Posted by: sarahhansenweb | June 7, 2016

June 2016

Davies, Daniel R., Dawne Olson, Danielle L. Meyer, Jamie L. Scholl, Michael J. Watt, Pasquale Manzerra, . . . Gina L. Forster. (2016). Mild traumatic brain injury with social defeat stress alters anxiety, contextual fear extinction, and limbic monoamines in adult rats. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 10.
 
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) produces symptoms similar to those typifying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in humans. We sought to determine whether a rodent model of stress concurrent with mTBI produces characteristics of PTSD such as impaired contextual fear extinction, while also examining concurrent alterations to limbic monoamine activity in brain regions relevant to fear and anxiety states. Male rats were exposed to social stress or control conditions immediately prior to mTBI induction, and 6 days later were tested either for anxiety-like behavior using the elevated plus maze (EPM), or for contextual fear conditioning and extinction. Brains were collected 24 h after EPM testing, and tissue from various limbic regions analyzed for content of monoamines, their precursors and metabolites using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Either social defeat or mTBI alone decreased time spent in open arms of the EPM, indicating greater anxiety-like behavior. However, this effect was enhanced by the combination of treatments. Further, rats exposed to both social defeat and mTBI exhibited greater freezing within extinction sessions compared to all other groups, suggesting impaired contextual fear extinction. Social defeat combined with mTBI also had greater effects on limbic monoamines than either insult alone, particularly with respect to serotonergic effects associated with anxiety and fear learning. The results suggest social stress concurrent with mTBI produces provides a relevant animal model for studying the prevention and treatment of post-concussive psychobiological outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)
 
 
 
Fercho, Kelene, & Lee A. Baugh. (2016). Cognitive attribution of the source of an error in object-lifting results in differences in motor generalization. Experimental Brain Research.
 
To lift an object, the motor system must predict the weight of the object and use this information to program appropriate lifting forces. If this prediction is erroneous, people may assign blame for the error to either themselves or an external source—a process called credit assignment. In the present study, we explored the role of credit assignment on weight predictions during a lifting task. Participants were told that the EMG surface electrodes attached to their lifting hand were either part of a “passive” system that recorded muscular activity, or part of an “active” system that would apply energy to the muscle, influencing weight perception. Participants performed 90 lifts of the training blocks, followed by 10 lifts of a newly encountered larger test block. In between training and test trials, the experimenter turned off the recording system and removed the surface electrodes for participants in the “active” group. For each lift, we determined the initial peak rate of change of vertical load force rate and load-phase duration, estimates of predicted object weight. Analysis of the first 10 training lifts and the last 10 training lifts revealed no effect of Active versus Passive EMG on weight predictions. However, after removing the EMG equipment, participants in the “active” group failed to scale their predictive load forces in the same manner as those in the “passive” condition when lifting a novel block. We conclude that cognitive information may play a role in credit assignment, influencing weight prediction when lifting novel objects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Zhang, Fan, Sigurd Hartnett, Alex Sample, Sabrina Schnack, & Yifan Li. (2016). High fat diet induced alterations of atrial electrical activities in mice. American journal of cardiovascular disease, 6(1), 1-9.
 
Obesity is a well-known risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases. Recent clinical data showed that overweight and obese patients have higher incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) compared with individuals with normal body weights, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effects of a high fat diet on atrial activities in mice. ICR male mice were fed a regular diet (RD) or a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks. Mice fed HFD showed significantly greater body weight gains and visceral fat accumulation compared with RD mice. Under anesthetic condition, baseline arterial blood pressure and heart rate were not significantly different between RD and HFD groups. Although no spontaneous or atrial stimulation-induced atrial fibrillation was observed, this study revealed several alterations in the activities and protein levels in the atria in HFD mice. Surface electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed significantly shortened PR interval in HFD mice. In the atrial stimulation experiments, the sinoatrial (SA) node recovery time was significantly prolonged whereas the atrial effective refractory period was significantly reduced in HFD mice as compared with RD mice. Western blot showed protein levels of two major potassium channels, Kv1.5 and Kv4.2/3, were significantly increased in atria of HFD mice. These data indicate that HFD induces atrial electrophysiological remodeling in mice, which may be a potential mechanism underlying the increased risk for atrial arrhythmias in obesity and metabolic disorders.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Pan, Yaoqian, Ruizhu Liu, Erin TerpstraYanqing WangFangfang Qiao, Jin Wang, . . . Bo Pan. (2015). Dysregulation and diagnostic potential of microRNA in Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 49(1), 1-12.
 
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases and is considered to be the main cause of cognitive impairment in elderly people. The major symptom of AD is progressive dementia that eventually results in dysfunction of daily life. Due to the fact that AD has a long period of incubation before clinical symptoms emerge, the available therapeutic treatments can only improve the symptoms but not delay the progression of AD. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore effective diagnostic approaches to catch and better treat the disease before clinical symptoms appear. Recent research revealed that abnormal expression of certain miRNA could have a crucial role in the pathological process of neurodegenerative disease including AD. Furthermore, given that AD patients show increased level of miRNAs in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, miRNAs are considered promising non-invasive candidates for AD diagnosis and prognosis. Here, we reviewed the current research related to implications of miRNAs during the development of AD, summarized of actively used approaches to identifying potential miRNA biomarkers in body fluids, and discussed the diagnostic potential of microRNAs as biomarkers for AD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Elliott, Amy J.Emily R. W. HatJyoti AngalVictoria G. OwlSusan E. Puumala, & DanYelle B. Kenyon. (2016). Fostering Social Determinants of Health Transdisciplinary Research: The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13(1), 12.
 
The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health (CRCAIH) was established in September 2012 as a unifying structure to bring together tribal communities and health researchers across South Dakota, North Dakota and Minnesota to address American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) health disparities. CRCAIH is based on the core values of transdisciplinary research, sustainability and tribal sovereignty. All CRCAIH resources and activities revolve around the central aim of assisting tribes with establishing and advancing their own research infrastructures and agendas, as well as increasing AI/AN health research. CRCAIH is comprised of three divisions (administrative; community engagement and innovation; research projects), three technical cores (culture, science and bioethics; regulatory knowledge; and methodology), six tribal partners and supports numerous multi-year and one-year pilot research projects. Under the ultimate goal of improving health for AI/AN, this paper describes the overarching vision and structure of CRCAIH, highlighting lessons learned in the first three years.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Sapp, WendiRanjit Koodali, & Dmitri Kilin. (2016). Charge Transfer Mechanism in Titanium-Doped Microporous Silica for Photocatalytic Water-Splitting Applications. Catalysts, 6(3), 12.
 
Solar energy conversion into chemical form is possible using artificial means. One example of a highly-efficient fuel is solar energy used to split water into oxygen and hydrogen. Efficient photocatalytic water-splitting remains an open challenge for researchers across the globe. Despite significant progress, several aspects of the reaction, including the charge transfer mechanism, are not fully clear. Density functional theory combined with density matrix equations of motion were used to identify and characterize the charge transfer mechanism involved in the dissociation of water. A simulated porous silica substrate, using periodic boundary conditions, with Ti4+ ions embedded on the inner pore wall was found to contain electron and hole trap states that could facilitate a chemical reaction. A trap state was located within the silica substrate that lengthened relaxation time, which may favor a chemical reaction. A chemical reaction would have to occur within the window of photoexcitation; therefore, the existence of a trapping state may encourage a chemical reaction. This provides evidence that the silica substrate plays an integral part in the electron/hole dynamics of the system, leading to the conclusion that both components (photoactive materials and support) of heterogeneous catalytic systems are important in optimization of catalytic efficiency.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Stelloh, C., M. H. Reimer, …., Samuel Milanovich, G. C. Yuan, & S. Rao. (2016). The cohesin-associated protein Wapal is required for proper Polycomb-mediated gene silencing. Epigenetics & Chromatin, 9, 18.
 
