fluorescence spectra of extending pi-conjugation wrapped up in one molecule with two polymorphs. It was also determined that the co-planar polymorph is favored with rapid crystallization, whereas the twisted polymorph prefers slow crystallization. This may indicate that the co-planar polymorph is kinetically favored and the twisted polymorph is thermodynamically favored. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

Kilina, Svetlana, Dmitri Kilin, & Sergei Tretiak. (2015). Light-Driven and Phonon-Assisted Dynamics in Organic and Semiconductor Nanostructures. Chemical Reviews, 115(12), 5929-5978.

The article discusses photophysical properties, sensitivity to the structural disorder and surface effects of semiconductor colloidal quantum dots (QD), single-walled carbon nanotubes and conjugated polymers also called organic semiconductors. It highlights the role of computational modeling to elucidate structure-function relationship in nanostructured materials and talks about geometry optimization and electronic structure calculation along with QD-ligand interactions.

Chemistry Department.

Mahoney, Luther, Rui Peng, Chia-Ming Wu, Jonas Baltrusaitis, & Ranjit T. Koodali. (2015). Solar simulated hydrogen evolution using cobalt oxide nanoclusters deposited on titanium dioxide mesoporous materials prepared by evaporation induced self-assembly process. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 40(34), 10795-10806.

Cobalt containing TiO 2 mesoporous materials were prepared by Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly (EISA) process. The resulting mesoporous materials were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen physisorption, Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The photocatalytic activities of the mesoporous materials were investigated for hydrogen production under solar simulated conditions. The non-modified TiO 2 sample produced only 4 μmole H 2 /g catalyst after 4 h of irradiation. In contrast, the Co containing mesoporous materials produced significantly higher amounts of hydrogen under identical conditions. The highest solar hydrogen evolution (634 μmole H 2 /g catalyst after 4 h of irradiation) was from the Co-TiO 2 -0.5 material. The physico-chemical characterization results indicate that the Co 2+ ions are dispersed as oxide species on the surface of the mesoporous titania. These cobalt surface species act as trap sites preventing recombination of the charge carriers as shown by PL measurements. The addition of Co 2+ ions to the synthesis mixture prevents the formation of anatase-to-rutile which favorably permits more solar hydrogen production.

Chemistry Department.

Chiang, Jyun-You, Tzong-Ru Tsai, Y. Lio Lio, Wanbo Lu, & Daimin Shi. (2015). An integrated approach for the optimization of tolerance design and quality cost. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 87, 186-192.

Different normality-based optimization strategy (NBOS) methods have been developed and used to perform quality improvement in the past few decays. Improving the quality of a production process using a NBOS method possibly incurs misleading results if the quality measurements follow a skewed distribution. An integrated model, with components of a tolerance cost model for the determinations of optimal tolerance limits and a quality investment model for the identification of optimal investment level, is applied to establish a new optimization strategy method for the skew normal distribution (SND), named SNDOS method. The SND generalizes the normal distribution to include skewed distributions as members, and hence the SNDOS method is applicable for quality improvement either the distribution of quality measurements follow a symmetric or skewed distribution. Two examples about car seat production process are used to illustrate the application of the SNDOS method. The sensitivity of the SNDOS method to the loss coefficient of the integrated model is evaluated for different inputs of the skewness parameter of the SND through a numerical study.

Mathematics Department.

Tsai, Tzong-Ru, Yuhlong Lio, Nan Jiang, Yu-Jau Lin, & Ya-Yen Fan. (2015). Economical sampling plans with warranty based on truncated data from Burr type XII distribution. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 66(9), 1511-1518.

Economical sampling plans to ensure the qualities of Burr type XII distributed lifetimes were established using a truncated life test. The Bayesian inference method was used to address the lot-to-lot variation of products. The sampling plan was characterized by the sample size and the acceptance number to minimize the expected total cost. A simple empirical Bayesian estimation method was provided to estimate the hyperparameters of prior distribution, and simulation studies were conducted to validate the proposed empirical Bayesian estimation method. Lastly, the application of this proposed method was illustrated using two examples.

Mathematics Department.

Bahar, A. N., S. Waheed, & Nazir Hossain. (2015). A new approach of presenting reversible logic gate in nanoscale. Springerplus, 4, 7.

Conventional lithography-based VLSI design technology deployed to optimize low-powered-computing and higher scale integration of semiconductor components. However, this downscaling trend confronts serious challenges of tunneling and leakage current increment to the Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology on nanoscale regimes. To resolve the physical restriction of the CMOS, Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) technology dedicates for the nanoscale technology that embrace a new information transformation technique. However, QCA is limited to the design of the sequential and combinational circuits only. This paper presents some highly scalable features reversible logic gate for the QCA technology. In addition, proposed layout compared with CMOS technology, offer a better reduction in size up to 233 times.

Physics Department.

Miller, Ross A., L. L. Waters, D. R. Mody, & Kimberlee C. Tams. (2015). Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix A Cytology-Histology-Human Papillomavirus Correlation in Clinical Practice. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 139(6), 776-781.

Context.-Cervical cancer mortality has declined by 74% in the United States since the implementation of the Papanicolaou (Pap) test. Nevertheless, more than 12 000 US women annually develop cervical cancer, and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCa) remains the predominant cervical malignancy. Objective.-To evaluate screening techniques used in the detection of SqCa of the cervix and provide insights regarding which technique(s) is (are) most efficacious in our study population. Design.-We retrospectively reviewed all available cytologic, human papillomavirus (HPV), and histologic malignancy burden data from patients diagnosed with SqCa. The clinical data were collected from 2 geographically and socioeconomically diverse hospital systems. Cases in which identified patients had a Pap test with a negative result/unsatisfactory specimen within 5 years of SqCa tissue diagnosis were considered Pap test screening failures. Cases in which patients were diagnosed with HPV-negative SqCa were considered HPV screening failures. Results.-Eighty-eight cases (patients’ ages ranging from 19 to 73 years) were identified. Of those, cytologic history was available for 64 cases present in our electronic medical history record. Three cases were cytology screening failures (one being an unsatisfactory specimen) and 3 cases were HPV screening failures (one being the cytologic unsatisfactory case). Although measuring sensitivity in practice has limitations, we calculated the SqCa detection sensitivity at 95.3% by Pap test alone and 97% when HPV DNA testing was incorporated. Conclusions.-Our results highlight the necessity of combining Pap and HPV testing. Although the number of cases identified is relatively small, our data suggest detection failures will decrease as the practice of combining HPV and Pap testing increases.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Posted by: reganenosusd | August 28, 2015

Summer 2015

Niemonen, Jack. (2015). Whither the White Working Class? A Comment on Khanna and Harris, “Discovering Race in a “Post-Racial’ World: Teaching Race through Primetime Television”.Teaching Sociology, 43(3), 236-241. 

Even though I recognize the value of using the mass media to teach sociological concepts and reveal racial biases, I caution against the use of classroom exercises that are developed solely in the context of whiteness studies. Overarching statements of white privilege mask complex race-class interactions generally and the mass media’s stereotypical depictions of the white working class specifically. In this conversation, I explain why the use of the concept white privilege in and of itself obfuscates more than it reveals complex race-class interactions today.

Anthropology and Sociology.

McCormick, Kara, Jiang, Z., Zhu, L. C., Lawson, S. R., Langenhorst, R., Ransburgh, R., Brunick, ColinTracy, Miranda C.Hurtig, Heather R.Mabee, Leah M.Mingo, Mark, Li, Y. H., Webby, R. J., Huber, Victor C., & Fang, Y. (2015). Construction and Immunogenicity Evaluation of Recombinant Influenza A Viruses Containing Chimeric Hemagglutinin Genes Derived from Genetically Divergent Influenza A H1N1 Subtype Viruses. Plos One, 10(6).

Background and Objectives Influenza A viruses cause highly contagious diseases in a variety of hosts, including humans and pigs. To develop a vaccine that can be broadly effective against genetically divergent strains of the virus, in this study we employed molecular breeding (DNA shuffling) technology to create a panel of chimeric HA genes. Methods and Results Each chimeric HA gene contained genetic elements from parental swine influenza A viruses that had a history of zoonotic transmission, and also from a 2009 pandemic virus. Each parental virus represents a major phylogenetic clade of influenza A H1N1 viruses. Nine shuffled HA constructs were initially screened for immunogenicity in mice by DNA immunization, and one chimeric HA (HA-129) was expressed on both a A/Puerto Rico/8/34 backbone with mutations associated with a live, attenuated phenotype (PR8(LAIV)-129) and a A/swine/Texas/4199-2/98 backbone (TX98-129). When delivered to mice, the PR8(LAIV)-129 induced antibodies against all four parental viruses, which was similar to the breadth of immunity observed when HA-129 was delivered as a DNA vaccine. This chimeric HA was then tested as a candidate vaccine in a nursery pig model, using inactivated TX98-129 virus as the backbone. The results demonstrate that pigs immunized with HA-129 developed antibodies against all four parental viruses, as well as additional primary swine H1N1 influenza virus field isolates. Conclusion This study established a platform for creating novel genes of influenza viruses using a molecular breeding approach, which will have important applications toward future development of broadly protective influenza virus vaccines.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Rajkowska, Grazyna, Mahajan, Gouri, Maciag, Dorota, Sathyanesan, Monica, Iyo, Abiye H., Moulana, Mohadetheh, Kyle, Patrick B., Woolverton, William L., Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose Javier, Stockmeier, Craig A., & Newton, Samuel S. (2015). Oligodendrocyte morphometry and expression of myelin – Related mRNA in ventral prefrontal white matter in major depressive disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 65, 53-62.

White matter disturbance in the ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) in major depressive disorder (MDD) has been noted with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). However, the cellular and molecular pathology of prefrontal white matter in MDD and potential influence of antidepressant medications is not fully understood. Oligodendrocyte morphometry and myelin-related mRNA and protein expression was examined in the white matter of the vPFC in MDD. Sections of deep and gyral white matter from the vPFC were collected from 20 subjects with MDD and 16 control subjects. Density and size of CNPase-immunoreactive (-IR) oligodendrocytes were estimated using 3-dimensional cell counting. While neither density nor soma size of oligodendrocytes was significantly affected in deep white matter, soma size was significantly decreased in the gyral white matter in MDD. In rhesus monkeys treated chronically with fluoxetine there was no significant effect on oligodendrocyte morphometry. Using quantitative RT-PCR to measure oligodendrocyte-related mRNA for CNPase, PLP1, MBP, MOG, MOBP, Olig1 and Olig2, in MDD there was a significantly reduced expression of PLP1 mRNA (which positively correlated with smaller sizes) and increased expression of mRNA for CNPase, OLIG1 and MOG. The expression of CNPase protein was significantly decreased in MDD. Altered expression of four myelin genes and CNPase protein suggests a mechanism for the degeneration of cortical axons and dysfunctional maturation of oligodendrocytes in MDD. The change in oligodendrocyte morphology in gyral white matter may parallel altered axonal integrity as revealed by DTI.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Yuan, Sharleen, & Burrell, Brian D. (2013). Nonnociceptive afferent activity depresses nocifensive behavior and nociceptive synapses via an endocannabinoid-dependent mechanism. Journal of Neurophysiology, 110(11), 2607-2616.

Previously, low-frequency stimulation (LFS) of a nonnociceptive touch-sensitive neuron has been found to elicit endocannabinoid-dependent long-term depression (eCB-LTD) in nociceptive synapses in the leech central nervous system (CNS) that requires activation of a presynaptic transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)-like receptor by postsynaptically synthesized 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). This capacity of nonnociceptive afferent activity to reduce nociceptive signaling resembles gate control of pain, albeit longer lasting in these synaptic experiments. Since eCB-LTD has been observed at a single sensory-motor synapse, this study examines the functional relevance of this mechanism, specifically whether this form of synaptic plasticity has similar effects at the behavioral level in which additional, intersegmental neural circuits are engaged. Experiments were carried out using a semi-intact preparation that permitted both synaptic recordings and monitoring of the leech whole body shortening, a defensive withdrawal reflex that was elicited via intracellular stimulation of a single nociceptive neuron (the N cell). The same LFS of a nonnociceptive afferent that induced eCB-LTD in single synapses also produced an attenuation of the shortening reflex. Similar attenuation of behavior was also observed when 2-AG was applied. LFS-induced behavioral and synaptic depression was blocked by tetrahydrolipstatin (THL), a diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor, and by SB366791, a TRPV1 antagonist. The effects of both THL and SB366791 were observed following either bath application of the drug or intracellular injection into the presynaptic (SB366791) or postsynaptic (THL) neuron. These findings demonstrate a novel, endocannabinoid-based mechanism by which nonnociceptive afferent activity may modulate nocifensive behaviors via action on primary afferent synapses.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Cyr, Tim, Windels, Steve K., Moen, Ron, & Warmbold, Jerry W. (2014). DIVERSITY AND ABUNDANCE OF TERRESTRIAL GASTROPODS IN VOYAGEURS NATIONAL PARK, MN: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE RISK OF MOOSE BECOMING INFECTED WITH PARELAPHOSTRONGYLUS TENUIS. Alces, 50, 121-132.

Voyageurs National Park (VNP) has a stable population of about 40-50 moose (AIces alces). Recent declines in moose abundance in adjacent areas in northern Minnesota raise concerns about the long-term viability of moose in VNP. The parasitic nematode Parelaphostrongylus tenuis has been documented in moose in VNP and has been implicated in moose declines in other populations. Terrestrial gastropods are the intennediate hosts for P. tenuis, and describing spatial and temporal differences in their abundance should increase understanding about the risk of P. tenuis infection for VNP moose at the individual and population levels. We used cardboard sheets to estimate species composition and abundance of terrestrial gastropods in representative vegetation communities in VNP. We collected a total of 6,595 gastropods representing 25 species, 22 terrestrial snails and 3 slugs; 8 are known vectors of P. tenuis, including the slug Deroceras laeve, the most common species found. Gastropods were more abundant in September than July, and in upland forests (maximum = 555 gastropods/ m2) more than in wetter lowlands (20 gastropods/m2). We used location data from GPScollared moose in VNP to estimate the relative exposure of moose to gastropods that could be infected with P. tenuis larvae. The boreal hardwood forest and northern spruce-fir forest ecotypes had the highest use by moose and high abundance of P. tenuis vectors in summer, and may pose the greatest risk for infection. Habitat use and the related risk of ingesting gastropod vectors varied by individual moose. Our method can be extended in moose range to estimate the relative risk of P. tenuis infection.

Biology Department [Student]

Furness, Ambur N., & Soluk, Daniel A. (2015). The potential of diversion structures to reduce roadway mortality of the endangered Hine’s emerald dragonfly (Somatochlora hineana). Journal of Insect Conservation, 19(3), 449-455.

Roadways near wetlands and ponds inflict high roadkill rates on a wide variety of taxa. For threatened or endangered species that typically do not have large adult populations, fast reproduction rates, and/or rapid recolonization rates, such mortality is likely to have significant population consequences. Thus, exploring ways to reduce roadkill rates will have considerable conservation benefits. In this study, we evaluate whether a diversion structure can be used to modify flight behavior of the endangered Hine’s emerald dragonfly (Somatochlora hineana) in ways that would reduce roadway mortality. Flight behavior of adult S. hineana was observed with and without two 3 m high nets spaced at 6 and 12 m to simulate a small and a larger roadway. The netting significantly deterred (p < 0.0001) S. hineana adults from crossing the simulated roadway. Flight height was also influenced significantly (p = 0.0025) with flight heights over the 6 m net spacing being higher than those over the 12 m spacing. This study suggests that the use of diversion netting in areas where sensitive dragonfly species interact with motor vehicles might aid in reducing roadway mortality and might help reduce the overall impact of roadways on wetland ecosystems.

Biology Department.

Eichler, Barrett, Erickson, Jeremy, Keppen, Joseph, Sykes, Andrew, & Sereda, Grigoriy. (2015). A non-planar crystal polymorph of 1,2-bis(9-anthracenyl)ethyne. Tetrahedron Letters: International Organ for the Rapid Publication of Preliminary Communications in Organic Chemistry, 56(31), 4574-4577.

1,2-Bis(9-anthracenyl)ethyne was synthesized and a new crystal polymorph was discovered. The previously reported structure was completely planar with a torsional angle between the two anthracenyl rings of 0.0°, whereas the new polymorph had a torsional angle of 66.6°. The new polymorph also stacks differently between molecules and has greater π–electron overlap. In solution, the spectroscopic characteristics of both polymorphs were identical, but in the solid-state, results of red-shifted spectra for the co-planar polymorph indicate a strikingly simple example of the effect on UV–vis and fluorescence spectra of extending π-conjugation wrapped up in one molecule with two polymorphs. It was also determined that the co-planar polymorph is favored with rapid crystallization, whereas the twisted polymorph prefers slow crystallization. This may indicate that the co-planar polymorph is kinetically favored and the twisted polymorph is thermodynamically favored.

Chemistry Department.

Mariappan, KadarkaraisamyAlaparthi, MadhubabuHoffman, MariahRama, Myriam AlcantarBalasubramanian, VinothiniJohn, Danielle M., & Sykes, Andrew G. (2015). Improved selectivity for Pb(II) by sulfur, selenium and tellurium analogues of 1,8-anthraquinone-18-crown-5: synthesis, spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography and computational studies. Dalton Transactions, 44(26), 11774-11787.

We report here a series of heteroatom-substituted macrocycles containing an anthraquinone moiety as a fluorescent signaling unit and a cyclic polyheteroether chain as the receptor. Sulfur, selenium, and tellurium derivatives of 1,8-anthraquinone-18-crown-5 (1) were synthesized by reacting sodium sulfide (Na2S), sodium selenide (Na2Se) and sodium telluride (Na2Te) with 1,8-bis(2-bromoethylethyleneoxy) anthracene-9,10-dione in a 1 : 1 ratio. The optical properties of the new compounds are examined and the sulfur and selenium analogues produce an intense green emission enhancement upon association with Pb(II) in acetonitrile. Selectivity for Pb(II) is markedly improved as compared to the oxygen analogue 1 which was also competitive for Ca(II) ion. UV-Visible and luminescence titrations reveal that 2 and 3 form 1 : 1 complexes with Pb(II), confirmed by single-crystal X-ray studies where Pb(II) is complexed within the macrocycle through coordinate covalent bonds to neighboring carbonyl, ether and heteroether donor atoms. Cyclic voltammetry of 2-8 showed classical, irreversible oxidation potentials for sulfur, selenium and tellurium heteroethers in addition to two one-electron reductions for the anthraquinone carbonyl groups. DFT calculations were also conducted on 1, 2, 3, 6, 6 + Pb(II) and 6 + Mg(II) to determine the trend in energies of the HOMO and the LUMO levels along the series.

Chemistry Department.

Shen, W., Lin, X., Jiang, Chaoyang, Li, C. Y., Lin, H. X., Huang, J. T., Wang, S., Liu, G. K., Yan, X. M., Zhong, Q. L., & Ren, B. (2015). Reliable Quantitative SERS Analysis Facilitated by Core-Shell Nanoparticles with Embedded Internal Standards. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, 54(25), 7308-7312.

Quantitative analysis is a great challenge in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Core-molecule-shell nanoparticles with two components in the molecular layer, a framework molecule to form the shell, and a probe molecule as a Raman internal standard, were rationally designed for quantitative SERS analysis. The signal of the embedded Raman probe provides effective feedback to correct the fluctuation of samples and measuring conditions. Meanwhile, target molecules with different affinities can be adsorbed onto the shell. The quantitative analysis of target molecules over a large concentration range has been demonstrated with a linear response of the relative SERS intensity versus the surface coverage, which has not been achieved by conventional SERS methods.

Chemistry Department.

Jorgensen, Lindsey E., & Messersmith, Jessica J. (2015). Impact of Aging and Cognition on Hearing Assistive Technology Use. Seminars in Hearing, 36(3), 162-174.

Many factors go into appropriate recommendation and use of hearing assistive technology (HAT). The aging auditory system presents with its own complications and intricacies; there are many types of age-related hearing loss, and it is possible that the underlying cause of hearing loss can significantly impact the recommendations and performance with HATs. The audiologist should take into consideration peripheral and central auditory function when selecting HATs for the aging adult population as well as when selecting appropriate types of technology including personal sound amplification products, hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other assistive technology. The cognitive ability of the patient plays a central role in the recommendations of HAT. It is possible that the use of HATs could mitigate some of the effects of cognitive decline and thus should be considered as early as possible. Assessment of ability and appropriate recommendations are crucial to consistent use of HAT devices.

Communication Disorders Department.

Emery, Noah N., & Simons, Jeffrey S. (2015). Mood & alcohol-related attentional biases: New considerations for gender differences and reliability of the visual-probe task. Addictive Behaviors, 50, 1-5.

Introduction Alcohol-related attentional biases are positively associated with drinking history and may represent a mechanism by which alcohol use behavior is maintained over time. This study was designed to address two unresolved issues regarding alcohol-related attention biases. Specifically, this study tested whether acute changes in positive and negative mood increase attentional biases toward alcohol cues and whether coping and enhancement drinking motives moderate these effects. Methods Participants were 100 college students aged 18–25, who drank alcohol at least once in the last 90 days. In a 2 × 3 mixed design, participants were randomized to one of three mood conditions (neutral, negative, or positive) and completed visual-probe tasks pre- and post-mood-induction. Results Attentional biases toward alcohol cues were significantly associated with alcohol consumption among men, but not women. Although the mood manipulation was highly successful, attentional biases did not vary as a function of mood condition and hypothesized moderating effects of drinking motives were not significant. Conclusions The largely null findings of the experiment are discussed in light of the fact that the visual probe task had poor reliability. Issues related to the reliability of visual-probe task are discussed, as more research is needed to evaluate and improve the psychometrics of this method.

Psychology Department.

Simons, Jeffrey S., Wills, Thomas A., Emery, Noah N., & Marks, Russell M. (2015). Quantifying alcohol consumption: Self-report, transdermal assessment, and prediction of dependence symptoms. Addictive Behaviors, 50, 205-212.

Research on alcohol use depends heavily on the validity of self-reported drinking. The present paper presents data from 647 days of self-monitoring with a transdermal alcohol sensor by 60 young adults. We utilized a biochemical measure, transdermal alcohol assessment with the WrisTAS, to examine the convergent validity of three approaches to collecting daily self-report drinking data: experience sampling, daily morning reports of the previous night, and 1-week timeline follow-back (TLFB) assessments. We tested associations between three pharmacokinetic indices (peak concentration, area under the curve (AUC), and time to reach peak concentration) derived from the transdermal alcohol signal and within- and between- person variation in alcohol dependence symptoms. The WrisTAS data corroborated 85.74% of self-reported drinking days based on the experience sampling data. The TLFB assessment and combined experience sampling and morning reports agreed on 87.27% of drinking days. Drinks per drinking day did not vary as a function of wearing or not wearing the sensor; this indicates that participants provided consistent reports of their drinking regardless of biochemical verification. In respect to self-reported alcohol dependence symptoms, the AUC of the WrisTAS alcohol signal was associated with dependence symptoms at both the within- and between- person level. Furthermore, alcohol dependence symptoms at baseline predicted drinking episodes characterized in biochemical data by both higher peak alcohol concentration and faster time to reach peak concentration. The results support the validity of self-report alcohol data, provide empirical data useful for optimal design of daily process sampling, and provide an initial demonstration of the use of transdermal alcohol assessment to characterize drinking dynamics associated with risk for alcohol dependence.

Psychology Department.

Barta, Ashley L., Nutescu, Edith A., Thompson, Paul A., Bussey, Henry I., & Gulseth, Michael P. (2015). Relationship between time spent at extreme International Normalized Ratios and time in therapeutic range with bleeding and thrombosis in warfarin-treated patients. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 72(14), 1188-1194.

Purpose. The relationship between the time spent at extreme International Normalized Ratios (INRs) and the time in the therapeutic range (TTR) with bleeding and thrombosis in warfarin-treated patients was examined. Methods. Consecutive patients treated with warfarin for atrial fibrillation or for venous thrombosis who were managed by the anticoagulation management service or adult internal medicine clinic of a large, tertiary care, integrated health system between June 1, 2011, and October 9, 2012, were eligible for study inclusion. Data collected for the outcomes analysis included INRs and dates; current use of aspirin, clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticagrelor, ticlopidine, or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs; and any clinically significant bleeding or thrombosis events identified. Results. In the 837 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 636.5 patient-years of therapy were provided, of which 14.4 patient-years (2.26% of time) were spent at INRs of <1.5; 2.9 patient-years of therapy (0.45% of time) were spent at INRs of >4.5. The patient population had a mean individual TTR of 65%. The percentage of time at an INR of >4.5 was positively associated with an increased risk of major bleeding (p = 0.0085). The percentage of time spent with an INR of <1.5 was not associated with a significant increase in the risk of thrombosis. Conclusion. The percentage of time spent with an INR of >4.5 was associated with an increased risk of major bleeding in patients receiving warfarin for atrial fibrillation or for venous thrombosis at two outpatient clinics. The relationships between thrombosis risk and the TTR or the time spent at an INR of <1.5 were not significant, but the thromboembolic event rate was unusually low, as was the time spent at an INR of <1.5.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Belcher, Harolyn M. E., Stone, Jacqueline D., McFadden, Jenese A., Hemmingson, Tyler A., …., Osdel, Joanne, Avila, Margaret, Yorker, Beatrice, Hoffman, Beth R., & Turner-Musa, Jocelyn O. (2015). Evaluating maternal and child health and leadership competencies of emerging mch leaders: The mchc/rise-up experience. Maternal and Child Health Journal.

Purpose: This study examines maternal and child health core competencies and leadership characteristics of undergraduate students following participation in the Maternal and Child Health Careers/Research Initiatives for Student Enhancement-Undergraduate Program (MCHC/RISE-UP). MCHC/RISE-UP is a 10-week public health leadership program designed to promote diversity in public health workforce through mentored research, community engagement and advocacy, and clinical experiences for undergraduate students.Description: The MCHC/RISE-UP is a national consortium of University Centers for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities including, (1) Kennedy Krieger Institute (Kennedy Krieger, lead institution) partnering with Morgan State University, a Historically Black University, (2) the University of South Dakota partnering with Tribal Serving Institutions; and (3) the University of Southern California Children’s Hospital-Los Angeles and their partner institution, California State University Los Angeles, a Hispanic Serving Institution.Assessment: Eighty-four junior and senior undergraduates and recent baccalaureate degree students who participated in the MCHC/RISE-UP worked on 48 maternal and child health projects. Following the MCHC/RISE-UP, students demonstrated statistically significant improvements in all maternal and child health core competencies. Transformational leadership characteristics also increased (mean increase 9.4, 95 % CI 7.2–11.8; p < 0.001). At closing interview, over twice as many students endorsed a public health career goal compared to program admission (17.9 vs 57.7 %; p = 0.022).Conclusion: Multi-institutional collaborative public health leadership programs may extend the reach and recruitment of diverse students into the maternal and child health field. Experiential, didactic, and mentored learning opportunities may enhance student integration of maternal and child health competencies and transformational leadership characteristics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Dey, NandinaWilliams, CaseyLeyland-Jones, Brian, & De, Pradip. (2015). A critical role for HER3 in HER2-amplified and non-amplified breast cancers: function of a kinase-dead RTK. American Journal of Translational Research, 7(4), 733-750.

ERBB3/HER3 is the most intriguing RTK by virtue of its ability to transduce multiple cytosolic signals for the proliferation and growth of tumor cells in spite of being a “kinase dead” receptor that binds to its true ligand, heregulin. Although other members of the HER3 family like EGFR and HER2 have long been recognized to be associated with breast tumorigenesis and studied because of their predictive and prognostic value, the significance of HER3 as an irrefutable component of HER family signalosome is a relatively new development. The recent understanding of signals originating from the oncogenic partnership of HER3 with HER2 in the context of HER2 amplification/overexpression showed the critical clinical value for the treatment of HER2+BC. The downstream signaling cascade (included but not limited to the PI3K signaling) associated with signals originating from HER2:HER3 dimers play a vital role in the tumorigenesis, drug-resistance and tumor progression of HER2+BC. The upregulation of HER3 activity provides an alternate “escape route” via which tumor cells bypass either the inhibition of the HER family RTKs or the inhibition of the downstream PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway. By understanding the signaling that provides this “escape route” for these tumor cells treated with a targeted therapy (HER2 inhibitors or inhibitors of downstream PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway), we are just beginning to appreciate the prognostic value of HER3 in breast cancer. In this review, we will discuss the relevance of HER3 signaling in the context of, (1) downstream oncogenic signals and (2) therapeutic options in HER2 amplified BC.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Ferley, Derek D., & Vukovich, Marshall D. (2015). TIME-TO-FATIGUE DURING INCLINE TREADMILL RUNNING: IMPLICATIONS FOR INDIVIDUALIZED TRAINING PRESCRIPTION. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29(7), 1855-1862.

Ferley, DD and Vukovich, MD. Time-to-fatigue during incline treadmill running: Implications for individualized training prescription. J Strength Cond Res 29(7): 1855-1862, 2015Uphill running has been touted as a key interval training tactic for distance runners despite few scientifically derived recommendations for individualized training prescription. To date, a majority of uphill training research has focused on shorter, faster training bouts; however, longer, slower bouts based on an individual’s velocity at maximum oxygen consumption (Vmax) may prove more effective. One potential longer bout length may be associated with the time Vmax can be maintained (Tmax), an approach proven effective in level-grade interval training. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation included examining the Tmax, heart rate, and test-retest reliability of incline treadmill running (INC) on a 10% grade at 65, 70, 75, 80, and 85%Vmax compared with level-grade running at Vmax. Twelve moderately trained distance runners (age, 26.4 +/- 4.8; body mass, 64.3 +/- 12.9 kg; height, 171.2 +/- 9.3 cm; and V.o(2)max, 56.6 +/- 7.6 mlmin(-1)kg(-1)) completed 2 Tmax INC trials at each submaximal Vmax and a level-grade Tmax at Vmax. The dependent variables were Tmax, heart rate plateau (HRPlateau), and half-time to heart rate plateau (1/2HR(Plateau)) of each condition. Statistical significance was set to p 0.05. Student’s t-test revealed no significant differences in Tmax, HRPlateau, and 1/2HR(Plateau) between trials 1 and 2 at any INC condition. One-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences in (a) Tmax during INC at 75, 80, and 85%Vmax and level-grade at Vmax and (b) 1/2HR(Plateau) during INC at 80 and 85%Vmax and all other conditions. In conclusion, Tmax and heart rate dynamics during INC proved reliable, and simple regression analysis revealed approximate to 68%Vmax during INC yields the same level-grade Tmax at Vmax.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Hanson, Jessica D., Nothwehr, F., Yang, J. G., & Romitti, P. (2015). Indirect and Direct Perceived Behavioral Control and the Role of Intention in the Context of Birth Control Behavior. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19(7), 1535-1542.

Unintended pregnancies can have negative consequences for both mother and child. The focus of this study was to utilize perceived behavioral control measures (PBC; part of the theory of planned behavior) to identify relevant behavioral determinants of birth control use. This study also tested associations between direct and indirect PBC measures and intention of birth control use and between intention and birth control use. The methods included a randomly selected sample of patients at a health care system in the Upper Midwest who were sent a self-administered survey, with 190 non-pregnant women returning completed surveys. Participants indicated a high level of control over using birth control, and a significant positive correlation was observed between direct and indirect PBC measures. Participants also reported high intentions to use birth control, and a significant positive correlation was observed between intention and PBC. Additionally, both PBC measures and intention were independently and significantly associated with behavior, and PBC remained significantly associated with behavior when intention was added into the model. In conclusion, compared to the previous literature, this study is unique in that it examines indirect PBC measures and also the important role that PBC plays with actual birth control behavior.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Maher, Diane M., Khan, Sheema, Nordquist, Jordan L.Ebeling, Mara C.Bauer, Nichole A., Kopel, Lucas, Singh, Man Mohan, Halaweish, Fathi, Bell, Maria C., Jaggi, Meena, & Chauhan, Subhash C. (2015). Ormeloxifene efficiently inhibits ovarian cancer growth. Cancer Letters, 356(2), 606-612.

Ovarian cancer continues to be a leading cause of cancer related deaths for women. Anticancer agents effective against chemo-resistant cells are greatly needed for ovarian cancer treatment. Repurposing drugs currently in human use is an attractive strategy for developing novel cancer treatments with expedited translation into clinical trials. Therefore, we examined whether ormeloxifene (ORM), a non-steroidal Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM) currently used for contraception, is therapeutically effective at inhibiting ovarian cancer growth. We report that ORM treatment inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cell lines, including cell lines resistant to cisplatin. Furthermore, ORM treatment decreases Akt phosphorylation, increases p53 phosphorylation, and modulates the expression and localization patterns of p27, cyclin E, cyclin D1, and CDK2. In a pre-clinical xenograft mouse ORM treatment significantly reduces tumorigenesis and metastasis. These results indicate that ORM effectively inhibits the growth of cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. ORM is currently in human use and has an established record of patient safety. Our encouraging in vitro and pre-clinical in vivo findings indicate that ORM is a promising candidate for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Munce, Thayne A.Dorman, Jason C.Thompson, Paul A.Valentine, Verle D., & Bergeron, Michael F.(2015). Head Impact Exposure and Neurologic Function of Youth Football Players. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 47(8), 1567-1576.

Football players are subjected to repetitive impacts that may lead to brain injury and neurologic dysfunction. Knowledge about head impact exposure (HIE) and consequent neurologic function among youth football players is limited. Purpose: This study aimed to measure and characterize HIE of youth football players throughout one season and explore associations between HIE and changes in selected clinical measures of neurologic function. Methods: Twenty-two youth football players (11-13 yr) wore helmets outfitted with a head impact telemetry (HIT) system to quantify head impact frequency, magnitude, duration, and location. Impact data were collected for each practice (27) and game (9) in a single season. Selected clinical measures of balance, oculomotor performance, reaction time, and self-reported symptoms were assessed before and after the season. Results: The median individual head impacts per practice, per game, and throughout the entire season were 9, 12, and 252, respectively. Approximately 50% of all head impacts (6183) had a linear acceleration between 10g and 20g, but nearly 2% were greater than 80g. Overall, the head impact frequency distributions in this study population were similar in magnitude and location as in high school and collegiate football, but total impact frequency was lower. Individual changes in neurologic function were not associated with cumulative HIE. Conclusion: This study provides a novel examination of HIE and associations with short-term neurologic function in youth football and notably contributes to the limited HIE data currently available for this population. Whereas youth football players can experience remarkably similar head impact forces as high school players, cumulative subconcussive HIE throughout one youth football season may not be detrimental to short-term clinical measures of neurologic function.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Benson, Nicholas, Beaujean, A. Alexander, & Taub, Gordon E. (2015). Using Score Equating and Measurement Invariance to Examine the Flynn Effect in the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 50(4), 398-415.

The Flynn effect (FE; i.e., increase in mean IQ scores over time) is commonly viewed as reflecting population shifts in intelligence, despite the fact that most FE studies have not investigated the assumption of score comparability. Consequently, the extent to which these mean differences in IQ scores reflect population shifts in cognitive abilities versus changes in the instruments used to measure these abilities is unclear. In this study, we used modern psychometric tools to examine the FE. First, we equated raw scores for each common subtest to be on the same scale across instruments. This enabled the combination of scores from all three instruments into one of 13 age groups before converting raw scores into Z scores. Second, using age-based standardized scores for standardization samples, we examined measurement invariance across the second (revised), third, and fourth editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Results indicate that while scores were equivalent across the third and fourth editions, they were not equivalent across the second and third editions. Results suggest that there is some evidence for an increase in intelligence, but also call into question many published FE findings as presuming the instruments’ scores are invariant when this assumption is not warranted.

School of Education.

Brown-Rice, Kathleen A., Furr, Susan, & Jorgensen, Maribeth. (2015). Analyzing Greek Members Alcohol Consumption by Gender and the Impact of Alcohol Education Interventions. Journal of Alcohol & Drug Education, 59(1), 19-38.

Members of the Greek community have been found to engage in riskier alcohol drinking behaviors and have higher alcohol-related negative consequences. A sample of Greek members were surveyed in Spring of 2013 (n = 372). It was found that The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) scores were significantly higher for male respondents than female respondents. During the fall semester, alcohol education sessions were offered to all members of the Greek community. Of the respondents who attended alcohol education sessions (n = 334), 55% reported these sessions changed their perception of high risk drinking. Implications for alcohol education programming are discussed.

School of Education.

Roh, Soonhee, Lee, Yeon-Shim, Lee, Kyoung, Shibusawa, Tazuko, & Yoo, Grace. (2015). Friends, Depressive Symptoms, and Life Satisfaction Among Older Korean Americans. Journal of Immigrant & Minority Health, 17(4), 1091-1097.

This study examined the interactive effects of social network support and depressive symptoms on life satisfaction among older Korean Americans (KAs). Using data from a sample of 200 elders in a large metropolitan area ( M = 72.50, SD = 5.15), hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the interaction between social network support and depressive symptoms on life satisfaction among older KAs. After controlling for demographic variables, both social network support and depressive symptoms were identified as predictors for life satisfaction. Interaction effects indicated strong associations between higher social network support specifically from friends and lower depressive symptoms with higher levels of life satisfaction. Findings highlight the important role that friends play in terms of social network support for the mental health of older KAs, and the need for geriatric practitioners to monitor and assess the quality of social network support-including friendships-when working with older KAs.

School of Health Sciences.

Posted by: reganenosusd | April 20, 2015

February – April 2015

Moran III, James D., Marilyn J. Wells, & Angela Smith-Aumen. (2015). Making Undergraduate Research a Central Strategy in High-Impact Practice Reform: The PASSHE Journey. New Directions for Higher Education, 2015(169), 61-71.

This chapter describes undergraduate research expansion in the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education (PASSHE) in the context of both fiscal and student enrollment challenges.

Academic Affairs.

King, Marisa, Yufeng Zhang, Travis Carter, Jake Johnson, Erin Harmon, & David Swanson. (2015). Phenotypic flexibility of skeletal muscle and heart masses and expression of myostatin and tolloid-like proteinases in migrating passerine birds. Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic & Environmental Physiology, 185(3), 333-342.

Migrant birds require large flight muscles and hearts to enhance aerobic capacity and support sustained flight. A potential mechanism for increasing muscle and heart masses during migration in birds is the muscle growth inhibitor myostatin and its metalloproteinase activators, tolloid-like proteinases (TLL-1 and TLL-2). We hypothesized that myostatin, TLL-1 and TLL-2 are downregulated during migration in pectoralis and hearts of migratory passerines to promote hypertrophy. We measured seasonal variation of tissue masses, mRNA expression of myostatin, TLL- 1, and TLL- 2, and myostatin protein levels in pectoralis muscle and heart for yellow warblers ( Setophaga petechia), warbling vireos ( Vireo gilvus), and yellow-rumped warblers ( Setophaga coronata). Pectoralis mass was greatest in spring for warbling vireos and yellow warblers, but was stable between spring and fall for yellow-rumped warblers. Heart mass was higher in spring than in fall for yellow-rumped warblers, lowest in fall for warbling vireos, and seasonally stable for yellow warblers. Pectoralis and heart mRNA expression of myostatin and the TLLs did not differ significantly for any of the three species, offering little support for our hypothesis for a prominent role for myostatin in regulating migration-induced variation in pectoralis and heart masses. In contrast, pectoralis myostatin protein levels were lowest in spring for all three species, consistent with our hypothesis. Myostatin protein levels in heart, however, were seasonally stable for warbling vireos and yellow warblers, and increased in spring relative to fall for yellow-rumped warblers. These data offer mixed support for our hypothesis for the pectoralis, but suggest that myostatin is not a prominent regulator of migration-induced heart hypertrophy. Moreover, the different seasonal patterns for pectoralis mRNA and protein expression suggest that post-transcriptional modification of myostatin may contribute to pectoralis mass regulation during migration.

Biology Department.

Kim, Dae In, K.C. Birendra, & Kyle J. Roux. (2015). Making the LINC: SUN and KASH protein interactions. Biological Chemistry, 396(4), 295-310.

Cell nuclei are physically integrated with the cytoskeleton through the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex, a structure that spans the nuclear envelope to link the nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton. Outer nuclear membrane KASH domain proteins and inner nuclear membrane SUN domain proteins interact to form the core of the LINC complex. In this review, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the reported protein-protein interactions for KASH and SUN domain proteins. This critical structure, directly connecting the genome with the rest of the cell, contributes to a myriad of cellular functions and, when perturbed, is associated with human disease.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Jorgensen, Maribeth F., & Kelly Duncan. (2015). A Grounded Theory of Master’s-Level Counselor Research Identity. Counselor Education & Supervision, 54(1), 17-31.

A grounded theory approach was used to examine the research identity of 17 master’s-level counseling trainees and practitioners. The emergent theory gave an understanding to sources of variation in the process and outcome of research identity. The authors provide recommendations for counselor educators to use with current and former students.

School of Education.

Kindle, Peter A., & Mary A. Caplan. (2015). Understanding Fringe Economic Behavior: A Bourdieusian-informed Meta-ethnography. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 42(1), 49-71.

This paper is a meta-ethnography of four low-income communities in order to explore fringe economic behaviors. Rejecting the interpretation of fringe economic behaviors as irrational, we affirm these behaviors as viable alternatives for people marginalized in the mainstream economy. Using a meta-ethnographic method and employing the concepts of sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, we identify the habitus and social capital values of each community as distinct Bourdieusian fields and conclude that an awareness of the localized development of a fringe economic cluster with distinct goals and rules undermines one-size-its-all social welfare programs.

School of Health Sciences.

Jehl, J. R., A. E. Henry, & David L. Swanson. (2015). Ratios, adaptations, and the differential metabolic capability of avian flight muscles. Journal of Avian Biology, 46(2), 119-124.

The eared grebe Podiceps nigricollis shows seasonal variation in the relative size of the major flight muscles that lift and lower the wing: respectively, supracoracoideus (s) and pectoralis (p). S/p ratios are low (approximate to 0.07-0.12) when grebes are in flying condition, higher (approximate to 0.11-0.15) when staging and flightless, and extreme (to 0.29) when starving. Shifts were driven by changes in the protein content in the pectoralis; intramuscular fat had little effect. S/p ratios also vary seasonally in the red knot Calidris canutus and are higher in birds newly arrived in breeding areas than at other times. If that increase was an adaptive response to promote wing-lifting in association with various breeding behaviors as suggested, one would expect it to result from an absolute increase in the post-arrival size of the supracoracoideus, which was not observed. Instead, we propose that it is unrelated to enhancing the upstroke but results from a decrease in the size of the pectoralis, which is a consequence of the greater rate at which this muscle is catabolized in times of exertion and stress, as at the end of a long migration or during starvation. Fuller data on the size, morphology and physiology of individual muscles at various stages of the annual cycle and migration will help to clarify how ratio changes are achieved, and evaluate potential adaptive significance.

Biology Department.

King, Marrisa O., Yufeng Zhang, Travis Carter, Jake Johnson, Erin Harmon, & David L. Swanson. (2015). Phenotypic flexibility of skeletal muscle and heart masses and expression of myostatin and tolloid-like proteinases in migrating passerine birds. Journal of Comparative Physiology B-Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology, 185(3), 333-342.

Migrant birds require large flight muscles and hearts to enhance aerobic capacity and support sustained flight. A potential mechanism for increasing muscle and heart masses during migration in birds is the muscle growth inhibitor myostatin and its metalloproteinase activators, tolloid-like proteinases (TLL-1 and TLL-2). We hypothesized that myostatin, TLL-1 and TLL-2 are downregulated during migration in pectoralis and hearts of migratory passerines to promote hypertrophy. We measured seasonal variation of tissue masses, mRNA expression of myostatin, TLL-1, and TLL-2, and myostatin protein levels in pectoralis muscle and heart for yellow warblers (Setophaga petechia), warbling vireos (Vireo gilvus), and yellow-rumped warblers (Setophaga coronata). Pectoralis mass was greatest in spring for warbling vireos and yellow warblers, but was stable between spring and fall for yellow-rumped warblers. Heart mass was higher in spring than in fall for yellow-rumped warblers, lowest in fall for warbling vireos, and seasonally stable for yellow warblers. Pectoralis and heart mRNA expression of myostatin and the TLLs did not differ significantly for any of the three species, offering little support for our hypothesis for a prominent role for myostatin in regulating migration-induced variation in pectoralis and heart masses. In contrast, pectoralis myostatin protein levels were lowest in spring for all three species, consistent with our hypothesis. Myostatin protein levels in heart, however, were seasonally stable for warbling vireos and yellow warblers, and increased in spring relative to fall for yellow-rumped warblers. These data offer mixed support for our hypothesis for the pectoralis, but suggest that myostatin is not a prominent regulator of migration-induced heart hypertrophy. Moreover, the different seasonal patterns for pectoralis mRNA and protein expression suggest that post-transcriptional modification of myostatin may contribute to pectoralis mass regulation during migration.