Background: The cohesin complex consists of multiple core subunits that play critical roles in mitosis and transcriptional regulation. The cohesin-associated protein Wapal plays a central role in off-loading cohesin to facilitate sister chromatid separation, but its role in regulating mammalian gene expression is not understood. We used embryonic stem cells as a model, given that the well-defined transcriptional regulatory circuits were established through master transcription factors and epigenetic pathways that regulate their ability to maintain a pluripotent state. Results: RNAi-mediated depletion of Wapal causes a loss of pluripotency, phenocopying loss of core cohesin subunits. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq), we determine that Wapal occupies genomic sites distal to genes in combination with CTCF and core cohesin subunits such as Rad21. Interestingly, genomic sites occupied by Wapal appear enriched for cohesin, implying that Wapal does not off-load cohesin at regions it occupies. Wapal depletion induces derepression of Polycomb group (PcG) target genes without altering total levels of Polycomb-mediated histone modifications, implying that PcG enzymatic activity is preserved. By integrating ChIP-seq and gene expression changes data, we identify that Wapal binding is enriched at the promoters of PcG-silenced genes and is required for proper Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) recruitment. Lastly, we demonstrate that Wapal is required for the interaction of a distal cis-regulatory element (CRE) with the c-Fos promoter. Conclusions: Collectively, this work indicates that Wapal plays a critical role in silencing of PcG target genes through the interaction of distal CREs with promoters.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Rice, H. B., A. Bernasconi, K. C. Maki, William S. Harris, C. von Schacky, & P. C. Calder. (2016). Conducting omega-3 clinical trials with cardiovascular outcomes: Proceedings of a workshop held at ISSFAL 2014. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 107, 30-42.
 
In contrast to earlier long-chain (LC) omega-3 (i.e. EPA and DHA) investigations, some recent studies have not demonstrated significant effects of EPA and DHA on cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes. The neutral findings may have been due to experimental design issues, such as: maintenance on aggressive cardiovascular drug treatment overshadowing the benefits of LC omega-3s, high background LC omega-3 intake, too few subjects in the study, treatment duration too short, insufficient LC omega-3 dosage, increase in omega-6 fatty acid intake during the study, failure to assess the LC omega-3 status of the subjects prior to and during treatment and lack of clarity concerning which mechanisms were expected to produce benefits. At the 11th ISSFAL Congress, a workshop was held on conducting LC omega-3 clinical trials with cardiovascular outcomes, with the goal of gaining a better understanding concerning aspects of experimental design that should be considered when planning clinical studies related to EPA and DHA and potential cardiovascular benefits. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Darling, Warren G., Marc A. Pizzimenti, Diane L. Rotella, Stephanie M. Hynes, Jizhi GeKimberly Stilwell-Morecraft, & Robert J. Morecraft. (2016). Sensorimotor cortex injury effects on recovery of contralesional dexterous movements in Macaca mulatta. Experimental Neurology, 281, 37-52.
 
The effects of primary somatosensory cortex (S1) injury on recovery of contralateral upper limb reaching and grasping were studied by comparing the consequences of isolated lesions to the arm/hand region of primary motor cortex (M1) and lateral premotor cortex (LPMC) to lesions of these same areas plus anterior parietal cortex (S1 and rostral area PE). We used multiple linear regression to assess the effects of gray and white matter lesion volumes on deficits in reaching and fine motor performance during the first month after the lesion, and during recovery of function over 3, 6 and 12 months post-injury in 13 monkeys. Subjects with frontoparietal lesions exhibited larger deficits and poorer recovery as predicted, including one subject with extensive peri-Rolandic injury developing learned nonuse after showing signs of recovery. Regression analyses showed that total white matter lesion volume was strongly associated with initial post-lesion deficits in motor performance and with recovery of skill in reaching and manipulation. Multiple regression analyses using percent damage to caudal M1 (M1c), rostral S1 (S1r), LPMC and area PE as predictor variables showed that S1r lesion volumes were closely related to delayed post-lesion recovery of upper limb function, as well as lower skill level of recovery. In contrast, M1c lesion volume was related primarily to initial post-lesion deficits in hand motor performance. Overall, these findings demonstrate that frontoparietal injury impairs hand motor function more so than frontal motor injury alone, and results in slower and poorer recovery than lesions limited to frontal motor cortex.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Lonsdale, Damian J. (2016). The effects of leader–member exchange and the feedback environment on organizational citizenship and withdrawal. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 19(1), 41-59.
 
Although leader–member exchange (LMX) and the feedback environment both capture elements of the supervisor–subordinate social dynamic, their combined effects have never been explored. In this study, significant interactions were hypothesized and found for a sample of university employees in the prediction of organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), but were not found in the prediction of organizational withdrawal. Interactive effects of LMX and the feedback environment were also hypothesized to be stronger for jobs of greater complexity than for jobs of lesser complexity, and this was generally supported for OCBs, but not for organizational withdrawal. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)
 
Beacom School of Business.
 
 
Raizada, AmolNachiket Apte, & Scott Pham. (2016). Q Fever Endocarditis Presenting with Superior Mesenteric Artery Embolism and Renal Infarction. Texas Heart Institute Journal, 43(1), 91-93.
 
Q fever is a zoonotic disease with a reservoir in mammals, birds, and ticks. Acute cases in human beings can be asymptomatic, or they can present with a flu-like illness, pneumonia, or hepatitis. Approximately 5% of cases progress to chronic Q fever. Endocarditis, the most typical manifestation of chronic Q fever, is usually associated with small vegetations that occur in patients who have had prior valvular damage or who are immunocompromised. We present what we think is the first reported case of superior mesenteric artery embolism from Q fever endocarditis of the aortic valve, in a 39-year-old woman who needed surgical embolectomy and subsequent aortic valve replacement.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Jones, Nick, & Matthew Moffitt. (2016). Ethical Guidelines for Mobile App Development Within Health and Mental Health Fields. Professional Psychology-Research and Practice, 47(2), 155-162.
 
Currently there are no ethical guidelines for mobile health (mHealth) applications (apps) despite the rapid innovation and use of mobile technologies in the health care field. As such, we address existing policies from the federal government, development guidelines from the mobile industry, and ethical guidelines from the American Psychological Association that apply to the development of mHealth apps intended for psychological use. Privacy and confidentiality are of primary concerns when developing and using mHealth apps for the purpose of research, assessment, and ongoing therapy. Specifically, the use of app notifications and widgets can put app user’s privacy at risk unless used properly. Methods in which app developers and providers can safeguard against violations of privacy and confidentiality are examined. In addition, special considerations are made for the use of apps with inpatient and rural populations and for those with cognitive impairments. This discussion serves to inform those who develop and utilize mHealth apps of the ethical guidelines that should be followed when creating and using such apps.
 
Psychology Department.
 
 
Riley, Lynn, Mitchell E. McGlaughlin, & Kaius Helenurm. (2016). Narrow water barriers prevent multiple colonizations and limit gene flow among California Channel Island wild buckwheats ( Eriogonum: Polygonaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 181(2), 246-268.
 
The relative roles of chance colonization and subsequent gene flow in the development of insular endemic biotas have been extensively studied in remote oceanic archipelagos, but are less well characterized on nearshore island systems. The current study investigated patterns of colonization and divergence between and within two wild buckwheat species (Polygonaceae), Eriogonum arborescens and E. giganteum, endemic to the California Channel Islands to determine whether geographical isolation is driving diversification. Using plastid and nuclear sequence data and microsatellite allele frequencies, we determined that gene flow in these Eriogonum spp. is restricted by isolation. The data suggest that successful colonization of and gene flow among the islands are infrequent. Colonization appears to have followed a stepping-stone model that is consistent with a north-to-south pattern across the islands. This colonization pattern coupled with relatively little post-colonization inter-island gene flow, particularly among southern islands, has generated a pattern of more divergent lineages on the isolated southern islands. These results run counter to the general expectation that all islands close to a continental source should receive a high level of gene flow. Finally, management recommendations focused on protecting the lineages from loss of private alleles and the erosion of the remaining genetic diversity are offered.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Wilkerson, Rachel J.Theresa ElderOlivia SowinksiJade I. Fostvedt, & James D. Hoefelmeyer. (2016). Phase transfer of oleic acid stabilized rod-shaped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals. Surface Science, 648, 333-338.
 
Three methods were evaluated for phase transfer of oleic acid stabilized TiO2 nanorods from non-polar phase to an aqueous phase. Three alkyltrimethylammonium bromide (C-6, C-8, C-12) surfactants were tested and compared with an amphiphilic polymer as interdigitation agents. Ligand substitutions with catechol derivatives with polar functional groups para to the -enediol were evaluated as well. The molecular surfactants were ineffective compared to the amphiphilic polymer in the interdigitation phase transfer approach. Ligand substitution with catechols proceeded efficiently with phase transfer. The ligand substitution reactions were accompanied by gas evolution, which was found to result from decarboxylation of oleic acid in alkaline aqueous conditions. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Jensen, JamieDanYelle B. Kenyon, & Jessica D. Hanson. (2016). Preventing alcohol-exposed pregnancy among American-Indian youth. Sex Education-Sexuality Society and Learning, 16(4), 368-378.
 
Research has determined that the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur preconceptually, either by reducing alcohol intake in women planning pregnancy or at risk for becoming pregnant, or by preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One such AEP prevention programme with non-pregnant American-Indian (AI) women is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) Changing High-risk alcohOl use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness Study (CHOICES) Programme, which shows promise in reducing AEP risk in AI women aged 18 or older. A community needs assessment was conducted with key informant interviews and focus groups with an emphasis on how to expand OST CHOICES. To identify relevant inter-related themes, a content analysis was conducted on qualitative feedback from the focus groups and interviews. Altogether, key informant interviews were completed with 25 health and social service professionals. Eight focus groups were held with 58 AI participants, including adult women of child-bearing age, elder women, and adult men. Several sub-themes regarding the prevention of AEP with youth were identified, expanding the OST CHOICES curriculum into the schools, and the role of family and culture within AEP prevention.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Xu, R., G. D. Zhang, J. H. Mai, …., Yu Huang, J. Liu, . . . H. F. Shen. (2016). An injectable nanoparticle generator enhances delivery of cancer therapeutics. Nature Biotechnology, 34(4), 414-+.
 
The efficacy of cancer drugs is often limited because only a small fraction of the administered dose accumulates in tumors. Here we report an injectable nanoparticle generator (iNPG) that overcomes multiple biological barriers to cancer drug delivery. The iNPG is a discoidal micrometer-sized particle that can be loaded with chemotherapeutics. We conjugate doxorubicin to poly(l-glutamic acid) by means of a pH-sensitive cleavable linker, and load the polymeric drug (pDox) into iNPG to assemble iNPG-pDox. Once released from iNPG, pDox spontaneously forms nanometer-sized particles in aqueous solution. Intravenously injected iNPG-pDox accumulates at tumors due to natural tropism and enhanced vascular dynamics and releases pDox nanoparticles that are internalized by tumor cells. Intracellularly, pDox nanoparticles are transported to the perinuclear region and cleaved into Dox, thereby avoiding excretion by drug efflux pumps. Compared to its individual components or current therapeutic formulations, iNPG-pDox shows enhanced efficacy in MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 mouse models of metastatic breast cancer, including functional cures in 40-50% of treated mice.
 
Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, J. H. M., Megan L. Landsverk, N. Foulds, M. K. Kukolich, & et. al. (2016). Clinical Delineation of the PACS1-Related Syndrome-Report on 19 Patients. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 170(3), 670-675.
 
We report on 19 individuals with a recurrent de novo c.607C>T mutation in PACS1. This specific mutation gives rise to a recognizable intellectual disability syndrome. There is a distinctive facial appearance (19/19), characterized by full and arched eyebrows, hypertelorism with downslanting palpebral fissures, long eye lashes, ptosis, low set and simple ears, bulbous nasal tip, wide mouth with downturned corners and a thin upper lip with an unusual “wavy” profile, flat philtrum, and diastema of the teeth. Intellectual disability, ranging from mild to moderate, was present in all. Hypotonia is common in infancy (8/19). Seizures are frequent (12/19) and respond well to anticonvulsive medication. Structural malformations are common, including heart (10/19), brain (12/16), eye (10/19), kidney (3/19), and cryptorchidism (6/12 males). Feeding dysfunction is presenting in infancy with failure to thrive (5/19), gastroesophageal reflux (6/19), and gastrostomy tube placement (4/19). There is persistence of oral motor dysfunction. We provide suggestions for clinical work-up and management and hope that the present study will facilitate clinical recognition of further cases. (c) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Zook, Heather G., Anupam B. Kharbanda, Andrew Flood, Brian Harmon, Susan E. Puumala, & Nathaniel R. Payne. (2016). Racial Differences in Pediatric Emergency Department Triage Scores. Journal of Emergency Medicine (0736-4679), 50(5), 720-727.
 
<bold>Background: </bold>Racial disparities are frequently reported in emergency department (ED) care.<bold>Objectives: </bold>To examine racial differences in triage scores of pediatric ED patients. We hypothesized that racial differences existed but could be explained after adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors.<bold>Methods: </bold>We examined all visits to two urban, pediatric EDs between August 2009 and March 2010. Demographic and clinical data were electronically extracted from the medical record. We used logistic regression to analyze racial differences in triage scores, controlling for possible covariates.<bold>Results: </bold>There were 54,505 ED visits during the study period, with 7216 (13.2%) resulting in hospital admission. White patients accounted for 36.4% of visits, African Americans 28.5%, Hispanics 18.0%, Asians 4.1%, and American Indians 1.8%. After adjusting for potential confounders, African American (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.69-2.12), Hispanic (aOR 1.77, 95% CI 1.55-2.02), and American Indian (aOR 2.57, 95% CI 1.80-3.66) patients received lower-acuity triage scores than Whites. In three out of four subgroup analyses based on presenting complaints (breathing difficulty, abdominal pain, fever), African Americans and Hispanics had higher odds of receiving low-acuity triage scores. No racial differences were detected for patients with presenting complaints of laceration/head injury/arm injury. However, among patients admitted to the hospital, African Americans (aOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.13-1.90) and Hispanics (aOR 1.71, CI 1.22-2.39) received lower-acuity triage scores than Whites.<bold>Conclusion: </bold>After adjusting for available sociodemographic and clinical covariates, African American, Hispanic, and American Indian patients received lower-acuity triage scores than Whites.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Hersrud, Samantha L.Attila D. Kovács, & David A. Pearce. (2016). Antigen presenting cell abnormalities in the Cln3−/− mouse model of juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. BBA – Molecular Basis of Disease, 1862(7), 1324-1336.
 
Mutations of the CLN3 gene lead to juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL), an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder that causes progressive neurodegeneration in children and adolescents. There is evidence of immune system involvement in pathology that has been only minimally investigated. We characterized bone marrow stem cell-derived antigen presenting cells (APCs), peritoneal macrophages, and leukocytes from spleen and blood, harvested from the Cln3 −/− mouse model of JNCL. We detected dramatically elevated CD11c surface levels and increased total CD11c protein in Cln3 −/− cell samples compared to wild type. This phenotype was specific to APCs and also to a loss of CLN3, as surface levels did not differ from wild type in other leukocyte subtypes nor in cells from two other NCL mouse models. Subcellularly, CD11c was localized to lipid rafts, indicating that perturbation of surface levels is attributable to derangement of raft dynamics, which has previously been shown in Cln3 mutant cells. Interrogation of APC function revealed that Cln3 −/− cells have increased adhesiveness to CD11c ligands as well as an abnormal secretory pattern that closely mimics what has been previously reported for Cln3 mutant microglia. Our results show that CLN3 deficiency alters APCs, which can be a major contributor to the autoimmune response in JNCL.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Mariappan, KadarkaraisamyMadhubabu AlaparthiMariah HoffmanMyriam Alcantar RamaVinothini BalasubramanianDanielle M. John, & Andrew G. Sykes. (2015). Improved selectivity for Pb(ii) by sulfur, selenium and tellurium analogues of 1,8-anthraquinone-18-crown-5: synthesis, spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography and computational studies. Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, 44(26), 11774-11787.
 