Biology Department.

Wesner, Jeff S., & M. C. Belk. (2015). Variation in the trophic position of common stream fishes and its relationship to the presence of a rare fish, northern leatherside chub (Lepidomeda copei). Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 24(2), 234-241.

Variation in trophic position can be caused by structural changes in food webs that may affect the presence of, or be affected by the presence of, individual species. We examined variation in the trophic position of fishes across 14 stream sites in the Bear River drainage, WY, USA. This drainage is the focus of ongoing conservation of northern leatherside chub (Lepidomeda copei). Our goals were (i) to describe variation in trophic position of individual species and (ii) to determine whether these measures differed between sites with and without northern leatherside chub. Mean trophic position of individual fish species varied between 0 and 3 trophic positions across sites. For two of these species, trophic position declined at sites without northern leatherside chub. Importantly, habitat surveys from a previous study at 10 of these sites revealed no differences in habitat suitability for northern leatherside chub. This suggests that trophic position revealed systematic differences among sites that were not apparent based on traditional species-habitat modelling. We outline possible mechanisms behind these patterns and argue that monitoring variation in trophic position can complement traditional, habitat-based methods for understanding species distributions.

Biology Department.

Jensen, Stephanie, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2015). Electronic properties of nickel-doped TiO2 anatase. Journal of Physics-Condensed Matter, 27(13), 14.

Atomistic details of electron transfer in semiconductor materials are characterized for TiO2 thin film surfaces doped with nickel. A periodic slab model of eight atomic layers exposes the (1 0 0) crystallographic surface and is covered with a monolayer of water. The density of states, absorption spectra, partial charge densities, molecular dynamics, and non-adiabatic couplings are compared between doped and undoped models. Our results show that Ni doping improves several electronic properties including lowering the band gap, increasing visible light absorption, and shortening the relaxation time of holes rather than electrons, which maximizes charge separation. The different mechanisms of electron and hole dynamics are discussed. The computed characteristics of a doped semiconductor material have practical potential for increasing efficiency of a photo-electrochemical cells.

Chemistry Department.

Vazhappilly, Tijo, Dmitri S. Kilin, & David A. Micha. (2015). Modeling the surface photovoltage of silicon slabs with varying thickness. Journal of Physics-Condensed Matter, 27(13), 9.

The variation with thickness of the energy band gap and photovoltage at the surface of a thin semiconductor film are of great interest in connection with their surface electronic structure and optical properties. In this work, the change of a surface photovoltage (SPV) with the number of layers of a crystalline silicon slab is extracted from models based on their atomic structure. Electronic properties of photoexcited slabs are investigated using generalized gradient and hybrid density functionals, and plane wave basis sets. Si(1 1 1) surfaces have been terminated by hydrogen atoms to compensate for dangling bonds and have been described by large supercells with periodic boundary conditions. Calculations of the SPV of the Si slabs have been done in terms of the reduced density matrix of the photoactive electrons including dissipative effects due to their interaction with medium phonons and excitons. Surface photovoltages have been calculated for model Si slabs with 4-12, and 16 layers, to determine convergence trends versus slab thickness. Band gaps and the inverse of the SPVs have been found to scale nearly linearly with the inverse thickness of the slab, while the electronic density of states increases quadratically with thickness. Our calculations show the same trends as experimental values indicating band gap reduction and absorption enhancement for Si films of increasing thickness. Simple arguments on confined electronic structures have been used to explain the main effects of changes with slab thickness. A procedure involving shifted electron excitation energies is described to improve results from generalized gradient functionals so they can be in better agreement with the more accurate but also more computer intensive values from screened exchange hybrid functionals.

Chemistry Department.

Jimenez, E. Y., C. Mangani, R. Ashorn, William S. Harris, K. Maleta, & K. G. Dewey. (2015). Breast milk from women living near Lake Malawi is high in docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 95, 71-78.

Adequate long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) intake is critical during the fetal and infant periods. We quantified fatty acid content of breast milk (n=718) and plasma from six month old infants (n=412) in southern Malawi, and in usipa (n=3), a small dried fish from Lake Malawi. Compared to global norms, Malawian breast milk fatty acid content (% of total fatty acids) was well above average levels of arachidonic acid [ARA] (0.69% vs. 0.47%) and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] (0.73% vs. 0.32%). Average Malawian infant plasma ARA (7.5%) and DHA (3.8%) levels were comparable to those reported in infants consuming breast milk with similar fatty acid content. The amounts (mg) of DHA, EPA and ARA provided by a 3 oz (85 g) portion of dried usipa (1439, 659 and 360, respectively) are considerably higher than those for dried salmon. Usipa may be an important source of LCPUFA for populations in this region. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Pickens, C. A., L. M. Sordillo, S. S. Comstock, William S. Harris, K. Hortos, B. Kovan, & J. I. Fenton. (2015). Plasma phospholipids, non-esterified plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and oxylipids are associated with BMI. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 95, 31-40.

The obese lipid profile is associated with increased free fatty acids and triacylglycerides. Currently, little is known about the plasma lipid species associated with obesity. In this study, we compared plasma lipid fatty acid (FA) profiles as a function of BMI. Profiling phospholipid (PL) FAs and their respective oxylipids could predict which obese individuals are more likely to suffer from diseases associated with chronic inflammation or oxidative stress. We investigated the relationship between BMI and plasma PL (PPL) FA composition in 126 men using a quantitative gas chromatography analysis. BMI was inversely associated with both PPL nervonic and linoleic acid (LA) but was positively associated with both dihomo-gamma-linolenic and palmitoleic acid. Compared to lean individuals, obese participants were more likely to have omega-6 FAs, except arachidonic acid and LA, incorporated into PPLs. Obese participants were less likely to have EPA and DHA incorporated into PPLs compared to lean participants. Non-esterified plasma PUFA and oxylipid analysis showed omega-6 oxylipids were more abundant in the obese plasma pool. These omega-6 oxylipids are associated with increased angiogenesis (i.e. epoxyeicosatrienoates), reactive oxygen species (i.e. 9-hydroxyeicosatetraenoate), and inflammation resolution (i.e. Lipoxin A4). In summary, BMI is directly associated with specific PPL FA and increased omega-6 oxylipids. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Miller, Jake N., Attila D. Kovacs, & David A. Pearce. (2015). The novel Cln1(R151X) mouse model of infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL) for testing nonsense suppression therapy. Human Molecular Genetics, 24(1), 185-196.

The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), also known as Batten disease, are a group of autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorders in children characterized by the progressive onset of seizures, blindness, motor and cognitive decline and premature death. Patients with mutations in CLN1 primarily manifest with infantile NCL (INCL or Haltia-Santavuori disease), which is second only to congenital NCL for its age of onset and devastating progression. CLN1 encodes a lysosomal enzyme, palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1). Nonsense mutations in CLN1 account for 52.3% of all disease causing alleles in infantile NCL, the most common of which worldwide is the p.R151X mutation. Previously, we have shown how nonsense-mediated decay is involved in the degradation of CLN1 mRNA transcripts containing the p. R151X mutation in human lymphoblast cell lines. We have also shown how the read-through drugs gentamicin and ataluren (PTC124) increase CLN1 (PPT1) enzyme activity. Here, we provide the initial characterization of the novel Cln1(R151X) mouse model of infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis that we have generated. This nonsense mutation model recapitulates the molecular, histological and behavioral phenotypes of the human disease. Cln1(R151X) mice showed a significant decrease in Cln1 mRNA level and PPT1 enzyme activity, accumulation of autofluorescent storage material, astrocytosis and microglial activation in the brain. Behavioral characterization of Cln1(R151X) mice at 3 and 5 months of age revealed significant motor deficits as measured by the vertical pole and rotarod tests. We also show how the read-through compound ataluren (PTC124) increases PPT1 enzyme activity and protein level in Cln1(R151X) mice in a proof-of-principle study.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Morecraft, Robert J., Jizhi Ge, Kimberly S. Stilwell-Morecraft, D. W. McNeal, S. M. Hynes, M. A. Pizzimenti, . . . W. G. Darling. (2015). Vulnerability of the Medial Frontal Corticospinal Projection Accompanies Combined Lateral Frontal and Parietal Cortex Injury in Rhesus Monkey. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 523(4), 669-697.

Concurrent damage to the lateral frontal and parietal cortex is common following middle cerebral artery infarction, leading to upper extremity paresis, paresthesia, and sensory loss. Motor recovery is often poor, and the mechanisms that support or impede this process are unclear. Since the medial wall of the cerebral hemisphere is commonly spared following stroke, we investigated the spontaneous long-term (6 and 12 month) effects of lateral frontoparietal injury (F2P2 lesion) on the terminal distribution of the corticospinal projection (CSP) from intact, ipsilesional supplementary motor cortex (M2) at spinal levels C5 to T1. Isolated injury to the frontoparietal arm/hand region resulted in a significant loss of contralateral corticospinal boutons from M2 compared with controls. Specifically, reductions occurred in the medial and lateral parts of lamina VII and the dorsal quadrants of lamina IX. There were no statistical differences in the ipsilateral CSP. Contrary to isolated lateral frontal motor injury (F2 lesion), which results in substantial increases in contralateral M2 labeling in laminae VII and IX (McNeal et al. [2010] J. Comp. Neurol. 518:586-621), the added effect of adjacent parietal cortex injury to the frontal motor lesion (F2P2 lesion) not only impedes a favorable compensatory neuroplastic response but results in a substantial loss of M2 CSP terminals. This dramatic reversal of the CSP response suggests a critical trophic role for cortical somatosensory influence on spared ipsilesional frontal corticospinal projections, and that restoration of a favorable compensatory response will require therapeutic intervention. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:669-697, 2015. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Reinbold, Emily D., Jamie L. Scholl, Kathryn M. Oliver, Michael J. Watt, & Gina L. Forster. (2014). Central CRF2 receptor antagonism reduces anxiety states during amphetamine withdrawal. Neuroscience Research, 89, 37-43.

Increased depressive and anxiety-like behaviors are exhibited by rats and humans during withdrawal from psychostimulants. Anxiety-like behaviors observed during amphetamine withdrawal are mediated by increased expression and activity of corticotropin releasing factor type 2 (CRF2) receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus (dRN). Anxiety-like behavior of rats during withdrawal can be reversed by CRF2 receptor antagonism in the dRN, but the efficacy of global central CRF2 receptor antagonism is unknown. Rats were treated with amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, ip.) or saline daily for 2 weeks, and were tested for anxiety-like behaviors during withdrawal. Rats undergoing withdrawal showed increased anxiety-like behavior, which was reduced by ventricular infusion of the CRF2 antagonist antisauvagine-30 (ASV 2 mu g/2 mu I). Surprisingly, ventricular ASV increased anxiety-like behavior in rats pre-treated with saline, but had an anxiolytic effect in un-treated rats. Western blots were performed to determine whether differences in CRF receptor densities could explain ASV-induced behavioral results. Saline pre-treated rats showed reduced CRF1 receptor expression in the lateral septum compared to amphetamine pre-treated and untreated rats. Overall, these results suggest that central CRF2 antagonism reduces anxiety states during amphetamine withdrawal, and that behavioral effects may be dependent upon the balance of CRF1 and CRF2 receptor activity in anxiety-related regions. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Zutkis, A. A., Srivishnupriya Anbalagan, Michael S. Chaussee, & A. V. Dmitriev. (2014). Inactivation of the Rgg2 Transcriptional Regulator Ablates the Virulence of Streptococcus pyogenes. Plos One, 9(12), 21.

Streptococcus pyogenes adapts to different niches encountered in the human host via the activity of numerous regulatory proteins including the Rgg family of transcriptional regulators. The S. pyogenes chromosome encodes four Rgg paralogues designated Rgg1 (RopB), Rgg2 (MutR), Rgg3, and Rgg4 (ComR). In order to understand the role of the Rgg2 protein in the regulation of metabolic and virulence-associated properties of S. pyogenes, the rgg2 gene was inactivated in the M1 serotype strain SF370. Inactivation of rgg2 increased the growth yield of S. pyogenes in THY broth, increased biofilm formation, and increased production of SIC, which is an important virulence factor that inhibits complement mediated lysis. To identify Rgg2-regulated genes, the transcriptomes of SF370 and the rgg2 mutant strains were compared in the middle-exponential and post-exponential phases of growth. Rgg2 was found to control the expression of dozens of genes primarily in the exponential phase of growth, including genes associated with virulence (sse, scpA, slo, nga, mf-3), DNA transformation, and nucleotide metabolism. Inactivation of rgg2 decreased the ability of S. pyogenes to adhere to epithelial cells. In addition, the mutant strain was more sensitive to killing when incubated with human blood and avirulent in a murine bacteremia model. Finally, inoculation of mice with the avirulent rgg2 mutant of S. pyogenes SF370 conferred complete protection to mice subsequently challenged with the wild-type strain. Restoration of an intact rgg2 gene in mutant strain restored the wild-type phenotypes. Overall, the results demonstrate that Rgg2 is an important regulatory protein in S. pyogenes involved in controlling genes associated with both metabolism and virulence.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Shewchuk, R. M., Greg L. Carlson, M. Klosterman, S. Cullen, & H. Y. Qu. (2014). Frictions as Barriers to Perioperative Alignment: Results From a Latent Class Analysis. Quality Management in Health Care, 23(3), 188-200.

The quality of the relationship between the sterile processing department (SPD) and the operating room (OR) is an important determinant of OR safety and performance. In this article, the concept of “friction” refers to the SPD behaviors and attributes that can negatively affect OR performance. Panels of SPD professionals initially were asked to identify and operationally define different ways in which behaviors of a hospital’s SPD could compromise OR performance. A national convenience sample of OR nurses (N = 291) rated 14 frictions in terms of their agreement or disagreement that each had a negative effect on OR performance in their hospital. Overall, more than 50% of the entire sample agreed that 2 frictions, “SPD does not communicate effectively with the OR” (55%) and “SPD inventories are insufficient for surgical volume” (52%), had negative effect on OR performance. However, a latent class analysis revealed 3 distinct classes of nurses who varied with respect to their level of agreement that SPD-OR frictions negatively affected OR performance. The observed heterogeneity in how different groups of nurses viewed different frictions suggests that effective efforts aimed at reducing performance-limiting frictions should be customized so that resources can be used where they are most needed.

Beacom School of Business.

Nguyen, H. T., H. Park, Karen L. Koster, R. E. Cahoon, H. T. M. Nguyen, J. Shanklin, . . . E. B. Cahoon. (2015). Redirection of metabolic flux for high levels of omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acid accumulation in camelina seeds. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 13(1), 38-50.

Seed oils enriched in omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids, including palmitoleic acid (16:19) and cis-vaccenic acid (18:111), have nutraceutical and industrial value for polyethylene production and biofuels. Existing oilseed crops accumulate only small amounts (<2%) of these novel fatty acids in their seed oils. We demonstrate a strategy for enhanced production of omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids in camelina (Camelina sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) that is dependent on redirection of metabolic flux from the typical 9 desaturation of stearoyl (18:0)-acyl carrier protein (ACP) to 9 desaturation of palmitoyl (16:0)-acyl carrier protein (ACP) and coenzyme A (CoA). This was achieved by seed-specific co-expression of a mutant 9-acyl-ACP and an acyl-CoA desaturase with high specificity for 16:0-ACP and CoA substrates, respectively. This strategy was most effective in camelina where seed oils with similar to 17% omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids were obtained. Further increases in omega-7 fatty acid accumulation to 60-65% of the total fatty acids in camelina seeds were achieved by inclusion of seed-specific suppression of 3-keto-acyl-ACP synthase II and the FatB 16:0-ACP thioesterase genes to increase substrate pool sizes of 16:0-ACP for the 9-acyl-ACP desaturase and by blocking C18 fatty acid elongation. Seeds from these lines also had total saturated fatty acids reduced to similar to 5% of the seed oil versus similar to 12% in seeds of nontransformed plants. Consistent with accumulation of triacylglycerol species with shorter fatty acid chain lengths and increased monounsaturation, seed oils from engineered lines had marked shifts in thermotropic properties that may be of value for biofuel applications.

Biology Department.

Siler, C. D., L. J. Welton, Drew R. Davis, J. L. Watters, C. S. Davey, A. C. Diesmos, . . . R. M. Brown. (2014). TAXONOMIC REVISION OF THE PSEUDOGEKKO COMPRESICORPUS COMPLEX (REPTILIA: SQUAMATA: GEKKONIDAE), WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF THREE NEW SPECIES. Herpetological Monographs, 28, 110-139.

Recent phylogenetic analysis of false geckos, genus Pseudogekko, revealed unrecognized diversity within these exceedingly rare and enigmatic Philippine forest geckos. Newly available genetic datasets revealed that two of the four currently recognized species are complexes of multiple, deeply divergent evolutionary lineages. In this paper we evaluate species diversity in the Pseudogekko compresicorpus Complex and describe three new species in this unique clade of endemic Philippine geckos. For nearly a century, P. compresicorpus has been recognized as a single, “widespread” species with a geographic range spanning three major faunal regions and several isolated islands. This perception of the species’ wide geographic range has persisted due to the rarity of this species. We evaluate morphological data, in light of a recent phylogenetic study on the genus, to define species limits in P. compresicorpus, finding character-based evidence that unambiguously supports the recognition of four unique evolutionary lineages within the complex, three of which we describe as new species. These evolutionary species correspond to monophyletic lineages supported in recent molecular studies. We also address the historically controversial generic affiliation of Pseudogekko labialis and conclude that this poorly known species is a member of the genus Lepidodactylus. All species recognized in this study possess allopatric geographic ranges and differ from congeners by numerous diagnostic characters of external morphology and, therefore, should be recognized as full species in accordance with any lineage-based species concept. This study nearly doubles the known diversity of Philippine false geckos.

Biology Department.

Stager, M., David L. Swanson, & Z. A. Cheviron. (2015). Regulatory mechanisms of metabolic flexibility in the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). Journal of Experimental Biology, 218(5), 767-+.

Small temperate birds reversibly modify their aerobic performance to maintain thermoregulatory homeostasis under seasonally changing environmental conditions and these physiological adjustments may be attributable to changes in the expression of genes in the underlying regulatory networks. Here, we report the results of an experimental procedure designed to gain insight into the fundamental mechanisms of metabolic flexibility in the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). We combined genomic transcriptional profiles with measures of metabolic enzyme activities and whole-animal thermogenic performance from juncos exposed to four 6-week acclimation treatments that varied in temperature (cold, 3 degrees C; warm, 24 degrees C) and photoperiod (short day, 8 h light: 16 h dark; long day, 16 h light: 8 h dark). Cold-acclimated birds increased thermogenic capacity compared with warm-acclimated birds, and this enhanced performance was associated with upregulation of genes involved in muscle hypertrophy, angiogenesis, and lipid transport and oxidation, as well as with catabolic enzyme activities. These physiological changes occurred over ecologically relevant timescales, suggesting that birds make regulatory adjustments to interacting, hierarchical pathways in order to seasonally enhance thermogenic capacity.

Biology Department.

Wesner, Jeff S., P. Meyers, E. J. Billman, & M. C. Belk. (2015). Habitat selection and consumption across a landscape of multiple predators. Ecology and Evolution, 5(1), 121-129.

Predator community composition can alter habitat quality for prey by changing the strength and direction of consumptive effects. Whether predator community composition also alters prey density via nonconsumptive effects during habitat selection is not well known, but is important for understanding how changes to predator communities will alter prey populations. We tested the hypothesis that predator community composition (presence of caged trout, caged dragonflies, or caged trout+dragonflies) alters colonization of aquatic mesocosms by ovipositing aquatic insects. In a previous experiment in this system, we found a spatial contagion effect, in which insects avoided pools with predators, but only when predator-free pools were isolated (similar to 5m away from predator pools). Here, we removed the isolated predator-free pools, allowing us to test whether insects would make fine-scale (similar to 1m) oviposition decisions in the absence of preferred isolated pools. We also estimated consumptive effects by allowing predators to feed on colonists for 5days following colonization. All insects collected after 21days were dipterans, dominated by Chironomidae. Total colonization, measured as the number of developing larvae after 21days, was not affected by either predator presence or composition. Consumption was significant in the trout only treatment, reducing larval insect density by 46 +/- 37% (mean +/- SE). No other predator treatment significantly reduced prey density, although the proportion of chironomid larvae in protective cases increased in response to direct predation from dragonflies, indicating an antipredatory behavioral response. Taken together, these results reveal that predator community composition altered larval survival and behavior, but colonizing females either did not or could not assess these risks across small scales during oviposition.

Biology Department.

Thiruppathi, Eagappanath, M. K. Larson, & Gapinath Mani. (2015). Surface Modification of CoCr Alloy Using Varying Concentrations of Phosphoric and Phosphonoacetic Acids: Albumin and Fibrinogen Adsorption, Platelet Adhesion, Activation, and Aggregation Studies. Langmuir, 31(1), 358-370.

CoCr alloy is commonly used in various cardiovascular medical devices for its excellent physical and mechanical properties. However, the formation of blood clots on the alloy surfaces is a serious concern. This research is focused on the surface modification of CoCr alloy using varying concentrations (1, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mM) of phosphoric acid (PA) and phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) to generate various surfaces with different wettability, chemistry, and roughness. Then, the adsorption of blood plasma proteins such as albumin and fibrinogen and the adhesion, activation, and aggregation of platelets with the various surfaces generated were investigated. Contact angle analysis showed PA and PAA coatings on CoCr provided a gradient of hydrophilic surfaces. FTIR showed PA and PAA were covalently bound to CoCr surface and formed different bonding configurations depending on the concentrations of coating solutions used. AFM showed the formation of homogeneous PA and PAA coatings on CoCr. The single and dual protein adsorption studies showed that the amount of albumin and fibrinogen adsorbed on the alloy surfaces strongly depend on the type of PA and PAA coatings prepared by different concentrations of coating solutions. All PA coated CoCr showed reduced platelet adhesion and activation when compared to control CoCr. Also, 75 and 100 mM PA-CoCr showed reduced platelet aggregation. For PAA coated CoCr, no significant difference in platelet adhesion and activation was observed between PAA coated CoCr and control CoCr. Thus, this study demonstrated that CoCr can be surface modified using PA for potentially reducing the formation of blood clots and improving the blood compatibility of the alloy.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

Mariappan, Kadarkaraisamy, Janani Sindhu Ragothaman, Vinothini Balasubramanian, Mariah Hoffman, Madhubabu Alaparthi, & Andrew G. Sykes. (2015). Palladium(II) complexes of anthraquinone-based As-O-As type and Se-O-Se type bipodands. Synthesis, X-ray crystallography and catalytic properties. Inorganica Chimica Acta, 429, 46-50.

The reaction of the Ph2As anion with 1,8-bis(2-bromoethoxy) anthracene-9,10-dione in 2: 1 ratio generates 1,8-bis(2-diphenylarsinoethoxy) anthracene-9,10-dione (L1). L1 and 1,8-bis(2-phenylselenoethoxy) anthraquinone (L2) reacted with bis(benzonitrile) palladium(II) chloride in 1: 1 ratio yielding Pd(L1)Cl-2 (1) and Pd(L2)Cl-2 (2). X-ray structures of 1 and 2 revealed that L1 and L2 chelate with Pd(II) and form a convex square planar geometry. The catalytic properties of both Pd(II) complexes in the Heck reaction was investigated, and the results show that compound 2 acts as a better catalyst than 1. The redox behavior of L1, 1 and 2 versus Ag/AgCl are also explored. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

Meng, Qingguo, Jiangchao Chen, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2015). Proton reduction at surface of transition metal nanocatalysts. Molecular Simulation, 41(1-3), 134-145.

Catalytic activities of neutral and charged palladium (Pd) nanoparticles are compared for hydrogen reduction half-reaction. In this work the sequential H-2 dissociation from the surface of a Pd13H24 cluster is systematically studied by ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) at the density functional theory level. AIMD simulation is launched by preparing initial values of momenta of all nuclei in the model corresponding to a temperature range of 0-1700K. AIMD simulation provides the trajectories of all the atoms in the cluster. A sequential H-2 desorption up to seven molecules is observed from the cluster surface due to thermal motion of nuclei. Modifications of total charge on the neutral Pd13H24 cluster model are found to affect surface H-2 desorption behaviour. A desorption rate of H-2 molecule on both neutral and charged Pd13H24 clusters is compared to the data of Pt13H24 cluster reported previously. The H-2 desorption energy on all the investigated clusters is also determined. The results reveal that Pd-13 cluster presents a higher catalytic activity than Pt-13 cluster.

Chemistry Department.

Peng, Rui, J. Baltrusaitis, Chia-Ming Wu, & Ranjit T. Koodali. (2015). Pd-Ti-MCM-48 cubic mesoporous materials for solar simulated hydrogen evolution. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 40(2), 905-918.

A facile synthetic method (in as little as four hours) for simultaneously loading high amounts of titania (Si/Ti = 3) and Pd-0 co-catalyst (0.1 wt.% per gram of total catalyst) in cubic mesoporous MCM-48 material was developed at room temperature. The solar simulated photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from photocatalysts containing Pd and TiO2 nanoclusters in periodic cubic MCM-48 and aperiodic mesoporous silica was compared. The results indicate that the periodicity of the mesoporous silica support, the oxidation state of Pd, the location and dispersion of Pd have a significant impact on the photocatalytic activity. Periodic cubic MCM-48 mesoporous silica containing Pd in close contact with titania exhibit superior hydrogen evolution rates, compared to Pd-0-TiO2 containing aperiodic mesoporous silica. The highly ordered and open three-dimensional mesoporous cubic MCM-48 support has high surface area and facilitate good dispersion and close contact of titania and Pd. At very low loadings of 0.1 wt.% of Pd, hydrogen yield was found to be 560 mu mol h(-1), which is among the highest reported in the literature for Pd containing TiO2 based materials under solar simulated conditions. The results suggest that the pore architecture of the support is also an important parameter that governs the photocatalytic activity. In addition, the Pd-0-mesoporous materials in general possess higher activity than Pd2+ containing mesoporous materials. The photocatalysts were extensively characterized by a variety of techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen sorption analysis, transmission and scanning electron microscopic studies, photoluminescence, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), CO Chemisorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Copyright (C) 2014, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

Rasalingam, Shivatharsiny, Chia-Ming Wu, & Ranjit T. Koodali. (2015). Modulation of Pore Sizes of Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysts by a Facile Template Free Hydrothermal Synthesis Method: Implications for Photocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine B. Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces, 7(7), 4368-4380.

Mesoporous TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared in ethanol media by using relatively green, template free sol-gel technique. A mild hydrothermal treatment procedure was employed to tune the pore sizes of the materials. Comprehensive techniques that include powder X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, specific surface area analysis, electron microscopy, FT-IR, TGA, and xi-potential measurements were used to characterize the titania materials. Porosity (pore size and pore volume) of the materials were found to be key factors for the variation in the rate of photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B; in addition to specific surface area, and surface hydroxyl groups. An increase in porosity permits effective transport of the dye molecules resulting in an increase in the rate of the degradation in materials having larger pores. A detailed electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) study was carried out for selected materials to identify photodegraded intermediates and products formed during the degradation of rhodamine B. In addition, experiments were also carried out to understand the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In summary, this work provides a simple way to tune pore sizes without the use of any template and an insight into the influence of pore size for the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B.

Chemistry Department.

Vazhappilly, T., Dmitri S. Kilin, & D. A. Micha. (2015). Modeling the surface photovoltage of silicon slabs with varying thickness. Journal of Physics-Condensed Matter, 27(13), 9.

The variation with thickness of the energy band gap and photovoltage at the surface of a thin semiconductor film are of great interest in connection with their surface electronic structure and optical properties. In this work, the change of a surface photovoltage (SPV) with the number of layers of a crystalline silicon slab is extracted from models based on their atomic structure. Electronic properties of photoexcited slabs are investigated using generalized gradient and hybrid density functionals, and plane wave basis sets. Si(1 1 1) surfaces have been terminated by hydrogen atoms to compensate for dangling bonds and have been described by large supercells with periodic boundary conditions. Calculations of the SPV of the Si slabs have been done in terms of the reduced density matrix of the photoactive electrons including dissipative effects due to their interaction with medium phonons and excitons. Surface photovoltages have been calculated for model Si slabs with 4-12, and 16 layers, to determine convergence trends versus slab thickness. Band gaps and the inverse of the SPVs have been found to scale nearly linearly with the inverse thickness of the slab, while the electronic density of states increases quadratically with thickness. Our calculations show the same trends as experimental values indicating band gap reduction and absorption enhancement for Si films of increasing thickness. Simple arguments on confined electronic structures have been used to explain the main effects of changes with slab thickness. A procedure involving shifted electron excitation energies is described to improve results from generalized gradient functionals so they can be in better agreement with the more accurate but also more computer intensive values from screened exchange hybrid functionals.

Chemistry Department.

Yao, Ge, Cuikun Lin, Qingguo Meng, P. Stanley May, & Mary T. Berry. (2015). Calculation of Judd-Ofelt parameters for Er3+ in beta-NaYF4: Yb3+, Er3+ from emission intensity ratios and diffuse reflectance spectra. Journal of Luminescence, 160, 276-281.

We report the calculation of Er3+ Judd-Ofelt (JO) parameters for beta-phase NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+. The parameters were extracted from measured emission intensity ratios and the diffuse reflectance spectrum, augmented by a single radiative rate constant The derived parameters were used to calculate the entire suite of radiative rate constants for the f-f transitions of Er3+ in the visible and near infrared (NIR) range and to calculate the absorbance spectrum. Two sets of JO parameter values, in units of pm(2), were calculated using two available sets of reduced matrix elements (Omega(2)=236, Omega(4)=-022, Omega(6)=1.24) and (Omega(2)=2.43, Omega(4)=0.21, Omega(6) = 122). (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

Yao, Ge, Qingguo Meng, Mary T. Berry, P. Stanley May, & Dimitri S. Kilin. (2015). Molecular dynamics in finding nonadiabatic coupling for beta-NaYF4: Ce3+ nanocrystals. Molecular Physics, 113(3-4), 385-391.

Optical and electronic properties of cerium ions doped into solid host matrices are explored by density functional theory (DFT). A spin-polarised (unrestricted) DFT + U approach is applied to beta-NaYF4: Ce3+ nanocrystals, in which the Hubbard U – J value is determined through experimental fitting to be 8.5 eV for yttrium, and 2.9 eV for cerium. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the energies of the localised f-like orbitals of the Ce3+ dopant exhibit strong thermal fluctuations compared to that of the p- and d-shaped orbitals due to charge-density localisation. Our observation of mixing between the d and f orbitals of Ce3+ ion is consistent with experimental results. Combining time-dependent density matrix methodology, ab initio molecular dynamics, and on-the-fly nonadiabatic couplings simulates nonradiative transitions between electronic states at ambient temperature. Transition rates between individual orbitals decrease with their energy difference, which is similar to the format of the energy gap law. These transitions contribute to integrated rates of nonradiative thermalisation of different electronic excitations to the lowest excited state through multiple pathways. The integrated rates of thermalisation decrease with energy difference of the initial photoexcitation and the final excitation.

Chemistry Department.

Lushbough, Carol M., Etienne Z. Gnimpieba, & R. Dooley. (2015). Life science data analysis workflow development using the bioextract server leveraging the iPlant collaborative cyberinfrastructure. Concurrency and Computation-Practice & Experience, 27(2), 408-419.

In order to handle the vast quantities of biological data gener6ated by high-throughput experimental technologies, the BioExtract Server (bioextract.org) has leveraged iPlant Collaborative () functionality to help address big data storage and analysis issues in the bioinformatics field. The BioExtract Server is a Web-based, workflow-enabling system that offers researchers a flexible environment for analyzing genomic data. It provides researchers with the ability to save a series of BioExtract Server tasks (e.g., query a data source, save a data extract, and execute an analytic tool) as a workflow and the opportunity for researchers to share their data extracts, analytic tools, and workflows with collaborators. The iPlant Collaborative is a community of researchers, educators, and students working to enrich science through the development of cyberinfrastructurethe physical computing resources, collaborative environment, virtual machine resources, and interoperable analysis software and data servicesthat are essential components of modern biology. The iPlant AGAVE Advanced Programming Interface, developed through the iPlant Collaborative, is a hosted, Software-as-a-Service resource providing access to a collection of high performance computing and cloud resources. Leveraging AGAVE, the BioExtract Server gives researchers easy access to multiple high performance computers and delivers computation and storage as dynamically allocated resources via the Internet. (c) 2014 The Authors. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Computer Science Department.

Wang, L. Y., D. Ware, Carol M. Lushbough, N. Merchant, & L. Stein. (2015). A genome-wide association study platform built on iPlant cyber-infrastructure. Concurrency and Computation-Practice & Experience, 27(2), 420-432.

We demonstrate a flexible genome-wide association study platform built upon the iPlant Collaborative Cyber-infrastructure. The platform supports big data management, sharing, and large-scale study of both genotype and phenotype data on clusters. End users can add their own analysis tools and create customized analysis workflows through the graphical user interfaces in both iPlant Discovery Environment and BioExtract server. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Computer Science Department.

Meng, Qingguo, P. Stanley May, Mary T. Berry, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2015). Time-resolved electronic and optical properties of a thiolate-protected Au-38 nanocluster. Molecular Physics, 113(3-4), 408-417.

Density functional theory and density matrix theory are employed to investigate the time-dependent optical and electronic properties of an Au-14 nanocluster protected by six cyclic thiolate ligands, Au-4(SCH3)(4). The Au-14[Au-4(SCH3)(4)](6) nanocluster, i.e. Au-38(SCH3)(24), is equivalent to a truncated-octahedral face-centred cubic Au-38 core coated by a monolayer of 24 methylthiol molecules. The electronic and optical properties, such as density of states, linear absorption spectra, nonradiative nonadiabatic dissipative electronic dynamics and radiative emission spectra were calculated and compared for the core Au-14 and thiolate-protected Au-38(SCH3)(24) nanocluster. The main observation from computed photoluminescence for both models is a mechanism of radiative emission. Specifically, a strong contribution to light emission intensity originates from intraband transitions inside the conduction band (CB) in addition to interband LUMO -> HOMO transition (HOMO: highest occupied molecular orbital and LUMO: lowest unoccupied molecular orbital). Such comparison clarifies the contributions from Au core and methylthiol ligands to the electronic and optical properties of the Au-38(SCH3)(24) nanocluster.

ISI Document Delivery No.: CA0AJ

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Cited Reference Count: 47

Meng, Qingguo May, Stanley P. Berry, Mary T. Kilin, Dmitri S.

South Dakota Governor’s Office of Economic Development, NSF [EPS-0903804]; DOE, BES – Chemical Sciences, NERSC [DE-AC02-05CH11231, 86898]

This work was supported financially by the South Dakota Governor’s Office of Economic Development, NSF award EPS-0903804, DOE, BES – Chemical Sciences, NERSC Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, allocation Award 86898, ‘Computational Modeling of Photo-catalysis and Photoinduced Charge Transfer Dynamics on Surfaces’. Computational resources of USD High Performance Computing facilities operated by Douglas Jennewein, the Dean’s Opportunity Fund of the College of Arts and Sciences, University of South Dakota.

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TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD

ABINGDON

MOL PHYS

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Masotti, A., P. Uva, Laura Davis-Keppen, L. Basel-Vanagaite, L. Cohen, E. Pisaneschi, . . . B. Dallapiccola. (2015). Keppen-Lubinsky Syndrome Is Caused by Mutations in the Inwardly Rectifying K+ Channel Encoded by KCNJ6. American Journal of Human Genetics, 96(2), 295-300.

Keppen-Lubinsky syndrome (KPLBS) is a rare disease mainly characterized by severe developmental delay and intellectual disability, microcephaly, large prominent eyes, a narrow nasal bridge, a tented upper lip, a high palate, an open mouth, tightly adherent skin, an aged appearance, and severe generalized lipodystrophy. We sequenced the exomes of three unrelated individuals affected by KPLBS and found de novo heterozygous mutations in KCNJ6 (GIRK2), which encodes an inwardly rectifying potassium channel and maps to the Down syndrome critical region between DIRK1A and DSCR4. In particular, two individuals shared an in-frame heterozygous deletion of three nucleotides (c.455_457del) leading to the loss of one amino acid (p.Thr152del). The third individual was heterozygous for a missense mutation (c.460G>A) which introduces an amino acid change from glycine to serine (p.Gly154Ser). In agreement with animal models, the present data suggest that these mutations severely impair the correct functioning of this potassium channel. Overall, these results establish KPLBS as a channelopathy and suggest that KCNJ6 (GIRK2) could also be a candidate gene for other lipodystrophies. We hope that these results will prompt investigations in this unexplored class of inwardly rectifying K+ channels.

ISI Document Delivery No.: CA9WY

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Cited Reference Count: 26

Masotti, Andrea Uva, Paolo Davis-Keppen, Laura Basel-Vanagaite, Lina Cohen, Lior Pisaneschi, Elisa Celluzzi, Antonella Bencivenga, Paola Fang, Mingyan Tian, Mingyu Xu, Xun Cappa, Marco Dallapiccola, Bruno

Italian Ministry of Health; company BVLGARI

The authors are indebted to the families who contributed to this study. The financial support of the Italian Ministry of Health and the company BVLGARI is fully acknowledged.

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AM J HUM GENET

Tinguely, Joseph. (2015). The Implicit Affection Between Kantian Judgment and Aristotelian Rhetoric. Philosophy and Rhetoric, 48(1), 1-25.

Recent scholarship on Kant and rhetoric suggests an inclusive relation between affectivity and cognitive judgment, but that position runs counter to a traditional philosophical opposition between sensibility and rationality. A way to overcome this opposition comes into view in the overlap in three significant areas between Kantian judgment and Aristotelian rhetoric. First, each allows that communicative capacities operate within the way a perceptual object or scene appears in the first place. Secondly, each significantly broadens such communicative capacities so as to include the entire conceptual form of one’s disposition or orientation to the world as a whole. Thirdly, each links those broad mental dispositions to specifically affective states of mind. Taken together, the areas of overlap between Kantian judgment and Aristotelian rhetoric adumbrate an integrated picture of the affective sensibilities and cognitive capacities largely missing from the contemporary landscape.

Languages, Linguistics & Philosophy Department.

Mertens, S., K. Dolde, M. Korzeczek, F. Glueck, S. Groh, Ryan D. Martin, . . . M. Steidl. (2015). Wavelet approach to search for sterile neutrinos in tritium beta-decay spectra. Physical Review D, 91(4), 10.

Sterile neutrinos in the mass range of a few keV are candidates for both cold and warm dark matter. An admixture of a heavy neutrino mass eigenstate to the electron neutrino would result in a minuscule distortion-a kink-in a beta-decay spectrum. In this paper we show that a wavelet transform is a very powerful shape analysis method to detect this signature. For a tritium source strength, similar to what is expected from the KATRIN experiment, a statistical sensitivity to active-to-sterile neutrino mixing down to sin(2)theta = 10(-6) (90% C. L.) can be obtained after three years of measurement time. It is demonstrated that the wavelet approach is largely insensitive to systematic effects that result in smooth spectral modifications. To make full use of this analysis technique a high- resolution measurement (FWHM of similar to 100 eV) of the tritium beta-decay spectrum is required.

Physics Department.

Zhang, C., & D. M. Mei. (2014). Measuring muon-induced neutrons with liquid scintillation detector at Soudan mine. Physical Review D, 90(12), 13.

We report a direct detection of muon-induced high-energy neutrons with a 12-liter neutron detector fabricated with EJ-301 liquid scintillator operating at Soudan mine for about two years. The detector response to energy from a few MeV up to similar to 20 MeV has been calibrated using radioactive sources and cosmic-ray muons. Subsequently, we have calculated the scintillation efficiency for nuclear recoils, up to a few hundred MeV, using Birks’ law in the Monte Carlo simulation. Data from an exposure of 655.1 days were analyzed and neutron-induced recoil events were observed in the energy region from 4 to 50 MeV, corresponding to fast neutrons with kinetic energy up to a few hundred MeV, depending on the scattering angle. Combining with the Monte Carlo simulation, the measured muon-induced fast neutron flux is determined to be (2.23 +/- 0.52(sta) +/- 0.99(sys) x 10(-9) cm(-2) s(-1) (E-n > 20 MeV), in a reasonable agreement with the model prediction. The muon flux is found to be (1.65 +/- 0.02(sta) +/- 0.1(sys)) x 10(-7) cm(-2) s(-1) (E-mu > 1 GeV), consistent with other measurements. As a result, the muon-induced high-energy gamma-ray flux is simulated to be 7.08 x 10(-7) cm(-2) s(-1) (E-gamma > 1 MeV) for the depth of Soudan.

Physics Department.

Newswander, Chad B. (2015). Guerrilla Statesmanship: Constitutionalizing an Ethic of Dissent. Public Administration Review, 75(1), 126-134.

According to judicial precedents, administrators informed by their expertise can speak on issues of public concern under First Amendment protections. In one sense, they could dissent by working against their employers in an attempt to direct issues of public concern through an educational function. The power to act like a statesman in raising such issues allows administrators to lead from behind and in front, as long as certain judicial thresholds are met. However, the U.S. Supreme Court recently moved to tighten the scope of such activity. This article assesses how an ethic of dissent has been translated into a constitutional perspective that at first was moderately constrained and later became very restricted. While the move to limit an ethic of dissent provides necessary constraints, it also may have weakened administrators’ ability to perform necessary statesmanship acts rooted in guerrilla government to achieve the common good.

Political Science Department.

Newswander, Chad B., & Lynita K. Newswander. (2015). Metis: Using Wile and Wisdom to Inform Administrative Discretion. American Review of Public Administration, 45(2), 153-166.

When seeking to accomplish public ends in a prudent manner, administrators are occasionally put in precarious situations that require a degree of metis. Metis is a distinct form of knowledge characterized by a mixture of wile and wisdom and is valuable because it can offer viable alternatives for solving complex problems in contingent situations. Individualized problems often require administrators to forego routinized recommendations and pursue a path to prudence through shrewd thinking and action. However, if metis is not properly contained, it runs the risk of sinking under the weight of unscrupulous motivation and of negatively affecting the legitimacy of administrative action. What is important is that a crafty ethos is bound within a proper sphere. This is why a bounded metis informed by a modified version of intermediate scrutiny may provide a meaningful guide that legitimizes the ability of administrators to handle ambiguous situations in a prudent manner.

Political Science Department.

Rao, L. L., X. T. Wang, & S. Li. (2015). Investment choice and perceived mating intentions regulated by external resource cues and internal fluctuation in blood glucose levels. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 7.

We examined resource allocation priorities in the framework of an updated Maslow hierarchy of fundamental human needs. In Experiment 1, the participants in the food abundance priming condition viewing photos of high-calorie food allocated more money to savings than to spending. However, the participants preferred spending to savings under the condition of mating availability priming with romantic photographs. In Experiment 2, before and after drinking either water or a sugary beverage, fasting participants rated photos of a conversation between a man and a woman. Water drinking lowered the rating scores of mating intentions as well as blood glucose (BG) levels. The sugary drink buffered this decline in sexual perceptivity. Overall, the change in BG levels was positively associated with changes in the ratings of mating intentions but was not associated with other likelihood ratings. These results suggest that both external cues of food and mating resources and internal BG fluctuation regulate the cognitive priority of physiological needs vs. mate acquisition and retention.

Psychology Department.

Milanovich, Samuel, J. Peterson, J. Allred, C. Stelloh, K. Rajasekaran, J. Fisher, . . . S. Rao. (2015). Sall4 overexpression blocks murine hematopoiesis in a dose-dependent manner. Experimental Hematology, 43(1), 53-64.

Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4) is a transcription factor that exists in two splice isoforms, SALL4a and SALL4b, and regulates transcription in embryonic stem cells, hematopoiesis, and acute myeloid leukemia. Constitutive overexpression of SALL4 in mice induces acute myeloid leukemia. Interestingly, a potential benefit of using SALL4 to facilitate ex vivo hematopoietic stem cell expansion has been proposed. However, distinct roles for how SALL4 contributes to normal versus malignant processes remain undefined. Here we show that SALL4b is the predominant isoform in murine hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors. Overexpression of either SALL4 isoform in hematopoietic stem cells or progenitors impairs hematopoietic colony formation and expansion in vitro. Lineage-negative bone marrow overexpressing SALL4b fails to engraft and reconstitute hematopoiesis when transplanted. We found that both SALL4a and SALL4b overexpression impair hematopoiesis, in part through dose-dependent repression of BMI1. Additionally, we have identified the following potential novel SALL4 target genes in hematopoiesis: ARID5B (SALL4a and SALL4b), EZH2, and KLF2 (SALL4a). Lastly, we found that SALL4 expression is variable in acute myeloid leukemia, ranging from no expression to levels comparable to embryonic stem cells. These results show that SALL4 isoforms contribute to only a subset of acute myeloid leukemia and that overexpression of SALL4 isoforms impairs hematopoiesis through repression of BMI1. Together these data demonstrate the sensitivity of hematopoiesis to appropriately balanced SALL4 expression, highlighting the importance of regulating this dynamic in potential therapeutic applications such as ex vivo stem cell expansion. Copyright (C) 2015 ISEH – International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Naesgaard, P. A., V. Ponitz, H. Aarsetoey, …., William S. Harris, H. Staines, & D. T. Nilsen. (2015). Prognostic Utility of Vitamin D in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients in Coastal Norway. Disease Markers, 11.

Background. An inverse relationship between cardiovascular risk and levels of vitamin D and omega-3 index may exist. Objectives. To evaluate the prognostic utility of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in 871 patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and to assess the seasonal correlation between 25(OH)D and the omega-3 index in 456 ACS patients from southwestern Norway. Results. In the univariate analysis the hazard ratio (HR) at 2-year follow-up for all-cause mortality in the highest as compared to the lowest quartile of 25(OH)D in the total population was 0.61 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.37-1.00), P = 0.050. At 7-year follow-up, the corresponding HR for all-cause mortality was 0.66 (95% CI, 0.49-0.90), P = 0.008, and for females alone 0.51 (95% CI, 0.32-0.83), P = 0.006. Quartile survival did not differ in the multivariable analysis, whereas 25(OH) D < 40nM (< 16 ng/mL) was found to be independently related to mortality. Seasonal differences in 25(OH)D, but not for the omega-3 index, were noted, and the two biomarkers were positively correlated, especially during winter-spring; Pearson’s correlation coefficient was 0.358, P < 0.001. Conclusion. Vitamin D levels are related to survival, especially in females, and correlate with the omega-3 index.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Newman, J. W., T. L. Pedersen, Verdayne R. Brandenburg, William S. Harris, & Gregory C. Shearer. (2014). Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters on the Oxylipin Composition of Lipoproteins in Hypertriglyceridemic, Statin-Treated Subjects. Plos One, 9(11), 12.

Background: Oxylipins mediate inflammation, vascular tension, and more. Their presence in lipoproteins could explain why lipoproteins mediate nearly identical activities. Methods: To determine how oxylipins are distributed in the lipoproteins of hypertriglyceridemic subjects, and whether omega-3 fatty acids alter them in a manner consistent with improved cardiovascular health, we recruited 15 dyslipidemic subjects whose levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were at goal but who remained hypertriglyceridemic (200-499 mg/dL). They were treated them with the indicated dose of 4 g/d omega-3 acid ethyl esters (P-OM3) for 8 weeks. Measured oxylipins included mid-chain alcohols (HETEs, HEPEs and HDoHEs), ketones (KETEs), epoxides (as EpETrEs, EpETEs, and EpDPEs). Results: At baseline, arachidonate-oxylipins (HETEs, KETEs, and EpETrEs) were most abundant in plasma with the greatest fraction of total abundance (mean vertical bar 95% CI vertical bar) being carried in high density lipoproteins (HDL); 42% vertical bar 31, 57 vertical bar followed by very low density lipoproteins (VLDL); 27% vertical bar 20, 36 vertical bar; and LDL 21% vertical bar 16, 28 vertical bar. EPA- and DHA-derived oxylipins constituted less than 11% of total. HDL carried alcohols and epoxides but VLDL was also rich in ketones. Treatment decreased AA-derived oxylipins across lipoprotein classes (-23% vertical bar-33, -12 vertical bar, p = 0.0003), and expanded EPA-(322% vertical bar 241, 422 vertical bar, p<0.0001) and DHA-derived oxylipins (123% vertical bar 80, 176 vertical bar, p<0.0001). Conclusions: Each lipoprotein class carries a unique oxylipin complement. P-OM3 treatment alters the oxylipin content of all classes, reducing pro-inflammatory and increasing anti-inflammatory species, consistent with the improved inflammatory and vascular status associated with the treatment.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Roohani, P., T. Emiru, A. Carpenter, C. Luzzio, Jerome Freeman, S. Scarberry, . . . G. Parry. (2014). Late onset multiple sclerosis: Is it really late onset? Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, 3(4), 444-449.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common demyelinating disease, and onset over the age of 50 years is referred to as late onset MS (LOMS). It has been thought that LOMS patients will be more likely to exhibit a primary progressive (PPMS) clinical course. Objective: To identify the clinical characteristics of demyelinating disease in patients over the age of 50 years from four different MS centers in the Northern Midwest USA. Methods: We reviewed medical records of all patients seen at the MS centers and identified those who were 50 years of age or more at the time of first spontaneously reported symptoms. We included those who were diagnosed with MS or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and excluded MS mimickers. Demographics, initial clinical course diagnosis, clinical characteristics, and any available five-year follow up data were collected. The clinical course was reevaluated in each patient with careful questioning regarding any prior focal neurological symptoms that had persisted for at least 48 h, not otherwise explained. Those with a prior event who were initially diagnosed with PPMS or CIS were reclassified as secondary-progressive MS (SPMS) and relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) respectively. Results: We identified 124 patients from a total of 3700 patients, making LOMS 3.4% MS in our population. The initial clinical course was RRMS in 50 (40%), PPMS in 44 (36%), SPMS in 15 (12%), and CIS in 15 (12%) patients. After reclassification the clinical course was RRMS in 55 (44%), PPMS in 25 (20%), SPMS in 34 (28%), and CIS in 10 (8%) patients. The clinical syndrome was identified as acute for 77 patients (62%) with transverse myelitis (N=25, 32%) as the most common type. The clinical syndrome was chronic for 47 patients (37%) and again transverse myelitis (N=24, 51%) was the most common type. Five-year follow up data was available for 44% of these patients. Discussion: LOMS is rare and RRMS is the most common clinical course. Reclassification of the clinical course, not done before in any other LOMS study, with careful questioning regarding a prior neurological event reveals that SPMS is the most common type of progressive MS and PPMS may be less common than previously thought. Transverse myelitis is the most common clinical presentation. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Sundram, Vasudha, A. Ganju, Joshua E. Hughes, S. Khan, S. C. Chauhan, & M. Jaggi. (2014). Protein Kinase D1 attenuates tumorigenesis in colon cancer by modulating beta-catenin/T cell factor activity. Oncotarget, 5(16), 6867-6884.

Over 80% of colon cancer development and progression is a result of the dysregulation of beta-catenin signaling pathway. Herein, for the first time, we demonstrate that a serine-threonine kinase, Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1), modulates the functions of beta-catenin to suppress colon cancer growth. Analysis of normal and colon cancer tissues reveals downregulation of PKD1 expression in advanced stages of colon cancer and its co-localization with beta-catenin in the colon crypts. This PKD1 downregulation corresponds with the aberrant expression and nuclear localization of beta-catenin. In-vitro investigation of the PKD1-beta-catenin interaction in colon cancer cells reveal that PKD1 overexpression suppresses cell proliferation and clonogenic potential and enhances cell-cell aggregation. We demonstrate that PKD1 directly interacts with beta-catenin and attenuates beta-catenin transcriptional activity by decreasing nuclear beta-catenin levels. Additionally, we show that inhibition of nuclear beta-catenin transcriptional activity is predominantly influenced by nucleus targeted PKD1. This subcellular modulation of beta-catenin results in enhanced membrane localization of beta-catenin and thereby increases cell-cell adhesion. Studies in a xenograft mouse model indicate that PKD1 overexpression delayed tumor appearance, enhanced necrosis and lowered tumor hypoxia. Overall, our results demonstrate a putative tumor-suppressor function of PKD1 in colon tumorigenesis via modulation of beta-catenin functions in cells.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Tintle, N. L., J. V. Pottala, S. Lacey, V. Ramachandran, J. Westra, A. Rogers, . . . G. C. Shearer. (2015). A genome-wide association study of saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated red blood cell fatty acids in the Framingham Heart Offspring Study. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 94, 65-72.

Most genome-wide association studies have explored relationships between genetic variants and plasma phospholipid fatty acid proportions, but few have examined apparent genetic influences on the membrane fatty acid profile of red blood cells (RBC). Using RBC fatty acid data from the Framingham Offspring Study, we analyzed over 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association with 14 RBC fatty acids identifying 191 different SNPs associated with at least 1 fatty acid. Significant associations (p < 1 x 10(-8)) were located within five distinct 1 MB regions. Of particular interest were novel associations between (1) arachidonic acid and PCOLCE2 (regulates apoA-I maturation and modulates apoA-I levels), and (2) oleic and linoleic acid and LPCAT3 (mediates the transfer of fatty acids between glycerolipids). We also replicated previously identified strong associations between SNPs in the FADS (chromosome 11) and ELOVL (chromosome 6) regions. Multiple SNPs explained 8-14% of the variation in 3 high abundance ( > 11%) fatty acids, but only 1-3% in 4 low abundance ( < 3%) fatty acids, with the notable exception of dihomo-gamma linolenic acid with 53% of variance explained by SNPs. Further studies are needed to determine the extent to which variations in these genes influence tissue fatty acid content and pathways modulated by fatty acids. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

van Dongen, J., Erik A. Ehli, R. C. Slieker, M. Bartels, Z. M. Weber, Gareth E. Davies, . . . D. I. Boomsma. (2014). Epigenetic Variation in Monozygotic Twins: A Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation in Buccal Cells. Genes, 5(2), 347-365.

DNA methylation is one of the most extensively studied epigenetic marks in humans. Yet, it is largely unknown what causes variation in DNA methylation between individuals. The comparison of DNA methylation profiles of monozygotic (MZ) twins offers a unique experimental design to examine the extent to which such variation is related to individual-specific environmental influences and stochastic events or to familial factors (DNA sequence and shared environment). We measured genome-wide DNA methylation in buccal samples from ten MZ pairs (age 8-19) using the Illumina 450k array and examined twin correlations for methylation level at 420,921 CpGs after QC. After selecting CpGs showing the most variation in the methylation level between subjects, the mean genome-wide correlation (rho) was 0.54. The correlation was higher, on average, for CpGs within CpG islands (CGIs), compared to CGI shores, shelves and non-CGI regions, particularly at hypomethylated CpGs. This finding suggests that individual-specific environmental and stochastic influences account for more variation in DNA methylation in CpG-poor regions. Our findings also indicate that it is worthwhile to examine heritable and shared environmental influences on buccal DNA methylation in larger studies that also include dizygotic twins.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Newland, Lisa A. (2015). Family well-being, parenting, and child well-being: Pathways to healthy adjustment. Clinical Psychologist, 19(1), 3-14.

Family well-being provides a foundation for positive parenting and child well-being. Many previous studies have outlined the possible connections between family well-being, parenting, and child well-being, yet translating research into practice continues to be problematic. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature (from 2000 to 2014) on family and child well-being in order to create a model of well-being that is useful for both researchers and practitioners. The model builds upon Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory, and is differentiated from other prominent models of family functioning by focusing on bolstering family strengths and well-being (as opposed to ameliorating family stress, risk, or deficits) and on supporting child well-being (as opposed to treating maladjustment). The model addresses family well-being (parental well-being, family self-sufficiency, and family resiliency), developmental parenting (affection, responsiveness, encouragement, teaching, engagement, positive discipline, and co-parenting), and child well-being (physical and mental health, self-regulation, social and cognitive competence). Direct and indirect connections between model components and possible moderating factors are discussed. A theory of change model is proposed as a tool for practitioners from a variety of disciplines and fields to guide their work with families. Recommendations for clinicians, limitations of the model, and future directions are discussed.

School of Education.

Newland, Lisa A., Michael J. Lawler, Jarod T. Giger, Soonhee Roh, & Eliann R. Carr. (2015). Predictors of Children’s Subjective Well-Being in Rural Communities of the United States. Child Indicators Research, 8(1), 177-198.

This study examined children’s subjective well-being in a rural Midwestern United States sample of children (N = 1,286). Fifth grade (M (age) = 10.66, SD = .55, range 10-12 years) and 7th grade (M (age) = 12.63, SD = .55, range 12-14 years) children completed an adapted version of the previously tested Children’s Worlds survey, measuring children’s subjective well-being. Surveys included individual factors (age, gender, number of residences), contextual factors of home and family (home environment, family relationships, parent involvement), life and neighborhood (financial resources, life stress, neighborhood quality), school (teacher relationships, school climate, school satisfaction), and peers (peer relationships), and subjective well-being measures for life satisfaction, mental health, and self-image. Though children’s subjective well-being was predicted by a number of individual, home and family, life and neighborhood, school, and peer variables, the strongest predictors of child well-being were relationships, school, and gender (males had higher scores). The reliability of the regression models were assessed by bootstrap resampling. Results are discussed in the context of an ecological, relationship-based framework of child well-being.

School of Health Sciences

School of Education

Sarriera, J. C., F. Casas, L. Bedin, D. Abs, M. R. Strelhow, D. Gross-Manos, & Jarod T. Giger. (2015). Material Resources and Children’s Subjective Well-Being in Eight Countries. Child Indicators Research, 8(1), 199-209.

The objective of this research is to examine the relationship between children’s perception of their available material resources and their subjective well-being. Participants (n = 13,953) resided in eight countries and were largely female (57 %), between the ages of 10-14 (M = 12.05; SD = 0.59). Each child completed a culturally appropriate country-survey that included demographic information and validated measures from the International Survey of Children’s Well-Being project (ISCIWeB), which included the Student’s Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS) and material resources items. We tested a relational model for predicting subjective well-being and applied structural equation modelling (SEM) to the data. Results indicated that children in Uganda had limited access to material resources and the lowest average of well-being. Together with Algeria and South Africa, Uganda also had the strongest associations between the access to material resources and the SLSS. Even with access to all material resources evaluated, well-being scores are also lower in the case of South Korea, probably due to the so-called “Asian bias”. Children from Israel, Brazil, Spain, and England were similar in their levels of satisfaction and well-being. Our model fit the data well and revealed significant relationships between material resources and child subjective well-being in each country. Preliminary results underscore the importance of assessing material well-being in children and highlight the role material resources have in influencing children’s subjective well-being, especially in cases of children experiencing severe resource deprivation. Our model warrants further testing to replicate and extend our findings. Recommendations for future research are provided.

School of Health Sciences.

Bollinger, Stephen S., Weltman, Nathan Y., Gerdes, A. M., & Schlenker, Evelyn H. (2015). T-3 supplementation affects ventilatory timing & glucose levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus model. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 205, 92-98.

Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can affect ventilation, metabolism, and fasting blood glucose levels. Hypothyroidism may be a comorbidity of T2DM. In this study T2DM was induced in 20 female Sprague Dawley rats using Streptozotocin (STZ) and Nicotinamide (N). One of experimental STZ/N groups (N=10 per group) was treated with a low dose of triiodothyronine (T-3). Blood glucose levels, metabolism and ventilation (in air and in response to hypoxia) were measured in the 3 groups. STZ/N-treated rats increased fasting blood glucose compared to control rats eight days and 2 months post-STZ/N injections indicating stable induction of T2DM state. Treatments had no effects on ventilation, metabolism or body weight. After one month of T-3 supplementation, there were no physiological indications of hyperthyroidism, but T-3 supplementation altered ventilatory timing and decreased blood glucose levels compared to STZ/N rats. These results suggest that low levels of T-3 supplementation could offer modest effects on blood glucose and ventilatory timing in this T2M model. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Chen, X., Shi, X. P., Zhao, C., …., Wang, Xuejun, & Liu, J. B. (2014). Anti-rheumatic agent auranofin induced apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia cells resistant to imatinib through both Bcr/Abl-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Oncotarget, 5(19), 9118-9132.

Resistance to Imatinib mesylate (IM) is an emerging problem for patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). T315I mutation in the Bcr-Abl is the predominant mechanism of the acquired resistance to IM and second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Therefore it is urgent to search for new measures to overcome TKI-resistance. Auranofin (AF), clinically used to treat rheumatic arthritis, was recently approved by US Food and Drug Administration for Phase II clinical trial to treat cancer. In contrast to the reports that AF induces apoptosis by increasing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels via inhibiting thioredoxin reductase, our recent study revealed that AF-induced apoptosis depends on inhibition of proteasomal deubiquitinases (UCHL5 and USP14). Here we report that (i) AF induces apoptosis in both Bcr-Abl wild-type cells and Bcr-Abl-T315I mutation cells and inhibits the growth of IM-resistant Bcr-Abl-T315I xenografts in vivo; (ii) AF inhibits Bcr-Abl through both downregulation of Bcr-Abl gene expression and Bcr-Abl cleavage mediated by proteasome inhibition-induced caspase activation; (iii) proteasome inhibition but not ROS is required for AF-induced caspase activation and apoptosis. These findings support that AF overcomes IM resistance through both Bcr/Abl-dependent and -independent mechanisms, providing great clinical significance for cancer treatment.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Gauliard, E., Ouellette, Scot P., Rueden, Kelsey J., & Ladant, D. (2015). Characterization of interactions between inclusion membrane proteins from Chlamydia trachomatis. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 5.

Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens of eukaryotes. The bacteria grow in an intracellular vesicle called an inclusion, the membrane of which is heavily modified by chlamydial proteins called lncs (Inclusion membrane proteins). lncs represent 7-10% of the genomes of Chlamydia and, given their localization at the interface between the host and the pathogen, likely play a key role in the development and pathogenesis of the bacterium. However, their functions remain largely unknown. Here, we characterized the interaction properties between various Inc proteins of C. trachomatis, using a bacterial two-hybrid (BACTH) method suitable for detecting interactions between integral membrane proteins. To validate this approach, we first examined the oligomerization properties of the well-characterized IncA protein and showed that both the cytoplasmic domain and the transmembrane region independently contribute to IncA oligomerization. We then analyzed a set of Inc proteins and identified novel interactions between these components. Two small lncs, IncF, and Ct222, were found here to interact with many other Inc proteins and may thus represent interaction nodes within the inclusion membrane. Our data suggest that the Inc proteins may assemble in the membrane of the inclusion to form specific multi-molecular complexes in an hierarchical and temporal manner. These studies will help to better define the putative functions of the Inc proteins in the infectious process of Chlamydia.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Killian, J. K., Miettinen, M., Walker, R. L., …., Killian, M. Scott, Lau, C. C., Pineda, M., Walling, J., Stevenson, H., Smith, C., Wang, Z. F., Lasota, J., Kim, S. Y., Boikos, S. A., Helman, L. J., & Meltzer, P. S. (2014). Recurrent epimutation of SDHC in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Science Translational Medicine, 6(268).

Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a conserved effector of cellular metabolism and energy production, and loss of SDH function is a driver mechanism in several cancers. SDH-deficient gastrointestinal stromal tumors (dSDH GISTs) collectively manifest similar phenotypes, including hypermethylated epigenomic signatures, tendency to occur in pediatric patients, and lack of KIT/PDGFRA mutations. dSDH GISTs often harbor deleterious mutations in SDH subunit genes (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD, termed SDHx), but some are SDHx wild type (WT). To further elucidate mechanisms of SDH deactivation in SDHx-WT GIST, we performed targeted exome sequencing on 59 dSDH GISTs to identify 43 SDHx-mutant and 16 SDHx-WT cases. Genome-wide DNA methylation and expression profiling exposed SDHC promoter-specific CpG island hypermethylation and gene silencing in SDHx-WT dSDH GISTs [ 15 of 16 cases (94%)]. Six of 15 SDHC-epimutant GISTs occurred in the setting of the multitumor syndrome Carney triad. We observed neither SDHB promoter hypermethylation nor large deletions on chromosome 1q in any SDHx-WT cases. Deep genome sequencing of a 130-kbp (kilo-base pair) window around SDHC revealed no recognizable sequence anomalies in SDHC-epimutant tumors. More than 2000 benign and tumor reference tissues, including stem cells and malignancies with a hypermethylator epigenotype, exhibit solely a non-epimutant SDHC promoter. Mosaic constitutional SDHC promoter hypermethylation in blood and saliva from patients with SDHC-epimutant GIST implicates a postzygotic mechanism in the establishment and maintenance of SDHC epimutation. The discovery of SDHC epimutation provides a unifying explanation for the pathogenesis of dSDH GIST, whereby loss of SDH function stems from either SDHx mutation or SDHC epimutation.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Li, Hao, Scholl, Jamie L., Tu, Wenyu, Hassell, James E., Watt, Michael J., Forster, Gina L., & Renner, Kenneth J. (2014). Serotonergic responses to stress are enhanced in the central amygdala and inhibited in the ventral hippocampus during amphetamine withdrawal. European Journal of Neuroscience, 40(11), 3684-3692.

Withdrawal from amphetamine increases anxiety and reduces the ability to cope with stress, which are factors that are believed to contribute to drug relapse. Stress-induced serotonergic transmission in the central nucleus of the amygdala is associated with anxiety states and fear. Conversely, stress-induced increases in ventral hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) levels have been linked to coping mechanisms. The goal of this study was to investigate the neurobiological changes induced by amphetamine that contribute to stress sensitivity during withdrawal. We tested the hypothesis that limbic serotonergic responses to restraint stress would be altered in male Sprague-Dawley rats chronically pretreated with amphetamine (2.5mg/kg, intraperitoneal) and then subjected to 2weeks of withdrawal. Amphetamine withdrawal resulted in increased stress-induced behavioral arousal relative to control treatment, suggesting that drug withdrawal induced greater sensitivity to the stressor. When microdialysis was used to determine the effects of restraint on extracellular 5-HT, stress-induced increases in 5-HT levels were abolished in the ventral hippocampus and augmented in the central amygdala during amphetamine withdrawal. Reverse dialysis of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone into the ventral hippocampus blocked the stress-induced increase in 5-HT levels in saline-pretreated rats, suggesting that glucocorticoid receptors mediate stress-induced increases in 5-HT levels in the ventral hippocampus. However, mifepristone had no effect on stress-induced increases in 5-HT levels in the central amygdala, indicating that stress increases 5-HT levels in this region independently of glucocorticoid receptors. During amphetamine withdrawal, the absence of stress-induced increases in ventral hippocampal 5-HT levels combined with enhanced stress-induced serotonergic responses in the central amygdala may contribute to drug relapse by decreasing stress-coping ability and heightening stress responsiveness.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Liu, N. N., Li, X. F., Huang, H. B., …., Wang, Xuejun, & Liu, J. B. (2014). Clinically used antirheumatic agent auranofin is a proteasomal deubiquitinase inhibitor and inhibits tumor growth. Oncotarget, 5(14), 5453-5471.

Proteasomes are attractive emerging targets for anti-cancer therapies. Auranofin (Aur), a gold-containing compound clinically used to treat rheumatic arthritis, was recently approved by US Food and Drug Administration for Phase II clinical trial to treat cancer but its anti-cancer mechanism is poorly understood. Here we report that (i) Aur shows proteasome-inhibitory effect that is comparable to that of bortezomib/Velcade (Vel); (ii) different from bortezomib, Aur inhibits proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (DUBs) UCHL5 and USP14 rather than the 20S proteasome; (iii) inhibition of the proteasome-associated DUBs is required for Aur-induced cytotoxicity; and (iv) Aur selectively inhibits tumor growth in vivo and induces cytotoxicity in cancer cells from acute myeloid leukemia patients. This study provides important novel insight into understanding the proteasome-inhibiting property of metal-containing compounds. Although several DUB inhibitors were reported, this study uncovers the first drug already used in clinic that can inhibit proteasome-associated DUBs with promising anti-tumor effects.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Butler, Stephen A., & Ghosh, D. (2015). Individual differences in managerial accounting judgments and decision making. British Accounting Review, 47(1), 33-45.

Managers are influenced in their decisions by the information provided by managerial accountants. Two typical examples from textbooks are the irrelevance of sunk costs and, more recently, the affect of knowing the outcome of a decision or revised budget forecast. Individual differences in the cognitive ability of decision makers to use information can lead to systematic differences in judgments. We identify and label one of these individual cognitive differences comprehensive thinking ability: the ability to think about multiple paths, branches or alternatives. Significant comprehensive thinking ability is likely to mitigate systematic differences in judgment in many contexts. We report the results of a series of studies using a variation on the investment trap (sunk cost or irrelevant cost) problem and a probability revision task. The findings suggest that comprehensive thinking ability may also explain other common systematic differences in judgment. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Beacom School of Business.

Balhoff, J. P., Dahdul, Wasila M., Dececchi, T. Alexander, Lapp, H., Mabee, Paula M., & Vision, T. J. (2014). Annotation of phenotypic diversity: decoupling data curation and ontology curation using Phenex. Journal of Biomedical Semantics, 5.

Background: Phenex (http://phenex.phenoscape.org/) is a desktop application for semantically annotating the phenotypic character matrix datasets common in evolutionary biology. Since its initial publication, we have added new features that address several major bottlenecks in the efficiency of the phenotype curation process: allowing curators during the data curation phase to provisionally request terms that are not yet available from a relevant ontology; supporting quality control against annotation guidelines to reduce later manual review and revision; and enabling the sharing of files for collaboration among curators. Results: We decoupled data annotation from ontology development by creating an Ontology Request Broker (ORB) within Phenex. Curators can use the ORB to request a provisional term for use in data annotation; the provisional term can be automatically replaced with a permanent identifier once the term is added to an ontology. We added a set of annotation consistency checks to prevent common curation errors, reducing the need for later correction. We facilitated collaborative editing by improving the reliability of Phenex when used with online folder sharing services, via file change monitoring and continual autosave. Conclusions: With the addition of these new features, and in particular the Ontology Request Broker, Phenex users have been able to focus more effectively on data annotation. Phenoscape curators using Phenex have reported a smoother annotation workflow, with much reduced interruptions from ontology maintenance and file management issues.

Biology Department.

Bubak, A. N., Grace, J. L., Watt, Michael J., Renner, Kenneth J., & Swallow, J. G. (2014). Neurochemistry as a bridge between morphology and behavior: Perspectives on aggression in insects. Current Zoology, 60(6), 778-790.

Aggression is a common behavioral trait shared in many animals, including both vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the type and intensity of agonistic encounters and displays can vary widely both across and within species, resulting in complicated or subjective interpretations that create difficulties in developing theoretical models that can be widely applied. The need to easily and objectively identify quantifiable behaviors and their associated morphologies becomes especially important when attempting to decipher the neurological mechanisms underlying this complex behavior. Monoamines, neuropeptides, and pheromones have been implicated as important neuromodulators for agonistic displays in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Additionally, recent breakthroughs in insect research have revealed exciting proximate mechanisms important in aggression that may be broadly relevant, due to the relatively high conservation of these neurochemical systems across animal taxa. In this review, we present the latest research demonstrating the importance of monoamines, neuropeptides, and pheromones as neuromodulators for aggression across a variety of insect species. Additionally, we describe the stalk-eyed fly as a model system for studying aggression, which integrates physiological, morphological, and neurochemical approaches in exploring detailed mechanisms responsible for this common yet complex behavior. We conclude with our perspective on the most promising lines of future research aimed at understanding the proximate and ultimate mechanisms underlying aggressive behaviors.

Biology Department.

Davis, Drew R., & Gabor, Caitlin R. (2015). Behavioral and physiological antipredator responses of the San Marcos salamander, Eurycea nana. Physiology & Behavior, 139, 145-149.

Exposure to predatory stimuli typically results in the elevation of circulating glucocorticoid levels and a behavioral response of freezing or escape behavior in many prey species. Corticosterone (CORT) is the main glucocorticoid in amphibians and is known to be important in modulating many behaviors and developmental functions. The federally threatened San Marcos salamander, Eurycea nana, decreases activity in response to both native and introduced predatory fish, however, experience may further influence these interactions. To better understand the indirect effects of fish predators on this salamander, we examined both the antipredator behavior and water-borne CORT release rates in response to chemical cues (kairomones) from two fish species that varied in temporal risk of predation: (1) a low encounter frequency predator (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides), (2) a high encounter frequency predator (redbreast sunfish, Lepomis auritus), and (3) a blank water control. Salamanders reduced activity (antipredator response) after exposure to both predator treatments, but not to the blank water control, and the response to M. salmoides was significantly stronger than that to L. auritus. The CORT response (post-stimulus/pre-stimulus release rates) did not differ between the blank water control and L. auritus treatments, and both were significantly less than the CORT response to M. salmoides. Overall, E. nana showed a decreased antipredator response and no CORT response towards the high encounter frequency L. auritus as compared to the low encounter frequency M. salmoides. Eurycea nana may mute antipredator and CORT responses to high temporal frequency predators. There was, however, no correlation between CORT release rates and antipredator behavior, which suggests that the presence of predators may be affecting CORT response and behavior independently. (c) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Biology Department.

Jarchow, Meghann E., Liebman, M., Dhungel, S., Dietzel, R., Sundberg, D., Anex, R. P., Thompson, M. L., & Chua, T. (2015). Trade-offs among agronomic, energetic, and environmental performance characteristics of corn and prairie bioenergy cropping systems. Global Change Biology Bioenergy, 7(1), 57-71.

Cellulosic bioenergy production provides opportunities to utilize a range of cropping systems that can enhance the multifunctionality of agricultural landscapes. In a 9-ha field experiment located on fertile land in Boone County, IA, USA, we directly compared a corn-soybean rotation harvested for grain, continuous corn harvested for grain and stover, continuous corn harvested for grain and stover with a rye cover crop, newly reconstructed prairie harvested for biomass and fertilized with nitrogen, and unfertilized newly reconstructed prairie harvested for biomass. Comparisons were made using four performance indicators: harvestable yield, net energy balance (NEB), root production, and nutrient balances. We found trade-offs among systems in terms of the measured performance indicators. Continuous corn systems were the highest yielding, averaging 13Mgha(-1) of harvested biomass (grain plus stover), whereas fertilized and unfertilized prairies produced the least harvested biomass at 8.8 and 6.5Mgha(-1), respectively. Mean NEBs were highest in continuous corn systems at 45.1GJha(-1), intermediate in the corn-soybean rotation at 28.6GJha(-1), and lowest in fertilized and unfertilized prairies at 11.4 and 10.5GJha(-1), respectively. Concomitant with the high yields of the continuous corn systems were the large nutrient requirements of these systems compared to the prairie systems. Continuous corn with rye required three times more nitrogen inputs than fertilized prairie. Root production, on the other hand, was on average seven times greater in the prairie systems than the annual crop systems. On highly fertile soils, corn-based cropping systems are likely to play an important role in maintaining the high productivity of agricultural landscapes, but alternative cropping systems, such as prairies used for bioenergy production, can produce substantial yield, require minimal externally derived inputs, and can be incorporated into the landscape at strategic locations to maximize the production of other ecosystem services.

Biology Department.

Nguyen, H. T., Park, H., Koster, Karen L., Cahoon, R. E., Nguyen, H. T. M., Shanklin, J., Clemente, T. E., & Cahoon, E. B. (2015). Redirection of metabolic flux for high levels of omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acid accumulation in camelina seeds. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 13(1), 38-50.

Seed oils enriched in omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids, including palmitoleic acid (16:19) and cis-vaccenic acid (18:111), have nutraceutical and industrial value for polyethylene production and biofuels. Existing oilseed crops accumulate only small amounts (<2%) of these novel fatty acids in their seed oils. We demonstrate a strategy for enhanced production of omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids in camelina (Camelina sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) that is dependent on redirection of metabolic flux from the typical 9 desaturation of stearoyl (18:0)-acyl carrier protein (ACP) to 9 desaturation of palmitoyl (16:0)-acyl carrier protein (ACP) and coenzyme A (CoA). This was achieved by seed-specific co-expression of a mutant 9-acyl-ACP and an acyl-CoA desaturase with high specificity for 16:0-ACP and CoA substrates, respectively. This strategy was most effective in camelina where seed oils with similar to 17% omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids were obtained. Further increases in omega-7 fatty acid accumulation to 60-65% of the total fatty acids in camelina seeds were achieved by inclusion of seed-specific suppression of 3-keto-acyl-ACP synthase II and the FatB 16:0-ACP thioesterase genes to increase substrate pool sizes of 16:0-ACP for the 9-acyl-ACP desaturase and by blocking C18 fatty acid elongation. Seeds from these lines also had total saturated fatty acids reduced to similar to 5% of the seed oil versus similar to 12% in seeds of nontransformed plants. Consistent with accumulation of triacylglycerol species with shorter fatty acid chain lengths and increased monounsaturation, seed oils from engineered lines had marked shifts in thermotropic properties that may be of value for biofuel applications.

Biology Department.

Han, Yulun, Micha, D. A., & Kilin, Dmitri S. (2015). Ab initio study of the photocurrent at the Au/Si metal-semiconductor nanointerface. Molecular Physics, 113(3-4), 327-335.

Photo-induced charge transfer at the interface of two materials is a fundamental process in photovoltaic applications. In this study, we have considered a model of a simplified photovoltaic cell composed of a Si nanocrystal co-doped with Al and P, interfacing with Au electrodes. The photo-induced time-dependent electric currents were computed from a combination of ab initio electronic structure and time-dependent density matrix methodology, and using the continuity equation for electronic currents. A dissipative equation of motion for the reduced density matrix for electronic degrees of freedom is used to study the phonon-induced relaxation of hot electrons in the simulated system. Equations are solved in a basis set of orbitals generated ab initio from a density functional. Non-adiabatic couplings between electronic orbitals are computed on-the-fly along nuclear trajectories. Charge carrier dynamics induced by selected photoexcitations show that hole relaxation in energy and in space is much faster than electron relaxation. The overall net charge transfer across the slab is small; however, local currents at the Si/Au interfaces are substantial. It is also shown that the relaxation of the induced current can be used to parameterise the dynamical conductivity by means of a fluctuation-dissipation relation.

Chemistry Department.

Ho, W. K., Zhang, Z. Z., Lin, W., Huang, Shuping, Zhang, X. W., Wang, X. X., & Huang, Y. (2015). Copolymerization with 2,4,6-Triaminopyrimidine for the Rolling-up the Layer Structure, Tunable Electronic Properties, and Photocatalysis of g-C3N4. Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces, 7(9), 5497-5505.

Copolymerization with 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine (TAP) is developed for precise substitution of one nitrogen with carbon atom in the triazine ring of polymeric g-C3N4. Direct incorporation of C4N2 ring from TAP into the network retains the structural features of g-C3N4, but induces the rolling-up of g-C3N4 sheets into tubular configuration. The band gap energy is narrowed from 2.7 to 2.4 eV by a negative shift of valence band of the g-C3N4 photocatalyst, which enhances charge-carrier migration and separation, leading to higher photocatalytic activity for NO gas pollutant removal. It is attributed to the decrease of the pi-deficiency and the generation of imbalanced electron density in pi-electron conjugated units of g-C3N4 by TAP incorporation. This work provides a significant technique for precise control of heteroatom in the framework of g-C3N4 to finely adjust its intrinsic electronic properties and its photocatalytic properties.

Chemistry Department.

Clark, Prentiss. (2014). Pulse for Pulse in Harmony with the Universal Whole: Hearing “Self-Reliance” Anew. Nineteenth-Century Literature, 69(3), 319-341.

This essay recounts how Ralph Waldo Emerson, the nineteenth-century thinker perhaps most associated with individualism, is equally, and perhaps necessarily, a student of the intimacies in which we exist. More specifically, the essay contests the explanatory power criticism generally attributes to what Emerson called “self-reliance” by delineating how “self-reliance” (the idea and the 1841 essay by this name) participates in Emerson’s broad work of investigating what he termed “man’s true position in the universe” and its implications for one’s conduct of life. In this reading, which draws from Emerson’s neglected as well as canonical essays, lectures, and sermons, “the infinitude of the private man”-the “one doctrine” Emerson says he teaches in all his lectures-has less to do with the singular human self as such than with our standing ever amid innumerable and consequential relations and accountable for all it entails. Ultimately, this essay hopes to demonstrate how Emerson speaks, from the first, to the ethical potential of rediscovering our connections-connections to ourselves, fellow persons, nature, and beyond (even when at the distances to which our differences can put us).

English Department.

De, Pradip, Carlson, J., Leyland-Jones, Brian, & Dey, Nawdini. (2014). Oncogenic nexus of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A): an oncoprotein with many hands. Oncotarget, 5(13), 4581-4602.

Oncoprotein CIP2A a Cancerous Inhibitor of PP2A forms an “oncogenic nexus” by virtue of its control on PP2A and MYC stabilization in cancer cells. The expression and prognostic function of CIP2A in different solid tumors including colorectal carcinoma, head & neck cancers, gastric cancers, lung carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, esophageal cancers, pancreatic carcinoma, brain cancers, breast carcinoma, bladder cancers, ovarian carcinoma, renal cell carcinomas, tongue cancers, cervical carcinoma, prostate cancers, and oral carcinoma as well as a number of hematological malignancies are just beginning to emerge. Herein, we reviewed the recent progress in our understanding of (1) how an ” oncogenic nexus” of CIP2A participates in the tumorigenic transformation of cells and (2) how we can prospect/view the clinical relevance of CIP2A in the context of cancer therapy. The review will try to understand the role of CIP2A (a) as a biomarker in cancers and evaluate the prognostic value of CIP2A in different cancers (b) as a therapeutic target in cancers and (c) in drug response and developing chemo-resistance in cancers.

ISI Document Delivery No.: AZ0EG

Times Cited: 2

Cited Reference Count: 127

De, Pradip Carlson, Jennifer Leyland-Jones, Brian Dey, Nandini

Impact journals llc

Albany

Hanlon, S. M., Lynch, K. J., Kerby, Jacob, & Parris, M. J. (2015). Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis exposure effects on foraging efficiencies and body size in anuran tadpoles. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 112(3), 237-242.

Chytridiomycosis, the amphibian disease caused by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is fatal to adults of many species. Bd is largely sublethal to amphibian larvae; however, it is known to reduce larval (i.e. tadpole) growth rates, with possible long-term effects on population dynamics and fitness. We conducted an experiment to test how Bd altered southern leopard frog Lithobates sphenocephalus tadpole mouthpart damage, percentage of food ingested, and subsequent body size. We examined our results using path analyses. We hypothesized that Bd would increase mouthpart damage, causing less food to be ingested, and ultimately reduce body size. In our model, both Bd exposure and increased mouthpart damage significantly reduced food ingested and subsequent body size. However, our study provides evidence against the long-standing hypothesis of mouthpart damage as a pathway for Bd-induced reductions in larval group. Here we provide evidence for reduced foraging efficiency (percentage of food ingested) as a mechanism for Bd-induced reductions in body size. This work highlights the importance of studying the sublethal effects of Bd on larval amphibians.

ISI Document Delivery No.: AZ2EZ

Times Cited: 0

Cited Reference Count: 31

Hanlon, Shane M. Lynch, Kyle J. Kerby, Jake Parris, Matthew J.

Inter-research

Oldendorf luhe

Balakrishnan, N., Jiang, Nan, Tsai, T. R., Lio, Y. L., & Chen, D. G. (2015). Reliability Inference on Composite Dynamic Systems Based on Burr Type-XII Distribution. IEEE Transactions on Reliability, 64(1), 144-153.

Failure of a component in a composite dynamic system often induces a higher load on surviving components, and increases the hazard rate. Statistical inferential procedures on composite dynamic systems are developed here based on a Burr type-XII distribution with a power-trend hazard rate function. Point estimates of the Burr type-XII parameters, and interval estimates of the baseline survival function are obtained based on the maximum-likelihood estimates, and the Fisher information matrix. A test procedure is presented for examining the relationship between the hazard rate function and the number of failed components. The performance of the proposed method is then evaluated by means of an extensive Monte Carlo simulation study. An example is finally presented for illustrative purpose.

Mathematics Department.

Hecock, R. D., & Jepsen, Eric M. (2014). The Political Economy of FDI in Latin America 1986-2006: A Sector-Specific Approach. Studies in Comparative International Development, 49(4), 426-447.

This study examines the political determinants of foreign direct investment (FDI) across 15 Latin American countries from 1986 to 2006. In contrast to existing scholarship, we focus on the causes of investment by economic sector-primary resources, manufacturing, and services. Additionally, a regional focus on Latin America helps to control for omitted variables by comparing relatively similar countries. We find substantial variation in the causes and characteristics of FDI across sector. Specifically, manufacturing investment is volatile and attracted to less democratic regimes. In contrast, investment in primary resources privileges greater democracy and property rights protection, while FDI in services is associated with public fiscal responsibility. These results yield important theoretical and practical implications for scholars and policymakers throughout the region.

Political Science Department.

Brennan, M. L., Adam, M. P., Seaver, L. H., Myers, Angela, Schelley, S., Zadeh, N., Hudgins, L., & Bernstein, J. A. (2015). Increased Body Mass in Infancy and Early Toddlerhood in Angelman Syndrome Patients with Uniparental Disomy and Imprinting Center Defects. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 167A(1), 142-146.

The diagnosis of Angelman syndrome (AS) is based on clinical features and genetic testing. Developmental delay, severe speech impairment, ataxia, atypical behavior and microcephaly by two years of age are typical. Feeding difficulties in young infants and obesity in late childhood can also be seen. The NIH Angelman-Rett-Prader-Willi Consortium and others have documented genotype-phenotype associations including an increased body mass index in children with uniparental disomy (UPD) or imprinting center (IC) defects. We recently encountered four cases of infantile obesity in non-deletion AS cases, and therefore examined body mass measures in a cohort of non-deletion AS cases. We report on 16 infants and toddlers (ages 6 to 44 months; 6 female, and 10 male) with severe developmental delay. Birth weights were appropriate for gestational age in most cases, >97th% in one case and not available in four cases. The molecular subclass case distribution consisted of: UPD (n = 2), IC defect (n = 3), UPD or IC defect (n = 3), and UBE3A mutation (n = 8). Almost all (7 out of 8) UPD, IC and UPD/IC cases went on to exhibit >90th% age-and gender-appropriate weight for height or BMI within the first 44 months. In contrast, no UBE3A mutation cases exhibited obesity or pre-obesity measures (percentiles ranged from <3% to 55%). These findings demonstrate that increased body mass may be evident as early as the first year of life and highlight the utility of considering the diagnosis of AS in the obese infant or toddler with developmental delay, especially when severe. Although a mechanism explaining the association of UPD, and IC defects with obesity has not been identified, recognition of this correlation may inform investigation of imprinting at the PWS/AS locus and obesity. (C) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Dorman, Jason C., Valentine, Verle D., Munce, Thayne A., Tjarks, B. Joel, Thompson, Paul A., & Bergeron, Michael F. (2015). Tracking postural stability of young concussion patients using dual-task interference. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 18(1), 2-7.

Objectives: This study examined the diagnostic benefit of using dual-task interference balance testing in young concussion patients and the longitudinal changes in postural stability that occur relative to other standard clinical assessments of concussion injury. Design: Longitudinal, case-control. Methods: Eighteen patients (16.6 (1.6)y) diagnosed with a concussion provided 22 separate ratings to characterize the severity of their current concussion-related symptoms and were evaluated for postural stability at each of four clinical visits. Twenty-six injury-free adolescents (17 (2.8) y) performed balance testing on two occasions, separated by 1 week. Results: There was a progressive decrease in self-reported symptoms from visit 1 to visit 4 (P<0.0001-0.001). A similar improvement occurred in postural stability, indicated by 95% ellipse area and velocity. However, the differences in ellipse area and velocity were significant only between visit 1 and the rest of the visits as a whole (P<0.0001-0.05). There was a significant difference between concussion patients and healthy, injury-free participants in ellipse area and velocity during visit 1. A group difference was also observed in ellipse area on visit 2, but only during the two balance tests that involved a concomitant secondary cognitive task. Conclusions: Improvements in postural stability coincide with reductions in reported symptoms, though apparent recovery of these selected measures of postural stability seemingly occurs sooner. Because of the distinguishing time course of recovery indicated by dual-task interference balance testing, this type of balance testing assessment may be particularly valuable in evaluating integrated functional impairment and recovery in young concussion patients. (C) 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Guo, Q. S., Wang, Y. Q., Tripathi, P., Manda, K. R., Mukherjee, Malay, Chaklader, M., Austin, P. F., Surendran, Kameswaran, & Chen, F. (2015). Adam10 Mediates the Choice between Principal Cells and Intercalated Cells in the Kidney. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 26(1), 149-159.

A disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 10 (Adam10), a member of the ADAM family of cell membrane-anchored proteins, has been linked to the regulation of the Notch, EGF, E-cadherin, and other signaling pathways. However, it is unclear what role Adam10 has in the kidney in vivo. In this study, we showed that Adam10 deficiency in ureteric bud (UB) derivatives leads to a decrease in urinary concentrating ability, polyuria, and hydronephrosis in mice. Furthermore, Adam10 deficiency led to a reduction in the percentage of aquaporin 2 (Aqp2)(+) principal cells (PCs) in the collecting ducts that was accompanied by a proportional increase in the percentage of intercalated cells (ICs). This increase was more prominent in type A ICs than in type B ICs. Foxi1, a transcription factor important for the differentiation of ICs, was upregulated in the Adam10 mutants. The observed reduction of Notch activity in Adam10 mutant collecting duct epithelium and the similar reduction of PC/IC ratios in the collecting ducts in mice deficient for mindbomb E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1, a key regulator of the Notch and Wnt/receptor-like tyrosine kinase signaling pathways, suggest that Adam10 regulates cell fate determination through the activation of Notch signaling, probably through the regulation of Foxi1 expression. However, phenotypic differences between the Adam10 mutants, the Mib1 mutants, and the Foxi1 mutants suggest that the functions of Adam10 in determining the fate of collecting duct cells are more complex than those of a simple upstream factor in a linear pathway involving Notch and Foxi1.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Jung, Y. S., Vermeer, Paola D., Vermeer, Daniel W., Lee, S. J., Goh, A. R., Ahn, H. J., & Lee, John H. (2015). CD200: Association with cancer stem cell features and response to chemoradiation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Head and Neck-Journal for the Sciences and Specialties of the Head and Neck, 37(3), 327-335.

BackgroundThe purpose of this study was to characterize the expression of CD200, a membrane protein that functions in immune evasion, to examine its correlations with cancer stem cell (CSC)-like features and analyze its response to chemotherapy and radiation in human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive (+) and negative (-) head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). MethodsCD200 expression was analyzed in several HNSCC cell lines. CD200 was overexpressed in HPV(+) murine tonsil epithelial cells, its effects on Shh and Bmi-1 were examined in vitro, and tumor growth and response to chemoradiation were analyzed in vitro and in vivo. ResultsCD200 was diversely expressed and consistently associated with expression of Bmi-1 and Shh. Overexpression of CD200 induced Bmi-1 and Shh. Tumors grew similarly between C57BL/6 and Rag1(-/-) C57BL/6 mice. CD200 expression enhanced the resistance to chemoradiation only in vivo. ConclusionCD200 was related to CSC features and modulates response to chemoradiation in vivo. Attenuating this might be a potential therapeutic strategy. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 37: 327-335, 2015

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Kaess, B. M., Harris, William S., Lacey, S., Larson, M. G., Hamburg, N. M., Vita, J. A., Robins, S. J., Benjamin, E. J., Mitchell, G. F., & Vasan, R. S. (2015). The relation of red blood cell fatty acids with vascular stiffness, cardiac structure and left ventricular function: The Framingham Heart Study. Vascular Medicine, 20(1), 5-13.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been associated with beneficial influences on cardiovascular health. However, the underlying mechanisms are not clear, and data on the relations of polyunsaturated fatty acids to subclinical disease measures such as vascular stiffness and cardiac function are sparse and inconclusive. In a large community-based cohort, we examined the relations of omega-3 and other fatty acids to a comprehensive panel of vascular function measures (assessing microvascular function and large artery stiffness), cardiac structure and left ventricular function. Red blood cell (RBC) membrane fatty acid composition, a measure of long-term fatty acid intake, was assessed in participants of the Framingham Offspring Study and Omni cohorts and related to tonometry-derived measures of vascular stiffness and to a panel of echocardiographic traits using partial correlations. Up to n=3055 individuals (56% women, mean age 66 years) were available for analyses. In age- and sex-adjusted models, higher RBC omega-3 content was moderately associated (p0.002) with several measures of vascular stiffness and function in a protective direction. However, after multivariable adjustment, only an association of higher RBC omega-3 content with lower carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (a measure of aortic stiffness) remained significant (r = -0.06, p=0.002). In secondary analyses, higher linoleic acid, the major nutritional omega-6 fatty acid, was associated with smaller left atrial size, even after multivariable adjustment (r = -0.064, p<0.001). In conclusion, in our cross-sectional community-based study, we found several associations consistent with the notion of protective effects of omega-3 and linoleic acid. The clinical significance of these modest associations remains to be elucidated.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Khan, S., Ebeling, Mara C., Zaman, M. S., Sikander, M., …., Thompson, Paul A., Jaggi, M., & Chauhan, S. C. (2014). MicroRNA-145 targets MUC13 and suppresses growth and invasion of pancreatic cancer. Oncotarget, 5(17), 7599-7609.

Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis due to late diagnosis and ineffective therapeutic multimodality. MUC13, a transmembrane mucin is highly involved in pancreatic cancer progression. Thus, understanding its regulatory molecular mechanisms may offer new avenue of therapy for prevention/treatment of pancreatic cancer. Herein, we report a novel microRNA (miR-145)-mediated mechanism regulating aberrant MUC13 expression in pancreatic cancer. We report that miR-145 expression inversely correlates with MUC13 expression in pancreatic cancer cells and human tumor tissues. miR-145 is predominantly present in normal pancreatic tissues and early Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) precursor lesions (PanIN I) and is progressively suppressed over the course of development from PanIN II/III to late stage poorly differentiated PDAC. We demonstrate that miR-145 targets 3′ untranslated region of MUC13 and thus downregulates MUC13 protein expression in cells. Interestingly, transfection of miR-145 inhibits cell proliferation, invasion and enhances gemcitabine sensitivity. It causes reduction of HER2, P-AKT, PAK1 and an increase in p53. Similar results were found when MUC13 was specifically inhibited by shRNA directed at MUC13. Additionally, intratumoral injections of miR-145 in xenograft mice inhibited tumor growth via suppression of MUC13 and its downstream target, HER2. These results suggest miR-145 as a novel regulator of MUC13 in pancreatic cancer.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Kuppast, B., Spyridaki, K., Lynch, C., Hu, Yuehan, Liapakis, G., Davies, Gareth E., & Fahmy, H. (2015). Synthesis of New Thiazolo 4,5-d pyrimidines as Corticotropin Releasing Factor Modulators. Medicinal Chemistry, 11(1), 50-59.

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a neurohormone that plays a crucial role in integrating the body’s overall response to stress. It appears necessary and sufficient for the organism to mount functional, physiological and endocrine responses to stressors. CRF is released in response to various triggers such as chronic stress. The role of CRF and its involvement in these neurological disorders suggest that new drugs that can target the CRF function or bind to its receptors may represent a new development of neuropsychiatric medicines to treat various stress-related disorders including depression, anxiety and addictive disorders. Based on pharmacophore of the CRF1 receptor antagonists, a new series of thiazolo[4,5-d] pyrimidines were synthesized as Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor modulators and the prepared compounds carry groups shown to produce optimum binding affinity to CRF receptors. Twenty two compounds were evaluated for their CRF1 receptor binding affinity in HEK 293 cell lines and two compounds 5o and 5s showed approximately 25% binding affinity to CRF1 receptors. Selected compounds (5c and 5f) were also evaluated for their effect on expression of genes associated with depression and anxiety disorders such as CRF1, CREB1, MAO-A, SERT, NPY, DatSLC6a3, and DBH and significant upregulation of CRF1 mRNA has been observed with compound 5c.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Hooper, D. R., Cook, B. M., Comstock, Brent A., Szivak, T. K., Flanagan, S. D., Looney, D. P., DuPont, W. H., & Kraemer, W. J. (2015). SYNTHETIC GARMENTS ENHANCE COMFORT, THERMOREGULATORY RESPONSE, AND ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE COMPARED WITH TRADITIONAL COTTON GARMENTS. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29(3), 700-707.

The ability of a fabric to transfer moisture is referred to as “wicking,” and an increase in this property may have benefits in terms of comfort and thermoregulation. However, this phenomenon has not been studied in the context of sporting-type activities. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess whether comfort, thermal physiological parameters, and physical performance can be affected by the garment that is used. Ten men (age: 27.5 +/- 4.4 years; height: 169.3 +/- 14.2 cm; weight: 80.05 +/- 10.87 kg) and 10 women (age: 26.8 +/- 3.7 years; height: 166.6 +/- 4.46 cm; weight: 64.63 +/- 4.49 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. A within-group crossover counterbalanced design was used that included the Illinois Agility Run (IAR) and the Multistage Fitness Test (MSFT). The IAR was also performed while wearing protective padding. The protocol was completed on 2 occasions, once while wearing a cotton garment (C) and again while wearing a polyester (P) garment. Questionnaires referring to sensations of various components of comfort were completed after each test. The P garment provided significantly (p <= 0.05) greater comfort in men and women after both the IAR and the MSFT. The P garment led to significantly (p <= 0.05) improved performance during the IAR in women. The P garment also provided significantly (p <= 0.05) greater body mass loss during the protocol in women. This study demonstrated dramatic increases in the comfort of P garments, including while using protective equipment. This study also discovered the influence of P garments on anaerobic tasks and also revealed dramatic sex differences, where women seem to be much more sensitive to the benefits of P garments. Strength and conditioning coaches should be aware of the dramatic impact of garment choice, in aerobic and anaerobic tasks, particularly in women.

School of Education.

Posted by: reganenosusd | February 4, 2015

January 2015

Davis, Drew R., Kathryn D. Feller, Rafe M. Brown, & Cameron D. Siler. (2014). Evaluating the Diversity of Philippine Slender Skinks of the Brachymeles bonitae Complex (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae): Redescription of B. tridactylus and Descriptions of Two New Species. Journal of Herpetology, 48(4), 480-494.

We review the species of the Brachymeles bonitae Complex ( B. bonitae and B. tridactylus) and describe an additional two new species in this highly specialized, limb-reduced, endemic Philippine clade of fossorial lizards. For more than 4 decades, B. bonitae has been recognized as a single ‘widespread’ species, a perception that has persisted as a result of limited sampling and similar overall morphology (body sizes, scale pigmentation) among populations. However, on the basis of new collections we note consistent morphological differences between populations, and our new data build on previous observations, allowing us to utilize newly defined character state differences for the purpose of delimiting unambiguous boundaries between species. Here, we use morphological and molecular data to define species limits in B. bonitae and its close relatives. Our data indicate that the ‘widespread’ species B. bonitae is actually a complex of four distinct evolutionary lineages, several of which are not each others’ closest relatives. The taxa we define possess allopatric geographic ranges (biogeographically supporting our taxonomic conclusions) and differ from their congeners by several diagnostic characters of external morphology. We conclude that each, therefore, should be recognized as full species in accordance with lineage-based species concepts. Species diversity in the genus has doubled in the last 4 yr, with newly described taxa increasing the total number of species of Brachymeles to 38.

Biology Department.

Wesner, Jeff S., J. M. Kraus, T. S. Schmidt, D. M. Walters, & W. H. Clements. (2014). Metamorphosis Enhances the Effects of Metal Exposure on the Mayfly, Centroptilum triangulifer. Environmental Science & Technology, 48(17), 10415-10422.

The response o f larval aquatic insects to stressors such as metals is used to assess the ecological condition of streams worldwide. However, nearly all larval insects metamorphose from aquatic larvae to winged adults, and recent surveys indicate that adults may be a more sensitive indicator of stream metal toxicity than larvae. One hypothesis to explain this pattern is that insects exposed to elevated metal in their larval stages have a reduced ability to successfully complete metamorphosis. To test this hypothesis we exposed late-instar larvae o f the mayfly, Centroptilum triangulifer, to an aqueous Zn gradient (32-476 μg/L) in the laboratory. After 6 days of exposure, when metamorphosis began, larval survival was unaffected by zinc. However, Zn reduced wingpad development at concentrations above 139 μg/L. In contrast, emergence of subimagos and imagos tended to decline with any increase in Zn. At Zn concentrations below 105 μg/L (hardness-adjusted aquatic life criterion), survival between the wingpad and subimago stages declined 5-fold across the Zn gradient. These results support the hypothesis that metamorphosis may be a survival bottleneck, particularly in contaminated streams. Thus, death during metamorphosis may be a key mechanism explaining how stream metal contamination can impact terrestrial communities by reducing aquatic insect emergence.

Biology Department.

Balasanthiran, Choumini, & James D. Hoefelmeyer. (2014). Facile method to attach transition metal ions to the surface of anatase TiO2 nanorods. Chemical Communications, 50(43), 5721-5724.

We report a robust, low-cost method to attach transition metal ions directly to the surface of anatase TiO2 rod-shaped nanocrystals with preservation of the host nanocrystal morphology and phase. The procedure has been optimized to achieve quantitative control of metal ion loading on the surface of the nanorods. The metal ion can be attached to the nanocrystal surface up to full monolayer coverage, after which the surface becomes saturated and there is no further addition.

Chemistry Department.

Feng-Rong, Dai, Dustin C. Becht, & Zhenqiang Wang. (2014). Modulating guest binding in sulfonylcalixarene-based metal-organic supercontainers. Chemical Communications, 50(40), 5385-5387.

Metal-organic supercontainers (MOSCs) represent a new family of synthetic receptors derived from container precursors and featuring both endo and exo cavities. A neutral MOSC has been functionalized into an anionic container by incorporating sulfo groups. The anionic MOSC exhibits cavity-specific binding properties in both solid state and solution.

Chemistry Department.

Summers, Torrie, Sara Holec, & Brian D. Burrell. (2014). Physiological and behavioral evidence of a capsaicin-sensitive TRPV-like channel in the medicinal leech. Journal of Experimental Biology, 217(23), 4167-4173.

Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels are found throughout the animal kingdom, where they play an important role in sensory transduction. In this study, we combined physiological studies with in vivo behavioral experiments to examine the presence of a putative TRPV-like receptor in the medicinal leech, building upon earlier studies in this lophotrochozoan invertebrate. The leech polymodal nociceptive neuron was activated by both peripheral and central application of the TRPV1-activator capsaicin in a concentration-dependent manner, with 100 mu moll(-1) being the lowest effective concentration. Responses to capsaicin were inhibited by the selective TRPV1 antagonist SB366791. The polymodal nociceptive neuron also responded to noxious thermal stimuli (>40 degrees C), and this response was also blocked by SB366791. Capsaicin sensitivity was selective to the polymodal nociceptor with no direct response being elicited in the mechanical nociceptive neuron or in the non-nociceptive touch-or pressure-sensitive neurons. Capsaicin also elicited nocifensive behavioral responses (withdrawals and locomotion) in a concentration-dependent manner, and these behavioral responses were significantly attenuated with SB366791. These results suggest the presence of a capsaicin-sensitive TRPV-like channel in the medicinal leech central nervous system and are relevant to the evolution of nociceptive signaling.

Basic Biomedical Science, Vermillion Campus.

Killian, J. K., M. Miettinen, R. L. Walker, …., M. Scott Killian, C. C. Lau, . . . P. S. Meltzer. (2014). Recurrent epimutation of SDHC in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Science Translational Medicine, 6(268).

Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a conserved effector of cellular metabolism and energy production, and loss of SDH function is a driver mechanism in several cancers. SDH-deficient gastrointestinal stromal tumors (dSDH GISTs) collectively manifest similar phenotypes, including hypermethylated epigenomic signatures, tendency to occur in pediatric patients, and lack of KIT/PDGFRA mutations. dSDH GISTs often harbor deleterious mutations in SDH subunit genes (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD, termed SDHx), but some are SDHx wild type (WT). To further elucidate mechanisms of SDH deactivation in SDHx-WT GIST, we performed targeted exome sequencing on 59 dSDH GISTs to identify 43 SDHx-mutant and 16 SDHx-WT cases. Genome-wide DNA methylation and expression profiling exposed SDHC promoter-specific CpG island hypermethylation and gene silencing in SDHx-WT dSDH GISTs [ 15 of 16 cases (94%)]. Six of 15 SDHC-epimutant GISTs occurred in the setting of the multitumor syndrome Carney triad. We observed neither SDHB promoter hypermethylation nor large deletions on chromosome 1q in any SDHx-WT cases. Deep genome sequencing of a 130-kbp (kilo-base pair) window around SDHC revealed no recognizable sequence anomalies in SDHC-epimutant tumors. More than 2000 benign and tumor reference tissues, including stem cells and malignancies with a hypermethylator epigenotype, exhibit solely a non-epimutant SDHC promoter. Mosaic constitutional SDHC promoter hypermethylation in blood and saliva from patients with SDHC-epimutant GIST implicates a postzygotic mechanism in the establishment and maintenance of SDHC epimutation. The discovery of SDHC epimutation provides a unifying explanation for the pathogenesis of dSDH GIST, whereby loss of SDH function stems from either SDHx mutation or SDHC epimutation.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Li, Hao, Jamie L. Scholl, Wenyu Tu, James E. Hassell, Michael J. Watt, Gina L. Forster, & Kenneth J. Renner. (2014). Serotonergic responses to stress are enhanced in the central amygdala and inhibited in the ventral hippocampus during amphetamine withdrawal. European Journal of Neuroscience, 40(11), 3684-3692.

Withdrawal from amphetamine increases anxiety and reduces the ability to cope with stress, which are factors that are believed to contribute to drug relapse. Stress-induced serotonergic transmission in the central nucleus of the amygdala is associated with anxiety states and fear. Conversely, stress-induced increases in ventral hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) levels have been linked to coping mechanisms. The goal of this study was to investigate the neurobiological changes induced by amphetamine that contribute to stress sensitivity during withdrawal. We tested the hypothesis that limbic serotonergic responses to restraint stress would be altered in male Sprague-Dawley rats chronically pretreated with amphetamine (2.5mg/kg, intraperitoneal) and then subjected to 2weeks of withdrawal. Amphetamine withdrawal resulted in increased stress-induced behavioral arousal relative to control treatment, suggesting that drug withdrawal induced greater sensitivity to the stressor. When microdialysis was used to determine the effects of restraint on extracellular 5-HT, stress-induced increases in 5-HT levels were abolished in the ventral hippocampus and augmented in the central amygdala during amphetamine withdrawal. Reverse dialysis of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone into the ventral hippocampus blocked the stress-induced increase in 5-HT levels in saline-pretreated rats, suggesting that glucocorticoid receptors mediate stress-induced increases in 5-HT levels in the ventral hippocampus. However, mifepristone had no effect on stress-induced increases in 5-HT levels in the central amygdala, indicating that stress increases 5-HT levels in this region independently of glucocorticoid receptors. During amphetamine withdrawal, the absence of stress-induced increases in ventral hippocampal 5-HT levels combined with enhanced stress-induced serotonergic responses in the central amygdala may contribute to drug relapse by decreasing stress-coping ability and heightening stress responsiveness.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Wang, Changhua, & Xuejun Wang. (2015). The interplay between autophagy and the ubiquitin–proteasome system in cardiac proteotoxicity. BBA – Molecular Basis of Disease, 1852(2), 188-194.

Proteotoxicity refers to the detrimental effects of damaged/misfolded proteins on the cell. Cardiac muscle is particularly susceptible to proteotoxicity because sustained and severe proteotoxic stress leads to cell death and the cardiac muscle has very limited self-renewal capacity. The ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagic-lysosomal pathway (ALP) are two major pathways responsible for degradation of most cellular proteins. Alterations of UPS and ALP functions are associated with the accumulation of proteotoxic species in the heart, a key pathological feature of common forms of heart disease including idiopathic, ischemic, and pressure-overloaded cardiomyopathies and a large subset of congestive heart failure. Emerging evidence suggests that proteasome inhibition or impairment activates autophagy and conversely, acute ALP inhibition may sometimes increase intrinsic proteasome peptidase activities but chronic ALP inhibition hinders UPS performance in ubiquitinated protein degradation. The exact molecular basis on which the two degradative pathways interact remains largely undefined. Here we review current understanding of the roles of the UPS and autophagy in the control of cardiac proteotoxicity, with a specific focus on the crosstalk between the two pathways. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Autophagy and protein quality control in cardiometabolic diseases.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Kerby, Jacob, & Andrew Sih. (2015). Effects of carbaryl on species interactions of the foothill yellow legged frog ( Rana boylii) and the Pacific treefrog ( Pseudacris regilla). Hydrobiologia, 746(1), 255-269.

Amphibian species worldwide are being confronted with novel anthropogenic stressors such as contaminants and invasive species. While much work has been done to examine these factors individually, less is known about how these stressors might interact. No studies to this point have examined the potentially synergistic impacts between these two stressors on a threatened amphibian species. We present the results from three separate laboratory studies focusing on two species of frogs, the Pacific tree frog ( Pseudacris regilla) and a federal species of concern, the foothill yellow legged frog ( Rana boylii). These experiments examine the toxicity of an insecticide, carbaryl, on each species, on their competitive interactions, and on their interaction with a non-native crayfish predator ( Pacifastacus leniusculus). R. boylii were more susceptible to pesticide exposure than P. regilla and exposure reduced their ability to compete. This differential effect of the pesticide resulted in a remarkable increase in mortality (50%) for R. boylii with an invasive crayfish predator present while P. regilla exhibited no change. These results add to concerns over the utility of single species toxicity tests in determining safe levels for environmental exposure and advocate for the use of multiple species tests that focus on key species interactions.

Biology Department.

Nguyen, Huu Tam, Hyunwoo Park, Karen L. Koster, Rebecca E. Cahoon, Hanh T. M. Nguyen, John Shanklin, . . . Edgar B. Cahoon. (2015). Redirection of metabolic flux for high levels of omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acid accumulation in camelina seeds. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 13(1), 38-50.

Seed oils enriched in omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids, including palmitoleic acid (16:1∆9) and cis-vaccenic acid (18:1∆11), have nutraceutical and industrial value for polyethylene production and biofuels. Existing oilseed crops accumulate only small amounts (<2%) of these novel fatty acids in their seed oils. We demonstrate a strategy for enhanced production of omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids in camelina ( Camelina sativa) and soybean ( Glycine max) that is dependent on redirection of metabolic flux from the typical ∆9 desaturation of stearoyl (18:0)-acyl carrier protein ( ACP) to ∆9 desaturation of palmitoyl (16:0)-acyl carrier protein ( ACP) and coenzyme A (CoA). This was achieved by seed-specific co-expression of a mutant ∆9-acyl- ACP and an acyl-CoA desaturase with high specificity for 16:0- ACP and CoA substrates, respectively. This strategy was most effective in camelina where seed oils with ~17% omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids were obtained. Further increases in omega-7 fatty acid accumulation to 60-65% of the total fatty acids in camelina seeds were achieved by inclusion of seed-specific suppression of 3-keto-acyl- ACP synthase II and the FatB 16:0- ACP thioesterase genes to increase substrate pool sizes of 16:0- ACP for the ∆9-acyl- ACP desaturase and by blocking C18 fatty acid elongation. Seeds from these lines also had total saturated fatty acids reduced to ~5% of the seed oil versus ~12% in seeds of nontransformed plants. Consistent with accumulation of triacylglycerol species with shorter fatty acid chain lengths and increased monounsaturation, seed oils from engineered lines had marked shifts in thermotropic properties that may be of value for biofuel applications.

Biology Department.

Thiruppathi, Eagappanath, Mark K. Larson, & Gopinath Mani. (2015). Surface Modification of CoCr Alloy Using Varying Concentrationsof Phosphoric and Phosphonoacetic Acids: Albumin and Fibrinogen Adsorption,Platelet Adhesion, Activation, and Aggregation Studies. Langmuir, 31(1), 358-370.

CoCr alloy is commonly used in variouscardiovascular medical devices for its excellent physical and mechanicalproperties. However, the formation of blood clots on the alloy surfacesis a serious concern. This research is focused on the surface modificationof CoCr alloy using varying concentrations (1, 25, 50, 75, and 100mM) of phosphoric acid (PA) and phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) to generatevarious surfaces with different wettability, chemistry, and roughness.Then, the adsorption of blood plasma proteins such as albumin andfibrinogen and the adhesion, activation, and aggregation of plateletswith the various surfaces generated were investigated. Contact angleanalysis showed PA and PAA coatings on CoCr provided a gradient ofhydrophilic surfaces. FTIR showed PA and PAA were covalently boundto CoCr surface and formed different bonding configurations dependingon the concentrations of coating solutions used. AFM showed the formationof homogeneous PA and PAA coatings on CoCr. The single and dual proteinadsorption studies showed that the amount of albumin and fibrinogenadsorbed on the alloy surfaces strongly depend on the type of PA andPAA coatings prepared by different concentrations of coating solutions.All PA coated CoCr showed reduced platelet adhesion and activationwhen compared to control CoCr. Also, 75 and 100 mM PA-CoCr showedreduced platelet aggregation. For PAA coated CoCr, no significantdifference in platelet adhesion and activation was observed betweenPAA coated CoCr and control CoCr. Thus, this study demonstrated thatCoCr can be surface modified using PA for potentially reducing theformation of blood clots and improving the blood compatibility ofthe alloy.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

Rashwan, Khaled, Erik Brakke, & Grigoriy Sereda. (2014). Fluorescent labeling of materials using silica nanoparticles. Nanotechnology Reviews, 3(6), 591-596.

The article is focused on the implementation of fluorescent silica nanoparticles in the laboratory curriculum. Along with a brief overview of experimental procedures appropriate for teaching in the laboratory and scarce examples of utilization of silica nanoparticles in the laboratory instruction, a new mini-laboratory course is described in detail. The series of the developed experiments allow the students to synthesize silica nanoparticles, place organic functionalities on their surface, and explore nanoparticles as labels and building blocks for nanoassemblies. Introduction of students to the art of using the most popular specific interaction in nanomedicine (avidin-biotin), along with synthesis and manipulation of nanoparticles, will help them bridge their existing or future knowledge of organic chemistry, materials science, and nanomedicine. The experiment is beneficial for students’ understanding of the relationship between organic chemistry, materials science, and nanomedicine, regardless of their level of expertise in those fields.

Chemistry Department.

Ladegaard, Hans J., & Christopher J. Jenks. (2015). Language and intercultural communication in the workplace: critical approaches to theory and practice. Language & Intercultural Communication, 15(1), 1-12.

An introduction is presented in which the authors discuss topics within the issue, including intercultural communication (ICC) in the workplace, the professional experiences within multicultural and multilingual workplaces, and language behaviour in Malaysian workplaces.

English Department.

Jastram, A., H. R. Harris, R. Mahapatra, …., Joel Sander, & S. Upadhyayula. (2015). Cryogenic Dark Matter Search detector fabrication process and recent improvements. Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section a-Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment, 772, 14-25.

A dedicated facility has been commissioned for Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) detector fabrication at Texas A&M University (TAMU) The fabrication process has been carefully tuned using this facility and its equipment. Production of successfully tested detectors has been demonstrated. Significant improvements in detector performance have been made using new fabrication methods/equipment and tuning of process parameters. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Physics Department.

Newswander, Chad B. (2015). Guerrilla Statesmanship: Constitutionalizing an Ethic of Dissent. Public Administration Review, 75(1), 126-134.

According to judicial precedents, administrators informed by their expertise can speak on issues of public concern under First Amendment protections. In one sense, they could dissent by working against their employers in an attempt to direct issues of public concern through an educational function. The power to act like a statesman in raising such issues allows administrators to lead from behind and in front, as long as certain judicial thresholds are met. However, the U.S. Supreme Court recently moved to tighten the scope of such activity. This article assesses how an ethic of dissent has been translated into a constitutional perspective that at first was moderately constrained and later became very restricted. While the move to limit an ethic of dissent provides necessary constraints, it also may have weakened administrators’ ability to perform necessary statesmanship acts rooted in guerrilla government to achieve the common good.

Political Science Department.

Dvorak, R. D., & Jeffrey S. Simons. (2014). Daily Associations Between Anxiety and Alcohol Use: Variation by Sustained Attention, Set Shifting, and Gender. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 28(4), 969-979.

Many theories of emotion regulation and alcohol use posit that alcohol is consumed as a way to regulate negative mood. However, the literature has conflicting evidence on mood – alcohol use associations. Understanding how individual differences affect mood – alcohol use associations remains an important area of study. Previous research has suggested that cognitive abilities may affect the relationship between mood and alcohol. The current ecological momentary study examined associations between daytime anxious and positive mood and both (a) the likelihood of alcohol use and (b) the intensity of use on drinking nights as a function of sustained attention, set shifting, and gender. Participants (n = 100) completed assessments of sustained attention and set shifting, then carried palmtop computers for 21 days, reporting mood and alcohol use up to 8 times per day. Results showed that positive mood was consistently associated with both likelihood and intensity of alcohol use, but the association between positive mood and alcohol outcomes was not affected by cognitive abilities. Anxious mood was positively associated with the likelihood of drinking for men with high cognitive abilities. Anxious mood was positively associated with intoxication on drinking nights for men with high sustained attention, but inversely associated with intoxication on drinking nights for women with high sustained attention. Results suggest that variation in mood, executive functioning, and gender interact to contribute to observed differences in drinking behavior. These differences may be the result of gender-specific coping strategies in response to negative emotion.

Psychology Department.

Gaher, Raluca M., Austin M. Hahn, Hanako Shishido, Jeffrey S. Simons, & Sam Gaster. (2015). Associations between sensitivity to punishment, sensitivity to reward, and gambling. Addictive Behaviors, 42, 180-184.

The majority of individuals gamble during their lifetime; however only a subset of these individuals develops problematic gambling. Gray’s Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory may be relevant to understanding gambling problems. Differences in sensitivity to punishments and rewards can influence an individual’s behavior and may be pertinent to the development of gambling problems. This study examined the functional associations between sensitivity to punishment (SP), sensitivity to reward (SR), and gambling problems in a sample of 2254 college students. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression was used to predict gambling problems as well as the absence of gambling problems. Gambling problems were hypothesized to be positively associated with SR and inversely associated with SP. In addition, SP was hypothesized to moderate the association between SR and gambling problems, attenuating the strength of the association. As hypothesized, SR was positively associated with gambling problems. However, SP did not moderate the relationship between SR and gambling problems. SP did, however, moderate the relationship between SR and the likelihood of never experiencing gambling problems. The results demonstrate that individual differences in SP and SR are functionally associated with gambling problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Gaher, Raluca M., Jeffrey S. Simons, Austin M. Hahn, Nicole L. Hofman, Jamie Hansen, & J. Buchkoski. (2014). An Experience Sampling Study of PTSD and Alcohol-Related Problems. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 28(4), 1013-1025.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents a debilitating psychiatric condition that is affecting the lives of many returning veterans. PTSD and alcohol use and dependence are highly comorbid. The purpose of this study was to understand the functional mechanisms between PTSD and alcohol use and problems. Specifically, the role of negative urgency and emotional intelligence were investigated as vulnerability and resiliency factors, respectively. This study utilized experience sampling to test associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol use and related problems in a sample of 90 OIF/OEF veterans. Participants completed 8 brief questionnaires daily for 2 weeks on palmtop computers. Elevations in PTSD symptoms during the day were associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use and associated problems that night. PTSD symptoms were associated with greater problems above and beyond the effect of drinking level at both the within-and between-person level. Emotional intelligence was associated with lower negative urgency, fewer PTSD symptoms, and less alcohol use and associated problems. The effects of emotional intelligence were primarily indirect via negative urgency and the effects of negative urgency on alcohol use and problems were indirect via its positive association with PTSD symptoms. Hypothesized cross-level effects of emotional intelligence and negative urgency were not supported. The findings suggest a functional association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption. The association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption is consistent with a self-medication model. However, the significant associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol problems, after controlling for use level, suggest a broader role of dysregulation.

Psychology Department.

Messler, Erick C., Noah N. Emery, & Randy P. Quevillon. (2015). Does relationship quality matter? Perceived mutual reciprocity as a moderator between perceived parental approval of drinking and college alcohol use. Journal of Substance Use, 20(1), 44-49.

Alcohol misuse among young adult college students remains a major public health problem in USA. Although much effort has been made to identify factors associated with problem drinking among college students, there is a lack of research investigating the role parents may have on college student drinking. Recent evidence indicates that parents matter when it comes to adolescent drinking, both before and after their children go to college. In this study, the authors examined mutual reciprocity as a moderator variable between perceived parental approval of drinking and negative consequences of alcohol use. Contrary to the hypothesized results, our findings indicate that mutual reciprocity does not moderate the relationship between perceived parental approval and negative alcohol-related consequences.

Psychology Department.

Oliver-Rodríguez, Juan C., & X. T. Wang. (2015). Non-parametric three-way mixed ANOVA with aligned rank tests. British Journal of Mathematical & Statistical Psychology, 68(1), 23-42.

Research problems that require a non-parametric analysis of multifactor designs with repeated measures arise in the behavioural sciences. There is, however, a lack of available procedures in commonly used statistical packages. In the present study, a generalization of the aligned rank test for the two-way interaction is proposed for the analysis of the typical sources of variation in a three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. It can be implemented in the usual statistical packages. Its statistical properties are tested by using simulation methods with two sample sizes ( n = 30 and n = 10) and three distributions (normal, exponential and double exponential). Results indicate substantial increases in power for non-normal distributions in comparison with the usual parametric tests. Similar levels of Type I error for both parametric and aligned rank ANOVA were obtained with non-normal distributions and large sample sizes. Degrees-of-freedom adjustments for Type I error control in small samples are proposed. The procedure is applied to a case study with 30 participants per group where it detects gender differences in linguistic abilities in blind children not shown previously by other methods.

Psychology Department.

Wray, Tyler B., Jeffrey S. Simons, & Stephen A. Maisto. (2015). Effects of alcohol intoxication and autonomic arousal on delay discounting and risky sex in young adult heterosexual men. Addictive Behaviors, 42, 9-13.

Objectives: The relationship between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior is complex and depends on psychological and environmental factors. The alcohol myopia model predicts that, due to alcohol’s impact on attention, the behavior of intoxicated individuals will become increasingly directed by salient cues. Autonomic arousal (AA) may have a similar effect on attention. Experiential delay discounting (DD) may be increased by both alcohol consumption and AA due to their common effects and may mediate the relationship between these conditions and risky sex. Methods: This study employed a 3 (alcohol, placebo, control)×2 (high, low arousal) experimental design to examine the effects of acute alcohol intoxication and AA on experiential delay discounting, subjective sexual arousal, and risky sex. Results: Path models revealed complex results that only partially supported study hypotheses. Ratings of subjective sexual arousal did not differ across either beverage or arousal conditions. DD was also unrelated to any study variable. However, subjective sexual arousal was positively related to risky sexual intentions. Alcohol intoxication was also positively associated with increased unprotected sex intentions, consistent with past studies. Conclusions: These results affirm the role of subjective sexual arousal and alcohol intoxication in risky sexual decision-making, yielding effect sizes similar to comparable past studies. The lack of differences across autonomic arousal groups also suggests that effects of attentional myopia may be behavior-specific. Failure to replicate effects of alcohol intoxication on DD also suggests reservation regarding its involvement in alcohol-involved risky sex.

Psychology Department.

Ceccanti, Mauro, Daniela Fiorentino, Giovanna Coriale, …., H. Eugene Hoyme, J. Phillip Gossage, . . . Philip A. May. (2014). Maternal risk factors for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in a province in Italy. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 145, 201-208.

Background: Maternal risk factors for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in Italy and Mediterranean cultures need clarification, as there are few studies and most are plagued by inaccurate reporting of antenatal alcohol use. Methods: Maternal interviews (n = 905) were carried out in a population-based study of the prevalence and characteristics of FASD in the Lazio region of Italy which provided data for multivariate case control comparisons and multiple correlation models. Results: Case control findings from interviews seven years post-partum indicate that mothers of children with FASD are significantly more likely than randomly-selected controls or community mothers to: be shorter; have higher body mass indexes (BMI); be married to a man with legal problems; report more drinking three months pre-pregnancy; engage in more current drinking and drinking alone; and have alcohol problems in her family. Logistic regression analysis of multiple candidate predictors of a FASD diagnosis indicates that alcohol problems in the child’s family is the most significant risk factor, making a diagnosis within the continuum of FASD 9 times more likely (95% C.I. = 1.6 to 50.7). Sequential multiple regression analysis of the child’s neuropsychological performance also identifies alcohol problems in the child’s family as the only significant maternal risk variable (p &lt; .001) when controlling for other potential risk factors. Conclusions: Underreporting of prenatal alcohol use has been demonstrated among Italian and other Mediterranean antenatal samples, and it was suspected in this sample. Nevertheless, several significant maternal risk factors for FASD have been identified. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Harris, William S., & Michelle L. Baack. (2015). Beyond building better brains: bridging the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) gap of prematurity. Journal of Perinatology, 35(1), 1-7.

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are essential for normal vision and neurodevelopment. DHA accretion in utero occurs primarily in the last trimester of pregnancy to support rapid growth and brain development. Premature infants, born before this process is complete, are relatively deficient in this essential fatty acid. Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants remain deficient for a long period of time due to ineffective conversion from precursor fatty acids, lower fat stores and a limited nutritional provision of DHA after birth. In addition to long-term visual and neurodevelopmental risks, VLBW infants have significant morbidity and mortality from diseases specific to premature birth, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and retinopathy of prematurity. There is increasing evidence that DHA has protective benefits against these disease states. The aim of this article is to identify the unique needs of premature infants, review the current recommendations for LCPUFA provision in infants and discuss the caveats and innovative new ways to overcome the DHA deficiency through postnatal supplementation, with the long-term goal of improving morbidity and mortality in this at-risk population.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Liaw, W., S. Coleman, A. Bazemore, & Mark K. Huntington. (2014). Another risk to US travelers-malaria. Journal of Family Practice, 63(11), E1-E7.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Miedema, Jayson, D. C. Zedek, B. Z. Rayala, & E. E. Bain. (2014). 9 tips to help prevent derm biopsy mistakes. Journal of Family Practice, 63(10), 559-564.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Bjornestad, A. G., Amy Schweinle, & J. D. Elhai. (2014). Measuring Secondary Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Military Spouses With the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Military Version. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 202(12), 864-869.

Little research to date has examined secondary traumatic stress symptoms in spouses of military veterans. This study investigated the presence and severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms in a sample of 227 Army National Guard veterans and secondary traumatic stress symptoms among their spouses. The veterans completed the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist Military Version (PCL-M) (Weathers et al., 1993) to determine the probable prevalence rate of posttraumatic stress symptoms. A modified version of the PCL-M was used to assess secondary traumatic stress symptoms in the spouses. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the modified version of the PCL-M used to assess secondary traumatic stress symptoms in spouses fits using the same four-factor PTSD structure as the PCL-M for veterans. This study provides initial evidence on the underlying symptom structure of secondary traumatic stress symptoms among spouses of traumatic event victims.

School of Education.

Newland, Lisa A., Jarod T. Giger, Michael J. Lawler, Eliann R. Carr, Emily A. Dykstra, & Soonhee Roh. (2014). Subjective well-being for children in a rural community. Journal of Social Service Research, 40(5), 642-661.

This study examined indicators of rural children’s subjective well-being and the prediction of well-being indicators from person variables as well as home, life, neighborhood, school, and peer-group contexts. Seventh-grade children (Mage = 13 years, age range = 12–14 years) in a rural Midwestern U.S. community (N = 149) completed an adapted version of an international survey measuring children’s subjective well-being and ecological contexts in childhood and adolescence. Indicators of children’s subjective well-being (including life satisfaction, mental health, and self-image) were significantly correlated with all home, life, neighborhood, school, and peer contexts except life stress. Regression and bootstrap analyses suggest that the strongest predictors of both life satisfaction and mental health were school satisfaction and family, teacher, and peer relationships. The strongest predictors of self-image were gender, number of residences, school satisfaction, and teacher and peer relationships. Findings suggest that a model of subjective well-being that accounts for relational factors, as well as person and other environmental factors, is potentially useful for understanding children’s subjective well-being. Results are discussed in the context of ecological, relationship-based interventions from early childhood through school-age years. Future studies should test this model with samples diverse in child age, culture, and geographical locations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

School of Education.

Shim, Andrew L., & Shannon Norman. (2015). Incorporating Pedal-less Bicycles into a Pre-K through Third-grade Curriculum to Improve Stability in Children. JOPERD: The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 86(1), 50-51.

Physical educators are expected to develop activities that promote psychological and physiological benefits for children during their pre-adolescent years, especially in pre-K through third grade. One of these skill components is the development and acquisition of stability or balance. This article describes how to use pedal-less bicycles to teach balance and stability to pre-K through third-grade children.

School of Education.

Cho, Sunhee, So-Young Park, Kunsook S. Bernstein, Soonhee Roh, & Gyeong-Suk Jeon. (2014). Socio-demographic and health behavioral correlates of depressive symptoms among korean americans. Community Mental Health Journal, 50(9), x.

This study identifies the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and help seeking behaviors for depressive symptoms among adult Korean Americans (KAs). Using survey data from 230 residents of the New York City, Teaneck, New Jersey, and Philadelphia areas, simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between depressive symptoms and the covariates. Women were at much lower risk of depressive symptoms than were men, even after adjusting other covariates (OR 0.45, 95 % CI 0.21–0.96). Having no health insurance (OR 4.02, 95 % CI 1.28–12.61) and having experience in seeking professional help for mental health problems during the last year were significantly associated with depressive symptoms (OR 2.96, 95 % CI 1.29–6.80). The findings suggest more attention to the risk of depression of KA men and further efforts on understanding the unique contribution of socio-demographic factors and health-related behaviors on depressive symptoms among KAs.

School of Health Sciences.

Giger, Jarod T., Natalie D. Pope, H. Bruce Vogt, Cassity Gutierrez, Lisa A. Newland, Jason Lemke, & Michael J. Lawler. (2015). Remote patient monitoring acceptance trends among older adults residing in a frontier state. Computers in Human Behavior, 44, 174-182.

This pilot study aims to present a methodological approach for investigating remote patient monitoring system acceptance trends for older adults residing in a frontier state. For this purpose, extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) variables, which included subjective norm , perceived usefulness , perceived ease of use , and behavioral intention were investigated using growth curve methods and modern resampling techniques. Results revealed our methodological and analytical approach shows promise for investigating technology acceptance over time on subjects where little literature exists and where recruiting adequate sample sizes for statistical power purposes may be challenging. Results of the data analysis showed there was a significant and reliable linear trend on subjective norm. Time did not predict perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, or behavioral intention, indicating the levels of these factors were high and stable over the course of the study. Older adults accepted remote patient monitoring, and family and friends may influence technology acceptance promoting behaviors. The longer participants used the technology, the more they perceived those important to them would want them to use it. Attention to social influence to optimize the implementation of in-home health monitoring among this population is warranted. Recommendations for future research are provided.

School of Health Sciences.

Roh, Soonhee, Catherine E. Burnette, Kyoung Hag Lee, Yeon-Shim Lee, Scott D. Easton, & Michael J. Lawler. (2015). Risk and protective factors for depressive symptoms among American Indian older adults: Adverse childhood experiences and social support. Aging & Mental Health, 19(4), 371-380.

Objectives:Despite efforts to promote health equity, many American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations, including older adults, experience elevated levels of depression. Although adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and social support are well-documented risk and protective factors for depression in the general population, little is known about AI/AN populations, especially older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to depression among a sample of AI older adults in the midwest. Method:Data were collected using a self-administered survey completed by 233 AIs over the age of 50. The survey included standardized measures such as the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form, ACE Questionnaire, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the main hypotheses of the study. Results:Two dimensions of ACE (i.e., childhood neglect, household dysfunction) were positively associated with depressive symptoms; social support was negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Perceived health and living alone were also significant predictors. Conclusion: ACE may play a significant role in depression among AI/AN across the life course and into old age. Social support offers a promising mechanism to bolster resilience among AI/AN older adults.

School of Health Sciences.

Porter, Megan L., Kingston, A. C. N., McCready, R., Cameron, E. G., Hofmann, C. M., Suarez, L., Olsen, G. H., Cronin, T. W., & Robinson, P. R. (2014). Characterization of visual pigments, oil droplets, lens and cornea in the whooping crane Grus americana. Journal of Experimental Biology, 217(21), 3883-3890.