We report here a series of heteroatom-substituted macrocycles containing an anthraquinone moiety as a fluorescent signaling unit and a cyclic polyheteroether chain as the receptor. Sulfur, selenium, and tellurium derivatives of 1,8-anthraquinone-18-crown-5 (1) were synthesized by reacting sodium sulfide (Na2S), sodium selenide (Na2Se) and sodium telluride (Na2Te) with 1,8-bis(2-bromoethylethyleneoxy)anthracene-9,10-dione in a 1:1 ratio. The optical properties of the new compounds are examined and the sulfur and selenium analogues produce an intense green emission enhancement upon association with Pb(ii) in acetonitrile. Selectivity for Pb(ii) is markedly improved as compared to the oxygen analogue 1 which was also competitive for Ca(ii) ion. UV-Visible and luminescence titrations reveal that 2 and 3 form 1:1 complexes with Pb(ii), confirmed by single-crystal X-ray studies where Pb(ii) is complexed within the macrocycle through coordinate covalent bonds to neighboring carbonyl, ether and heteroether donor atoms. Cyclic voltammetry of 2–8 showed classical, irreversible oxidation potentials for sulfur, selenium and tellurium heteroethers in addition to two one-electron reductions for the anthraquinone carbonyl groups. DFT calculations were also conducted on 1, 2, 3, 6, 6 + Pb(ii) and 6 + Mg(ii) to determine the trend in energies of the HOMO and the LUMO levels along the series.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Hammerquist, Rhonda J.Kimberly A. Messerschmidt, April A. Pottebaum, & Thaddaus R. Hellwig. (2016). Vaccinations in asplenic adults. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 73(9), e220-e228.
 
Purpose. The recommended immunizations for adult asplenic patients are reviewed. Summary. Patients without a spleen are at risk of developing overwhelming postsplenectomy infections due to encapsulated organisms, mainly pneumococcal, meningococcal, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Due to the high mortality rates associated with these infections, vaccinations are recommended as a preventive measure. It is challenging to ensure optimal immunizations in these high-risk patients due to the number of recommended vaccines, the availability of multiple formulations, and the inability to administer specific formulations at the same time, as well as differences in subsequent vaccine administration schedules. Pharmacists play a key role in recommending specific vaccines and timing for these patients in order to achieve the most robust immune response. This article reviews the specific recommendations for pneumococcal, meningococcal, Hib, and influenza vaccinations in asplenic patients. Conclusion. In order to prevent potentially life-threatening infections, asplenic individuals should be vaccinated against S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, Hib, and influenza. The optimal timing of vaccination in relation to splenectomy depends on the nature of the splenectomy.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Posted by: sarahhansenweb | June 7, 2016

May 2016

 

Geraets, Ryan D., Koh Seung yon, Michelle L. Hastings, Tammy Kielian, David A. Pearce, & Jill M. Weimer. (2016). Moving towards effective therapeutic strategies for Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, 11, 1-13.
 
The Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a family of autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorders that annually affect 1:100,000 live births worldwide. This family of diseases results from mutations in one of 14 different genes that share common clinical and pathological etiologies. Clinically, the diseases are subcategorized into infantile, late-infantile, juvenile and adult forms based on their age of onset. Though the disease phenotypes may vary in their age and order of presentation, all typically include progressive visual deterioration and blindness, cognitive impairment, motor deficits and seizures. Pathological hallmarks of NCLs include the accumulation of storage material or ceroid in the lysosome, progressive neuronal degeneration and massive glial activation. Advances have been made in genetic diagnosis and counseling for families. However, comprehensive treatment programs that delay or halt disease progression have been elusive. Current disease management is primarily targeted at controlling the symptoms rather than “curing” the disease. Recognizing the growing need for transparency and synergistic efforts to move the field forward, this review will provide an overview of the therapeutic approaches currently being pursued in preclinical and clinical trials to treat different forms of NCL as well as provide insight to novel therapeutic approaches in development for the NCLs.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Stelloh, Cary, Michael H. Reimer, Kirthi Pulakanti, …., Samuel Milanovich, Yuan Guo Cheng, & Sridhar Rao. (2016). The cohesin-associated protein Wapal is required for proper Polycomb-mediated gene silencing. Epigenetics & Chromatin, 9, 1-18.
 
Background: The cohesin complex consists of multiple core subunits that play critical roles in mitosis and transcriptional regulation. The cohesin-associated protein Wapal plays a central role in off-loading cohesin to facilitate sister chromatid separation, but its role in regulating mammalian gene expression is not understood. We used embryonic stem cells as a model, given that the well-defined transcriptional regulatory circuits were established through master transcription factors and epigenetic pathways that regulate their ability to maintain a pluripotent state. Results: RNAi-mediated depletion of Wapal causes a loss of pluripotency, phenocopying loss of core cohesin subunits. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq), we determine that Wapal occupies genomic sites distal to genes in combination with CTCF and core cohesin subunits such as Rad21. Interestingly, genomic sites occupied by Wapal appear enriched for cohesin, implying that Wapal does not off-load cohesin at regions it occupies. Wapal depletion induces derepression of Polycomb group (PcG) target genes without altering total levels of Polycomb-mediated histone modifications, implying that PcG enzymatic activity is preserved. By integrating ChIP-seq and gene expression changes data, we identify that Wapal binding is enriched at the promoters of PcG-silenced genes and is required for proper Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) recruitment. Lastly, we demonstrate that Wapal is required for the interaction of a distal cis-regulatory element (CRE) with the c-Fos promoter. Conclusions: Collectively, this work indicates that Wapal plays a critical role in silencing of PcG target genes through the interaction of distal CREs with promoters.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Chen, H. H., Lisa A. NewlandYi-Ching Liang, & Jarod T. Giger. (2016). Mother educational involvement as a mediator between beliefs, perceptions, attachment, and children’s school success in Taiwan. Journal of Family Studies, 22(1), 1-19.
 
This study was designed to examine possible direct and indirect pathways from mothers’ beliefs, mothers’ perceptions, mother-child attachment, and mothers’ involvement to children’s school success. Mothers and their 8- to 11-year-old children (n = 100) in urban central Taiwan participated in this study. Mothers completed questionnaires regarding their beliefs, perceptions, educational involvement, and their child’s school achievement. Children completed an attachment measure and standardized assessments of school adjustment and academic self-concept. Findings revealed that mother involvement was related to mother beliefs and perceptions, but not to efficacy or attachment. Children’s school success indicators were related to mothers’ motivation, beliefs about teachers, perceived invitations for involvement, mother-child avoidant attachment, and mothers’ involvement. Path analysis revealed that mothers’ involvement completely mediated pathways from mother beliefs and perceptions to child school success. Findings suggest that the model is useful within a Taiwanese population, but should be further tested.
 
School of Education.
School of Health Sciences.
 
 
Jordre, Becca D.William E. Schweinle, S. Oetjen, N. Dybsetter, & M. Braun. (2016). Fall History and Associated Physical Performance Measures in Competitive Senior Athletes. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, 32(1), 6.
 
Topic Investigated: Physical performance measure outcomes most associated with falls in senior athletes. Subjects: A total of 928 senior athletes. Variables: Fall history, Single Leg Stance Eyes Open, Single Leg Stance Eyes Closed, Single Leg Stance on Foam, Functional Reach, Usual and Fast Gait Speed, Five Times Sit-to-Stand Test, and Grip Strength. Data were analyzed with logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. Results and Conclusions: Combined failure, as determined by cut scores, on Single Leg Stance Eyes Closed and on Foam was most associated with a recent history of falls. Performance on the Five Times Sit-to-Stand Test was also highly associated.
 
School of Health Sciences.
 
 
Herrera, Andrea L.Victor C. Huber, & Michael S. Chaussee. (2016). The Association between Invasive Group A Streptococcal Diseases and Viral Respiratory Tract Infections. Frontiers in Microbiology, 7, 7.
 
Viral infections of the upper respiratory tract are associated with a variety of invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, the group A streptococcus, including pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, toxic shock syndrome, and bacteremia. While these polymicrobial infections, or superinfections, are complex, progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of disease. Areas of investigation have included the characterization of virus-induced changes in innate immunity, differences in bacterial adherence and internalization following viral infection, and the efficacy of vaccines in mitigating the morbidity and mortality of superinfections. Here, we briefly summarize viral-S. pyogenes superinfections with an emphasis on those affiliated with influenza viruses.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Liu, B. Q., C. Zhou, G. J. Li, H. Y. Zhang, Erliang Zeng, Q. Liu, & Q. Ma. (2016). Bacterial regulon modeling and prediction based on systematic cis regulatory motif analyses. Scientific Reports, 6, 11.
 
Regulons are the basic units of the response system in a bacterial cell, and each consists of a set of transcriptionally co-regulated operons. Regulon elucidation is the basis for studying the bacterial global transcriptional regulation network. In this study, we designed a novel co-regulation score between a pair of operons based on accurate operon identification and cis regulatory motif analyses, which can capture their co-regulation relationship much better than other scores. Taking full advantage of this discovery, we developed a new computational framework and built a novel graph model for regulon prediction. This model integrates the motif comparison and clustering and makes the regulon prediction problem substantially more solvable and accurate. To evaluate our prediction, a regulon coverage score was designed based on the documented regulons and their overlap with our prediction; and a modified Fisher Exact test was implemented to measure how well our predictions match the co-expressed modules derived from E. coli microarray gene-expression datasets collected under 466 conditions. The results indicate that our program consistently performed better than others in terms of the prediction accuracy. This suggests that our algorithms substantially improve the state-of-the-art, leading to a computational capability to reliably predict regulons for any bacteria.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Schlenker, Evelyn H. (2016). Muscimol microinjected in the arcuate nucleus affects metabolism, body temperature & ventilation. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 227, 34-40.
 
Effects of microinjection of 2 doses of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor agonist, muscimol (M), into the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus on oxygen consumption and control of ventilation over time and body temperature (BT) at the end of the experiment were compared in adult male and female rats. Relative to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, 0 nmol), BT was decreased only in male rats with both doses of M, while in female rats, the 5 nmol dose depressed oxygen consumption. Ventilation was depressed by 5 nmol M in male and 10 nmol M in female rats by decreasing tidal volume. M did not affect the ventilatory response of male or female rats to hypoxia, whereas in females 5 and 10 nmol M and in males 10 nmol M depressed the ventilatory response to hypercapnia. Thus, in rats GABA A receptors in the arcuate nucleus modulate BT, oxygen consumption, and ventilation in air and in response to hypercapnia in a sexually dimorphic manner.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Diamond-Welch, Bridget K., M. D. Hetzel-Riggin, & J. A. Hemingway. (2016). The Willingness of College Students to Intervene in Sexual Assault Situations: Attitude and Behavior Differences by Gender, Race, Age, and Community of Origin. Violence and Gender, 3(1), 49-54.
 
Recent research has examined how university students’ characteristics affect their bystander intervention attitudes in sexual assault situations. This article examines how gender, age, and race interact to affect violence myths acceptance, empathy, bystander efficacy, intention to intervene, and bystander behaviors. We add to this literature a consideration of the effect of a student’s community of origin-either rural or urban. Similar to previous research, we found a direct effect of gender on violence myths and empathy as well as bystander attitudes. Unlike previous research, we found that older students (over age 21 years) endorsed fewer rape myths, had more empathy, perceived benefits to intervention outweighing the costs, and had better bystander attitudes. Although there was no direct effect of race and community of origin on these outcomes, there were several interesting interactions. Age and gender interacted such that traditional-aged female students reported more bystander behaviors than traditional-aged male students. However, this pattern flipped for older group males reporting more behaviors than female students. It could be because older males were significantly more likely to believe that bystander methods are effective than older female students. Although older males had better attitudes toward intervention, males from both age groups lagged behind in positive attitudes compared with women. Race further complicated this picture. White men, both older and traditional-aged, had the lowest empathy among all groups. Traditional-aged white males had the lowest belief in the efficacy of bystander methods. Interestingly, older white males endorsed fewer rape myths than younger white males, but older minority males accepted more myths than traditional-aged students. The most interesting patterns develop when community of origin is added to the mix. Traditional-aged minority females from rural areas had the lowest rape myth acceptance and the best bystander attitudes. Meanwhile, traditional-aged white males from urban areas had the highest rape myth acceptance and, while all traditional-aged men had poor bystander attitudes, these male students had the poorest attitudes. Community background also impacted actual bystander behaviors, with traditional-aged minorities from rural areas reporting significantly more than comparative whites and, interestingly, more than older minority students from rural areas.
 
Political Science and Criminal Justice Department.
 
 
Bardhoshi, G., Becca D. JordreWilliam E. Schweinle, & Sarah Wollersheim-Shervey. (2016). Understanding Exercise Practices and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Senior Games Athletes A Mixed-Methods Exploration. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, 32(1), 63-71.
 
This mixed-methods study investigated depression, anxiety, and stress rates, measured by the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21), and exercise practices in a national sample of Senior Games Athletes (N = 383). Results demonstrated significantly lower DASS-21 scores for Senior Games Athletes compared with nonclinical normative data and no strong relationships between DASS-21 scores and demographic variables, exercise practices, and comorbidity. Senior Games Athletes reported high exercise volume and notably low comorbidity rates. Qualitative analysis of written responses revealed that participants related a healthy lifestyle with practicing healthy behaviors, experiencing optimal physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being, living life to the fullest, and social engagement.
 
School of Health Sciences.
School of Education.
 
 
Cho, Chan Ho, & T. Mooney. (2015). Stock return comovement and Korean business groups. Review of Development Finance, 5(2), 71-81.
 
This paper explores whether business group affiliations affect the covariance structure of stock returns in Korea. We find that the stock returns of firms belonging to the same business group show positive and significant comovement. The strong comovement between group returns and firm returns is explained by correlated fundamentals. We find strong comovement among business group affiliate earnings. Moreover, variance decomposition of returns shows that cash flow news plays a relatively more important role in explaining group comovement than discount rate news, suggesting a link between stock return comovement and the “tunneling” and “propping” behaviors of business groups. Finally, return comovement increases when a firm joins a business group. 
 
IBeacom School of Business.
 
 
Munson, Patrick D. (2016). Recurrent croup and persistent laryngomalacia: Clinical resolution after supraglottoplasty. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 84, 94-96.
 
Objectives To determine if children with recurrent croup (RC) and persistent laryngomalacia (LM) clinically improve after supraglottoplasty (SGP). Material and methods Retrospective chart review cohort at tertiary care children’s hospital consisting of patients diagnosed with LM and RC that underwent SGP from July 2011 to August 2014. Clinical history, demographics, clinical outcomes, and operative complications were reviewed. Specifically, the episodes of croup requiring systemic steroids were compared pre- and post-SGP with statistical analysis. Results Out of 107 patients undergoing SGP for LM, 6 patients (5.6%) were diagnosed with RC. Mean age at first croup episode was 11.5 months. Mean age at SGP was 4.3 years. Mean number of emergency department visits was 3.2 (range 2–6 visits) prior to SGP. Mean number of episodes of croup requiring systemic steroids before and after SGP was 9.8 vs. 0.2 ( p = 0.003). Mean length of followup after SGP was 30.5 months (range 18–46 months). There were no surgical postoperative complications. Conclusions This is the first series to describe the clinical resolution of croup episodes in children with LM corrected by SGP. Recurrent croup should be added among other conditions associated with late-onset or persistent laryngomalacia.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Villagómez, Amanda A., Donald Easton-Brooks, Karyn Gomez, Tawnya Lubbes, & Kristin Johnson. (2016). Oregon Teacher Pathway: Responding to National Trends. Equity & Excellence in Education, 49(1), 100-114.
 