Vision has been investigated in many species of birds, but few studies have considered the visual systems of large birds and the particular implications of large eyes and long-life spans on visual system capabilities. To address these issues we investigated the visual system of the whooping crane Grus americana (Gruiformes, Gruidae), which is one of only two North American crane species. It is a large, long-lived bird in which UV sensitivity might be reduced by chromatic aberration and entrance of UV radiation into the eye could be detrimental to retinal tissues. To investigate the whooping crane visual system we used microspectrophotometry to determine the absorbance spectra of retinal oil droplets and to investigate whether the ocular media (i.e. the lens and cornea) absorb UV radiation. In vitro expression and reconstitution was used to determine the absorbance spectra of rod and cone visual pigments. The rod visual pigments had wavelengths of peak absorbance (lambda(max)) at 500 nm, whereas the cone visual pigment lambda(max) values were determined to be 404 nm (SWS1), 450 nm (SWS2), 499 nm (RH2) and 561 nm (LWS), similar to other characterized bird visual pigment absorbance values. The oil droplet cut-off wavelength (lambda(cut)) values similarly fell within ranges recorded in other avian species: 576 nm (R-type), 522 nm (Y-type), 506 nm (P-type) and 448 nm (C-type). We confirm that G. americana has a violet-sensitive visual system; however, as a consequence of the lambda(max) of the SWS1 visual pigment (404 nm), it might also have some UV sensitivity.

Biology Department.

Roberts, N. W., How, M. J., Porter, Megan L., Temple, S. E., Caldwell, R. L., Powell, S. B., Gruev, V., Marshall, N. J., & Cronin, T. W. (2014). Animal Polarization Imaging and Implications for Optical Processing. Proceedings of the Ieee, 102(10), 1427-1434.

Biologically inspired solutions for modern-day sensory systems promise to deliver both higher capacity and faster, more efficient processing of information than current computational approaches. Many animals are able to perform remarkable sensing tasks despite only being able to process what would be considered modest data rates and bandwidths. The key biological innovations revolve around dedicated filter designs. By sacrificing some flexibility, specifically matched and hard-wired sensory systems, designed primarily for single roles, provide a blueprint for data and task-specific efficiency. In this paper, we examine several animal visual systems designed to use the polarization of light in spatial imaging. We investigate some implications for artificial optical processing based on models of polarization image processing in fiddler crabs, cuttlefish, octopus, and mantis shrimp.

Biology Department.

Netzer, Nathan L., Dai, Feng-Rong, Wang, Zhenqiang, & Jiang, Chaoyang. (2014). pH-Modulated Molecular Assemblies and Surface Properties of Metal-Organic Supercontainers at the Air-Water Interface. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, 53(41), 10965-10969.

The orientation of metal-organic supercontainer (MOSC) molecules in Langmuir films was systematically studied at the air-water interface. The acidity of the aqueous subphases plays a significant role in tuning the orientation of MOSC molecules in the Langmuir films. Furthermore, Langmuir-Blodgett films of MOSCs were prepared and the uniform multilayer structures demonstrated various surface properties, depending on their conditions of fabrication. Our use of Langmuir films provides a novel approach to access tunable assemblies of MOSC molecules in two-dimensional thin films.

Chemistry Department.

Thiel, C. W., Macfarlane, R. M., Sun, Yongchen, Bottger, T., Sinclair, N., Tittel, W., & Cone, R. L. (2014). Measuring and analyzing excitation-induced decoherence in rare-earth-doped optical materials. Laser Physics, 24(10).

A method is introduced for quantitatively analyzing photon echo decay measurements to characterize excitation-induced decoherence resulting from the phenomenon of instantaneous spectral diffusion. Detailed analysis is presented that allows fundamental material properties to be extracted that predict and describe excitation-induced decoherence for a broad range of measurements, applications and experimental conditions. Motivated by the need for a method that enables systematic studies of ultra-low decoherence systems and direct comparison of properties between optical materials, this approach employs simple techniques and analytical expressions that avoid the need for difficult to measure and often unknown material parameters or numerical simulations. This measurement and analysis approach is demonstrated for the H-3(6) to H-3(4) optical transition of three thulium-doped crystals, Tm3+:YAG, Tm3+:LiNbO3 and Tm3+:YGG, that are currently employed in quantum information and classical signal processing demonstrations where minimizing decoherence is essential to achieve high efficiencies and large signal bandwidths. These new results reveal more than two orders of magnitude variation in sensitivity to excitation-induced decoherence among the materials studied and establish that the Tm3+:YGG system offers the longest optical coherence lifetimes and the lowest levels of excitation-induced decoherence yet observed for any known thulium-doped material.

Physics Department.

Struckman-Johnson, Cindy, Gaster, Samuel, Struckman-Johnson, Dave, Johnson, Melissa, & May-Shinagle, Gabby. (2015). Gender differences in psychosocial predictors of texting while driving. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 74, 218-228.

A sample of 158 male and 357 female college students at a midwestern university participated in an on-line study of psychosocial motives for texting while driving. Men and women did not differ in self-reported ratings of how often they texted while driving. However, more women sent texts of less than a sentence while more men sent texts of 1–5 sentences. More women than men said they would quit texting while driving due to police warnings, receiving information about texting dangers, being shown graphic pictures of texting accidents, and being in a car accident. A hierarchical regression for men’s data revealed that lower levels of feeling distracted by texting while driving (20% of the variance), higher levels of cell phone dependence (11.5% of the variance), risky behavioral tendencies (6.5% of the variance) and impulsivity (2.3%) of the variance) were significantly associated with more texting while driving (total model variance = 42%). A separate regression for women revealed that higher levels of cell phone dependence (10.4% of the variance), risky behavioral tendencies (9.9% of the variance), texting distractibility (6.2%), crash risk estimates (2.2% of the variance) and driving confidence (1.3% of the variance) were significantly associated with more texting while driving (total model variance = 31%.) Friendship potential and need for intimacy were not related to men’s or women’s texting while driving. Implications of the results for gender-specific prevention strategies are discussed.

Psychology Department.

Anderson, Joe, Nykamp, M., Danielson, Laura, Remund, T., & Kelly, P. W. (2014). A novel endovascular debranching technique using physician-assembled endografts for repair of thoracoabdominal aneurysms. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 60(5), 1177-1184.

Objective: The objective of this study was to demonstrate a technique that uses physician-assembled endografts to make use of the benefits of parallel grafts while also providing for circumferential seal and fixation in repair of thoracoabdominal aneurysms in inoperable patients. Methods: A single-center all-comers retrospective analysis of 14 patients was performed that looked at the early outcomes of patients treated for thoracoabdominal aneurysms. Three Crawford type II, four type III, four type IV, and three type V thoracoabdominal aneurysms were treated. Contrast material, fluoroscopy time, length of stay, clinical success, and technical success were measured. Results: There was no in-hospital, 30-day, or 6-month mortality. We found two type III endoleaks in the early design. One required coil embolization. Average volume of contrast material and average fluoroscopy time were 76.9 mL and 119.1 minutes, respectively. Average length of stay was 10.5 days, and average procedure time was 251.2 minutes. Clinical success was observed in 78.6% of patients to date, and technical success was observed in 85.7% of patients. Conclusions: Short-term results show that this approach is safe. The device can be safely implanted, is off-the-shelf, and can treat each of the Crawford thoracoabdominal aneurysm types. Finally, the assembly of off-the-shelf components may shorten the regulatory path for this physician-assembled endograft.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

May, Phiip A., Baete, Amy, Russo, Jaymi, Elliott, Amy J., Blankenship, J., …., & Hoyme, H. Eugene. (2014). Prevalence and Characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Pediatrics, 134(5), 855-866.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) among first grade students (6- to 7-year-olds) in a representative Midwestern US community. METHODS: From a consented sample of 70.5% of all first graders enrolled in public and private schools, an oversample of small children (<= 25th percentile on height, weight, and head circumference) and randomly selected control candidates were examined for physical growth, development, dysmorphology, cognition, and behavior. The children’s mothers were interviewed for maternal risk. RESULTS: Total dysmorphology scores differentiate significantly fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) from one another and from unexposed controls. Alcohol-related neuro developmental disorder (ARND) is not as clearly differentiated from controls. Children who had FASD performed, on average, significantly worse on 7 cognitive and behavioral tests and measures. The most predictive maternal risk variables in this community are late recognition of pregnancy, quantity of alcoholic drinks consumed 3 months before pregnancy, and quantity of drinking reported for the index child’s father. From the final multidisciplinary case findings, 3 techniques were used to estimate prevalence. FAS in this community likely ranges from 6 to 9 per 1000 children (midpoint, 7.5), PFAS from 11 to 17 per 1000 children (midpoint, 14), and the total rate of FASD is estimated at 24 to 48 per 1000 children, or 2.4% to 4.8% (midpoint, 3.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Children who have FASD are more prevalent among first graders in this Midwestern city than predicted by previous, popular estimates.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Nosova, E. V., Chong, K. C., Alley, H. F., Harris, William S., Boscardin, W. J., Conte, M. S., Owens, C. D., & Grenon, S. M. (2014). Clinical correlates of red blood cell omega-3 fatty acid content in male veterans with peripheral arterial disease. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 60(5), 1325-1331.

Objective: Despite available medical therapies, patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) remain at high risk for cardiovascular events. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), derived from marine sources, have been shown to improve cardiovascular mortality. The Omega-3 Index (O3I), a proportion of the n-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the red blood cell membrane, correlates with cardiovascular risk. Previous investigations have found that n-3 PUFA supplementation, fish consumption, older age, and smoking history affect the O3I in different patient populations, although similar correlations have never been explored in PAD. We hypothesized that in our PAD cohort, blood content of omega-3 fatty acids would directly and positively correlate with a history of fish oil supplementation and older age and inversely correlate with a smoking history and obesity. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 111 patients who had an ankle-brachial index of <0.9 associated with claudication symptoms. We used linear regression to determine the association between clinical factors and the O3I. Results: The mean age of the cohort was 69 +/- 8 years; 37% had diabetes mellitus (hemoglobin A(1c), 7% +/- 1%), and 94% reported current smoking or a history of smoking. The mean O3I was 5% +/- 2%. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the O3I was associated with older age, increasing body mass index, and a history of smoking and fish oil intake. Conclusions: This is the first report of the relation between blood content of omega-3 fatty acids and clinical factors in a PAD population. In patients with PAD, older age, elevated body mass index, and prior fish oil supplementation predicted a higher O3I. A history of smoking correlated with a lower O3I. These results demonstrate that the O3I is a reliable measure of dietary n-3 PUFA intake and that clinical factors related to the O3I in PAD are similar to those observed in other populations.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Surendran, Kameswaran, Vitiello, S. P., & Pearce, David A. (2014). Lysosome dysfunction in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases. Pediatric Nephrology, 29(12), 2253-2261.

The lysosome, an organelle central to macromolecule degradation and recycling, plays a pivotal role in normal cell processes, ranging from autophagy to redox regulation. Not surprisingly, lysosomes are an integral part of the renal epithelial molecular machinery that facilitates normal renal physiology. Two inherited diseases that manifest as kidney dysfunction are Fabry’s disease and cystinosis, each of which is caused by a primary biochemical defect at the lysosome resulting from loss-of-function mutations in genes that encode lysosomal proteins. The functions of the lysosomes in the kidney and how lysosomal dysfunction might contribute to Fabry’s disease and cystinosis are discussed. Unlike most other pediatric renal diseases, therapies are available for Fabry’s disease and cystinosis, but require early diagnosis. Recent analysis of ceroid neuronal lipofuscinosis type 3 (Cln3) null mice, a mouse model of lysosomal disease that is primarily associated with neurological deficits, revealed renal functional abnormalities. As current and future therapeutics increase the life-span of those suffering from diseases like neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, it remains a distinct possibility that many more lysosomal disorders that primarily manifest as infant and juvenile neurodegenerative diseases may also include renal disease phenotypes.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Zhuang, Yongxian, Chan, Daniel K., Haugrud, Allison B., & Miskimins, W. Keith. (2014). Mechanisms by Which Low Glucose Enhances the Cytotoxicity of Metformin to Cancer Cells Both In Vitro and In Vivo. Plos One, 9(9).

Different cancer cells exhibit altered sensitivity to metformin treatment. Recent studies suggest these findings may be due in part to the common cell culture practice of utilizing high glucose, and when glucose is lowered, metformin becomes increasingly cytotoxic to cancer cells. In low glucose conditions ranging from 0 to 5 mM, metformin was cytotoxic to breast cancer cell lines MCF7, MDAMB231 and SKBR3, and ovarian cancer cell lines OVCAR3, and PA-1. MDAMB231 and SKBR3 were previously shown to be resistant to metformin in normal high glucose medium. When glucose was increased to 10 mM or above, all of these cell lines become less responsive to metformin treatment. Metformin treatment significantly reduced ATP levels in cells incubated in media with low glucose (2.5 mM), high fructose (25 mM) or galactose (25 mM). Reductions in ATP levels were not observed with high glucose (25 mM). This was compensated by enhanced glycolysis through activation of AMPK when oxidative phosphorylation was inhibited by metformin. However, enhanced glycolysis was either diminished or abolished by replacing 25 mM glucose with 2.5 mM glucose, 25 mM fructose or 25 mM galactose. These findings suggest that lowering glucose potentiates metformin induced cell death by reducing metformin stimulated glycolysis. Additionally, under low glucose conditions metformin significantly decreased phosphorylation of AKT and various targets of mTOR, while phospho-AMPK was not significantly altered. Thus inhibition of mTOR signaling appears to be independent of AMPK activation. Further in vivo studies using the 4T1 breast cancer mouse model confirmed that metformin inhibition of tumor growth was enhanced when serum glucose levels were reduced via low carbohydrate ketogenic diets. The data support a model in which metformin treatment of cancer cells in low glucose medium leads to cell death by decreasing ATP production and inhibition of survival signaling pathways. The enhanced cytotoxicity of metformin against cancer cells was observed both in vitro and in vivo.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Posted by: reganenosusd | December 1, 2014

November 2014

Darling, Warren, Robert Morecraft, Diane Rotella, Marc Pizzimenti, Jizhi Ge, Kimberly Stilwell-Morecraft, . . . Paul Cheney. (2014). Recovery of precision grasping after motor cortex lesion does not require forced use of the impaired hand in macaca mulatta. Experimental Brain Research, 232(12), 3929-3938.

We investigated recovery of precision grasping of small objects between the index finger and thumb of the impaired hand without forced use after surgically placed lesions to the hand/arm areas of M1 and M1 + lateral premotor cortex in two monkeys. The unilateral lesions were contralateral to the monkey’s preferred hand, which was established in prelesion testing as the hand used most often to acquire raisins in a foraging board (FB) task in which the monkey was free to use either hand to acquire treats. The lesions initially produced a clear paresis of the contralesional hand and use of only the ipsilesional hand to acquire raisins in the FB task. However, beginning about 3 weeks after the lesion both monkeys spontaneously began using the impaired contralesional hand in the FB task and increased use of that hand over the next few tests. Moreover, the monkeys clearly used precision grasp to acquire the raisins in a similar manner to prelesion performances, although grasp durations were longer. Although the monkeys used the contralesional hand more often than the ipsilesional hand in some postlesion testing sessions, they did not recover to use the hand as often as in prelesion testing when the preferred hand was used almost exclusively. These findings suggest that recovery of fine hand/digit motor function after localized damage to the lateral frontal motor areas in rhesus monkeys does not require forced use of the impaired hand.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Slivka, P. F., C. L. Dearth, T. J. Keane, ….., Robert T. Riggio, J. E. Reing, & S. F. Badylak. (2014). Fractionation of an ECM hydrogel into structural and soluble components reveals distinctive roles in regulating macrophage behavior. Biomaterials Science, 2(10), 1521-1534.

Extracellular matrix (ECM) derived from mammalian tissues has been utilized to repair damaged or missing tissue and improve healing outcomes. More recently, processing of ECM into hydrogels has expanded the use of these materials to include platforms for 3-dimensional cell culture as well as injectable therapeutics that can be delivered by minimally invasive techniques and fill irregularly shaped cavities. At the cellular level, ECM hydrogels initiate a multifaceted host response that includes recruitment of endogenous stem/progenitor cells, regional angiogenesis, and modulation of the innate immune response. Unfortunately, little is known about the components of the hydrogel that drive these responses. We hypothesized that different components of ECM hydrogels could play distinctive roles in stem cell and macrophage behavior. Utilizing a well-characterized ECM hydrogel derived from urinary bladder matrix (UBM), we separated the soluble and structural components of UBM hydrogel and characterized their biological activity. Perivascular stem cells migrated toward and reduced their proliferation in response to both structural and soluble components of UBM hydrogel. Both components also altered macrophage behavior but with different fingerprints. Soluble components increased phagocytosis with an IL-1RA(high), TNF alpha(low), IL-1 beta(low), uPA(low) secretion profile. Structural components decreased phagocytosis with a PGE2(high), PGF2 alpha(high), TNF alpha(low), IL-1 beta(low), uPA(low), MMP2(low), MMP9(low), secretion profile. The biologic activity of the soluble components was mediated by Notch and PI3K/Akt signaling, while the biologic activity of the structural components was mediated by integrins and MEK/ERK signaling. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that soluble and structural components of ECM hydrogels contribute to the host response but through different mechanisms.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Tu, Wenyu, Alan Cook, Jamie L. Scholl, MacKenzie Mears, Michael J. Watt, Kenneth J. Renner, & Gina L. Forster. (2014). SEROTONIN IN THE VENTRAL HIPPOCAMPUS MODULATES ANXIETY-LIKE BEHAVIOR DURING AMPHETAMINE WITHDRAWAL. Neuroscience, 281, 35-43.

Withdrawal from amphetamine is associated with increased anxiety and sensitivity to stressors which are thought to contribute to relapse. Rats undergoing amphetamine withdrawal fail to exhibit stress-induced increases in serotonin (5-HT) release in the ventral hippocampus and show heightened anxiety-like behaviors. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that reducing 5-HT levels in the ventral hippocampus is a causal mechanism in increasing anxiety-like behaviors during amphetamine withdrawal. First, we tested whether reducing 5-HT levels in the ventral hippocampus directly increases anxiety behavior. Male rats were bilaterally infused with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) into the ventral hippocampus, which produced a 83% decrease in ventral hippocampus 5-HT content, and were tested on the elevated plus maze (EPM) for anxiety-like behavior. Reducing ventral hippocampus 5-HT levels decreased the time spent in the open arms of the maze, suggesting that diminished ventral hippocampus 5-HT levels increases anxiety-like behavior. Next, we tested whether increasing 5-HT levels in the ventral hippocampus reverses anxiety behavior exhibited by rats undergoing amphetamine withdrawal. Rats were treated daily with either amphetamine (2.5-mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 2 weeks, and at 2 weeks withdrawal, were infused with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine (0.5 mu M) bilaterally into the ventral hippocampus and tested for anxiety-like behavior on the EPM. Rats pre-treated with amphetamine exhibited increased anxiety- like behavior on the EPM. This effect was reversed by ventral hippocampus infusion of paroxetine. Our results suggest that 5-HT levels in the ventral hippocampus are critical for regulating anxiety behavior. Increasing 5-HT levels during withdrawal may be an effective strategy for reducing anxiety-induced drug relapse. (C) 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Wu, L. P., Y. Q. Huang, Das Manas, Y. Y. Chen, J. H. Fan, & H. G. Mo. (2014). REAL-TIME MONITORING OF STRESSES AND DISPLACEMENTS IN CERVICAL NUCLEI PULPOSI DURING CERVICAL SPINE MANIPULATION: A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL ANALYSIS. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 37(8), 561-568.

Objective: The objective of this study was to research the distribution of stresses and displacements in cervical nuclei pulposi during simulated cervical spine manipulation (CSM). Methods: A 3-dimensional finite element model of C-3/4 similar to C-6/7 was established. The detailed mechanical parameters of CSM were analyzed and simulated. During the process, the changes in stresses and displacements of cervical nuclei pulposi within the model were displayed simultaneously and dynamically. Results: Cervical spine manipulation with right rotation was targeted at the C-4 spinous process of the model. During traction, levels of stresses and displacements of the nuclei pulposi exhibited an initial decrease followed by an increase. The major stresses and displacements affected the C-3/4 nucleus pulposus during rotation in CSM, when its morphology gradually changed from circular to elliptical. The highest stress (48.53 kPa) occurred at its right superior edge, on rotating 40 degrees to the right. It protruded toward the right superior, creating a gap in its left inferior aspect. The highest displacement, also at 40 degrees right, occurred at its left superior edge and measured 0.7966 mm. Dimensions of stresses and displacements reduced quickly on rapid return to neutral position. Conclusion: The morphology of the C-3/4 nucleus pulposus changed during CSM with right rotation, and it created a gap in its left inferior aspect. Biomechanically, it is more safe and rational to rotate toward the healthy side than the prolapsed side of the intervertebral disk during CSM. Upon ensuring due safety, the closer the application force is to the diseased intervertebral disk, the better is the effect of CSM.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka, Abdelali Barakat, Piotr Łakomy, Dariusz J. Smoliński, & Marcin Zadworny. (2014). Lignin and lignans in plant defence: Insight from expression profiling of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase genes during development and following fungal infection in Populus. Plant Science, 229, 111-121.

Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyses the final step in the biosynthesis of monolignol, the main component of lignin. Lignins, deposited in the secondary cell wall, play a role in plant defence against pathogens. We re-analysed the phylogeny of CAD/CAD-like genes using sequences from recently sequenced genomes, and analysed the temporal and spatial expression profiles of CAD/CAD-like genes in Populus trichocarpa healthy and infected plants. Three fungal pathogens ( Rhizoctonia solani , Fusarium oxysporum , and Cytospora sp.), varying in lifestyle and pathogenicity, were used for plant infection. Phylogenetic analyses showed that CAD/CAD-like genes were distributed in classes represented by all members from angiosperm lineages including basal angiosperms and Selaginella . The analysed genes showed different expression profiles during development and demonstrated that three genes were involved in primary xylem maturation while five may function in secondary xylem formation. Expression analysis following inoculation with fungal pathogens, showed that five genes were induced in either stem or leaves. These results add further evidence that CAD/CAD-like genes have evolved specialised functions in plant development and defence against various pest and pathogens. Two genes ( PoptrCAD11 and PoptrCAD15 ), which were induced under various stresses, could be treated as universal markers of plant defence using lignification or lignan biosynthesis.

Biology Department.

Dahdul, Wasila M., H. Cui, Paula M. Mabee, C. J. Mungall, D. Osumi-Sutherland, R. L. Walls, & M. A. Haendel. (2014). Nose to tail, roots to shoots: spatial descriptors for phenotypic diversity in the Biological Spatial Ontology. Journal of Biomedical Semantics, 5, 13.

Background: Spatial terminology is used in anatomy to indicate precise, relative positions of structures in an organism. While these terms are often standardized within specific fields of biology, they can differ dramatically across taxa. Such differences in usage can impair our ability to unambiguously refer to anatomical position when comparing anatomy or phenotypes across species. We developed the Biological Spatial Ontology (BSPO) to standardize the description of spatial and topological relationships across taxa to enable the discovery of comparable phenotypes. Results: BSPO currently contains 146 classes and 58 relations representing anatomical axes, gradients, regions, planes, sides, and surfaces. These concepts can be used at multiple biological scales and in a diversity of taxa, including plants, animals and fungi. The BSPO is used to provide a source of anatomical location descriptors for logically defining anatomical entity classes in anatomy ontologies. Spatial reasoning is further enhanced in anatomy ontologies by integrating spatial relations such as dorsal to into class descriptions (e.g., ‘dorsolateral placode’ dorsal to some ‘epibranchial placode’). Conclusions: The BSPO is currently used by projects that require standardized anatomical descriptors for phenotype annotation and ontology integration across a diversity of taxa. Anatomical location classes are also useful for describing phenotypic differences, such as morphological variation in position of structures resulting from evolution within and across species.

Biology Department.

Haendel, M. A., J. P. Balhoff, ….., Paula M. Mabee, A. Niknejad, M. Robinson-Rechavi, . . . C. J. Mungall. (2014). Unification of multi-species vertebrate anatomy ontologies for comparative biology in Uberon. Journal of Biomedical Semantics, 5, 13.

Background: Elucidating disease and developmental dysfunction requires understanding variation in phenotype. Single-species model organism anatomy ontologies (ssAOs) have been established to represent this variation. Multi-species anatomy ontologies (msAOs; vertebrate skeletal, vertebrate homologous, teleost, amphibian AOs) have been developed to represent ‘natural’ phenotypic variation across species. Our aim has been to integrate ssAOs and msAOs for various purposes, including establishing links between phenotypic variation and candidate genes. Results: Previously, msAOs contained a mixture of unique and overlapping content. This hampered integration and coordination due to the need to maintain cross-references or inter-ontology equivalence axioms to the ssAOs, or to perform large-scale obsolescence and modular import. Here we present the unification of anatomy ontologies into Uberon, a single ontology resource that enables interoperability among disparate data and research groups. As a consequence, independent development of TAO, VSAO, AAO, and vHOG has been discontinued. Conclusions: The newly broadened Uberon ontology is a unified cross-taxon resource for metazoans (animals) that has been substantially expanded to include a broad diversity of vertebrate anatomical structures, permitting reasoning across anatomical variation in extinct and extant taxa. Uberon is a core resource that supports single-and cross-species queries for candidate genes using annotations for phenotypes from the systematics, biodiversity, medical, and model organism communities, while also providing entities for logical definitions in the Cell and Gene Ontologies.

Biology Department.

How, Martin J., Megan L. Porter, Andrew N. Radford, Kathryn D. Feller, Shelby E. Temple, Roy L. Caldwell, . . . Nicholas W. Roberts. (2014). Out of the blue: the evolution of horizontally polarized signals in Haptosquilla (Crustacea, Stomatopoda, Protosquillidae). Journal of Experimental Biology, 217(19), 3425-3431.

The polarization of light provides information that is used by many animals for a number of different visually guided behaviours. Several marine species, such as stomatopod crustaceans and cephalopod molluscs, communicate using visual signals that contain polarized information, content that is often part of a more complex multidimensional visual signal. In this work, we investigate the evolution of polarized signals in species of Haptosquilla, a widespread genus of stomatopod, as well as related protosquillids. We present evidence for a pre-existing bias towards horizontally polarized signal content and demonstrate that the properties of the polarization vision system in these animals increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the signal. Combining these results with the increase in efficacy that polarization provides over intensity and hue in a shallow marine environment, we propose a joint framework for the evolution of the polarized form of these complex signals based on both efficacy-driven (proximate) and content-driven (ultimate) selection pressures.

Biology Department.

Zhao, Zhong-Qiu, Xian-Yu Liu, Joseph Jeffry, ….., Kenneth J. Renner, & Yun-Qing Li. (2014). Descending Control of Itch Transmission by the Serotonergic System via 5-HT1A-Facilitated GRP-GRPR Signaling. Neuron, 84(4), 821-834.

Summary Central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptophan, 5-HT) modulates somatosensory transduction, but how it achieves sensory modality-specific modulation remains unclear. Here we report that enhancing serotonergic tone via administration of 5-HT potentiates itch sensation, whereas mice lacking 5-HT or serotonergic neurons in the brainstem exhibit markedly reduced scratching behavior. Through pharmacological and behavioral screening, we identified 5-HT1A as a key receptor in facilitating gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)-dependent scratching behavior. Coactivation of 5-HT1A and GRP receptors (GRPR) greatly potentiates subthreshold, GRP-induced Ca 2+ transients, and action potential firing of GRPR + neurons. Immunostaining, biochemical, and biophysical studies suggest that 5-HT1A and GRPR may function as receptor heteromeric complexes. Furthermore, 5-HT1A blockade significantly attenuates, whereas its activation contributes to, long-lasting itch transmission. Thus, our studies demonstrate that the descending 5-HT system facilitates GRP-GRPR signaling via 5-HT1A to augment itch-specific outputs, and a disruption of crosstalk between 5-HT1A and GRPR may be a useful antipruritic strategy.

Biology Department.

Netzer, Nathan L., Feng-Rong Dai, Zhenqiang Wang, & Chaoyang Jiang. (2014). pH-Modulated Molecular Assemblies and Surface Properties of Metal-Organic Supercontainers at the Air-Water Interface. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, 53(41), 10965-10969.

The orientation of metal-organic supercontainer (MOSC) molecules in Langmuir films was systematically studied at the air-water interface. The acidity of the aqueous subphases plays a significant role in tuning the orientation of MOSC molecules in the Langmuir films. Furthermore, Langmuir-Blodgett films of MOSCs were prepared and the uniform multilayer structures demonstrated various surface properties, depending on their conditions of fabrication. Our use of Langmuir films provides a novel approach to access tunable assemblies of MOSC molecules in two-dimensional thin films.

Chemistry Department.

Arens, Ashley M., Raluca M. Gaher, Jeffrey S. Simons, & Robert D. Dvorak. (2014). Child Maltreatment and Deliberate Self-Harm: A Negative Binomial Hurdle Model for Explanatory Constructs. Child Maltreatment, 19(3/4), 168-177.

Emerging adults demonstrate the highest rates of deliberate self-harm (DSH) and thus represent a population in need of further study. While child maltreatment (CM) history is a risk factor for DSH, the mechanisms behind this relationship are not fully understood. This study tested a model of mechanisms linking CM with DSH (likelihood of engaging in the behavior and frequency among those who self-harm) via negative urgency (tendency to engage in impulsive behaviors under conditions of negative affect), distress tolerance, sense of control, and desire for control in a sample of college students. As hypothesized, CM had a strong positive direct association with both the likelihood and frequency of DSH. CM was positively associated with negative urgency and inversely associated with distress tolerance and sense of control. Negative urgency was positively associated with DSH likelihood and frequency. Distress tolerance was not directly associated with DSH but was indirectly associated with DSH likelihood and frequency via negative urgency. Sense of control was not associated with the likelihood of engaging in DSH; however, among those who endorsed a history of DSH, sense of control was positively associated with DSH frequency. Desire for control was not associated with either CM or DSH.

Psychology Department.

Simons, Jeffrey S., T. A. Wills, & D. J. Neal. (2014). The Many Faces of Affect: A Multilevel Model of Drinking Frequency/Quantity and Alcohol Dependence Symptoms Among Young Adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 123(3), 676-694.

This research tested a multilevel structural equation model of associations between 3 aspects of affective functioning (state affect, trait affect, and affective lability) and 3 alcohol outcomes (likelihood of drinking, quantity on drinking days, and dependence symptoms) in a sample of 263 college students. Participants provided 49 days of experience sampling data over 1.3 years in a longitudinal burst design. Within-person results: At the daily level, positive affect was directly associated with greater likelihood and quantity of alcohol consumption. Daily negative affect was directly associated with higher consumption on drinking days and with higher dependence symptoms. Between-person direct effects: Affect lability was associated with higher trait negative, but not positive, affect. Trait positive affect was inversely associated with the proportion of drinking days, whereas negative affectivity predicted a greater proportion of drinking days. Affect lability exhibited a direct association with dependence symptoms. Between-person indirect effects: Trait positive affect was associated with fewer dependence symptoms via proportion of drinking days. Trait negative affect was associated with greater dependence symptoms via proportion of drinking days. The results distinguish relations of positive and negative affect to likelihood versus amount of drinking and state versus trait drinking outcomes, and highlight the importance of affect variability for predicting alcohol dependence symptoms.

Psychology Department.

Chatterjee, Archana. (2014). The next generation of HPV vaccines: nonavalent vaccine V503 on the horizon. Expert Review of Vaccines, 13(11), 1279-1290.

HPV infection with ‘high-risk’ genotypes is associated with ano-genital and oropharyngeal cancers. Two currently licensed prophylactic HPV vaccines designed to prevent disease associated with HPV 16 and 18 are in use around the world. Both vaccines have very high efficacy for prevention of vaccine type-associated cervical precancers, preventing approximately 70% of these lesions. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine has also been shown to prevent HPV16/18-associated vaginal, vulvar and anal precancers, and HPV6/11-associated ano-genital warts. To broaden protection against HPV genotypes not in the current vaccines, ‘second-generation’ vaccines with additional genotypes are under development. Merck, Sharp and Dohme has submitted a Biologics License Application for its investigational nonavalent HPV vaccine V503 to the US FDA, with standard review being granted. The nonavalent HPV vaccine appears to be safe and effective in preventing persistent infection and precancerous lesions associated with HPV types 16/18/31/33/45/52/58, as well as genital warts related to HPV types 6 and 11.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Hanson, Jessica D., Tracey R. McMahon, Emily R. Griese, & DenYelle B. Kenyon. (2014). Understanding Gender Roles in Teen Pregnancy Prevention among American Indian Youth. American Journal of Health Behavior, 38(6), 807-815.

Objectives: To examine the impact of gender norms on American Indian (AI) adolescents’ sexual health behavior. Methods: The project collected qualitative data at a reservation site and an urban site through 24 focus groups and 20 key informant interviews. Results: The reasons that AI youth choose to abstain or engage in sexual intercourse and utilize contraception vary based on gender ideologies defined by the adolescent’s environment. These include social expectations from family and peers, defined roles within relationships, and gender empowerment gaps. Conclusions: Gender ideology plays a large role in decisions about contraception and sexual activity for AI adolescents, and it is vital to include re-definitions of gender norms within AI teen pregnancy prevention program.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Liaw, Winston, Sarah Coleman, Andrew Bazemore, & Mark K. Huntington. (2014). Another risk to US travelers—malaria. Journal of Family Practice, 63(11), E1-E7.

The article provides preventive measures for international travelers to limit risk of endemic disease malaria. It notes the necessity of reviewing the itineraries and health data of the travelers and educating patients. It recommends nonpharmacologic interventions even for those administering chemoprophylaxis with consideration of the location, comparative antimalarial agent side effects and dosage requirement.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

May, Philip A., Amy Baete, Jaymi Russo, Amy J. Elliott, Jason Blankenship, Wendy O. Kalberg, . . . H. Eugene Hoyme. (2014). Prevalence and Characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Pediatrics, 134(5), 855-866.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) among first grade students (6- to 7-year-olds) in a representative Midwestern US community. METHODS: From a consented sample of 70.5% of all first graders enrolled in public and private schools, an oversample of small children (≤25th percentile on height, weight, and head circumference) and randomly selected control candidates were examined for physical growth, development, dysmorphology, cognition, and behavior. The children’s mothers were interviewed for maternal risk. RESULTS: Total dysmorphology scores differentiate significantly fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) from one another and from unexposed controls. Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) is not as clearly differentiated from controls. Children who had FASD performed, on average, significantly worse on 7 cognitive and behavioral tests and measures. The most predictive maternal risk variables in this community are late recognition of pregnancy, quantity of alcoholic drinks consumed 3 months before pregnancy, and quantity of drinking reported for r the index child’s father. From the final multidisciplinary case findings, 3 techniques were used to estimate prevalence. FAS in this community likely ranges from 6 to 9 per 1000 children (midpoint, 7.5), PFAS from 11 to 17 per 1000 children (midpoint, 14), and the total rate of FASD is estimated at 24 to 48 per 1000 children, or 2.4% to 4.8% (midpoint, 3.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Children who have FASD are more prevalent among first graders in this Midwestern city than predicted by previous, popular estimates.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Munce, Thayne A., Jason C. Dorman, Tryg O. Odney, Paul A. Thompson, Verle D. Valentine, & Michael F. Bergeron. (2014). Effects of Youth Football on Selected Clinical Measures of Neurologic Function: A Pilot Study. Journal of Child Neurology, 29(12), 1601-1607.

We assessed 10 youth football players (13.4 ± 0.7 y) immediately before and after their season to explore the effects of football participation on selected clinical measures of neurologic function. Postseason postural stability in a closed-eye condition was improved compared to preseason (P = .017). Neurocognitive testing with the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery revealed that reaction time was significantly faster at postseason (P = .015). There were no significant preseason versus postseason differences in verbal memory (P = .507), visual memory (P = .750), or visual motor speed (P = .087). Oculomotor performance assessed by the King-Devick test was moderately to significantly improved (P = .047-.115). A 12-week season of youth football did not impair the postural stability, neurocognitive function, or oculomotor performance measures of the players evaluated. Though encouraging, continued and more comprehensive investigations of this at-risk population are warranted.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Sherman, M. E., M. Piedmonte, P. L. Mai, ….., Maria C. Bell, S. V. Blank, . . . M. H. Greene. (2014). Pathologic Findings at Risk-Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy: Primary Results From Gynecologic Oncology Group Trial GOG-0199. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 32(29), 3275-+.

Purpose Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) lowers mortality from ovarian/tubal and breast cancers among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Uncertainties persist regarding potential benefits of RRSO among high-risk noncarriers, optimal surgical age, and anatomic origin of clinically occult cancers detected at surgery. To address these topics, we analyzed surgical treatment arm results from Gynecologic Oncology Group Protocol-0199 (GOG-0199), the National Ovarian Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Study. Participants and Methods This analysis included asymptomatic high-risk women age >= 30 years who elected RRSO at enrollment. Women provided risk factor data and underwent preoperative cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) serum testing and transvaginal ultrasound (TVU). RRSO specimens were processed according to a standardized tissue processing protocol and underwent central pathology panel review. Research-based BRCA1/2 mutation testing was performed when a participant’s mutation status was unknown at enrollment. Relationships between participant characteristics and diagnostic findings were assessed using univariable statistics and multivariable logistic regression. Results Invasive or intraepithelial ovarian/tubal/peritoneal neoplasms were detected in 25 (2.6%) of 966 RRSOs (BRCA1 mutation carriers, 4.6%; BRCA2 carriers, 3.5%; and noncarriers, 0.5%; P < .001). In multivariable models, positive BRCA1/2 mutation status (P = .0056), postmenopausal status (P = .0023), and abnormal CA-125 levels and/or TVU examinations (P < .001) were associated with detection of clinically occult neoplasms at RRSO. For 387 women with negative BRCA1/2 mutation testing and normal CA-125 levels, findings at RRSO were benign. Conclusion Clinically occult cancer was detected among 2.6% of high-risk women undergoing RRSO. BRCA1/2 mutation, postmenopausal status, and abnormal preoperative CA-125 and/or TVU were associated with cancer detection at RRSO. These data can inform management decisions among women at high risk of ovarian/tubal cancer. (C) 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Stevens, D. C., Paul A. Thompson, C. C. Helseth, B. Hsu, M. Akram Khan, & D. P. Munson. (2014). A comparison of the direct cost of care in an open-bay and single-family room NICU. Journal of Perinatology, 34(11), 830-835.

Objective:This research examined the proposition that the direct costs of care were no different in an open-bay (OPBY) as compared with a single-family room (SFR) neonatal intensive care (NICU) environment.Study Design:This was a sequential cohort study.Result:General linear models were implemented using clinical and cost data for all neonates admitted to the two cohorts studied. Costs were adjusted to year 2007 U.S. dollars. Models were constructed for the unadjusted regression and subsequently by adding demographic variables, treatment variables, length of respiratory support and length of stay. With the exception of the last, none were found to achieve significance. The full model had R2=0.799 with P=0.0095 and predicted direct costs of care less in the SFR NICU.Conclusion:For the time, location and administrative practices in place, this study demonstrates that care can be provided in the SFR NICU at no additional cost as compared with OPBY NICU.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Yoshida, T., Y. Yoshioka, H. Takahashi, ….., Yasuhiro Abe, Y. Mukai, . . . Y. Tsutsumi. (2014). Intestinal absorption and biological effects of orally administered amorphous silica particles. Nanoscale Research Letters, 9, 7.

Although amorphous silica nanoparticles are widely used in the production of food products (e.g., as anticaking agents), there is little information available about their absorption and biological effects after oral exposure. Here, we examined the in vitro intestinal absorption and in vivo biological effects in mice of orally administered amorphous silica particles with diameters of 70, 300, and 1,000 nm (nSP70, mSP300, and mSP1000, respectively) and of nSP70 that had been surface-modified with carboxyl or amine groups (nSP70-C and nSP70-N, respectively). Analysis of intestinal absorption by means of the everted gut sac method combined with an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer showed that the intestinal absorption of nSP70-C was significantly greater than that of nSP70. The absorption of nSP70-N tended to be greater than that of nSP70; however, the results were not statistically significant. Our results indicate that silica nanoparticles can be absorbed through the intestine and that particle diameter and surface properties are major determinants of the degree of absorption. We also examined the biological effects of the silica particles after 28-day oral exposure in mice. Hematological, histopathological, and biochemical analyses showed no significant differences between control mice and mice treated with the silica particles, suggesting that the silica nanoparticles evaluated in this study are safe for use in food production.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Quatman-Yates, C., J. Hugentobler, Robin Ammon, N. Mwase, B. Kurowski, & G. D. Myer. (2014). The Utility of the Balance Error Scoring System for Mild Brain Injury Assessments in Children and Adolescents. Physician and Sportsmedicine, 42(3), 32-38.

The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) is widely recognized as an acceptable assessment of postural control for adult patients following a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion. However, the measurement properties of the BESS as a post-mTBI assessment test for younger patients are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of the BESS as a post-mTBI assessment test for children and adolescents aged 8 to 18 years through 2 investigations: (1) a retrospective medical records review of the relationship among age, BESS scores, and other common post-mTBI assessment tests; and (2) a prospective study comparing BESS scores for a cohort of children with a recent mTBI and BESS scores for a cohort of matched healthy peers. Age was found to be significantly correlated with several of the BESS measures and the total BESS score (P < 0.05). Significant differences were observed between the injured and healthy cohorts for 3 of the BESS measures and the total BESS score. However, the observed differences were not likely to be clinically meaningful. Cumulatively, evidence from the literature and the results of these studies indicate that the BESS may be limited for producing accurate assessments of younger athletes’ post-mTBI postural control abilities. Future research recommendations include testing of modified versions of the BESS or other alternatives for post-mTBI postural control assessments with younger individuals.

School of Education.

Stachowitz, Annie L., Hee-Sook Choi, & Amy Schweinle. (2014). THE USE OF THE BASC-2 FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF FEMALE ADOLESCENTS AT RISK FOR DEVELOPING AN EATING DISORDER. Psychology in the Schools, 51(10), 1063-1075.

Eating disorders, disordered eating, and body dissatisfaction prevalence rates are on the rise among adolescent females. The present study examined the potential use of a commonly used social-emotional instrument, the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2), for detecting the presence of possible eating disorders in adolescent females in a school setting. Participants included 65 female adolescents aged 13 to 17 years from Midwestern public middle and high schools. The Eating Disorder Inventory-Third Edition was used to determine eating disorder risk and level of body dissatisfaction. Those adolescents at risk for developing an eating disorder differed significantly on 12 of the 16 BASC-2 scales, whereas four of these scales were also in the clinically significant range according to the BASC-2 normative sample. A common profile of a female adolescent at risk for developing an eating disorder was explored. Implications of the findings and recommendations for future research are discussed.

School of Education.

Yom, Jae P., K. J. Simpson, S. W. Arnett, & C. N. Brown. (2014). The Effects of a Lateral In-flight Perturbation on Lower Extremity Biomechanics During Drop Landings. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 30(5), 655-662.

One potential ACL injury situation is due to contact with another person or object during the flight phase, thereby causing the person to land improperly. Conversely, athletes often have flight-phase collisions but do land safely. Therefore, to better understand ACL injury causation and methods by which people typically land safely, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an in-flight perturbation on the lower extremity biomechanics displayed by females during typical drop landings. Seventeen collegiate female recreational athletes performed baseline landings, followed by either unexpected laterally-directed perturbation or sham (nonperturbation) drop landings. We compared baseline and perturbation trials using paired-samples t tests (P < .05) and 95% confidence intervals for lower-extremity joint kinematics and kinetics and GRF. The results demonstrated that perturbation landings compared with baseline landings exhibited more extended joint positions of the lower extremity at initial contact; and, during landing, greater magnitudes for knee abduction and hip adduction displacements; peak magnitudes of vertical and medial GRF; and maximum moments of ankle extensors, knee extensors, and adductor and hip adductors. We conclude that a lateral in-flight perturbation leads to abnormal GRF and angular motions and joint moments of the lower extremity.

School of Education.

Kunsook Song, Bernstein, Cho Sunhee, Roh Soonhee, T. Nguyen My Hanh, Chen Daniel, Chiu Ya-Lin, & Bang Heejung. (2014). Development and Psychometric Testing of the Mental Health Service Barrier Assessment Instrument. Journal of Theory Construction & Testing, 18(2), 40-49.