National population trends demonstrate a shift in the U.S. ethnic population, similar to changes in the ethnic landscape of U.S. public schools. However, the teaching landscape has not adjusted to align with student demographics. Research highlights the academic and social/emotional benefit for students of color who experience having a teacher of color during their education. Therefore, it is valuable to consider frameworks for increasing the number of teachers of color in the educational landscape. Although there are initiatives for supporting these efforts in urban communities, rural communities often are not seen as having much need in this area. The authors of this article present literature and findings on the impact and needs for diversifying teacher education, and then outline a self-study of the Oregon Teacher Pathway (OTP) as a framework that takes into consideration promising practices for recruiting and supporting preservice teachers of color in rural eastern Oregon and other rural and urban communities.
 
 
 
Ikiugu, Moses N., & Ranelle M. Nissen. (2016). Intervention Strategies Used by Occupational Therapists Working in Mental Health and Their Theoretical Basis. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 32(2), 109-129.
 
The article focuses on a study based on theoretical basis of occupational therapy interventions, investigated in two mental health facilities in the Midwestern U.S. Topics discussed include behavioural/cognitive-behavioural model, client-centered models, and the model of human occupation as most frequently used theories; implications related to lack of documentation on value accorded to occupational therapy skills in health care; and clinical practice by occupational therapists.
 
School of Health Sciences.
 
 
Jones, Nick, & Matthew Moffitt. (2016). Ethical Guidelines for Mobile App Development Within Health and Mental Health Fields. Professional Psychology-Research and Practice, 47(2), 155-162.
 
Currently there are no ethical guidelines for mobile health (mHealth) applications (apps) despite the rapid innovation and use of mobile technologies in the health care field. As such, we address existing policies from the federal government, development guidelines from the mobile industry, and ethical guidelines from the American Psychological Association that apply to the development of mHealth apps intended for psychological use. Privacy and confidentiality are of primary concerns when developing and using mHealth apps for the purpose of research, assessment, and ongoing therapy. Specifically, the use of app notifications and widgets can put app user’s privacy at risk unless used properly. Methods in which app developers and providers can safeguard against violations of privacy and confidentiality are examined. In addition, special considerations are made for the use of apps with inpatient and rural populations and for those with cognitive impairments. This discussion serves to inform those who develop and utilize mHealth apps of the ethical guidelines that should be followed when creating and using such apps.
 
Psychology Department.
 
 
Wesner, Jeff S., & Mark C. Belk. (2015). Variation in the trophic position of common stream fishes and its relationship to the presence of a rare fish, northern leatherside chub ( Lepidomeda copei). Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 24(2), 234-241.
 
Variation in trophic position can be caused by structural changes in food webs that may affect the presence of, or be affected by the presence of, individual species. We examined variation in the trophic position of fishes across 14 stream sites in the Bear River drainage, WY, USA. This drainage is the focus of ongoing conservation of northern leatherside chub ( Lepidomeda copei). Our goals were (i) to describe variation in trophic position of individual species and (ii) to determine whether these measures differed between sites with and without northern leatherside chub. Mean trophic position of individual fish species varied between 0 and 3 trophic positions across sites. For two of these species, trophic position declined at sites without northern leatherside chub. Importantly, habitat surveys from a previous study at 10 of these sites revealed no differences in habitat suitability for northern leatherside chub. This suggests that trophic position revealed systematic differences among sites that were not apparent based on traditional species-habitat modelling. We outline possible mechanisms behind these patterns and argue that monitoring variation in trophic position can complement traditional, habitat-based methods for understanding species distributions.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Kryjevski, Andrei, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2016). Enhanced multiple exciton generation in amorphous silicon nanowires and films. Molecular Physics, 114(3-4), 365-379.
 
Multiple exciton generation (MEG) in nanometer-sized hydrogen-passivated silicon nanowires (NWs), and quasi two-dimensional nanofilms depends strongly on the degree of the core structural disorder as shown by the perturbative many-body quantum mechanics calculations based on the density functional theory simulations. Working to the second order in the electron-photon coupling and in the screened Coulomb interaction, we calculate quantum efficiency (QE), the average number of excitons created by a single absorbed photon, in the Si29H36 quantum dots (QDs) with crystalline and amorphous core structures, simple cubic three-dimensional arrays constructed from these QDs, crystalline and amorphous NWs, and quasi two-dimensional silicon nanofilms, also both crystalline and amorphous. Efficient MEG with QE ranging from 1.3 up to 1.8 at the photon energy of about 3E(g), where E-g is the electronic gap, is predicted in these nanoparticles except for the crystalline NW and crystalline film where QE similar or equal to 1. MEG in the amorphous nanoparticles is enhanced by the electron localisation due to structural disorder. Combined with the lower gaps, the nanometer-sized amorphous silicon NWs and films are predicted to have effective carrier multiplication within the solar spectrum range.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Li, L., K. B. Grausam, J. Wang, M. P. Lun, J. Ohli, H. G. W. Lidov, . . . H. T. Zhao. (2016). Sonic Hedgehog promotes proliferation of Notch-dependent monociliated choroid plexus tumour cells. Nature Cell Biology, 18(4), 418-+.
 
Aberrant Notch signalling has been linked to many cancers including choroid plexus (CP) tumours, a group of rare and predominantly paediatric brain neoplasms. We developed animal models of CP tumours, by inducing sustained expression of Notch1, that recapitulate properties of human CP tumours with aberrant NOTCH signalling. Whole-transcriptome and functional analyses showed that tumour cell proliferation is associated with Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) in the tumour microenvironment. Unlike CP epithelial cells, which have multiple primary cilia, tumour cells possess a solitary primary cilium as a result of Notch-mediated suppression of multiciliate differentiation. A Shh-driven signalling cascade in the primary cilium occurs in tumour cells but not in epithelial cells. Lineage studies show that CP tumours arise from monociliated progenitors in the roof plate characterized by elevated Notch signalling. Abnormal SHH signalling and distinct ciliogenesis are detected in human CP tumours, suggesting the SHH pathway and cilia differentiation as potential therapeutic avenues.
 
Biology Department.
Computer Sciences Department.
 
 
Allen, D. C., & Jeffrey S. Wesner. (2016). Synthesis: comparing effects of resource and consumer fluxes into recipient food webs using meta-analysis. Ecology, 97(3), 594-604.
 
Here we synthesize empirical research using meta-analysis to compare how consumer and resource fluxes affect recipient food webs. We tested the following hypotheses: (H-1) The direct effects of resource fluxes (bottom-up) should be stronger than the direct effects of consumer fluxes (top-down), because resource fluxes are permanent (do not return to the food web in which they were produced) but consumer fluxes may not be (consumers can leave). (H-2) Following H-1, the indirect effects should attenuate (weaken) more quickly for consumer fluxes than for resource fluxes due to their direct effects being weaker. (H-3) The effects of resource fluxes should be stronger when recipient food webs are in different ecosystems than donor food webs due to differences in elevation that accompany cross-ecosystem food web interfaces, often increasing flux quantity due to gravity, while the effects of consumer fluxes should be stronger when donor and recipient food webs are in the same ecosystem as they should more easily assimilate into the recipient food web. We found no differences in the magnitude of bottom-up and top-down direct effects for resource and consumer fluxes, but top-down direct effects were 122% stronger than top-down indirect effects. Indirect effects of prey and predator fluxes quickly attenuated while indirect effects of non-prey resource and herbivore fluxes did not, as the overall direct effects of prey and predator fluxes were 123% and 163% stronger than their indirect effects, respectively. This result suggests that the magnitude of indirect effects decrease as the trophic level of resource and consumer fluxes increases, and also contrasts with results from studies showing in situ top-down indirect effects are stronger than in situ bottom-up indirect effects. We found that resource and consumer flux effect sizes were similar when they occurred between ecosystems, but when they occurred within ecosystems predator flux effects were 107% stronger than nutrient flux effects. Finally, we found that observational studies had higher effect sizes than manipulative studies. Future research should focus on how resource and consumer fluxes might interact and generate feedbacks in empirical studies of natural food webs, and what ecological factors might affect their relative strength.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Roh, SoonheeKathleen Brown-Rice, Natalie D. Pope, Kyoung Hag Lee, Yeon-Shim Lee, & Lisa A. Newland. (2015). Depression Literacy Among American Indian Older Adults. Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work, 12(6), 614-627.
 
Older American Indians experience high rates of depression and other psychological disorders, yet little research exist on the depression literacy of this group. Depression literacy is fundamental for individuals seeking help for depression in a timely and appropriate manner. In the present study the authors examine levels and predictors of knowledge of depression symptoms in a sample of rural older American Indians (N = 227) living in the Midwestern United States. Data from self-administered questionnaires indicate limited knowledge of depression and negative attitudes toward seeking help for mental health problems. Additional findings and implications for social work practice and policy are discussed.
 
School of Health Sciences
School of Education
 
 
Bigornia, S. J., William S. Harris, L. M. Falcon, J. M. Ordovas, C. Q. Lai, & K. L. Tucker. (2016). The Omega-3 Index Is Inversely Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Individuals with Elevated Oxidative Stress Biomarkers. Journal of Nutrition, 146(4), 758-766.
 
Background: Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) consumption is thought to improve depressive symptoms. However, current evidence is limited, and whether this association exists among Puerto Ricans, a population burdened by depression, remains uncertain. Objectives: We examined the association between omega-3 FA biomarkers and depressive symptoms as well as the potential influence of oxidative stress. Methods: Baseline and longitudinal analyses were conducted in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (n = 787; participants aged 57 +/- 0.52 y, 73% women). Urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentration, a measure of oxidative stress, and erythrocyte FA composition were collected at baseline. We calculated the omega-3 index as the sum of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, expressed as a percentage of total FAs. Baseline and 2-y depressive symptoms were characterized by using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Statistical analyses included linear and logistic regression. Results: Urinary 8-OHdG concentration tended to modify the relation between the erythrocyte omega-3 index and baseline CES-D score (P-interaction = 0.10). In stratified analyses, the omega-3 index was inversely associated with CES-D score (beta = -1.74, SE = 0.88; P = 0.02) among those in the top quartile of 8-OHdG concentration but not among those in the lower quartiles. The relation between the omega-3 index and CES-D at 2 y was more clearly modified by 8-OHdG concentration (P-interaction = 0.04), where the omega-3 index was inversely associated with CES-D at 2 y, adjusted for baseline (beta = -1.66, SE = 0.66; P = 0.02), only among those with elevated 8-OHdG concentrations. Among individuals not taking antidepressant medications and in the top tertile of urinary 8-OHdG concentration, the omega-3 index was associated with significantly lower odds of a CES-D score >= 16 at baseline (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.96) but not at 2 y (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.60, 1.15). Conclusions: An inverse association between the omega-3 index and depressive symptoms was observed among participants with elevated oxidative stress biomarkers. These data suggest that oxidative stress status may identify those who might benefit from omega-3 FA consumption to improve depressive symptoms.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Sweeney, Mark R., H. Y. Lu, M. C. Cui, J. A. Mason, H. Feng, & Z. W. Xu. (2016). Sand dunes as potential sources of dust in northern China. Science China-Earth Sciences, 59(4), 760-769.
 
While saltation bombardment of sand grains on a fine substrate can produce considerable dust, the well-sorted nature of sand dunes tends to preclude them from consideration as major dust sources. Recent research, however, has revealed that sand dunes can, in some cases, be large sources of dust. We used the PI-SWERL (Portable In-Situ Wind Erosion Laboratory) to measure in the field the potential of sand dunes and other desert landforms to emit particulate matter < 10 mu m (PM-10) dust in the Tengger, Ulan Buh, and Mu Us deserts of northern China. Combined with high resolution particle size measurements of the dune sand, an assessment of sand dunes as a dust source can be made. Large active transverse dunes tend to contain little to no stored PM-10, yet they produce a low dust flux. Coppice dunes stabilized by vegetation contain appreciable PM-10 and have very high dust emission potential. There is a positive correlation between the amount of PM-10 stored in a dune and its potential dust flux. Saltation liberates loose fines stored in dunes, making them very efficient dust emitters compared to landforms such as dry lake beds and washes where dust particles are unavailable for aeolian transport due to protective crusts or sediment cohesion. In cases where large dunes do not store PM-10 yet emit dust when active, two hypotheses can be considered: (1) iron-oxide grain coatings are removed during saltation, creating dust, and (2) sand grains collide during saltation, abrading grains to create dust. Observations reveal that iron oxide coatings are present on some dune sands. PI-SWERL data suggests that low dust fluxes from dunes containing no stored dust may represent an estimate for the amount of PM-10 dust produced by removal of iron oxide coatings. These results are similar to results from dunes in the United States. In addition, PI-SWERL results suggest that dust-bearing coppice dunes, which cover vast areas of China’s sandy deserts, may become major sources of dust in the future if overgrazing, depletion of groundwater, or drought destabilizes the vegetation that now partially covers these dunes.
 
Earth Sciences Department.
 
 
Wesner, Jeff. (2016). Contrasting effects of fish predation on benthic versus emerging prey: a meta-analysis. Oecologia, 180(4), 1205-1211.
 
Predator-prey interactions are often studied entirely within the ecosystem of the predator. However, many prey transition between ecosystems during development, expanding the effects of predators across ecosystems. Prey are often vulnerable to predation during this transition, facing a predator gauntlet as they leave their source ecosystem. As a result of predation during this transition, predators may have stronger effects on prey fluxes to the neighboring ecosystem than on prey densities in the predator’s own ecosystem. I used meta-analysis of predator (fish) and prey (invertebrate) interactions in freshwater ecosystems to test the hypothesis that fish have stronger effects on prey flux to the terrestrial ecosystem, by reducing insect emergence biomass, than on prey densities in the aquatic ecosystem, by reducing benthic insect/invertebrate biomass. Fish reduced insect emergence by 39 % on average, more than twice as strong as their reductions of benthic prey (16 % reduction; averages are variance-weighted). In fact, fish effects on benthic prey were not significantly different from zero, but were significant for emergence. These results indicate that predator effects can not only cascade from one ecosystem to another but also that effects can be stronger outside than within the ecosystem of the predator. Failure to account for this may underestimate the effects of predators on prey.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
BaniKhaled, Mohammad O.John D. BeckerMiles Koppang, & Haoran Sun. (2016). Perfluoroalkylation of Square-Planar Transition Metal Complexes: A Strategy To Assemble Them into Solid State Materials with a pi-pi Stacked Lamellar Structure. Crystal Growth & Design, 16(4), 1869-1878.
 
Formation of pi-pi stacked lamellar structure is important for high performance organic semiconductor materials. We previously demonstrated that perfluoroalkylation of aromatics and heteroaromatics was one of the strategies to design organic crystalline materials with pi-pi stacked lamellar structures while improving air stability as a result of the strong electron withdrawing ability of perfluoroalkyl substituents. Square-planar transition metal complexes with large pi-conjugated ligands are also an important category of semiconductor materials. We have perfluoroalkylated square-planar transition metal complexes, leading to the formation of a pi-pi stacked lamellar crystal packing motif in the solid state. Here we report six crystal structures of Pd and Pt complexes with bis-perfluorobutylated catechol ligand as one of the two ligands that bonds to the metal centers. This structural design possesses similar molecular topology when compared to perfluoroalkylated aromatics and heteroaromatics we have reported previously, again, demonstrating the steering power of the perfluoroalkyl substituents in engineering organic and organometallic ( solid state materials.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Jensen, Stephanie J.Talgat M. Inerbaev, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2016). Spin Unrestricted Excited State Relaxation Study of Vanadium(IV)-Doped Anatase. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 120(11), 5890-5905.
 