The aim of this study was to develop and test an instrument identifying barriers to utilization of mental health services among Korean Americans. A 41-item initial instrument representing barriers to mental health services among Korean Americans was developed based on a literature review. Items were reduced to a final 22-item mental health service barrier assessment (MHSBA) instrument. The final instrument was evaluated by a sample of 256 Korean American community residents. Assessment of the scale was based on internal consistency estimates and principal components analysis. Simple and multiple linear regressions were used to reveal relationship between participants’ characteristics and the overall MHSBA instrument. Reliability of the instrument was high, with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.93. “Years of stay in the US” was negatively associated with the barrier score (p<0.0001) and higher education was associated with higher barrier (p=.009). People who had medical insurance (p=.05) and who were confident in speaking English (p=.003) tended to have a lower barrier score. The MHSBA has demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties, reflecting cultural understanding of the relevance and comprehension of health-care access in this population. Further studies are warranted.

School of Health Sciences.

Simmons, Thomas E. (2014). The ‘Evil Child’ in Literature, Film and Popular Culture. Journal of Popular Culture, 47(4), 899-902.

School of Law.

Posted by: reganenosusd | October 31, 2014

October 2014

Gupta, M. K., J. Gulick, R. J. Liu, Xuejun Wang, J. D. Molkentin, & J. Robbins. (2014). Sumo E2 Enzyme UBC9 Is Required for Efficient Protein Quality Control in Cardiomyocytes. Circulation Research, 115(8), 721-+.

Rationale: Impairment of proteasomal function is pathogenic in several cardiac proteinopathies and can eventually lead to heart failure. Loss of proteasomal activity often results in the accumulation of large protein aggregates. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is primarily responsible for cellular protein degradation, and although the role of ubiquitination in this process is well studied, the function of an ancillary post-translational modification, SUMOylation, in protein quality control is not fully understood. Objective: To determine the role of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 (UBC9), a small ubiquitin-like modifier-conjugating enzyme, in cardiomyocyte protein quality control. Methods and Results: Gain-and loss-of-function approaches were used to determine the importance of UBC9. Overexpression of UBC9 enhanced UPS function in cardiomyocytes, whereas knockdown of UBC9 by small interfering RNA caused significant accumulations of aggregated protein. UPS function and relative activity was analyzed using a UPS reporter protein consisting of a short degron, CL1, fused to the COOH-terminus of green fluorescent protein (GFPu). Subsequently, the effects of UBC9 on UPS function were tested in a proteotoxic model of desmin-related cardiomyopathy, caused by cardiomyocyte-specific expression of a mutated alpha B crystallin, CryAB(R120G). CryAB(R120G) expression leads to aggregate formation and decreased proteasomal function. Coinfection of UBC9-adenovirus with CryABR120G virus reduced the proteotoxic sequelae, decreasing overall aggregate concentrations. Conversely, knockdown of UBC9 significantly decreased UPS function in the model and resulted in increased aggregate levels. Conclusions: UBC9 plays a significant role in cardiomyocyte protein quality control, and its activity can be exploited to reduce toxic levels of misfolded or aggregated proteins in cardiomyopathy.

Baisc Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Klonoski, Joshua M., Heather R. Hurtig, Brian A. Juber, Margaret J. Schuneman, Thomas E. Bickett, Joshua M. Svendsen, . . . Victor C. Huber. (2014). Vaccination against the M protein of Streptococcus pyogenes prevents death after influenza virus:S. pyogenes super-infection. Vaccine, 32(40), 5241-5249.

Influenza virus infections are associated with a significant number of illnesses and deaths on an annual basis. Many of the deaths are due to complications from secondary bacterial invaders, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pyogenes. The beta-hemolytic bacteria S. pyogenes colonizes both skin and respiratory surfaces, and frequently presents clinically as strep throat or impetigo. However, when these bacteria gain access to normally sterile sites, they can cause deadly diseases including sepsis, necrotizing fasciitis, and pneumonia. We previously developed a model of influenza virus:S. pyogenes super-infection, which we used to demonstrate that vaccination against influenza virus can limit deaths associated with a secondary bacterial infection, but this protection was not complete. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of a vaccine that targets the M protein of S. pyogenes to determine whether immunity toward the bacteria alone would allow the host to survive an influenza virus:S. pyogenes super-infection. Our data demonstrate that vaccination against the M protein induces IgG antibodies, in particular those of the IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes, and that these antibodies can interact with macrophages. Ultimately, this vaccine-induced immunity eliminated death within our influenza virus:S. pyogenes super-infection model, despite the fact that all M protein-accinated mice showed signs of illness following influenza virus inoculation. These findings identify immunity against bacteria as an important component of protection against influenza virus:bacteria super-infection. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Morecraft, Robert J., Kimberly S. Stilwell-Morecraft, Kathryn M. Solon-Cline, Jizhir Ge, & W. G. Darling. (2014). Cortical Innervation of the Hypoglossal Nucleus in the Non-Human Primate (Macaca mulatta). Journal of Comparative Neurology, 522(15), 3456-3484.

The corticobulbar projection to the hypoglossal nucleus was studied from the frontal, parietal, cingulate, and insular cortices in the rhesus monkey by using high-resolution anterograde tracers and stereology. The hypoglossal nucleus received bilateral input from the face/head region of the primary (M1), ventrolateral pre( LPMCv), supplementary (M2), rostral cingulate (M3), and caudal cingulate (M4) motor cortices. Additional bilateral corticohypoglossal projections were found from the dorsolateral premotor cortex (LPMCd), ventrolateral proisocortical motor area (ProM), ventrolateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1), rostral insula, and pregenual region of the anterior cingulate gyrus (areas 24/32). Dense terminal projections arose from the ventral region of M1, and moderate projections from LPMCv and rostral part of M2, with considerably fewer hypoglossal projections arising from the other cortical regions. These findings demonstrate that extensive regions of the non-human primate cerebral cortex innervate the hypoglossal nucleus. The widespread and bilateral nature of this corticobulbar connection suggests recovery of tongue movement after cortical injury that compromises a subset of these areas, may occur from spared corticohypoglossal projection areas located on the lateral, as well as medial surfaces of both hemispheres. Since functional imaging studies have shown that homologous cortical areas are activated in humans during tongue movement tasks, these corticobulbar projections may exist in the human brain. (C) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Weltman, Nathan Y., K. Ojamaa, Evelyn H. Schlenker, Y. F. Chen, R. Zucchi, A. Saba, . . . A. M. Gerdes. (2014). Low-Dose T-3 Replacement Restores Depressed Cardiac T-3 Levels, Preserves Coronary Microvasculature and Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction in Experimental Diabetes Mellitus. Molecular Medicine, 20, 302-312.

Thyroid dysfunction is common in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) and may contribute to the associated cardiac dysfunction. However, little is known about the extent and pathophysiological consequences of low thyroid conditions on the heart in DM. DM was induced in adult female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats by injection of nicotinamide (N; 200 mg/kg) followed by streptozotocin (STZ; 65 mg/kg). One month after STZ/N, rats were randomized to the following groups (N = 10/group): STZ/N or STZ/N + 0.03 g/mL T-3; age-matched vehicle-treated rats served as nondiabetic controls (C). After 2 months of T-3 treatment (3 months post-DM induction), left ventricular (LV) function was assessed by echocardiography and LV pressure measurements. Despite normal serum thyroid hormone (TH) levels, STZ/N treatment resulted in reductions in myocardial tissue content of THs (T-3 and T-4 : 39% and 17% reduction versus C, respectively). Tissue hypothyroidism in the DM hearts was associated with increased DIO3 deiodinase (which converts THs to inactive metabolites) altered TH transporter expression, reexpression of the fetal gene phenotype, reduced arteriolar resistance vessel density, and diminished cardiac function. Low-dose T-3 replacement largely restored cardiac tissue TH levels (T-3 and T-4 : 43% and 10% increase versus STZ/N, respectively), improved cardiac function, reversed fetal gene expression and preserved the arteriolar resistance vessel network without causing overt symptoms of hyperthyroidism. We conclude that cardiac dysfunction in chronic DM may be associated with tissue hypothyroidism despite normal serum TH levels. Low-dose T-3 replacement appears to be a safe and effective adjunct therapy to attenuate and/or reverse cardiac remodeling and dysfunction induced by experimental DM.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Kraus, J. M., D. M. Walters, Jeff S. Wesner, C. A. Stricker, T. S. Schmidt, & R. E. Zuellig. (2014). Metamorphosis Alters Contaminants and Chemical Tracers in Insects: Implications for Food Webs. Environmental Science & Technology, 48(18), 10957-10965.

Insects are integral to most freshwater and terrestrial food webs, but due to their accumulation of environmental pollutants they are also contaminant vectors that threaten reproduction, development, and survival of consumers. Metamorphosis from larvae to adult can cause large chemical changes in insects, altering contaminant concentrations and fractionation of chemical tracers used to establish contaminant biomagnification in food webs, but no framework exists for predicting and managing these effects. We analyzed data from 39 studies of 68 analytes (stable isotopes and contaminants), and found that metamorphosis effects varied greatly. delta N-15, widely used to estimate relative trophic position in biomagnification studies, was enriched by similar to 1 parts per thousand during metamorphosis, while delta C-13 used to estimate diet, was similar in larvae and adults. Metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were predominantly lost during metamorphosis leading to similar to 2 to 125-fold higher larval concentrations and higher exposure risks for predators of larvae compared to predators of adults. In contrast, manufactured organic contaminants (such as polychlorinated biphenyls) were retained and concentrated in adults, causing up to similar to 3-fold higher adult concentrations and higher exposure risks to predators of adult insects. Both food web studies and contaminant management and mitigation strategies need to consider how metamorphosis affects the movement of materials between habitats and ecosystems, with special regard for aquatic-terrestrial linkages.

Biology Department.

Swanson, David, Yufeng Zhang, & Marisa King. (2014). Mechanistic Drivers of Flexibility in Summit Metabolic Rates of Small Birds. Plos One, 9(7), 9.

Flexible metabolic phenotypes allow animals to adjust physiology to better fit ecological or environmental demands, thereby influencing fitness. Summit metabolic rate (M-sum = maximal thermogenic capacity) is one such flexible trait. Skeletal muscle and heart masses and myocyte metabolic intensity are potential drivers of M-sum flexibility in birds. We examined correlations of skeletal muscle and heart masses and pectoralis muscle citrate synthase (CS) activity (an indicator of cellular metabolic intensity) with M-sum in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) to determine whether these traits are associated with M-sum variation. Pectoralis mass was positively correlated with M-sum for both species, but no significant correlation remained for either species after accounting for body mass (M-b) variation. Combined flight and leg muscle masses were also not significantly correlated with M-sum for either species. In contrast, heart mass was significantly positively correlated with M-sum for juncos and nearly so (P = 0.054) for sparrows. Mass-specific and total pectoralis CS activities were significantly positively correlated with M-sum for sparrows, but not for juncos. Thus, myocyte metabolic intensity influences M-sum variation in house sparrows, although the stronger correlation of total (r = 0.495) than mass-specific (r = 0.378) CS activity with M-sum suggests that both pectoralis mass and metabolic intensity impact M-sum. In contrast, neither skeletal muscle masses nor pectoralis metabolic intensity varied with M-sum in juncos. However, heart mass was associated with M-sum variation in both species. These data suggest that drivers of metabolic flexibility are not uniform among bird species.

Biology Department.

Wesner, Jeff S., J. M. Kraus, T. S. Schmidt, D. M. Walters, & W. H. Clements. (2014). Metamorphosis Enhances the Effects of Metal Exposure on the Mayfly, Centroptilum triangulifer. Environmental Science & Technology, 48(17), 10415-10422.

The response of larval aquatic insects to stressors such as metals is used to assess the ecological condition of streams worldwide. However, nearly all larval insects metamorphose from aquatic larvae to winged adults, and recent surveys indicate that adults may be a more sensitive indicator of stream metal toxicity than larvae. One hypothesis to explain this pattern is that insects exposed to elevated metal in their larval stages have a reduced ability to successfully complete metamorphosis. To test this hypothesis we exposed late-instar larvae of the mayfly, Centroptilum triangulifer, to an aqueous Zn gradient (32-476 mu g/L) in the laboratory. After 6 days of exposure, when metamorphosis began, larval survival was unaffected by zinc. However, Zn reduced wingpad development at concentrations above 139 mu g/L. In contrast, emergence of subimagos and imagos tended to decline with any increase in Zn. At Zn concentrations below 105 mu g/L (hardness-adjusted aquatic life criterion), survival between the wingpad and subimago stages declined 5-fold across the Zn gradient. These results support the hypothesis that metamorphosis may be a survival bottleneck, particularly in contaminated streams. Thus, death during metamorphosis may be a key mechanism explaining how stream metal contamination can impact terrestrial communities by reducing aquatic insect emergence.

Biology Department.

Ghimire, Niranjan, Jie Luo, Ruogu Tang, Yuyu Sun, & Ying Deng. (2014). Novel anti-infective activities of chitosan immobilized titanium surface with enhanced osteogenic properties. Colloids & Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 122, 126-133.

We have covalently immobilized chitosan onto a titanium (Ti) surface to manage implant-related infection and poor osseointegration, two of the major complications of orthopedic implants. The Ti surface was first treated with sulfuric acid (SA) and then covalently grafted with chitosan. Surface roughness, contact angle and surface zeta potential of the samples were markedly increased by the sulfuric acid treatment and the subsequent chitosan immobilization. The chitosan-immobilized Ti (SA-CS-Ti) showed two novel antimicrobial roles: it (a) prevented the invasion and internalization of bacteria into the osteoblast-like cells, and (b) significantly increased the susceptibility of adherent bacteria to antibiotics. In addition, the sulfuric acid-treated Ti (SA-Ti) and SA-CS-Ti led to significantly increased ( P < 0.05) osteoblast-like cell attachment, enhanced cell proliferation, and better osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of osteoblast-like cells.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

Banerjee, Subhash, Soumen Payra, Arijit Saha, & Grigoriy Sereda. (2014). ZnO nanoparticles: a green efficient catalyst for the room temperature synthesis of biologically active 2-aryl-1,3-benzothiazole and 1,3-benzoxazole derivatives. Tetrahedron Letters: International Organ for the Rapid Publication of Preliminary Communications in Organic Chemistry, 55(40), 5515-5520.

A facile synthetic protocol for the synthesis of 2-aryl-1,3-benzothiazoles and 1,3-benzoxazoles has been demonstrated using ZnO nanoparticles as a mild and efficient heterogeneous catalyst. The reactions using ZnO nanoparticles were very fast (<8 min) and provided excellent yields (>90%) of the products. The catalyst was recycled and reused up to eight times without significant loss of catalytic activity. The potential application of 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3-benzothiazole as new acid–base indicator has also been demonstrated in this Letter.

Chemistry Department.

Bartholomew, Catherine, Ashish Chakradhar, U. W. E. Burghaus, Chia-Ming Wu, R. U. I. Peng, Srujan Mishra, & Ranjit T. Koodali. (2014). REACTIVITY AND MORPHOLOGY OF , , AND – OXIDE CLUSTERS SUPPORTED ON MCM-48 TOWARD THIOPHENE HYDRODESULPHURIZATION. Surface Review & Letters, 21(5), -1.

In this paper, the morphology, chemical composition and reactivity of MCM-48 powders impregnated with , or both toward hydrodesulphurization (HDS) of thiophene were characterized. The reactivity of the catalyst was quantitatively compared with a standard industrial catalyst (from HaldorTopsoe, Denmark) and a novel 2 nanotube-based catalysts (from R. Tenne, Israel). Morphology and chemical composition were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and EDX elemental maps. Reactivity was determined in a gas-chromatograph based mini flow reactor using thiophene as a probe molecule. The sulfided MCM-48 supported catalyst showed the largest HDS activity with turnover frequencies (TOF) about half as large as for the commercial system under the test conditions used here. Presulfiding did increase activity of all MCM-48 catalysts.

Chemistry Department.

Blumenthal, Tyler, Jeevan Meruga, Jon Kellar, William Cross, Krishnamraju Ankireddy, Swathi Vunnam, . . . QuocAnh N. Luu. (2012). Patterned direct-write and screen-printing of NIR-to-visible upconverting inks for security applications. Nanotechnology, 23(18), 1-1.

Two methods of direct-write printing for producing highly resolved features of a polymer impregnated with luminescent upconversion phosphors for security applications are presented. The printed polymer structures range in shape from features to text. The thin polymer features were deposited by direct-write printing of atomized material as well as by screen-printing techniques. These films contain highly luminescent lanthanide-doped, rare-earth nanocrystals, β-NaYF4:3%Er, 17%Yb, which are capped with oleic acid. This capping agent allows the nanocrystals to disperse throughout the films for full detailing of printed features. Upconversion of deposited features was obtained using a 980 nm wavelength laser with emission of upconverted light in the visible region at both 540 and 660 nm. Features were deposited onto high bond paper, Kapton®, and glass to demonstrate possible covert and forensic security printing applications, as they are printed in various features and invisible to ‘naked-eye’ viewing at low concentrations of nanocrystals.

Chemistry Department.

Huang, Shuping, T. M. Inerbaev, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2014). Excited State Dynamics of Ru-10 Cluster Interfacing Anatase TiO2(101) Surface and Liquid Water. Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 5(16), 2823-2829.

Charge transfer dynamics at the interface of supported metal nanocluster and liquid water by GGA+U calculations combined with density matrix formalism is considered. The Rum duster introduces new states into the band gap of TiO2 surface, narrows the band gap of TiO2, and enhances the absorption strength. The H2O adsorption significantly enhances the intensity of photon absorption, which is due to the formation of Ti-O(water) and Ru-O(water) bonds at the interfaces. The Ruff, cluster promotes the dissociation of water, facilitates charge transfer, and increases the relaxation rates of holes and electrons. We expect that our results are helpful in understanding basic processes contributing to photoelectrochemical water splitting.

Chemistry Department.

Huang, Shuping, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2014). Charge Transfer, Luminescence, and Phonon Bottleneck in TiO2 Nanowires Computed by Eigenvectors of Liouville Superoperator. Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, 10(9), 3996-4005.

A nonadiabatic excited state dynamics study of ?001? anatase TiO2 nanowire is obtained by combining density matrix in LiouvilleRedfield formalism and ab initio electronic structure calculations. The properties of eigenvectors of LiouvilleRedfield superoperator are investigated. The time evolutions of KohnSham orbital populations are obtained for different electronic excitations. The numerical solutions of the population changes over time are in agreement with the analytical results. The analytical and numerical results on the electron and hole relaxation rates are compared. The electron nonradiative relaxation to the bottom of conduction band involves Ti 3d orbitals, whereas the hole nonradiative relaxation to the top of valence band is mainly localized in surface O 2p orbitals. The rate of relaxation in nanowire is slower than in bulk TiO2 demonstrating phonon-bottleneck effect. Calculated emission spectrum has vanishing contribution from lowest energy excitation, which indicates charge transfer.

Chemistry Department.

Kibombo, Harrison S., Vagulejan Balasanthiran, Chia-Ming Wu, Rui Peng, & Ranjit T. Koodali. (2014). Exploration of room temperature synthesis of palladium containing cubic MCM-48 mesoporous materials. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 198, 1-8.

 

Pd-MCM-48 mesoporous materials were synthesized by a modified Stober synthesis method in 4 h at room temperature. Pd nanoparticles were prepared by using Na-2[PdCl4] and Pd(acac)(2) as Pd precursors, and their influence in the preparation of the cubic MCM-48 mesoporous phase was investigated. In addition, Pd(0) nanoparticles was prepared separately and added to the synthesis gel. The influence of varying the Pd precursor, solvent media, the time of addition of Pd precursor, and the concentration of NaBH4 reducing agent used for preparation of Pd(0) and its effect for the formation of the cubic phase were investigated. These resultant materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Visible spectroscopy, nitrogen physisorption, and CO-Pulse titration. Reusability studies assessing a material prepared using Pd(0)-DMAP encapsulated nanoparticles that were reduced with 0.1 N NaBH4 i.e. 3%Pd-MCM-48-D-N01 indicate that the yields for the hydrogenation of trans-cinnamic acid are greater than 95% even after 8 catalytic cycles, and at which the cubic phase was maintained under our experimental conditions. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

Meruga, Jeevan M., William M. Cross, P. Stanley  May, QuocAnh Luu, Grant A. Crawford, & Jon J. Kellar. (2012). Security printing of covert quick response codes using upconverting nanoparticle inks. Nanotechnology, 23(39), 1-1.

Counterfeiting costs governments and private industries billions of dollars annually due to loss of value in currency and other printed items. This research involves using lanthanide doped β-NaYF4 nanoparticles for security printing applications. Inks comprised of Yb3+/Er3+ and Yb3+/Tm3+ doped β-NaYF4 nanoparticles with oleic acid as the capping agent in toluene and methyl benzoate with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as the binding agent were used to print quick response (QR) codes. The QR codes were made using an AutoCAD file and printed with Optomec direct-write aerosol jetting®. The printed QR codes are invisible under ambient lighting conditions, but are readable using a near-IR laser, and were successfully scanned using a smart phone. This research demonstrates that QR codes, which have been used primarily for information sharing applications, can also be used for security purposes. Higher levels of security were achieved by printing both green and blue upconverting inks, based on combinations of Er3+/Yb3+ and Tm3+/Yb3+, respectively, in a single QR code. The near-infrared (NIR)-to-visible upconversion luminescence properties of the two-ink QR codes were analyzed, including the influence of NIR excitation power density on perceived color, in term of the CIE 1931 chromaticity index. It was also shown that this security ink can be optimized for line width, thickness and stability on different substrates.

Chemistry Department.

Sathe, Ajay, Matthea A. Peck, Choumini Balasanthiran, Marjorie A. Langell, Robert M. Rioux, & James D. Hoefelmeyer. (2014). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of transition metal ions attached to the surface of rod-shape anatase TiO2 nanocrystals. Inorganica Chimica Acta, 422, 8-13.

X-ray photoelectron spectra were obtained for a series of M–TiO 2 samples in which transition metal ions are directly attached to the surface of anatase TiO 2 nanocrystals. The samples were prepared using CrCl 3 · n H 2 O, MnCl 2 · n H 2 O, FeCl 2 · n H 2 O, CoCl 2 · n H 2 O, NiCl 2 · n H 2 O, and CuCl 2 · n H 2 O as metal sources. We observed spontaneous air oxidation of the metal for the Mn–TiO 2 and Fe–TiO 2 samples as indicated by rapid color changes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data confirms the oxidation states of the metals Cr, Co, and Ni are unchanged from the precursor, Mn and Fe are oxidized, and Cu is in a more reduced state. The reduction of Cu likely arises during the XPS experiment – a phenomenon well-documented in the literature; whereas UV–Vis data of the Cu–TiO 2 dispersions are consistent with Cu 2+ .

Chemistry Department.

Carley, Tamara L., Calvin F. Miller, Joseph L. Wooden, …., & Brennan T. Jordan. (2014). Iceland is not a magmatic analog for the Hadean: Evidence from the zircon record. Earth & Planetary Science Letters, 405, 85-97.

Tangible evidence of Earth’s earliest (Hadean; >4.0 Ga) crust, and the processes and materials that contributed to its formation, exists almost entirely in a record of detrital zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia, and a few other locations. Iceland, with its thick, juvenile, basaltic crust and relatively abundant silicic rocks, is considered a potential modern analog for the Hadean magmatic environment where >4 Ga zircon formed. We present the first extensive dataset for Icelandic zircon, with trace element and oxygen isotope compositions from samples that span the island’s history and full range of tectonic settings. This statistically robust zircon-based comparison between Iceland and the early Earth reveals distinctions in chemistry that suggest fundamental differences in magmatic environments. Whereas the δ 18 O signature of Hadean zircons generally exceed that of zircons equilibrated with mantle-derived magma ( 85 % ≥ 5.3 ‰ ; median 6‰), almost all Icelandic zircons are characterized by a “light” oxygen signature ( 98 % ≤ 5.3 ‰ ; median 3‰). Deviations from “juvenile” oxygen values indicate that many Hadean zircons and almost all Icelandic zircons grew from magmas with substantial contributions from materials that had interacted with surface waters. In the Hadean case, the interaction occurred at low temperatures, while in Iceland, it was a high-temperature interaction. Icelandic and Hadean zircons are also distinct in their Ti concentrations (Icelandic median concentration 12 ppm, Hadean median 5 ppm). Titanium in zircon correlates positively with temperature of crystallization, and this difference in median Ti concentration suggests a temperature difference of at least 50 °C. Other differences in trace elements compositions are consistent with the interpretation that Icelandic and Hadean zircons grew in magmas with very different origins and histories (e.g., the heavy rare earth element Yb is almost an order of magnitude higher in Icelandic zircon). A comparison with elemental data for Phanerozoic zircon from different environments demonstrates that the Hadean population is unusually depleted in Ti, but otherwise similar to zircons from continental arc settings. Zircons from Iceland, and from modern evolving rift environments where oceanic lithosphere and upwelling asthenosphere are replacing continental lithosphere, are compositionally intermediate between mid-ocean ridge and continental arc zircon populations. The elemental distinctions are consistent with fractionation of zircon-bearing magmas under hotter and drier conditions in Icelandic, mid-ocean ridge, and evolving rift environments and cooler and wetter conditions in arc and, especially, Hadean environments.

Earth Sciences Department.

Chowell, Gerardo, Lone Simonsen, Jose Flores, Mark A. Miller, & Cécile Viboud. (2014). Death Patterns during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic in Chile. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1803-1811.

Scarce information about the epidemiology of historical influenza pandemics in South America prevents complete understanding of pandemic patterns throughout the continent and across different climatic zones. To fill gaps with regard to spatiotemporal patterns of deaths associated with the 1918 influenza pandemic in Chile, we reviewed archival records. We found evidence that multiple pandemic waves at various times of the year and of varying intensities occurred during 1918-1921 and that influenza-related excess deaths peaked during July-August 1919. Pandemic-associated mortality rates were elevated for all age groups, including for adults ≥50 years of age; elevation from baseline was highest for young adults. Overall, the rate of excess deaths from the pandemic was estimated at 0.94% in Chile, similar to rates reported elsewhere in Latin America, but rates varied ≈10-fold across provinces. Patterns of death during the pandemic were affected by variation in host-specific susceptibility, population density, baseline death rate, and climate.

Mathematics Department.

Dutkay, Dorin E., & Gabriel Picioroaga. (2014). Generalized Walsh Bases and Applications. Acta Applicandae Mathematicae, 133(1), 1-18.

We investigate convergence properties of generalized Walsh series associated with signals faL (1)[0,1]. We also show how the dependence of the generalized Walsh bases on NxN unitary matrices allows for applications in signal encoding and encryption, provided the signals are piece-wise constant on N-adic subintervals of [0,1].

Mathematics Department.

Borrego, Maura, Daniel Boden, & Lynita K. Newswander. (2014). Sustained Change: Institutionalizing Interdisciplinary Graduate Education. Journal of Higher Education, 85(6), 858-885.

We employ Scott’s three pillars of institutions (regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive) to investigate how higher education organizations change to support interdisciplinary graduate education. Using document analysis and case study approaches, we illustrate how strategies which address both policies and cultural norms are most successful.

Political Science Department.

Emery, Noah N., Jeffrey S. Simons, C. Joseph Clarke, & Raluca M. Gaher. (2014). Emotion differentiation and alcohol-related problems: The mediating role of urgency. Addictive Behaviors, 39(10), 1459-1463.

Deficits in emotional and behavioral regulation figure prominently in etiological models of alcohol-related problems. This study tests a model linking poor differentiation of emotion to alcohol-related problems via urgency. The sample consisted of 102 undergraduates between the ages 18 and 24 who reported moderate to heavy alcohol consumption. As hypothesized, negative urgency mediated the relationship between negative emotion differentiation and alcohol-related problems. However, contrary to hypothesis, positive urgency was not associated with either positive emotion differentiation or alcohol-related problems and the indirect effect of positive emotion differentiation via positive urgency was not significant. Instead, positive emotion differentiation exhibited a significant direct effect on alcohol-related problems. This study provides an initial examination of connections between specificity in labeling emotions, behavioral disinhibition, and problematic alcohol use. These findings suggest that poor differentiation of negative emotion may foster impulsive behavior when negatively aroused. Whereas, impulsive behavior when positively aroused may reflect heightened sensitivity to positive reinforcement, which may not be related to reflective processes underlying emotion differentiation. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Psychology Department.

Robles, Elias, Noah N. Emery, Perla A. Vargas, Araceli Moreno, Brent Marshall, Richard C. Grove, & Huateng Zhang. (2014). Patterns of responding on a balloon analogue task reveal individual differences in overall risk-taking: Choice between guaranteed and uncertain cash. Journal of General Psychology, 141(3), 207-227.

We explored the utility of analyzing within- and between-balloon response patterns on a balloon analogue task (BAT) in relation to overall risk scores, and to a choice between a small guaranteed cash reward and an uncertain reward of the same expected value. Young adults (n = 61) played a BAT, and then were offered a choice between $5 in cash and betting to win $0 to $15. Between groups, pumping was differentially influenced by explosions and by the number of successive unexploded balloons, with risk takers responding increasingly on successive balloons after an explosion. Within-balloons, risk takers showed a characteristic pattern of constant high rate, while non-risk takers showed a characteristic variable lower rate. Overall, results show that the higher number of pumps and explosions that characterize risk takers at a molar level, result from particular forms of adaptation to the positive and negative outcomes of choices seen at a molecular level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Wang, X. T., S. Li, & L. L. Rao. (2014). Conservation combats exploitation: Choices within an evolutionary framework. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37(4), 437-438.

Intentional change when viewed as making a risky or intertemporal choice with evolutionary relevance helps us understand its successes and its failures. To promote future-oriented ecological rationality requires establishing a linkage between nongenetic, cultural, and symbolic selections and genetic adaptations. Coupled with biophilic instinct, intentional conservation is more likely to prevail against evolved desires of environmental exploitation.

Psychology Department.

Askelson, N. M., D. L. Chi, E. Momany, R. Kuthy, C. Ortiz, Jessica D. Hanson, & P. Damiano. (2014). Encouraging early preventive dental visits for preschool-aged children enrolled in Medicaid: using the Extended Parallel Process Model to conduct formative research. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 74(1), 64-70.

Objective: Preventive dental visits for preschool-aged children can result in better oral health outcomes, especially for children from lower income families. Many children, however, still do not see a dentist for preventive visits. This qualitative study examined the potential for the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) to be used to uncover potential antecedents to parents’ decisions about seeking preventive dental care. Methods: Seventeen focus groups including 41 parents were conducted. The focus group protocol centered on constructs (perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived self-efficacy, and perceived response efficacy) of the EPPM. Transcripts were analyzed by three coders who employed closed coding strategies. Results: Parents’ perceptions of severity of dental issues were high, particularly regarding negative health and appearance outcomes. Parents perceived susceptibility of their children to dental problems as low, primarily because most children in this study received preventive care, which parents viewed as highly efficacious. Parents’ self-efficacy to obtain preventive care for their children was high. However, they were concerned about barriers including lack of dentists, especially dentists who are good with young children. Conclusions: Findings were consistent with EPPM, which suggests this model is a potential tool for understanding parents’ decisions about seeking preventive dental care for their young children. Future research should utilize quantitative methods to test this model.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Bergeron, Michael F. (2014). Heat Stress and Thermal Strain Challenges in Running. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 44(10), 831-838.

 

SYNOPSIS: Running well and safely in the heat is challenging for all runners, from recreational to elite. As environmental heat stress (heat stress modulated or augmented by air temperature, humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation) and the intensity and duration of a training run or race increase, so are metabolic heat production, the parallel need for heat transfer from the body to maintain thermal equilibrium, the consequent increase in blood flow to the skin, and the concomitant sweating response progressively and proportionally amplified. An accumulating total body-water deficit from extensive sweating and escalating level of cardiovascular and thermal strain will, in due course, considerably challenge a runner’s physiology, perception of effort, and on-course well-being and performance. However, with the appropriate preparation and modifications to planned running intensity and distance, runners can safely tolerate and effectively train and compete in a wide range of challenging environmental conditions. Clinicians play a key role in this regard as an effective resource for providing the most effective guidelines and making the best overall individual recommendations regarding training and competing in the heat.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Ferris, D., R. Samakoses, S. L. Block, E. Lazcano-Ponce, J. A. Restrepo, K. S. Reisinger, . . . A. Saah. (2014). Long-term Study of a Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine. Pediatrics, 134(3), E657-E665.

 

BACKGROUND: We present a long-term safety, immunogenicity, and effectiveness study of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4) vaccine. METHODS: Sexually naive boys and girls aged 9 to 15 years (N = 1781) were assigned (2:1) to receive HPV4 vaccine or saline placebo at day 1 and months 2 and 6. At month 30, the placebo group (n = 482) received HPV4 vaccine following the same regimen and both cohorts were followed through month 96. Subjects >= 16 years were eligible for effectiveness evaluations. The primary objective was to evaluate the long-term anti-HPV6/11/16/18 serological levels. The secondary objective was to estimate vaccine effectiveness against HPV6/11/16/18-related persistent infection or disease. RESULTS: For each of the HPV4 vaccine types, vaccination-induced anti-HPV response persisted through month 96. Among 429 subjects who received HPV4 vaccine at a mean age of 12, none developed HPV6/11/16/18-related disease or persistent infection of >= 12 months’ duration. Acquisition of new sexual partners (among those >= 16 years) was similar to 1 per year. Subjects receiving HPV4 vaccine at month 30 (mean age 15 years) had a similar baseline rate of seropositivity to >= 1 of the 4 HPV types to those vaccinated at day 1 (mean age 12 years; 1.9% [9 of 474] vs 1.7% [20 of 1157]); however, 4 of the 9 subjects vaccinated at the later age were seropositive to 3 vaccine types, indicating previous HPV exposure. No new significant serious adverse events were observed for 8 years postvaccination in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: When administered to adolescents, the HPV4 vaccine demonstrated durability in clinically effective protection and sustained antibody titers over 8 years.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Finn, R., C. C. Evans, & Lance Lee. (2014). Strain-dependent brain defects in mouse models of primary ciliary dyskinesia with mutations in Pcdp1 and Spef2. Neuroscience, 277, 552-567.

Hydrocephalus is caused by the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the cerebral ventricular system which results in an enlargement of the cranium due to increased intraventricular pressure. The increase in pressure within the brain typically results in sloughing of ciliated ependymal cells, loss of cortical gray matter, and increased gliosis. Congenital hydrocephalus is associated with several syndromes including primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a rare, genetically heterogeneous, pediatric syndrome that results from defects in motile cilia and flagella. We have examined the morphological and physiological defects in the brains of two mouse models of PCD, nm1054 and bgh , which have mutations in Pcdp1 (also known as Cfap221 ) and Spef2 , respectively. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of mice with these mutations on the C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEvTac genetic backgrounds demonstrate strain-dependent morphological brain damage. Alterations in astrocytosis, microglial activation, myelination, and the neuronal population were identified and are generally more severe on the C57BL/6J background. Analysis of ependymal ciliary clearance ex vivo and CSF flow in vivo demonstrate a physiological defect in nm1054 and bgh mice on both genetic backgrounds, indicating that abnormal cilia-driven flow is not the sole determinant of the severity of hydrocephalus in these models. These results suggest that genetic modifiers play an important role in susceptibility to severe PCD-associated hydrocephalus.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Flock, M. R., A. C. Skulas-Ray, William S. Harris, T. L. Gaugler, J. A. Fleming, & P. M. Kris-Etherton. (2014). Effects of supplemental long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid content on circulating inflammatory markers in a randomized controlled trial of healthy adults. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 91(4), 161-168.

The long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated (n-3 PUFA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may have anti-inflammatory effects. We evaluated the dose-response effect of EPA+DHA supplementation on circulating TNF-alpha, IL-6, and CRP and explored associations between red blood cell (RBC) membrane PUFA content and TNF-alpha, IL-6, and CRP. Young adults with low fish intake (n= 116) received one of five doses (0, 300, 600, 900, or 1,800 mg/d EPA+DHA) for 5 months. There were no significant effects of supplemental EPA+DHA on IL-6 or CRP; however, there was a marginal treatment effect for TNF-alpha (p < 0.08). At baseline, higher quartiles of RBC DHA were associated with lower TNF-alpha (p=0.001); higher quartiles of arachidonic acid were associated with higher TNF-alpha (p=0.005). EPA+DHA supplementation had no dose-response effect on TNF-alpha, IL-6, or CRP in healthy young adults; however, associations between inflammatory markers and RBC PUFA warrant further investigation. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Floen, Miranda J., Benjamin J. Forred, Elliot J. Bloom, & Peter F. Vitiello. (2014). Thioredoxin-1 redox signaling regulates cell survival in response to hyperoxia. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 75, 167-177.

 

The most common form of newborn chronic lung disease, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), is thought to be caused by oxidative disruption of lung morphogenesis, which results in decreased pulmonary vasculature and alveolar simplification. Although cellular redox status is known to regulate cellular proliferation and differentiation, redox-sensitive pathways associated with these processes in developing pulmonary epithelium are unknown. Redox-sensitive pathways are commonly regulated by cysteine thiol modifications. Therefore two thiol oxidoreductase systems, thioredoxin and glutathione, were chosen to elucidate the roles of these pathways on cell death. Studies herein indicate that thiol oxidation contributes to cell death through impaired activity of glutathione-dependent and thioredoxin (Trx) systems and altered signaling through redox-sensitive pathways. Free thiol content decreased by 71% with hyperoxic (95% oxygen) exposure. Increased cell death was observed during oxygen exposure when either the Trx or the glutathione-dependent system was pharmacologically inhibited with aurothioglucose (ATG) or buthionine sulfoximine, respectively. However, inhibition of the Trx system yielded the smallest decrease in free thiol content (1.44% with ATG treatment vs 21.33% with BSO treatment). Although Trx1 protein levels were unchanged, Trx1 function was impaired during hyperoxic treatment as indicated by progressive cysteine oxidation. Overexpression of Trx1 in H1299 cells utilizing an inducible construct increased cell survival during hyperoxia, whereas siRNA knockdown of Trx1 during oxygen treatment reduced cell viability. Overall, this indicated that a comparatively small pool of proteins relies on Trx redox functions to mediate cell survival in hyperoxia, and the protective functions of Trx1 are progressively lost by its oxidative inhibition. To further elucidate the role of Trx1, potential Trx1 redox protein–protein interactions mediating cytoprotection and cell survival pathways were determined by utilizing a substrate trap (mass action trapping) proteomics approach. With this method, known Trx1 targets were detected, including peroxiredoxin-1 as well as novel targets, including two HSP90 isoforms (HSP90AA1 and HSP90AB1). Reactive cysteines within the structure of HSP90 are known to modulate its ATPase-dependent chaperone activity through disulfide formation and S-nitrosylation. Whereas HSP90 expression is unchanged at the protein level during hyperoxic exposure, siRNA knockdown significantly increased hyperoxic cell death by 2.5-fold, indicating cellular dependence on HSP90 chaperone functions in response to hyperoxic exposure. These data support the hypothesis that hyperoxic impairment of Trx1 has a negative impact on HSP90-oxidative responses critical to cell survival, with potential implications for pathways implicated in lung development and the pathogenesis of BPD.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Griffin, Kurt J., Paul A. Thompson, M. Gottschalk, J. H. Kyllo, & Alex Rabinovitch. (2014). Combination therapy with sitagliptin and lansoprazole in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (REPAIR-T1D): 12-month results of a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 2(9), 710-718.

Background Type 1 diabetes results from autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Findings from preclinical studies suggest that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and proton-pump inhibitors might enhance beta-cell survival and regeneration. We postulated that sitagliptin and lansoprazole would preserve beta-cell function in patients with recentonset type 1 diabetes. Methods We did a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial (REPAIR-T1D). Participants aged 11-36 years, diagnosed with type 1 diabetes within the past 6 months were recruited from Sanford Health Systems (Sioux Falls, SD, USA; Fargo, ND, USA), Children’s Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota (St Paul, MN, USA), and Rady Children’s Hospital (San Diego, CA, USA). Participants were randomly assigned (2: 1) to receive oral sitagliptin (100 mg for participants >= 18 years, 50 mg for those <18 years) and lansoprazole (60 mg for participants >= 18 years, 30 mg for those <18 years) or matched placebo for 12 months. Randomisation was done by a blocked randomisation process (blocks of three and six), with separate streams for younger (<18 years) and older (>= 18 years) participants, and males and females. All participants and personnel remained masked until after the completion of the final 12 month visit, at which time data were unmasked to the analysis team. The primary endpoint was C-peptide response to a mixed meal challenge at 12 months measured as 2 h area under curve. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01155284. Findings Between Sept 21, 2010, and May 29, 2012, 46 participants were randomly assigned to the treatment group and 22 to the placebo group; of whom 40 participants in the treatment group and 18 in the placebo group completed the 12-month treatment. At 12 months, the mean change in C-peptide area under curve was -229 pmol/L (95% CI -316 to -142) for the treatment group and -253 pmol/L (-383 to -123) for the placebo group; this difference was not significant (p= 0.77). No adverse or serious adverse events were probably or definitely related to the study treatment. Interpretation Although the expected change in the primary endpoint was not achieved, not all participants had increases in glucagon-like peptide-1 and gastrin concentrations that were expected with treatment. Although participants did not have adverse events related to study drugs, the study is not powered to address safety definitively. Further trials including these drugs might be warranted, but should be designed to ensure appropriate selection of participants and increases in these intermediary hormones.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Gupta, Brij, Diane Maher, Mara Ebeling, Phillip Stephenson, Susan Puumala, Michael Koch, . . . Subhash Chauhan. (2014). Functions and regulation of MUC13 mucin in colon cancer cells. Journal of Gastroenterology, 49(10), 1378-1391.

Background: MUC13 is overexpressed and aberrantly localized in colon cancer tissue; however, the specific functions and regulation of MUC13 expression are unknown. Methods: Stable cell lines with either overexpressed or suppressed MUC13 levels were analyzed to determine cell growth, colony formation, cell migration, and cell invasion assays. The molecular mechanisms involved in MUC13 regulation were elucidated via chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and analysis of interleukin 6 (IL6) treatments. Colon cancer tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the protein levels of MUC13 and P-STAT5 in colon cancer cells. Results: Overexpression of MUC13 increased cell growth, colony formation, cell migration, and invasion. In concordance, MUC13 silencing decreased these tumorigenic features. Overexpression of MUC13 also modulated various cancer-associated proteins, including telomerase reverse transcriptase, sonic hedgehog, B cell lymphoma murine like site 1, and GATA like transcription factor 1. Additionally, MUC13-overexpressing cells showed increased HER2 and P-ERK expression. ChIP analysis revealed binding of STAT5 to the predicted MUC13 promoter. IL6 treatment of colon cancer cells increased the expression of MUC13 via activation of the JAK2/STAT5 signaling pathway. Suppression of JAK2 and STAT5 signaling by chemical inhibitors abolished IL6-induced MUC13 expression. IHC analysis showed increased expression of both P-STAT5 and MUC13 in colon cancer as compared to adjacent normal tissue. Conclusions: The results of this study, for the first time, suggest functional roles of MUC13 in colon cancer progression and provide information regarding the regulation of MUC13 expression via JAK2/STAT5 which may reveal promising therapeutic approaches for colon cancer treatment.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Haugrud, Allison B., Yongxian Zhuang, Joseph D. Coppock, & W. Keith Miskimins. (2014). Dichloroacetate enhances apoptotic cell death via oxidative damage and attenuates lactate production in metformin-treated breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 147(3), 539-550.

 

The unique metabolism of breast cancer cells provides interest in exploiting this phenomenon therapeutically. Metformin, a promising breast cancer therapeutic, targets complex I of the electron transport chain leading to an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that eventually lead to cell death. Inhibition of complex I leads to lactate production, a metabolic byproduct already highly produced by reprogrammed cancer cells and associated with a poor prognosis. While metformin remains a promising cancer therapeutic, we sought a complementary agent to increase apoptotic promoting effects of metformin while attenuating lactate production possibly leading to greatly improved efficacy. Dichloroacetate (DCA) is a well-established drug used in the treatment of lactic acidosis which functions through inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) promoting mitochondrial metabolism. Our purpose was to examine the synergy and mechanisms by which these two drugs kill breast cancer cells. Cell lines were subjected to the indicated treatments and analyzed for cell death and various aspects of metabolism. Cell death and ROS production were analyzed using flow cytometry, Western blot analysis, and cell counting methods. Images of cells were taken with phase contrast microscopy or confocal microscopy. Metabolism of cells was analyzed using the Seahorse XF24 analyzer, lactate assays, and pH analysis. We show that when DCA and metformin are used in combination, synergistic induction of apoptosis of breast cancer cells occurs. Metformin-induced oxidative damage is enhanced by DCA through PDK1 inhibition which also diminishes metformin promoted lactate production. We demonstrate that DCA and metformin combine to synergistically induce caspase-dependent apoptosis involving oxidative damage with simultaneous attenuation of metformin promoted lactate production. Innovative combinations such as metformin and DCA show promise in expanding breast cancer therapies.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Miedema, Jayson, Daniel C. Zedek, Brian Z. Rayala, & E. Eugene Bain Iii. (2014). 9 tips to help prevent derm biopsy mistakes. Journal of Family Practice, 63(10), 559-564.

 

The article offers 9 tips for family physicians on how to prevent errors in conducting skin biopsy among patients.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Novak, Jeanne, Wendy Parent-Johnson, Laura A. Owens, & Patricia Keul. (2014). National certification initiative for employment support professionals: Promoting quality integrated employment services. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 40(2), 99-107.

 

This article describes a recent certification initiative to build an international network of professionals who have the knowledge and skills to provide quality integrated employment services to individuals with a variety of disabilities. An overview of the history and conceptual framework guiding the development of the Employment Support Professional Certification Program will be followed by a presentation of findings from a preliminary survey study of 93 professionals who have been certified. Survey respondents identified both personal and professional motivations for pursuing the Certified Employment Support Professional (CESP) designation, including the desire to (a) achieve a sense of accomplishment and personal satisfaction, (b) demonstrate a professional standard of competence and commitment to the profession, and (c) garner professional credibility and enhanced opportunities for career advancement. The authors describe ongoing efforts and recommendations for validating the credentialing program and for increasing the number of certified professionals equipped to establish and expand equitable employment opportunities for individuals with disabilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Radichev, Ilian A., Lilia V. Maneva-Radicheva, Christina Amatya, Camille Parker, Jacob Ellefson, Clive Wasserfall, . . . Alexei Y. Savinov. (2014). Nardilysin-Dependent Proteolysis of Cell-Associated VTCN1 (B7-H4) Marks Type 1 Diabetes Development. Diabetes, 63(10), 3470-3482.

T-cell responses directed against insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells are the key events highlighting type 1 diabetes (T1D). Therefore, a defective control of T-cell activation is thought to underlie T1D development. Recent studies implicated a B7-like negative costimulatory protein, V-set domain-containing T-cell activation inhibitor-1 (VTCN1), as a molecule capable of inhibiting T-cell activation and, potentially, an important constituent in experimental models of T1D. Here, we unravel a general deficiency within the VTCN1 pathway that is shared between diabetes-prone mice and a subset of T1D patients. Gradual loss of membrane-tethered VTCN1 from antigen-presenting cells combined with an increased release of soluble VTCN1 (sVTCN1) occurs in parallel to natural T1D development, potentiating hyperproliferation of diabeto-genic T cells. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that the loss of membrane-tethered VTCN1 is linked to proteolytic cleavage mediated by the metalloproteinase nardilysin. The cleaved sVTCN1 fragment was detected at high levels in the peripheral blood of 53% T1D patients compared with only 9% of the healthy subjects. Elevated blood sVTCN1 levels appeared early in the disease progression and correlated with the aggressive pace of disease, highlighting the potential use of sVTCN1 as a new T1D biomarker, and identifying nardilysin as a potential therapeutic target.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Savinova, Olga V., Kristi Fillaus, L. Jing, William S. Harris, & Gregory C. Shearer. (2014). Reduced Apolipoprotein Glycosylation in Patients with the Metabolic Syndrome. Plos One, 9(8), 9.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the apolipoprotein composition of the three major lipoprotein classes in patients with metabolic syndrome to healthy controls. Methods: Very low density (VLDL), intermediate/low density (IDL/LDL, hereafter LDL), and high density lipoproteins (HDL) fractions were isolated from plasma of 56 metabolic syndrome subjects and from 14 age-sex matched healthy volunteers. The apolipoprotein content of fractions was analyzed by one-dimensional (1D) gel electrophoresis with confirmation by a combination of mass spectrometry and biochemical assays. Results: Metabolic syndrome patients differed from healthy controls in the following ways: (1) total plasma – apoA1 was lower, whereas apoB, apoC2, apoC3, and apoE were higher; (2) VLDL – apoB, apoC3, and apoE were increased; (3) LDL – apoC3 was increased, (4) HDL -associated constitutive serum amyloid A protein (SAA4) was reduced (p<0.05 vs. controls for all). In patients with metabolic syndrome, the most extensively glycosylated (di-sialylated) isoform of apoC3 was reduced in VLDL, LDL, and HDL fractions by 17%, 30%, and 25%, respectively (p<0.01 vs. controls for all). Similarly, the glycosylated isoform of apoE was reduced in VLDL, LDL, and HDL fractions by 15%, 26%, and 37% (p<0.01 vs. controls for all). Finally, glycosylated isoform of SAA4 in HDL fraction was 42% lower in patients with metabolic syndrome compared with controls (p<0.001). Conclusions: Patients with metabolic syndrome displayed several changes in plasma apolipoprotein composition consistent with hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL cholesterol levels. Reduced glycosylation of apoC3, apoE and SAA4 are novel findings, the pathophysiological consequences of which remain to be determined.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Simpson, N. A., E. D. Wheeler, & David A. Pearce. (2014). Screening, diagnosis and epidemiology of Batten disease. Expert Opinion on Orphan Drugs, 2(9), 903-910.

Introduction: Batten disease, also called neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, describes a heterogeneous group of lysosomal storage disorders that are the most common inherited progressive neurodegenerative disorders in children. The disease is caused by mutations in the neuronal ceroid lipofusinoses (CLN) genes, which are mostly inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Areas covered: Screening guidelines and diagnostic tools have been developed for Batten disease, and although improvements have been made to these tools they may not be widely available or accessible. While certain studies have investigated the epidemiology of Batten disease in certain geographic locations, the global prevalence of Batten disease is not well established. Expert opinion: An international patient registry may provide a mechanism to gather important data on individuals diagnosed with Batten disease and may serve as a resource that could help investigators better understand the epidemiology of the disease.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Stewart, Brandie M., Jason P. Gallivan, Lee A. Baugh, & J. Randall Flanagan. (2014). Motor, not visual, encoding of potential reach targets. Current Biology, 24(19), R953-R954.

Summary We often encounter situations in which there are multiple potential targets for action, as when, for example, we hear the request “could you pass the …” at the dinner table. It has recently been shown that, in such situations, activity in sensorimotor brain areas represents competing reach targets in parallel prior to deciding between, and then reaching towards, one of these targets [1] . One intriguing possibility, consistent with the influential notion of action ‘affordances’ [2] , is that this activity reflects movement plans towards each potential target [3] . However, an equally plausible explanation is that this activity reflects an encoding of the visual properties of the potential targets (for example, their locations or directions), prior to any target being selected and the associated movement plan being formed. Notably, previous work showing spatial averaging behaviour during reaching, in which initial movements are biased towards the midpoint of the spatial distribution of potential targets [4–6] , remains equally equivocal concerning the motor versus visual encoding of reach targets. Here, using a rapid reaching task that disentangles these two competing accounts, we show that reach averaging behaviour reflects the parallel encoding of multiple competing motor plans. This provides direct evidence for theories proposing that the brain prepares multiple available movements before selecting between them [3] .

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Jang, Yuri, Soonhee Roh, & David A. Chiriboga. (2014). The impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms: A comparison of older Korean Americans in two areas. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 5(3), 200-205.

This study examined how the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms varied between two samples of older Korean Americans. One sample was from west central Florida (low Korean density area; n = 672), and the other from the New York City metropolitan area (high Korean density area; n = 420). The average level of acculturation was lower among older Korean Americans in New York, compared to those living in Florida. In the hierarchical regression models with the New York sample, acculturation was initially significant in predicting depressive symptoms; however, its impact was gradually attenuated and eventually became nonsignificant with the sequential entry of control variables. On the other hand, in the Florida sample, the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms remained significant throughout the models. The results suggest that the level and importance of acculturation may differ by geographic locations and invite further contextual research in immigrant populations.

School of Health Sciences.

Posted by: reganenosusd | September 10, 2014

September 2014

Klonoski, Joshua M., Hurtig, Heather R., Juber, Brian A., Schuneman, Margaret J., Bickett, Thomas E.,Svendsen, Joshua M., Burum, Brandon, Penfound, Thomas A., Sereda, Grigoriy,Dale, James B., Chaussee, Michael S., & Huber, Victor C. (2014). Vaccination against the M protein of Streptococcus pyogenes prevents death after influenza virus:S. pyogenes super-infection. Vaccine, 32(40), 5241-5249.

Influenza virus infections are associated with a significant number of illnesses and deaths on an annual basis. Many of the deaths are due to complications from secondary bacterial invaders, including Streptococcus pneumoniae , Staphylococcus aureus , Haemophilus influenzae , and Streptococcus pyogenes . The β-hemolytic bacteria S. pyogenes colonizes both skin and respiratory surfaces, and frequently presents clinically as strep throat or impetigo. However, when these bacteria gain access to normally sterile sites, they can cause deadly diseases including sepsis, necrotizing fasciitis, and pneumonia. We previously developed a model of influenza virus: S. pyogenes super-infection, which we used to demonstrate that vaccination against influenza virus can limit deaths associated with a secondary bacterial infection, but this protection was not complete. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of a vaccine that targets the M protein of S. pyogenes to determine whether immunity toward the bacteria alone would allow the host to survive an influenza virus: S. pyogenes super-infection. Our data demonstrate that vaccination against the M protein induces IgG antibodies, in particular those of the IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes, and that these antibodies can interact with macrophages. Ultimately, this vaccine-induced immunity eliminated death within our influenza virus: S. pyogenes super-infection model, despite the fact that all M protein-vaccinated mice showed signs of illness following influenza virus inoculation. These findings identify immunity against bacteria as an important component of protection against influenza virus:bacteria super-infection.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus [Everyone whose underlined except Sereda and Burum].

Chemistry Department [Sereda and Burum].

Barr, Jeffrey L., Forster, Gina L., & Unterwald, Ellen M. (2014). Repeated cocaine enhances ventral hippocampal-stimulated dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens and alters ventral hippocampal NMDA receptor subunit expression. Journal of Neurochemistry, 130(4), 583-590.

Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens is important for various reward-related cognitive processes including reinforcement learning. Repeated cocaine enhances hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and phasic elevations of accumbal dopamine evoked by unconditioned stimuli are dependent on impulse flow from the ventral hippocampus. Therefore, sensitized hippocampal activity may be one mechanism by which drugs of abuse enhance limbic dopaminergic activity. In this study, in vivo microdialysis in freely moving adult male Sprague-Dawley rats was used to investigate the effect of repeated cocaine on ventral hippocampus-mediated dopaminergic transmission within the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens. Following seven daily injections of saline or cocaine (20 mg/kg, ip), unilateral infusion of N-methyl- d-aspartate ( NMDA, 0.5 μg) into the ventral hippocampus transiently increased both motoric activity and ipsilateral dopamine efflux in the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens, and this effect was greater in rats that received repeated cocaine compared to controls that received repeated saline. In addition, repeated cocaine altered NMDA receptor subunit expression in the ventral hippocampus, reducing the NR2A : NR2B subunit ratio. Together, these results suggest that repeated exposure to cocaine produces maladaptive ventral hippocampal-nucleus accumbens communication, in part through changes in glutamate receptor composition.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Tian, Zongwen, Wang, Changhua,Hu, Chengjun, Tian, Yihao, Liu, J. B., & Wang, Xuejun. (2014). Autophagic-Lysosomal Inhibition Compromises Ubiquitin-Proteasome System Performance in a p62 Dependent Manner in Cardiomyocytes. Plos One, 9(6).

Intracellular protein degradation is primarily performed by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagic-lysosomal pathway (ALP). The interplay between these two pathways has been rarely examined in intact animals and the mechanism underlying the interplay remains unclear. Hence, we sought to test in vivo and in vitro the impact of inhibition of the ALP on UPS proteolytic performance in cardiomyocytes and to explore the underlying mechanism. Transgenic mice ubiquitously expressing a surrogate UPS substrate (GFPdgn) were treated with bafilomycin-A1 (BFA) to inhibit the ALP. Myocardial and renal GFPdgn protein levels but not mRNA levels were increased at 24 hours but not 3 hours after the first injection of BFA. Myocardial protein abundance of key proteasome subunits and the activities of proteasomal peptidases were not discernibly altered by the treatment. In cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs), the surrogate UPS substrate GFPu and a control red fluorescence protein (RFP) were co-expressed to probe UPS performance. At 12 hours or 24 hours after ALP inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or BFA, GFPu/RFP protein ratios and the protein half-life of GFPu were significantly increased, which is accompanied by increases in p62 proteins. Similar findings were obtained when ALP was inhibited genetically via silencing Atg7 or Rab7. ALP inhibition-induced increases in GFPu and p62 are co-localized in NRVMs. siRNA-mediated p62 knockdown prevented ALP inhibition from inducing GFPu accumulation in NRVMs. We conclude that in a p62-dependent fashion, ALP inhibition impairs cardiac UPS proteolytic performance in cardiomyocytes in vitro and in vivo.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Ghose, Sonia L., Donnelly, Maureen A., Kerby, Jacob,& Whitfield, Steven M. (2014). Acute toxicity tests and meta-analysis identify gaps in tropical ecotoxicology for amphibians. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry, 33(9), 2114-2119.

Amphibian populations are declining worldwide, particularly in tropical regions where amphibian diversity is highest. Pollutants, including agricultural pesticides, have been identified as a potential contributor to decline, yet toxicological studies of tropical amphibians are very rare. The present study assesses toxic effects on amphibians of 10 commonly used commercial pesticides in tropical agriculture using 2 approaches. First, the authors conducted 8-d toxicity assays with formulations of each pesticide using individually reared red-eyed tree frog ( Agalychnis callidryas) tadpoles. Second, they conducted a review of available data for the lethal concentration to kill 50% of test animals from the US Environmental Protection Agency’s ECOTOX database to allow comparison with their findings. Lethal concentration estimates from the assays ranged over several orders of magnitude. The nematicides terbufos and ethoprophos and the fungicide chlorothalonil were very highly toxic, with evident effects within an order of magnitude of environmental concentrations. Acute toxicity assays and meta-analysis show that nematicides and fungicides are generally more toxic than herbicides yet receive far less research attention than less toxic herbicides. Given that the tropics have a high diversity of amphibians, the findings emphasize the need for research into the effects of commonly used pesticides in tropical countries and should help guide future ecotoxicological research in tropical regions.

Biology Department.

Monroe, E. M., & Britten, Hugh B. (2014). Conservation in Hine’s sight: the conservation genetics of the federally endangered Hine’s emerald dragonfly, Somatochlora hineana. Journal of Insect Conservation, 18(3), 353-363.

Hine’s emerald dragonfly (Somatochlora hineana) is distributed in discrete fen and wet meadow habitats over its range from Ontario, Canada, to Missouri, USA. Habitat destruction in the vicinity of Chicago, IL, and other areas lead to its designation as an US federal endangered species in 1995. Our main goal was to delineate the population genetic structure of the species within the northern recovery unit centered on the Door Peninsula in Wisconsin and the southern recovery unit in the Des Plaines River Valley near Chicago, IL. Sites on the Door Peninsula, WI, are in a matrix of agricultural development and second-growth forest and were used as a best available approximation of a pristine system for the dragonfly. We nondestructively sampled 557 adults and larvae from 16 sites in Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin from 2008 through 2011 and used ten microsatellite markers to estimate levels of genetic variability, and genetic structure. Mean allelic richness across all sites and years was 5.03 (+/- 0.64) and expected heterozygosity was 0.52 (+/- 0.032). Northern and southern recovery units as designated in the original recovery plan were genetically distinct. We delineated two genetic populations in the northern unit and three within the southern including two disjunct sites.

Biology Department.

Qiu, Chao, Bao, Ying,Netzer, Nathan L., & Jiang, Chaoyang. (2014). Environment-dependent optical scattering of cuprous oxide microcrystals in liquid dispersions and Langmuir-Blodgett films. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 2(29), 5910-5915.

Optical properties of semiconductor materials are important for their broad applications, especially when the materials are nano-and micrometer crystals. Here we show that cuprous oxide microcrystals have three extinction peaks that are environment sensitive in the visible-near infrared region. The extinction peaks show a linear blue shift with the increase in refractive index of the surrounding medium. The environment-dependent shift of extinction spectra can also be observed for cuprous oxide in cast films and Langmuir-Blodgett films. The sensitivity of environment-dependent optical behavior depends on the energy of the extinction peaks. Both experimental work and theoretical calculation on the environment-dependent spectra of cuprous oxide microcrystals provide valuable knowledge on these functional semiconductor materials for various applications.

Chemistry Department.

St. Louis, Kenneth O., Williams, Mandy J., Ware, Mercedes B., Guendouzi, Jacqueline, & Reichel, Isabella K. (2014). The Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S) and Bipolar Adjective Scale (BAS): Aspects of validity. Journal of Communication Disorders, 50, 36-50.

Purpose In order to estimate instrument validity, attitudes toward stuttering measured by the newly developed Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S) and the Woods and Williams (1976) semantic differential scale (referred to herein as the Bipolar Adjective Scale [BAS]) are compared in college students on one occasion as well as before and after coursework on fluency disorders. Method Undergraduate and graduate students (n = 321) from four universities filled out online versions of the POSHA-S and BAS. Two-thirds were speech-language pathology (SLP) majors; one-third were students in other majors. A subset of the SLP students (n = 35) filled out the two instruments again after 8-13 weeks of coursework on fluency disorders. Results Correlations between all ratings of the POSHA-S and BAS were run for the 321 students. Only 26% of the correlations were statistically significant (R ≥±0.129), and the large majority of these reflected small relationships. POSHA-S ratings were correlated with up to 77% of the items of the BAS while BAS items were correlated with up to 45% of the POSHA-S ratings. After coursework on stuttering, students’ attitudes improved on both instruments, but more on the POSHA-S than the BAS. Conclusions Greater evidence of discriminant validity than convergent validity characterized the POSHA-S and BAS. Both measures showed improved attitudes after fluency disorders coursework, but more so for the POSHA-S, confirming previous reports of construct validity. The POSHA-S taps relevant constructs not included in the BAS, which provide advantages for intracultural, international, and other comparisons of public attitudes toward stuttering. Learning outcomes: The reader will be able to: (1) describe differentiating characteristics of the POSHA-S and BAS as measures of public attitudes toward stuttering, (2) describe the overlap and lack of overlap in the constructs measured by POSHA-S and BAS, (3) describe discriminant versus convergent validity and (4) describe advantages of the POSHA-S and BAS in various types of comparative studies of stuttering attitudes.

Communications Disorders Department.

Ehsan, Md. Amimul, Khizar, M., Raja, M. Y. A., & Mei, Dongming. (2014). Numerical Analysis of a-Si/c-Si1-xGex/c-Si Heterostructures Based on Si and Ge Thin-Film Solar Cells. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 39(7), 5347-5353.

The electrical transport properties of a-Si/cSi(1-x)Ge(x)/c-Si heterostructure thin-film solar cells are described. A lattice mismatch of similar to 4.17 % between Si and Ge is always challenging when considering such material system. Numerical optimization of the layer by layer structure shows that Si absorber and p Si1-xGex strained layers play a critical role to improve the light absorption properties of a-Si/c-Si1-xGex/c-Si heterostructure for their infrared detection applications. For this study, a finite element analysis technique is used to solve the fully coupled two carrier semiconductor transport equations. Obtained results show a substantial enhancement in the conversion efficiency of the newly designed a-Si/c-Si1-xGex/c-Si heterostructure thin-film solar cell. Achieved enhancement in conversion efficiency is attributed due to a noticeable improvement in the open circuit voltage (V-OC) and a corresponding increase in the optical path lengths. Comparative study of the Si-and Ge-based thin-film solar cells shows that the conversion efficiency of Si-based heterostructures is better than germanium mainly due to the low thermal and lattice mismatch of Si to the design hetero-epitaxial structure. As much as a conversion efficiency of similar to 21.19 % was calculated for a-Si/cSi(1-x)Ge(x)/c-Si heterostructure thin-film solar cell.

Physics Department.

Messier, Erick C., Quevillon, Randal P., & Simons, Jeffrey S. (2014). The Effect of Perceived Parental Approval of Drinking on Alcohol Use and Problems. Journal of Alcohol& Drug Education, 58(1), 44-59.

The relationship between perceived parental approval of drinking and alcohol use and problems was explored with undergraduate students in a small midwestern university. Participants completed a survey measuring demographic information, perceived approval of drinking, and alcohol use and problems. Results indicated perceived parental approval of drinking was significantly related to alcohol use and problems. Path analysis demonstrated perceived parental approval of drinking affected weekly drinking quantity, alcohol use frequency, and negative consequences of alcohol indirectly through perceived friends’ approval of drinking. There was also a significant direct effect from parental approval to alcohol use frequency. These findings suggest that parents may influence their children’s drinking by mechanisms such as affecting peer selection.

Psychology Department.

Simons, Jeffrey S., Wills, Thomas A., & Neal, Dan J. (2014). The Many Faces of Affect: A Multilevel Model of Drinking Frequency/Quantity and Alcohol Dependence Symptoms Among Young Adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 123(3), 676-694.

This research tested a multilevel structural equation model of associations between 3 aspects of affective functioning (state affect, trait affect, and affective lability) and 3 alcohol outcomes (likelihood of drinking, quantity on drinking days, and dependence symptoms) in a sample of 263 college students. Participants provided 49 days of experience sampling data over 1.3 years in a longitudinal burst design. Within-person results: At the daily level, positive affect was directly associated with greater likelihood and quantity of alcohol consumption. Daily negative affect was directly associated with higher consumption on drinking days and with higher dependence symptoms. Between-person direct effects: Affect lability was associated with higher trait negative, but not positive, affect. Trait positive affect was inversely associated with the proportion of drinking days, whereas negative affectivity predicted a greater proportion of drinking days. Affect lability exhibited a direct association with dependence symptoms. Between-person indirect effects: Trait positive affect was associated with fewer dependence symptoms via proportion of drinking days. Trait negative affect was associated with greater dependence symptoms via proportion of drinking days. The results distinguish relations of positive and negative affect to likelihood versus amount of drinking and state versus trait drinking outcomes, and highlight the importance of affect variability for predicting alcohol dependence symptoms.

Psychology Department.

Hansen, Keith A. (2014). What Is New in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome?Obstetrics & Gynecology, 124(3), 630-632s.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Harris, William S., Pottala, James V., Thiselton, D. L., Varvel, S. A., Baedke, A. M., Dayspring, T. D., Warnick, G. R., & McConnell, J. P. (2014). Does APOE Genotype Modify the Relations Between Serum Lipid and Erythrocyte Omega-3 Fatty Acid Levels? Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research, 7(5), 526-532.

Earlier reports indicated that patients with the apolipoprotein APOE epsilon 4 allele responded to fish oil supplementation with a rise in serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) compared to epsilon 3 homozygotes. In this study, we used clinical laboratory data to test the hypothesis that the cross-sectional relation between RBC omega-3 fatty acid status (the Omega-3 Index) and LDL-C was modified by APOE genotype. Data from 136,701 patients were available to compare lipid biomarker levels across Omega-3 Index categories associated with heart disease risk in all APOE genotypes. We found no adverse interactions between APOE genotype and the Omega-3 Index for LDL-C, LDL particle number, apoB, HDL-C, or triglycerides. However, we did find evidence that epsilon 2 homozygotes lack an association between omega-3 status and LDL-C, apoB, and LDL particle number. In summary, we found no evidence for a deleterious relationship between lipid biomarkers and the Omega-3 Index by APOE genotype.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Levin, S. W., Baker, E. H., Zein, W. M., Zhang, Z. J., …, Griffin, Kurt J., Bianconi, S., Chandra, G., Khan, O. I., Caruso, R. C., Liu, A. Y., & Mukherjee, A. B. (2014). Oral cysteamine bitartrate and N-acetylcysteine for patients with infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis: a pilot study.Lancet Neurology, 13(8), 777-787.

Background Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is a devastating neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the gene (CLN1 or PPT1) encoding palmitoyl-protein thioesterase-1 (PPT1). We have previously reported that phosphocysteamine and N-acetylcysteine mediate ceroid depletion in culured cells from patients with this disease. We aimed to assess whether combination of oral cysteamine bitartrate and N-acetylcysteine is beneficial for patients with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Methods Children between 6 months and 3 years of age with infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis with any two of the seven most lethal PPT1 mutations were eligible for inclusion in this pilot study. All patients were recruited from physician referrals. Patients received oral cysteamine bitartrate (60 mg/kg per day) and N-acetylcysteine (60 mg/kg per day) and were assessed every 6-12 months until they had an isoelectric electroencephalogram (EEG, attesting to a vegetative state) or were too ill to travel. Patients were also assessed by electroretinography, brain MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and electron microscopic analyses of leukocytes for granular osmiophilic deposits (GRODs). Children also underwent physical and neurodevelopmental assessments on the Denver scale. Outcomes were compared with the reported natural history of infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and that of affected older siblings. Findings Between March 14, 2001, and June 30, 2012, we recruited ten children with infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis; one child was lost to follow-up after the first visit and nine patients (five girls and four boys) were followed up for 8 to 75 months. MRI showed abnormalities similar to those in previous reports; brain volume and N-acetyl aspartic acid (NAA) decreased steadily, but no published quantitative MRI or MRS studies were available for comparison. None of the children acquired new developmental skills, and their retinal function decreased progressively. Average time to isoelectric EEG (52 months, SD 13) was longer than reported previously (36 months). At the first follow-up visit, peripheral leukocytes in all nine patients showed virtually complete depletion of GRODs. Parents and physicians reported less irritability, improved alertness, or both in seven patients. No treatment-related adverse events occurred apart from mild gastrointestinal discomfort in two patients, which disappeared when liquid cysteamine bitartrate was replaced with capsules. Interpretation Our findings suggest that combination therapy with cysteamine bitartrate and N-acetylcysteine is associated with delay of isoelectric EEG, depletion of GRODs, and subjective benefits as reported by parents and physicians. Our systematic and quantitative report of the natural history of patients with infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis provides a guide for future assessment of experimental therapies.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Reindl, Bailey A., Lynch, Douglas W., & Jassim, Ali D. (2014). Aggressive Variant of a Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasm A Case Report and Literature Review. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 138(7), 974-978.

Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm, a lesion of uncertain cellular differentiation, is an unusual tumor of the pancreas with an indolent clinical course that typically arises in young females. We report a case of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm arising in a 17-year-old adolescent girl who presented with progressive abdominal pain. The patient underwent surgical resection of an 18 x 14 x 8-cm pancreatic mass that displayed the usual histologic features of a solid pseudopapillary neoplasm in addition to prominent nuclear atypia, increased proliferative index, and extensive necrosis. These unusual histologic findings are rare and are of particular interest owing to the dramatically decreased survival time displayed in this case. Although precise pathologic criteria suggesting a high risk for aggressive behavior of solid pseudopapillary neoplasms are uncertain, recognition of the unusual pathologic features displayed in this case may be useful in the prediction of potentially more aggressive neoplasms that portend a poorer prognosis.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Newland, Lisa A. (2014). Supportive family contexts: promoting child well-being and resilience. Early Child Development & Care, 184(9/10), 1336-1346.

Prevention and intervention programmes for children at risk aim to improve child well-being and resilience. They do so using both direct and indirect strategies, intervening with children but also considering broader contextual factors (such as family dynamics). Children’s subjective well-being comprises five main components (physical health, mental health, self-regulation, social competence, and cognitive competence) and is predicted by person, relationship, and contextual factors. Children’s resilience, or ability to beat the odds under adverse conditions, is predicted by similar protective factors. Family well-being (FWB) is one of the strongest and most consistent predictors of child well-being and resilience. Aspects of FWB (including adult health and well-being, family self-sufficiency, and family resiliency) have been shown to impact child well-being through positive parent–child interactions. However, risk factors (including poverty and living in geographic locales with limited resources or high levels of neighbourhood violence) can threaten both family and child well-being. Strategies are offered for promoting FWB as a means of supporting resilience and well-being in children at risk for violence, abuse, or neglect.

School of Education.

Biricocchi, Charlanne, Drake, JamieLynn,& Svien, Lana. (2014). Balance Outcomes Following a Tap Dance Program for a Child With Congenital Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 26(3), 360-365.

Purpose: This case report describes the effects of a 6-week progressive tap dance program on static and dynamic balance for a child with type 1 congenital myotonic muscular dystrophy (congenital MMD1). Summary of Key Points: A 6-year-old girl with congenital MMD1 participated in a 1-hour progressive tap dance program. Classes were held once a week for 6 consecutive weeks and included 3 children with adaptive needs and 1 peer with typical development. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2) balance subsection and the Pediatric Balance Scale were completed at the beginning of the first class and the sixth class. The participant’s BOT-2 score improved from 3 to 14. Her Pediatric Balance Scale score did not change. Conclusion: Participation in a progressive tap dance class by a child with congenital MMD1 may facilitate improvements in static and dynamic balance.

Scnool of Health Sciences.

 

Posted by: reganenosusd | September 9, 2014

July 2014

Huber, Victor C. (2014). Influenza vaccines: from whole virus preparations to recombinant protein technology. Expert Review of Vaccines, 13(1), 31-42.

Vaccination against influenza represents our most effective form of prevention. Historical approaches toward vaccine creation and production have yielded highly effective vaccines that are safe and immunogenic. Despite their effectiveness, these historical approaches do not allow for the incorporation of changes into the vaccine in a timely manner. In 2013, a recombinant protein-based vaccine that induces immunity toward the influenza virus hemagglutinin was approved for use in the USA. This vaccine represents the first approved vaccine formulation that does not require an influenza virus intermediate for production. This review presents a brief history of influenza vaccines, with insight into the potential future application of vaccines generated using recombinant technology.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Liu, N. N., Liu, C. J., Li, X. F., …., Wang, Xuejun, Dou, Q. P., & Liu, J. B. (2014). A novel proteasome inhibitor suppresses tumor growth via targeting both 19S proteasome deubiquitinases and 20S proteolytic peptidases. Scientific Reports, 4, 13.

The successful development of bortezomib-based therapy for treatment of multiple myeloma has established proteasome inhibition as an effective therapeutic strategy, and both 20S proteasome peptidases and 19S deubiquitinases (DUBs) are becoming attractive targets of cancer therapy. It has been reported that metal complexes, such as copper complexes, inhibit tumor proteasome. However, the involved mechanism of action has not been fully characterized. Here we report that (i) copper pyrithione (CuPT), an alternative to tributyltin for antifouling paint biocides, inhibits the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) via targeting both 19S proteasome-specific DUBs and 20S proteolytic peptidases with a mechanism distinct from that of the FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor bortezomib; (ii) CuPT potently inhibits proteasome-specific UCHL5 and USP14 activities; (iii) CuPT inhibits tumor growth in vivo and induces cytotoxicity in vitro and ex vivo. This study uncovers a novel class of dual inhibitors of DUBs and proteasome and suggests a potential clinical strategy for cancer therapy.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Ouellette, Scott P., Rueden, Kelsey J., Gauliard, E., Persons, L., de Boer, P. A., & Ladant, D. (2014). Analysis of MreB interactors in Chlamydia reveals a RodZ homolog but fails to detect an interaction with MraY. Frontiers in Microbiology, 5.

Chlamydia is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that has significantly reduced its genome in adapting to the intracellular environment. One class of genes for which the bacterium has few annotated examples is cell division, and Chlamydia lacks FtsZ, a central coordinator of the division apparatus. We have previously implicated MreB as a potential substitute for FtsZ in Chlamydia (Ouellette et al., 2012). Thus, to identify new chlamydial cell division components, we searched for proteins that interacted with MreB. We performed a small-scale screen using a Gateway (R) compatible version of the Bacterial Adenylate Cyclase Two Hybrid (BACTH) system, BACTH(Gw), to detect proteins interacting with chlamydial MreB and identified a RodZ (YfgA) homolog. The chlamydial RodZ aligns well with the cytoplasmic domain of E. coli RodZ but lacks the periplasmic domain that is dispensable for rod cell shape maintenance in E. coli. The expression pattern of yfgA/rodZ was similar to that of mreB and ftsl, suggesting that these genes may operate in a common functional pathway. The chlamydial RodZ correctly localized to the membrane of E. coli but was unable to complement an E. coli rodZ mutant strain, likely because of the inability of chlamydial RodZ to interact with the native E. coli MreB. Finally, we also tested whether chlamydial MreB could interact with MraY, as suggested by Gaballah et al. (2011). However, we did not detect an interaction between these proteins even when using an implementation of the BACTH system to allow native orientation of the N- and C-termini of MraY in the periplasm. Thus, further work will be needed to establish this proposed interaction. In sum, we have added to the repertoire of potential cell division proteins of Chlamydia.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Shewchuk, Richard M., Carlson, Greg L., Klosterman, Matt, Cullen, Stephen, & Qu, Haiyan. (2014). Frictions as Barriers to Perioperative Alignment: Results From a Latent Class Analysis. Quality Management in Health Care, 23(3), 188-200.

The quality of the relationship between the sterile processing department (SPD) and the operating room (OR) is an important determinant of OR safety and performance. In this article, the concept of “friction ” refers to the SPD behaviors and attributes that can negatively affect OR performance. Panels of SPD professionals initially were asked to identify and operationally define different ways in which behaviors of a hospital’s SPD could compromise OR performance. A national convenience sample of OR nurses (N = 291 ) rated 14 frictions in terms of their agreement or disagreement that each had a negative effect on OR performance in their hospital. Overall, more than 50% of the entire sample agreed that 2 frictions, “SPD does not communicate effectively with the OR” (55%) and “SPD inventories are insufficient for surgical volume” (52%), had negative effect on OR performance. However, a latent class analysis revealed 3 distinct classes of nurses who varied with respect to their level of agreement that SPD-OR frictions negatively affected OR performance. The observed heterogeneity in how different groups of nurses viewed different frictions suggests that effective efforts aimed at reducing performance-limiting frictions should be customized so that resources can be used where they are most needed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Quality Management in Health Care is the property of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins — Nursing and

Beacom School of Business.

Thiruppathi, Eagappanath, & Mani, Gopinath. (2014). Vitamin-C Delivery from CoCr Alloy Surfaces Using Polymer-Free and Polymer-Based Platforms For Cardiovascular Stent Applications. Langmuir, 30(21), 6237-6249.

Antiproliferative drugs such as paclitaxel and sirolimus are delivered from stents to inhibit the growth of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) for preventing neointimal hyperplasia. However, these drugs delay the growth of endothelial cells (ECs) as well and cause late stent thrombosis. We recently demonstrated the use of Vitamin-C (L-ascorbic acid, L-AA) over paclitaxel and sirolimus for inhibiting SMCs growth and promoting EC growth simultaneously. In this study, we have investigated the delivery of L-AA from CoCr alloy surfaces for potential use in stents. A polymer-free phosphoric acid (PA) platform and a polymer-based poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) platform were used for coating L-AA onto CoCr surfaces. For the PA platform, FTIR confirmed that the PA was coated on CoCr, while the AFM showed that the PA coating on the CoCr surface was homogeneous. The successful deposition of L-AA on PA-coated CoCr was also confirmed by FTIR. The uniform distribution of L-AA crystals on PA-coated CoCr was shown by SEM, optical profilometer, and AFM. The drug release studies showed that L-AA (276 mu g/cm(2)) was burst released from the PA platform by 1 h. For the PLGA platform, SEM showed that the L-AA incorporated polymer films were smoothly and uniformly coated on CoCr. FTIR showed that L-AA was incorporated into the bulk of the PLGA film. DSC showed that the L-AA was present in an amorphous form and formed an intermolecular bonding interaction with PLGA. The drug release studies showed that L-AA was sustained released from the PLGA coated CoCr for up to 24 h. The SEM, FTIR, and DSC characterizations of samples collected post drug release shed light on the mechanism of L-AA release from PLGA coated CoCr. Thus, this study demonstrated the delivery of L-AA from biomaterial surfaces for potential applications in stents and other implantable medical devices.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

Dong, F., Koodali, Ranjit T., Wang, H. Q., & Ho, W. K. (2014). Nanomaterials for Environmental Applications. Journal of Nanomaterials.

Chemistry Department.

Han, Yulun, Lin, Cuikun,Meng, Qingguo, Dai, Fenggrong, Sykes, Andrew G., Berry, Mary T., & May, P. Stanley. (2014). (BMI)(3)LnCl(6) Crystals as Models for the Coordination Environment of LnCl(3) (Ln = Sm, Eu, Dy, Er, Yb) in 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloride Ionic-Liquid Solution. Inorganic Chemistry, 53(11), 5494-5501.

A series of (BMI)(3)LnCl(6) (Ln = Sm, Eu, Dy, Er, Yb) crystals was prepared from solutions of LnCl(3) dissolved in the ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMICl). Crystals with Ln = 5% Sm + 95% Gd and with Ln = 5% Dy + 95% Gd were also grown to assess the importance of cross-relaxation in the Sm and Dy samples. The crystals are isostructural, with monoclinic space group P2(1)/c and four formula units per unit cell. The first coordination sphere of Ln(3+) consists of six Cl- anions forming a slightly distorted octahedral LnCl(6)(3-) center. The second coordination sphere is composed of nine BMI+ cations. The emission spectra and luminescence lifetimes of both (BMI)(3)LnCl(6) crystals and LnCl(3) in BMICl solution were measured. The spectroscopic similarities suggest that crystalline (BMI)(3)LnCl(6) provides a good model of the Ln(3+) coordination environment in BMICl solution.

Chemistry Department.

Jia, L., Hui, Y. C., Li, Z. S., Sun, H. L., & Wang, Zhenqiang. (2014). Luminescent lanthanide-2-phenylpyrimidine-carboxylate frameworks: structure and luminescence tuning. Crystengcomm, 16(28), 6483-6490.

Six novel luminescent lanthanide-2-phenylpyrimidine-carboxylate frameworks, namely, [Ln(ppmc)(3)(phen)] (Ln = Eu (1), Tb (2)), [Ln(ppmc)(2)(C2O4)(0.5)(H2O)] (Ln = Eu (3), Tb (4)), {[Eu(ppmdc)(phen)(C2O4)(0.5)]center dot 0.5H(2)O} (5) and [Tb(ppmdc)(benzoate)(phen)] (6) (Hppmc = 2- phenylpyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid, H(2)ppmdc = 2-phenylpyrimidine-4,6-dicarboxylic acid) have been synthesized. The X-ray structure analyses reveal that all of the compounds contain carboxylate-bridged dimer units; however, coordination environments of Ln(3+) ions, bridging modes of carboxylate, and the linkage between them are different. In the isostructural compounds 1 and 2, extensive pi-pi stacking exists between the anti-anti carboxylate bridged dimer. However, syn-anti carboxylate bridges are found in compounds 3 and 4 in which oxalate connects the dimers to form 1D chains. Compound 5 has a 2D structure connected by both mu 4-ppmdc(2-) and oxalate in which the carboxylates adopt both anti-anti and chelate-bridging modes. Compound 6 featuring 1D chains also contains anti-anti carboxylate-bridged dimers that are linked by the mu 3-ppmdc(2-) ligand. All six compounds show characteristic red or green emission attributed to Eu3+ and Tb3+. The luminescence lifetime and quantum yield are presented and discussed in detail. The use of different ligands and reaction conditions has led to distinct coordination environments of lanthanide ions and the aggregation of dimeric units, which are considered as the dominating factors for the resulting photoluminescence behaviour of solid samples.

Chemistry Department.

Rasalingam, Shivatharsiny, Peng, Rui, & Koodali, Ranjit T. (2014). Removal of Hazardous Pollutants from Wastewaters: Applications of TiO2-SiO2 Mixed Oxide Materials. Journal of Nanomaterials.

The direct release of untreated wastewaters from various industries and households results in the release of toxic pollutants to the aquatic environment. Advanced oxidation processes (AOP) have gained wide attention owing to the prospect of complete mineralization of nonbiodegradable organic substances to environmentally innocuous products by chemical oxidation. In particular, heterogeneous photocatalysis has been demonstrated to have tremendous promise in water purification and treatment of several pollutant materials that include naturally occurring toxins, pesticides, and other deleterious contaminants. In this work, we have reviewed the different removal techniques that have been employed for water purification. In particular, the application of TiO2-SiO2 binary mixed oxide materials for wastewater treatment is explained herein, and it is evident from the literature survey that these mixed oxide materials have enhanced abilities to remove a wide variety of pollutants.

Chemistry Department.

Suter, John D., Pekas, Nicholas J., Berry, Mary T., & May, P. Stanley. (2014). Real-Time-Monitoring of the Synthesis of beta-NaYF4:17% Yb,3% Er Nanocrystals Using NIR-to-Visible Upconversion Luminescence. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 118(24), 13238-13247.

In situ real-time monitoring of upconversion emission is applied to study the reaction mechanism for the synthesis of beta-NaYF4:17% Yb,3% Er nanoparticles in oleic acid and octadecene via the heat-up method. Transmission electron microscopy is used to correlate the spectroscopic signature of the reaction mixture with its composition. The power of real-time spectroscopic monitoring to precisely time the duration of the various stages of the reaction, and to accurately identify the transitions between those stages, including the completion of the reaction, is demonstrated. During the heat-up stage, the initial precipitate present is transformed into small alpha-phase nanoparticles. In the second and longest stage of the reaction, a period of relative stasis is maintained, during which there is at most a slight change in the size distribution of the alpha-phase nanoparticles formed during heat-up. In the third stage, a relatively rapid conversion of small alpha-phase nanoparticles to the larger beta-phase product nanoparticles is observed. The size distribution of the beta product remains relatively constant during the phase-transition stage, indicating that, once the beta particles begin to form, they grow very rapidly to the final product size. A significant variation in the time required to complete the reaction is observed, which is due almost entirely to the variation in the duration of the second reaction stage. The time required to complete the reaction does not appear to affect the size or uniformity of the product beta-NaYF4:17% Yb,3% Er nanoparticles.

Chemistry Department.

Wang, C. Y., Lin, Cuikun, Zhang, L. H., Quan, Z. W., Sun, K., Zhao, Bo, . . . Fang, J. Y. (2014). Pt3Co Concave Nanocubes: Synthesis, Formation Understanding, and Enhanced Catalytic Activity toward Hydrogenation of Styrene. Chemistry-a European Journal, 20(6), 1753-1759.

We report a facile synthesis route to prepare high-quality Pt3Co nanocubes with a concave structure, and further demonstrate that these concave Pt3Co nanocubes are terminated with high-index crystal facets. The success of this preparation is highly dependent on an appropriate nucleation process with a successively anisotropic overgrowth and a preservation of the resultant high-index planes by control binding of oleyl-amine/oleic acid with a fine-tuned composition. Using a hydrogenation of styrene as a model reaction, these Pt3Co concave nanocubes as a new class of nanocatalysts with more open structure and active atomic sites located on their high-index crystallographic planes exhibit an enhanced catalytic activity in comparison with low-indexed surface terminated Pt3Co nanocubes in similar size.

Chemistry Department.

Yulun, Han, Cuikun, Lin,Qingguo, Meng, Dai, Fengrong, Sykes, Andrew G., Berry, Mary T., & May, P. Stanley. (2014). (BMI)3LnCl6 Crystals as Models for the Coordination Environment of LnCl3 (Ln = Sm, Eu, Dy, Er, Yb) in l-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloride Ionic-Liquid Solution. Inorganic Chemistry, 53(11), 5494-5501.

A series of (BMI)3LnCl6 (Ln = Sm, Eu, Dy, Er, Yb) crystals was prepared from solutions of LnCl3 dissolved in the ionic liquid, l-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMICl). Crystals with Ln = 5% Sm + 95% Gd and with Ln = 5% Dy + 95% Gd were also grown to assess the importance of cross-relaxation in the Sm and Dy samples. The crystals are isostructural, with monoclinic space group P2l/c and four formula units per unit cell. The first coordination sphere of Ln3+ consists of six Cl- anions forming a slightly distorted octahedral LnCl63- center. The second coordination sphere is composed of nine BMI+ cations. The emission spectra and luminescence lifetimes of both (BMI)3LnCl6 crystals and LnCl3 in BMICI solution were measured. The spectroscopic similarities suggest that crystalline (BMI)3LnCl6 provides a good model of the Ln3+ coordination environment in BMICl solution. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Inorganic Chemistry is the property of American Chemical Society and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Chemistry Department.

Roripaugh, Lee Ann. (2014). Moist Towelette. North American Review, 299(2), 14-15.

English Department.

Flores, Jose D., & Gonzalez-Olivares, E. (2014). Dynamics of a predator-prey model with Allee effect on prey and ratio-dependent functional response. Ecological Complexity, 18, 59-66.

We analyze a ratio-dependent predator-prey model with Allee effect on the prey by making a parametric analysis of the stability properties of the dynamics of the system in which the functional response is a function of the ratio of prey to predator abundance. An important mathematical feature of these type of models is that while the functional response is undefined at the origin, the origin is singular equilibrium. We present the different types of system behaviors for different parameter values, showing the existence of separatrix curves in the phase plane determining that the long-term system’s dynamic is dependent on the initial conditions. The model is studied analytically as well as numerically, including stability and bifurcation analysis. We also discuss the biological relevance of the model regarding both coexistence (conservation) and extinction (biological control) issues. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Mathematics Department.

Mirabolfathi, N., Amman, M., Faiez, D., Luke, P. N., Martin, Ryan D., Rolla, J. A., . . . Vetter, K. (2014). Neganov-Luke Phonon Amplification in P-type Point Contact Detectors. Journal of Low Temperature Physics, 176(3-4), 209-215.

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) detectors measure ionization and athermal phonons in high purity germanium crystals to discriminate between nuclear recoils from dark matter candidates and radioactive backgrounds. In order to reach lower energy detection thresholds, the CDMSlite experiment operates the CDMS detectors with a larger voltage bias to increase the signal-to-noise ratio using the Neganov-Luke effect. Breakdown in those detectors was observed at fields of order 30 V/cm, but the reason for the breakdown is unknown. It is unclear if the breakdowns are due to surface leakage current, impact ionization in the bulk of the crystals, or some other effect due to the very low operating temperatures of the detectors. Germanium detectors used in gamma spectroscopy at 77 K are regularly operated with fields in excess of 1,000 V/cm. In order to understand the origin of breakdown in the CDMS detectors, a P-type Point Contact detector was equipped with transition edge phonon thermistors and operated at a base temperature of 30 mK. The linearity of the Neganov-Luke phonon amplification was studied and no sign of breakdown for biases up to 400 V was observed. This excludes impact ionization on neutral impurity states as the primary cause of the breakdown observed in the CDMSLite detectors. This demonstrates that the Neganov-Luke phonon amplification is a viable method for lowering the energy threshold in germanium detectors of masses of order 1 kg.

Physics Department.

Emery, Noah N., Simons, Jeffrey S., Clarke, C. Joseph, & Gaher, Raluca M. (2014). Emotion differentiation and alcohol-related problems: The mediating role of urgency. Addictive Behaviors, 39(10), 1459-1463.

Deficits in emotional and behavioral regulation figure prominently in etiological models of alcohol-related problems. This study tests a model linking poor differentiation of emotion to alcohol-related problems via urgency. The sample consisted of 102 undergraduates between the ages 18 and 24 who reported moderate to heavy alcohol consumption. As hypothesized, negative urgency mediated the relationship between negative emotion differentiation and alcohol-related problems. However, contrary to hypothesis, positive urgency was not associated with either positive emotion differentiation or alcohol-related problems and the indirect effect of positive emotion differentiation via positive urgency was not significant. Instead, positive emotion differentiation exhibited a significant direct effect on alcohol-related problems. This study provides an initial examination of connections between specificity in labeling emotions, behavioral disinhibition, and problematic alcohol use. These findings suggest that poor differentiation of negative emotion may foster impulsive behavior when negatively aroused. Whereas, impulsive behavior when positively aroused may reflect heightened sensitivity to positive reinforcement, which may not be related to reflective processes underlying emotion differentiation.

Psychology Department.

Struckman-Johnson, Cindy, Gaster, Samuel, & Struckman-Johnson, Dave. (2014). A preliminary study of sexual activity as a distraction for young drivers. Accident Analysis& Prevention, 71, 120-128.

In what may be the first in-depth study of sexual activity as a driving distraction in the US, a sample of 195 male and 511 female college students at a Midwestern university (M age = 19.7) participated in an on-line study of sex while driving (SWD). Of these, 64 (32.8%) men and 47 (9.3%) women had engaged in sex while driving (SWD). Nine percent of men and 29% of women had engaged in SWD as a passenger. In most recent SWD incidents, respondents reported that the two most common acts were oral sex (70.3%) and genital touching (60.4%). About 11% engaged in vaginal intercourse. Sexual activity lasted from 1 to 10 min for 42.7% of the respondents. Nearly half (49.1%) were traveling 61-80 mph during sex. Considering respondents’ lifetime incidents of SWD, the most common driving errors reported were speeding (37.8%), drifting into another lane (36%), and letting go of the steering wheel (10.8%). Only 1.8% nearly had a crash, and none actually had a crash. Separate regression analyses for male and female respondents revealed that lower intentions to engage in SWD in the future were associated with higher estimates of the probability of a car crash. The authors consider SWD to be an under-reported in-vehicle distraction and encourage more research and prevention efforts.

Psychology Department.

Ahrendt, April D., Kattelmann, Kendra K., Rector, Thomas S., & Maddox, David A. (2014). The effectiveness of telemedicine for weight management in the MOVE! Program. The Journal of Rural Health, 30(1), 113-119.

Purpose: To examine the effectiveness of videoconferencing technology for delivering comprehensive weight management treatment. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted by extraction of data from medical records for the years 2008‐2010. The treatment included a series of 12 weekly MOVE!® classes delivered using videoconferencing. Data were extracted from the time of baseline weight to 1 year after baseline weight for the MOVE! participants (n = 60) and from a concurrent control group (n = 60) that did not participate in MOVE! treatment. Findings: Results indicated that the MOVE! group lost weight while the control group gained weight, resulting in a mean difference between the groups of −5.5 ± 2.7 kg (95% CI = −8.0 to −3.0; P &lt; .0001). Conclusions: These results indicate that videoconferencing is an effective method to provide the MOVE! Weight Management Program to veterans. Weight loss was maintained for one year after baseline in the MOVE! group. This is very promising as weight re‐gain is a common issue and these results support using videoconferencing for a long‐term weight management treatment option. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Harris, William S. (2014). Achieving optimal n-3 fatty acid status: the vegetarian’s challenge … or not. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 100(1), 449S-452S.

The long chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), although originally synthesized by microorganisms in the oceans, are primarily obtained from the consumption of fish. Vegetarians, by definition, do not eat fish and thus consume virtually no EPA and DHA. Because conversion of the plant-derived n-3 fatty acid a-linolenic acid (ALA) to EPA and DHA is very low, n-3 tissue concentrations in vegetarians are lower than in omnivores. This review asks 2 questions: what is the evidence that increased n-3 concentrations reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in vegetarians, and, if it does, how can vegetarians increase their blood and tissue concentrations of these animal-derived fatty acids? At present, both cardiovascular risk markers and cardiovascular events appear to be significantly reduced in vegetarians compared with those in omnivores. If so, and in the absence of data to show that risk in vegetarians could be even lower with higher n-3 concentrations, then the second question becomes moot. However, the absence of evidence is not evidence of absence; therefore, at our present state of knowledge, increasing n-3 concentrations is not an unreasonable goal for vegetarians. This can be accomplished by a variety of approaches, including increased intakes of ALA, consumption of stearidonic acid enriched soybean oil (if and when it comes to the market), and the use of supplements containing EPA, DHA, or both derived from nonanimal sources (microalgae, biotech yeast, and, in the future, biotech plant oils).

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Hershman, D. L., Lacchetti, C., Dworkin, R. H., Smith, E. M. L., Bleeker, Jonathan, Cavaletti, G., . . . Loprinzi, C. L. (2014). Prevention and Management of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy in Survivors of Adult Cancers: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 32(18), 1941-+.

Purpose To provide evidence-based guidance on the optimum prevention and treatment approaches in the management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathies (CIPN) in adult cancer survivors. Methods A systematic literature search identified relevant, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the treatment of CIPN. Primary outcomes included incidence and severity of neuropathy as measured by neurophysiologic changes, patient-reported outcomes, and quality of life. Results A total of 48 RCTs met eligibility criteria and comprise the evidentiary basis for the recommendations. Trials tended to be small and heterogeneous, many with insufficient sample sizes to detect clinically important differences in outcomes. Primary outcomes varied across the trials, and in most cases, studies were not directly comparable because of different outcomes, measurements, and instruments used at different time points. The strength of the recommendations is based on the quality, amount, and consistency of the evidence and the balance between benefits and harms. Recommendations: On the basis of the paucity of high-quality, consistent evidence, there are no agents recommended for the prevention of CIPN. With regard to the treatment of existing CIPN, the best available data support a moderate recommendation for treatment with duloxetine. Although the CIPN trials are inconclusive regarding tricyclic antidepressants (such as nortriptyline), gabapentin, and a compounded topical gel containing baclofen, amitriptyline HCL, and ketamine, these agents may be offered on the basis of data supporting their utility in other neuropathic pain conditions given the limited other CIPN treatment options. Further research on these agents is warranted. (C) 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Kim, D. I., Birendra, K. C., Zhu, W. H., Motamedchaboki, K., Doye, V., & Roux, Kyle J. (2014). Probing nuclear pore complex architecture with proximity-dependent biotinylation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(24), E2453-E2461.

Proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID) is a method for identifying protein associations that occur in vivo. By fusing a promiscuous biotin ligase to a protein of interest expressed in living cells, BioID permits the labeling of proximate proteins during a defined labeling period. In this study we used BioID to study the human nuclear pore complex (NPC), one of the largest macromolecular assemblies in eukaryotes. Anchored within the nuclear envelope, NPCs mediate the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of numerous cellular components. We applied BioID to constituents of the Nup107-160 complex and the Nup93 complex, two conserved NPC subcomplexes. A strikingly different set of NPC constituents was detected depending on the position of these BioID-fusion proteins within the NPC. By applying BioID to several constituents located throughout the extremely stable Nup107-160 subcomplex, we refined our understanding of this highly conserved subcomplex, in part by demonstrating a direct interaction of Nup43 with Nup85. Furthermore, by using the extremely stable Nup107-160 structure as a molecular ruler, we defined the practical labeling radius of BioID. These studies further our understanding of human NPC organization and demonstrate that BioID is a valuable tool for exploring the constituency and organization of large protein assemblies in living cells.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Levin, Sondra W., Baker, Eva H., Zein, Wadih M., …., Griffin, Kurt J., Bianconi, Simona, . . . Mukherjee, Anil B. (2014). Oral cysteamine bitartrate and N-acetylcysteine for patients with infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis: a pilot study. Lancet Neurology, 13(8), 777-787.

Background: Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is a devastating neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the gene (CLN1 or PPT1) encoding palmitoyl-protein thioesterase-1 (PPT1). We have previously reported that phosphocysteamine and N-acetylcysteine mediate ceroid depletion in cultured cells from patients with this disease. We aimed to assess whether combination of oral cysteamine bitartrate and N-acetylcysteine is beneficial for patients with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Methods: Children between 6 months and 3 years of age with infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis with any two of the seven most lethal PPT1 mutations were eligible for inclusion in this pilot study. All patients were recruited from physician referrals. Patients received oral cysteamine bitartrate (60 mg/kg per day) and N-acetylcysteine (60 mg/kg per day) and were assessed every 6-12 months until they had an isoelectric electroencephalogram (EEG, attesting to a vegetative state) or were too ill to travel. Patients were also assessed by electroretinography, brain MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and electron microscopic analyses of leukocytes for granular osmiophilic deposits (GRODs). Children also underwent physical and neurodevelopmental assessments on the Denver scale. Outcomes were compared with the reported natural history of infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and that of affected older siblings. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00028262. Findings: Between March 14, 2001, and June 30, 2012, we recruited ten children with infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis; one child was lost to follow-up after the first visit and nine patients (five girls and four boys) were followed up for 8 to 75 months. MRI showed abnormalities similar to those in previous reports; brain volume and N-acetyl aspartic acid (NAA) decreased steadily, but no published quantitative MRI or MRS studies were available for comparison. None of the children acquired new developmental skills, and their retinal function decreased progressively. Average time to isoelectric EEG (52 months, SD 13) was longer than reported previously (36 months). At the first follow-up visit, peripheral leukocytes in all nine patients showed virtually complete depletion of GRODs. Parents and physicians reported less irritability, improved alertness, or both in seven patients. No treatment-related adverse events occurred apart from mild gastrointestinal discomfort in two patients, which disappeared when liquid cysteamine bitartrate was replaced with capsules. Interpretation: Our findings suggest that combination therapy with cysteamine bitartrate and N-acetylcysteine is associated with delay of isoelectric EEG, depletion of GRODs, and subjective benefits as reported by parents and physicians. Our systematic and quantitative report of the natural history of patients with infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis provides a guide for future assessment of experimental therapies. Funding: National Institutes of Health.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

May, P. A., Hamrick, K. J., Corbin, K. D., Hoyme, H. Eugene, Hasken, J. M., Marais, A. S., Brooke, L. E., . . . Gossage, J. P. (2014). Dietary intake, nutrition, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Reproductive Toxicology, 46, 31-39.

In this study, we describe the nutritional status of women from a South African community with very high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Nutrient intake (24-h recall) of mothers of children with FASD was compared to mothers of normal controls. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). More than 50% of all mothers were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, D, E, and C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Mean intakes were below the Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin K, potassium, and choline. Mothers of children with FASD reported significantly lower intake of calcium, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), riboflavin, and choline than controls. Lower intake of multiple key nutrients correlates significantly with heavy drinking. Poor diet quality and multiple nutritional inadequacies coupled with prenatal alcohol exposure may increase the risk for FASD in this population. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Persons, J. E., Robinson, J. G., Ammann, E. M., …., Harris, William S., Manson, J. E., & Fiedorowicz, J. G. (2014). Omega-3 fatty acid biomarkers and subsequent depressive symptoms. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 29(7), 747-757.

ObjectiveWe sought to determine the relationship between the omega-3 fatty acid content of red blood cell membranes (RBC), in particular docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and baseline and new-onset depressive symptoms in post-menopausal women. We secondarily sought to characterize the association between dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake and depressive symptomatology. MethodsStudy participants included 7086 members of the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (aged 63-81years) who had an assessment of RBC omega-3 fatty acid concentrations at the baseline screening visit. Depressive symptoms at baseline and follow-up were characterized using the Burnam eight-item scale for depressive disorders (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale/Diagnostic Interview Schedule short form) and secondarily additionally inferred by antidepressant medication use. ResultsIn multivariable-adjusted models, our primary exposure, RBC DHA+EPA, was not related to depressive symptoms by any measure at baseline or follow-up, nor were RBC total omega-3, DHA, or EPA (all p>0.2). In contrast, dietary intake of omega-3 was positively associated with depressive symptoms at baseline (adjusted odds ratio 1.082, 95% confidence interval 1.004-1.166; p=0.04 for dietary DHA+EPA and Burnam score 0.06), although this generally did not persist at follow-up. ConclusionNo relationship between RBC omega-3 levels and subsequent depressive symptoms was evident, and associations between dietary omega-3 and depressive symptoms were variable. Biomarkers of omega-3 status do not appear to be related to risk of new depression in post-menopausal women.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Reindl, Bailey A., Lynch, Douglas W., & Jassim, Ali D. (2014). Aggressive Variant of a Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasm: A Case Report and Literature Review. 138, 974-978.

Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm, a lesion of uncertain cellular differentiation, is an unusual tumor of the pancreas with an indolent clinical course that typically arises in young females. We report a case of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm arising in a 17-year-old adolescent girl who presented with progressive abdominal pain. The patient underwent surgical resection of an 18 × 14 × 8-cm pancreatic mass that displayed the usual histologic features of a solid pseudopapillary neoplasm in addition to prominent nuclear atypia, increased proliferative index, and extensive necrosis. These unusual histologic findings are rare and are of particular interest owing to the dramatically decreased survival time displayed in this case. Although precise pathologic criteria suggesting a high risk for aggressive behavior of solid pseudopapillary neoplasms are uncertain, recognition of the unusual pathologic features displayed in this case may be useful in the prediction of potentially more aggressive neoplasms that portend a poorer prognosis.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Terrier, B., Nagata, Satashi, Ise, Tomoko, Rosenzwajg, M., Pastan, I., Klatzmann, D., . . . Cacoub, P. (2014). CD21(-/low) Marginal Zone B Cells Highly Express Fc Receptor-like 5 Protein and Are Killed by Anti-Fc Receptor-like 5 Immunotoxins in Hepatitis C Virus-Associated Mixed Cryoglobulinemia Vasculitis. Arthritis & Rheumatology, 66(2), 433-443.

Objective. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with B cell lymphoproliferative disorders, including mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) vasculitis and B cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The expansion of clonal and autoreactive rheumatoid factor-bearing CD21(-/low) marginal zone (MZ) B cells was demonstrated in patients with HCV-associated MC vasculitis. Fc receptor-like (FCRL) proteins comprise a family of immunoregulatory proteins preferentially expressed on B lineage cells. The goal of this study was to investigate the expression of FCRL proteins 1-5 on B cells from patients with HCV-associated MC vasculitis. Methods. Expression of FCRL proteins 1-5 was assessed by flow cytometry on B cells from 15 HCV-infected patients with type II MC (7 of whom had B cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma), 20 HCV-infected patients without MC, and 20 healthy donors. To evaluate FCRL-5 as an immunotherapy target in HCV-associated MC vasculitis, 2 anti-FCRL-5 recombinant immunotoxins were produced using anti-FCRL-5 monoclonal antibodies and Pseudomonas exotoxin. Results. Expression of FCRLs 2, 3, and 5 was markedly increased while expression of FCRL-1 was decreased on clonal CD21(-/low) MZ B cells, as compared with other B cell subsets, from HCV-infected patients and healthy donors. However, there was no difference in the pattern of FCRL expression between HCV-MC patients with lymphoma and those without lymphoma. The anti-FCRL-5 immunotoxins showed specific cytotoxicity against FCRL-5-expressing clonal CD21(-/low) MZ B cells isolated from HCV-infected patients as well as FCRL-5-transfected cell lines. No cytotoxicity against T cells or conventional B cells was observed. Conclusion. These findings suggest that FCRL-5-targeting therapies could be a specific treatment for HCV-associated MC vasculitis and other FCRL-5-positive autoimmune B cell disorders.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Talbot, Elizabeth Peffer, & McMillin, Joan A. (2014). The Social Work Reinvestment Initiative: Advocacy and Social Work Practice. Social Work, 59(3), 201-210.

In 2006, NASW launched the Social Work Reinvestment Initiative by granting each state chapter $15,000 in seed money to address the most pressing social work needs in the state. This article describes how NASW-SD, with 246 members, launched an epic campaign that resulted in the establishment of the only MSW program in South Dakota. Using historical research methods, this article demonstrates the power of social work advocacy when members unify in pursuit of a common goal and describes how the social workers rallied to educate policymakers and the public on the value of social work and its delivery of necessary social services at all levels and in all fields of practice. The research highlights an uphill battle of advocacy and the skillful planning and implementation of a campaign to secure state funding to establish the first MSW program in the state, at the beginning of the most difficult economic recession since the Great Depression.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Posted by: reganenosusd | August 27, 2014

June 2014

Eyster, Kathleen M., Appt, S., Chalpe, Abha, Mark-Kappeler, Connie J., Register, T. C., & Clarkson, T. B. (2014). Effects of estradiol on transcriptional profiles in atherosclerotic iliac arteries in ovariectomized cynomolgus macaques. Menopause-the Journal of the North American Menopause Society, 21(2), 143-152.

Objective This study aimed to assess the in vivo effects of estradiol treatment on arterial gene expression in atherosclerotic postmenopausal female monkeys. Methods Eight ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys were fed atherogenic diets for 6.5 years. The left iliac artery was biopsied before randomization to the estradiol group (human equivalent dose of 1 mg/d, n = 4) or the vehicle group (n = 4) for 8 months. The right iliac artery was obtained at necropsy. Transcriptional profiles in pretreatment versus posttreatment iliac arteries were compared to assess the responses of atherosclerotic arteries to estradiol. Results Iliac artery plaque size did not differ between the estradiol group and the placebo group at baseline or during the treatment period. Nevertheless, estradiol treatment was associated with increased expression of 106 genes and decreased expression of 26 genes in the iliac arteries. Estradiol treatment increased the expression of extracellular matrix genes, including the 1 chain of type I collagen, the 2 chain of type VI collagen, and fibulin 2, suggestive of an increase in the proportion or phenotype of smooth muscles or fibroblasts in lesions. Also increased were components of the insulin-like growth factor pathway (insulin-like growth factor 1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5) and the Wnt signaling pathway (secreted frizzled-related protein 2, secreted frizzled-related protein 4, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6, and Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein 2). Conclusions Estradiol treatment of monkeys with established atherosclerosis affected iliac artery gene expression, suggesting changes in the cellular composition of lesions. Moreover, it is probable that the presence of atherosclerotic plaque affected the gene expression responses of arteries to estrogen.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Ouellette, Scot P.,Gauliard, Emilie, Antosova, Zuzana,& Ladant, Daniel. (2014). A Gateway((R)) -compatible bacterial adenylate cyclase-based two-hybrid system. Environmental Microbiology Reports, 6(3), 259-267.

The bacterial adenylate cyclase two-hybrid (BACTH) system has been widely used to characterize protein-protein interactions in the prokaryotic world. This system relies on the interaction-mediated reconstitution of adenylate cyclase activity in Escherichia coli by bringing together two complementary fragments of the catalytic domain of the adenylate cyclase toxin of Bordetella pertussis. A limiting factor in performing large-scale two-hybrid interaction screens with full-length open reading frames (ORFs) is the need to clone each ORF individually into the plasmids used to express the hybrid proteins. The Gateway((R)) (GW) cloning system (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY, USA) partially circumvents this limitation, and we describe here modifications to the BACTH system for compatibility with this recombineering technology. We validated and tested the functionality of the BACTH Gateway (BACTH(GW)) system using several models of protein-protein interactions, focusing particularly on those involved in bacterial cell division. We further modified the BACTH plasmids to incorporate a transmembrane (TM) segment downstream of the cyclase fragments to permit analysis of extracytoplasmic protein interactions. This approach was also useful to identify putative TM segments and to experimentally validate bioinformatically identified TM domains. The BACTH(GW) system will prove a useful addition to the study of protein-protein interactions.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Paulson, Alicia F., Prasad, M. S., Thuringer, Amanda H., & Manzerra, Pasquale. (2014). Regulation of cadherin expression in nervous system development. Cell Adhesion & Migration, 8(1), 19-28.

This review addresses our current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for classical cadherin expression during development of the vertebrate nervous system. The complexity of the spatial and temporal expression patterns is linked to morphogenic and functional roles in the developing nervous system. While the regulatory networks controlling cadherin expression are not well understood, it is likely that the multiple signaling pathways active in the development of particular domains also regulate the specific cadherins expressed at that time and location. With the growing understanding of the broader roles of cadherins in cell-cell adhesion and non-adhesion processes, it is important to understand both the upstream regulation of cadherin expression and the downstream effects of specific cadherins within their cellular context.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Zheng, Zhaoqing,& Keifer, Joyce. (2014). Sequential Delivery of Synaptic GluA1-and GluA4-containing AMPA Receptors ( AMPARs) by SAP97 Anchored Protein Complexes in Classical Conditioning. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 289(15), 10540-10550.

Background: Subunit-specific synaptic delivery of AMPARs during associative learning is not well characterized. Results: SAP97-AKAP/PKA-GluA1 followed by SAP97-KSR1/PKC-GluA4 complexes function for surface delivery of AMPARs. Conclusion: SAP97 interacts with AKAP and KSR1 proteins to coordinate the sequential synaptic delivery of AMPAR subunits during in vitro classical conditioning. Significance: A cooperative interaction of multiple scaffolding proteins selectively delivers AMPARs to synapses during conditioning. Multiple signaling pathways are involved in AMPAR trafficking to synapses during synaptic plasticity and learning. The mechanisms for how these pathways are coordinated in parallel but maintain their functional specificity involves subcellular compartmentalization of kinase function by scaffolding proteins, but how this is accomplished is not well understood. Here, we focused on characterizing the molecular machinery that functions in the sequential synaptic delivery of GluA1- and GluA4-containing AMPARs using an in vitro model of eyeblink classical conditioning. We show that conditioning induces the interaction of selective protein complexes with the key structural protein SAP97, which tightly regulates the synaptic delivery of GluA1 and GluA4 AMPAR subunits. The results demonstrate that in the early stages of conditioning the initial activation of PKA stimulates the formation of a SAP97-AKAP/PKA-GluA1 protein complex leading to synaptic delivery of GluA1-containing AMPARs through a SAP97-PSD95 interaction. This is followed shortly thereafter by generation of a SAP97-KSR1/PKC-GluA4 complex for GluA4 AMPAR subunit delivery again through a SAP97-PSD95 interaction. These data suggest that SAP97 forms the molecular backbone of a protein scaffold critical for delivery of AMPARs to the PSD during conditioning. Together, the findings reveal a cooperative interaction of multiple scaffolding proteins for appropriately timed delivery of subunit-specific AMPARs to synapses and support a sequential two-stage model of AMPAR synaptic delivery during classical conditioning.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Zheng, W. H., Liu, J. S., & Swanson, David L. (2014). Seasonal Phenotypic Flexibility of Body Mass, Organ Masses, and Tissue Oxidative Capacity and Their Relationship to Resting Metabolic Rate in Chinese Bulbuls. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 87(3), 432-444.

Survival of small birds in fluctuating environments is facilitated by seasonal metabolic and morphological flexibility. Chinese bulbuls Pycnonotus sinensis show winter increases in resting metabolic rate (RMR), nutritional organ masses, and liver and muscle cellular aerobic capacity relative to summer. In this study, we build on these findings from previous studies by measuring seasonal adjustments in body mass (M-b), RMR, nutritional and exercise organ masses, and several physiological, biochemical, and hormonal markers over the entire annual cycle in wild-trapped Chinese bulbuls from Wenzhou, China. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationships between variation in organ masses and cellular aerobic capacity and variation in RMR in individual birds. M-b and RMR were higher in spring (March-May) and winter (December-February) than in summer (June-August). The dry masses of several nutritional organs and mitochondrial protein content, state 4 respiration, and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity in liver and muscle were all heightened in winter relative to other seasons. In addition, dry masses of heart and pectoral muscle, but not nutritional organs, and biochemical markers of cellular aerobic capacity in liver and muscle were positively correlated with RMR. Plasma triiodothyronine (T-3) concentration was higher in winter and spring than in summer and autumn, and it was positively correlated with RMR, mitochondrial protein content, state 4 respiration, and COX activity in liver and muscle. These results suggest that seasonal changes in nutritional and exercise organ masses and liver and muscle cellular aerobic capacity interact to promote seasonal metabolic flexibility in Chinese bulbuls. T-3 appears to promote these seasonal thermoregulatory adjustments.

Biology Department.

Dai, Feng-Rong,Sambasivam, Uma, Hammerstrom, Alex J.,& Wang, Zhenqiang. (2014). Synthetic Supercontainers Exhibit Distinct Solution versus Solid State Guest-Binding Behavior. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 136(20), 7480-7491.

The phase-dependent host-guest binding behavior of a new family of synthetic supercontainers has been probed in homogeneous solution and at liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and solid-gas interfaces. The synthetic hosts, namely, type II metal-organic supercontainers (MOSCs), are constructed from the assembly of divalent metal ions, 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate (BDC) linker, and sulfonylcalix[4]arene-based container precursors. One member of the MOSCs, MOSC-II-tBu-Ni, which is derived from Ni(II), BDC, and p-tert-butylsulfonylcalix[4] arene (TBSC), crystallizes in the space group R (3) over bar and adopts pseudo face-centered cubic (fcc) packing, whereas other MOSCs, including TBSC analogue MOSC-II-tBu-Co, p-tert-pentylsulfonylcalix[4]arene (TPSC) analogues MOSC-II-tPen-Ni/Co, and p-tert-octylsulfonylcalix[4]arene (TOSC) analogues MOSC-II-tOc-Ni/Mg/Co, all crystallize in the space group I4/m and assume a pseudo body-centered cubic (bcc) packing mode. This solid-state structural diversity is nevertheless not reflected in their solution host-guest chemistry, as evidenced by the similar binding properties of MOSC-II-tBu-Ni and MOSC-II-tBu-Co in solution. Both MOSCs show comparable binding constants and adsorb ca. 7 equiv of methylene blue (MB) and ca. 30 equiv of aspirin in chloroform. In contrast, the guest-binding behavior of the MOSCs in solid state reveals much more variations. At the solid-liquid interface, MOSC-II-tBu-Co adsorb ca. S equiv of MB from an aqueous solution at a substantially faster rate than MOSC-II-tBu-Ni does. However, at the solid-gas interface, MOSC-II-tBu-Ni has higher gas uptake than MOSC-II-tBu-Co, contradicting their overall porosity inferred from the crystal structures. This discrepancy is attributed to the partial collapse of the solid-state packing of the MOSCs upon solvent evacuation. It is postulated that the degree of porosity collapse correlates with the molecular size of the MOSCs, i.e., the larger the MOSCs, the more severe they suffer from the loss of porosity. The same principle can rationalize the negligible N-2 and O-2 adsorption seen in the larger MOSC-II-tPen-Co and MOSC-II-tOC-Ni/Mg/Co molecules. MOSC-II-tPen-Ni features an intermediate molecular size and endures a partial structural collapse in such a way that the resulting pore dimension permits the inclusion of kinetically smaller O-2 (3.46 angstrom) but excludes larger N-2 (3.64 angstrom), explaining the observed remarkable O-2/N-2 adsorption selectivity.

Chemistry Department.

Feng-Rong, Dai,Sambasivam, Uma, Hammerstrom, Alex J.,& Zhenqiang, Wang. (2014). Synthetic Supercontainers Exhibit Distinct Solution versus Solid State Guest-Binding Behavior. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 136(20), 7480-7491.

The phase-dependent host-guest binding behavior of a new family of synthetic supercontainers has been probed in homogeneous solution and at liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and soUd-gas interfaces. The synthetic hosts, namely, type II metalorganic supercontainers (MOSCs), are constructed from the assembly of divalent metal ions, 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate (BDC) linker, and sulfonylcalix[4]arene-based container precursors. One member of the MOSCs, MOSC-II-tBu-Ni, which is derived fi-om Ni(Il), BDC, and ]7-tert-butylsulfonylcalix[4]arene (TBSC), crystallizes in the space group R3 and adopts pseudo facecentered cubic (fee) packing, whereas other MOSCs, including TBSC analogue MOSC-II-tBu-Co, p-tert-pentylsulfonylcalix- [4]arene (TPSC) analogues MOSC-II-tPen-Ni/Co, and j)-iert-octylsulfonylcalix[4]arene (TOSC) analogues MOSC-II-tOc-Ni/ Mg/Co, all crystallize in the space group IA/m and assume a pseudo body-centered cubic (bcc) packing mode. This solid-state structural diversity is nevertheless not reflected in their solution host-guest chemistry, as evidenced by the similar binding properties of MOSC-II-tBu-Ni and MOSC-II-tBu-Co in solution. Both MOSCs show comparable binding constants and adsorb ca. 7 equiv of methylene blue (MB) and ca. 30 equiv of aspirin in chloroform. In contrast, the guest-binding behavior of the MOSCs in solid state reveals much more variations. At the solid-liquid interface, MOSC-II-tBu-Co adsorb ca. 5 equiv of MB from an aqueous solution at a substantially faster rate than MOSC-II-tBu-Ni does. However, at the solid-gas interface, MOSCII- tBu-Ni has higher gas uptake than MOSC-II-tBu-Co, contradicting their overall porosity inferred from the crystal structures. This discrepancy is attributed to the partial collapse of the solid-state packing of the MOSCs upon solvent evacuation. It is postulated that the degree of porosity collapse correlates with the molecular size of the MOSCs, i.e., the larger the MOSCs, the more severe they suffer fi-om the loss of porosity. The same principle can rationalize the negligible N2 and O2 adsorption seen in the larger MOSC-II-tPen-Co and MOSC-II-tOC-Ni/Mg/Co molecules. MOSC-II-tPen-Ni features an intermediate molecular size and endures a partial structural collapse in such a way that the resulting pore dimension permits the inclusion of kinetically smaller O2 (3.46 A) but excludes larger N2 (3.64 A), explaining the observed remarkable O2/N2 adsorption selectivity.

Chemistry Department.

Messersmith, Jessica J.,Lockie, Jill, Jorgensen, Lindsey,Bauer Vaith, Shana, & Falk, Elizabeth. (2014). Legislation Impacting Audiology and the Provision of Audiological Services: A Review of Legislation Across the United States. American Journal of Audiology, 23(1), 142-150.

Purpose: The purpose of this review was to investigate the legislation about the provision of audiology services. Specifically, the goal of the review was to investigate the similarities and differences in legislation regarding the identification of, and audiology services provided to, children with hearing loss. Method: A systematic review was conducted to collect state-specific legislation regarding the audiology licensure requirements, requirements about the identification and management of children with hearing loss, and insurance coverage regulations. Compiled data were analyzed for similarities and differences between state regulations and legislature. Results: All states require audiologists to hold licensure; however, many differences exist between the requirements of acquiring and maintaining the license. Some states regulate the identification and management of children with hearing loss, whereas others do not. Additionally, states differ in their regulation of services provided to children with hearing loss, who can provide these services, and what is covered by insurance. Conclusion: It is critical for audiologists to understand the requirements of their state in the provision of audiology services. Specifically, it is important for audiologists to understand how the laws may impact the services they provide to children with hearing loss.

Communication Disorders Department.

Ehlers, Sarah. (2014). Mourning the Modernist Undead: Robert Duncan’s Company and the Felt Silence of the Lost Generation. Contemporary Literature, 55(1), 89-117.

The article offers criticism of the poem “September 1961” by Robert Duncan. The author discusses the development of the American Poetry and preoccupation with silence and loss of speech. It explores Duncan’s process of mourning over the death of H. D., his process for constructing his poems amid perceived loss of his mentors.

English Department.

Robles, Elias, Emery, Noah N., Vargas, Perla A., Moreno, Araceli, Marshall, Brent, Grove, Richard C., & Zhang, Huateng. (2014). Patterns of Responding on a Balloon Analogue Task Reveal Individual Differences in Overall Risk-Taking: Choice Between Guaranteed and Uncertain Cash. Journal of General Psychology, 141(3), 207-227.

ABSTRACT. We explored the utility of analyzing within- and between-balloon response patterns on a balloon analogue task (BAT) in relation to overall risk scores, and to a choice between a small guaranteed cash reward and an uncertain reward of the same expected value. Young adults (n = 61) played a BAT, and then were offered a choice between $5 in cash and betting to win $0 to $15. Between groups, pumping was differentially influenced by explosions and by the number of successive unexploded balloons, with risk takers responding increasingly on successive balloons after an explosion. Within-balloons, risk takers showed a characteristic pattern of constant high rate, while non-risk takers showed a characteristic variable lower rate. Overall, results show that the higher number of pumps and explosions that characterize risk takers at a molar level, result from particular forms of adaptation to the positive and negative outcomes of choices seen at a molecular level. Color versions of one or more of the figures in the article can be found online at www.tandfonline.com/vgen.

Psychology Department [graduate student].

Pottala, James V., Djira, G. D., Espeland, M. A., Ye, J., Larson, M. G., & Harris, William S. (2014). Structural Equation Modeling for Analyzing Erythrocyte Fatty Acids in Framingham. Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine.

Research has shown that several types of erythrocyte fatty acids (i.e., omega-3, omega-6, and trans) are associated with risk for cardiovascular diseases. However, there are complex metabolic and dietary relations among fatty acids, which induce correlations that are typically ignored when using them as risk predictors. A latent variable approach could summarize these complex relations into a few latent variable scores for use in statistical models. Twenty-two red blood cell (RBC) fatty acids were measured in Framingham (N = 3196). The correlation matrix of the fatty acids was modeled using structural equation modeling; the model was tested for goodness-of-fit and gender invariance. Thirteen fatty acids were summarized by three latent variables, and gender invariance was rejected so separate models were developed for men and women. A score was developed for the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) latent variable, which explained about 30% of the variance in the data. The PUFA score included loadings in opposing directions among three omega-3 and three omega-6 fatty acids, and incorporated the biosynthetic and dietary relations among them. Whether the PUFA factor score can improve the performance of risk prediction in cardiovascular diseases remains to be tested.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

Bledsoe, Adam,Baloun, Brett, Murray, Jeffrey,& Atiq, Muslim. (2014). Retrieval of a sharp foreign body from the stomach: a novel approach. Endoscopy, 46, E105-E106.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Evans, Rick L.,Pottala, James V., & Egland, Kristi A.(2014). Classifying Patients for Breast Cancer by Detection of Autoantibodies against a Panel of Conformation-Carrying Antigens. Cancer Prevention Research, 7(5), 545-555.

Patients with breast cancer elicit an autoantibody response against cancer proteins, which reflects and amplifies the cellular changes associated with tumorigenesis. Detection of autoantibodies in plasma may provide a minimally invasive mechanism for early detection of breast cancer. To identify cancer proteins that elicit a humoral response, we generated a cDNA library enriched for breast cancer genes that encode membrane and secreted proteins, which are more likely to induce an antibody response compared with intracellular proteins. To generate conformation-carrying antigens that are efficiently recognized by patients’ antibodies, a eukaryotic expression strategy was established. Plasma from 200 patients with breast cancer and 200 age-matched healthy controls were measured for autoantibody activity against 20 different antigens designed to have conformational epitopes using ELISA. A conditional logistic regression model was used to select a combination of autoantibody responses against the 20 different antigens to classify patients with breast cancer from healthy controls. The best combination included ANGPTL4, DKK1, GAL1, MUC1, GFRA1, GRN, and LRRC15; however, autoantibody responses against GFRA1, GRN, and LRRC15 were inversely correlated with breast cancer. When the autoantibody responses against the 7 antigens were added to the base model, including age, BMI, race and current smoking status, the assay had the following diagnostic capabilities: c-stat (95% CI), 0.82 (0.78-0.86); sensitivity, 73%; specificity, 76%; and positive likelihood ratio (95% CI), 3.04 (2.34-3.94). The model was calibrated across risk deciles (HosmerLemeshow, P = 0.13) and performed well in specific subtypes of breast cancer including estrogen receptor positive, HER-2 positive, invasive, in situ and tumor sizes > 1 cm. Cancer Prev Res; 7(5); 545-55. (C) 2014 AACR.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

May, Philip A., Hamrick, Kari J., ….., Hoyme, H. Eugene, & Gossage, J. Phillip. (2014). Dietary intake, nutrition, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Reproductive Toxicology, 46(x), 31-39.

Highlights: [•] Dietary intake of women in South Africa is compared to recommended intakes for specific nutrients. [•] For most nutrients, all mothers were significantly below Dietary Reference Intakes. [•] Mothers of FASD children had significantly lower intakes of calcium, DPA, riboflavin, and choline than controls. [•] Lower nutrient intake correlates with binge drinking. [•] Nutritional inadequacies with prenatal alcohol exposure increase the risk for FASD.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

O’Neil, Amanda,& Schumacher, Bette. (2014). Application of a Pectin Barrier for Medical Adhesive Skin Injury (Epidermal Stripping) in a Premature Infant. Journal of Wound Ostomy and Continence Nursing, 41(3), 219-221.

BACKGROUND: Premature infants require, as part of their care, devices such as monitors and temperature probes to be attached to their skin. However, because of immaturity of the skin, they are especially vulnerable to medical adhesive-related skin injury. CASE: This case discusses the application of a hydrocolloid (pectin) barrier between the adhesive surface of a silver reflective patch covering thermistor probe and the neonate’s skin resulting in medical adhesive skin injury (epidermal stripping). CONCLUSIONS: The use of this pectin barrier proved to be a suitable surface to secure the temperature probe and avoid further medical adhesive-related skin injury.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Pottala, James V., Yaffe, K., Robinson, J. G., Espeland, M. A., Wallace, R., & Harris, William S. (2014). Higher RBC EPA plus DHA corresponds with larger total brain and hippocampal volumes WHIMS-MRI Study. Neurology, 82(5), 435-442.

Objective:To test whether red blood cell (RBC) levels of marine omega-3 fatty acids measured in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study were related to MRI brain volumes measured 8 years later.Methods:RBC eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and MRI brain volumes were assessed in 1,111 postmenopausal women from the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study. The endpoints were total brain volume and anatomical regions. Linear mixed models included multiple imputations of fatty acids and were adjusted for hormone therapy, time since randomization, demographics, intracranial volume, and cardiovascular disease risk factors.Results:In fully adjusted models, a 1 SD greater RBC EPA + DHA (omega-3 index) level was correlated with 2.1 cm(3) larger brain volume (p = 0.048). DHA was marginally correlated (p = 0.063) with total brain volume while EPA was less so (p = 0.11). There were no correlations between ischemic lesion volumes and EPA, DHA, or EPA + DHA. A 1 SD greater omega-3 index was correlated with greater hippocampal volume (50 mm(3), p = 0.036) in fully adjusted models. Comparing the fourth quartile vs the first quartile of the omega-3 index confirmed greater hippocampal volume (159 mm(3), p = 0.034).Conclusion:A higher omega-3 index was correlated with larger total normal brain volume and hippocampal volume in postmenopausal women measured 8 years later. While normal aging results in overall brain atrophy, lower omega-3 index may signal increased risk of hippocampal atrophy. Future studies should examine whether maintaining higher RBC EPA + DHA levels slows the rate of hippocampal or overall brain atrophy.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Wachira, John K., Larson, M. K., & Harris, William S. (2014). n-3 Fatty acids affect haemostasis but do not increase the risk of bleeding: clinical observations and mechanistic insights. British Journal of Nutrition, 111(9), 1652-1662.

n-3 Fatty acids (EPA and DHA, from fish oil) are essential fatty acids that are approved for the treatment of severe hypertriacylglycerolaemia and, in some countries, used for reducing the risk of CVD. Because of their inhibitory effects on platelet function, some practitioners have, perhaps unnecessarily, discontinued their use in patients undergoing invasive procedures or being treated with anti-platelet or anticoagulation drugs. Thus, the aim of the present study was to review the effects of n-3 fatty acids on bleeding complications in a wide variety of clinical settings, and to summarise their biochemical mechanism of action in platelet function and coagulation. We surveyed recent publications that either directly studied the effects of n-3 fatty acids on the risk of bleeding or focused on different end-points and also reported the effects on bleeding. n-3 Fatty acid treatment had no effect on the risk of clinically significant bleeding in either monotherapy or combination therapy settings. Although originally believed to operate primarily via the cyclo-oxygenase system, these fatty acids have been shown to affect multiple signalling pathways and thrombotic processes beyond simply affecting platelet aggregation. The present overview found no support for discontinuing the use of n-3 fatty acid treatment before invasive procedures or when given in combination with other agents that affect bleeding. On the contrary, the use of these fatty acids in several settings improved clinical outcomes.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Flynn, Stephen V., Olson, Seth D., & Yellig, Adriana D. (2014). American Indian Acculturation: Tribal Lands to Predominately White Postsecondary Settings. Journal of Counseling& Development, 92(3), 280-293.

Grounded theory provided a framework for examining 25 acculturating American Indian college students, 12 relatives of acculturating American Indians, and 7 postsecondary administrators. Acculturation was defined as the transformative process resulting from the integration of tribal culture and predominately White culture. Data sources included individual interviews, focus groups, and artifact analysis. The 16 emergent themes form an acculturation theory centered on a strength-based acculturation process affecting American Indians’ transition to predominately White postsecondary settings.

School of Education. [Flynn and Yellig no longer are at USD]

 

Posted by: kelsijo97 | March 20, 2014

Welcome to our USD Fac-Pub blog

We’re Danielle Loftus, a technology/fine arts librarian, and Steve Johnson, a business and distance ed librarian at USD’s University Libraries.

To help us in our roles as liaison to several USD departments,we keep tabs on the research of USD. We also are responsible for keeping the departments up-to-date about the library.

This blog exists for organizing and sharing that information. Check out the tabs above for month-by-month publications.

Email us if you have any questions.  Danielle Loftus   Steve Johnson

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