Atomistic modeling of light driven electron dynamics are important in studies of photoactive materials. Spin-resolved electronic structure calculations become necessary when dealing with transition metal, magnetic, and even some carbon materials, intermediates, and radicals. An approximate treatment can be pursued in the basis of spin-collinear density functional theory. Most transition-metal compounds exhibit open shell nonsinglet configurations, necessitating special treatment of electrons with alpha/beta spin projections. By separate treatment of electronic states with the alpha/beta spin components one is able to describe a broader range of materials, identify new channels of relaxation and charge transfer, and provide knowledge for rational design of new materials in solar energy harvesting and information storage. For this methodology, named spin-resolved electron dynamics, spin-polarized DFT is used as the basis to implement nonadiabatic molecular dynamics. At ambient temperatures, the thermal lattice vibrations results in orbital and energy fluctuations with time. Nonadiabatic couplings, are then calculated, which control the dissipative dynamics of the spin resolved density matrix. Different initial excitations are then analyzed and used to calculate relaxation dynamics. Spin-resolved electronic dynamics approach (SREDA) is applied to study vanadium(IV) substitutionally doped bulk anatase in a doublet ground state. The results show that a difference in the electronic structure for alpha and beta spin components determines consequences in optical excitations and electronic dynamics pathways experienced by electrons with alpha and beta spin projections. Specifically, the lone occupied V 3d alpha-orbital increases the range of absorption and defines the rates and pathways of relaxation for both holes and electrons with alpha-spin projection. Optical excitations involving occupied V 3d alpha-orbital are responsible for IR-range absorption, followed by nonradiative relaxation. Certain transitions involving orbitals of alpha-spin component occur in the visible range and induce localization of a negative charge on the V ion for an extended time period. The slower nonradiative relaxation rate of alpha-excitations is rationally explained as a consequence of difference of electronic structure for alpha and beta spin projections and specific pattern of energy levels contributed by doping. Specifically, excitations involving orbitals with alpha-projection of spin experience transitions through larger subgaps in the conduction band compared to the ones experienced by similar excitations involving orbitals with beta-projection of spin. It is anticipated that this methodology can be broadly implemented on multiple applications of transition metal based materials, including optoelectronics, information storage, laser crystals, dyes, photovoltaic materials, and metal oxides for photoelectrochemical water splitting.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Sharma, S., Chia-Ming WuRanjit T. Koodali, & N. Rajesh. (2016). An ionic liquid-mesoporous silica blend as a novel adsorbent for the adsorption and recovery of palladium ions, and its applications in continuous flow study and as an industrial catalyst. Rsc Advances, 6(32), 26668-26678.
 
In this work, we report the synthesis of Aliquat-336 (ionic liquid) impregnated SBA-15 mesoporous silica, showing its effective interaction and high adsorption capacity for palladium(II) ions. The physicochemical properties of the adsorbent prior to and after adsorption of palladium(II) ions were characterized extensively using FT-IR, XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX, surface area (BET), and pore size analysis. The plausible interaction envisaged between Aliquat-336 impregnated SBA-15 and Pd(II) could be charge and ion-pair interactions. Different isotherm models were utilized to obtain the sorption parameters and the experimental data fitted adequately with the Langmuir isotherm model, with an adsorption capacity of 212.76 mg g(-1). The kinetics of the adsorption process agreed well with the pseudo-second order kinetic model, and the exothermic nature of the adsorption process was revealed through thermodynamic parameters. The Aliquat-336 impregnated SBA-15 adsorbent was regenerated using thiourea. The continuous flow studies were carried out using the Thomas model and this gave an adsorption capacity of 453.89 mg g(-1) and 376.38 mg g(-1) at flow rates of 4 and 6 mL min(-1) respectively. Furthermore, the present scheme was tested for the adsorption of palladium recovered from a spent catalyst containing 5% Pd on activated carbon.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Mdaki, K. S., T. D. Larsen, A. L. Wachal, Michelle D. SchimelpfenigLucinda J. Weaver, …., & Michelle. L. Baack. (2016). Maternal high-fat diet impairs cardiac function in offspring of diabetic pregnancy through metabolic stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 310(6), H681-H692.
 
Offspring of diabetic pregnancies are at risk of cardiovascular disease at birth and throughout life, purportedly through fuel-mediated influences on the developing heart. Preventative measures focus on glycemic control, but the contribution of additional offenders, including lipids, is not understood. Cellular bioenergetics can be influenced by both diabetes and hyperlipidemia and play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of adult cardiovascular disease. This study investigated whether a maternal high-fat diet, independently or additively with diabetes, could impair fuel metabolism, mitochondrial function, and cardiac physiology in the developing offspring’s heart. Sprague-Dawley rats fed a control or high-fat diet were administered placebo or streptozotocin to induce diabetes during pregnancy and then delivered offspring from four groups: control, diabetes exposed, diet exposed, and combination exposed. Cardiac function, cellular bioenergetics (mitochondrial stress test, glycolytic stress test, and palmitate oxidation assay), lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial histology, and copy number were determined. Diabetes-exposed offspring had impaired glycolytic and respiratory capacity and a reduced proton leak. High-fat diet-exposed offspring had increased mitochondrial copy number, increased lipid peroxidation, and evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction. Combination- exposed pups were most severely affected and demonstrated cardiac lipid droplet accumulation and diastolic/systolic cardiac dysfunction that mimics that of adult diabetic cardiomyopathy. This study is the first to demonstrate that a maternal high-fat diet impairs cardiac function in offspring of diabetic pregnancies through metabolic stress and serves as a critical step in understanding the role of cellular bioenergetics in developmentally programmed cardiac disease.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Riebschleger, Joanne, Debra Norris, Barbara Pierce, Debora L. Pond, & Cristy Cummings. (2015). Preparing social work students for rural child welfare practice: Emerging curriculum competencies. Journal of Social Work Education, 51(Suppl 2), S209-S224.
 
Multiple issues that are unique to child welfare social work practice in rural areas markedly affect workforce recruitment and retention, yet little attention is given to the proficiencies needed to equip emerging social workers for this growing area of the field. Curriculum content is needed that provides students with the opportunity to master the skills needed to thrive as child welfare social workers in rural areas. Using an evidence-based practice critical thinking model as a guide, a systematic review of literature and documents addresses many of the competencies needed to prepare social work students for child welfare practice in rural areas. These competencies are identified. Suggestions for integration into the social work curriculum are offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)
 
School of Health Sciences.
 
 
Cross, Suzanne L., Virginia Drywater-Whitekiller, Lea Ann Holder, Debra Norris, James Caringi, & Ashley Trautman. (2015). NCWWI tribal traineeship programs: Promoting diversity in the child welfare workforce. Journal of Social Work Education, 51(Suppl 2), S225-S238.
 
Twelve universities and one American Indian (AI) tribal college were selected for the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute’s 5-year stipend traineeship program. These tribal traineeships were designed to provide social work child welfare education for tribal and nontribal students. Twenty-two AI students and 58 nontribal students completed a bachelor or master’s of social work degree. The students’ field placements were in tribal agencies or public agencies that served a segment of the AI population. These programs were enhanced through the use of valuable relationships (i.e., partnerships, mentorships, allies), and cultural competence was a key aspect of the students’ education. The students’ education was enriched with a specific child welfare curriculum, cultural teachings, tribal traineeship collaborations, and tribal community events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)
 
School of Health Sciences.
Posted by: reganenosusd | March 21, 2016

February – March 2016

Garelik, Steven, & X. T. Wang. (2016). Multiple framing: Verbal, facial, and vocal cues in risky choice. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making.

Verbal framing effects have been widely studied, but little is known about how people react to multiple framing cues in risk communication, where verbal messages are often accompanied by facial and vocal cues. We examined joint and differential effects of verbal, facial, and vocal framing on risk preference in hypothetical monetary and life–death situations. In the multiple framing condition with the factorial design (2 verbal frames × 2 vocal tones × 4 basic facial expressions × 2 task domains), each scenario was presented auditorily with a written message on a photo of the messenger’s face. Compared with verbal framing effects resulting in preference reversal, multiple frames made risky choice more consistent and shifted risk preference without reversal. Moreover, a positive tone of voice increased risk‐seeking preference in women. When the valence of facial and vocal cues was incongruent with verbal frame, verbal framing effects were significant. In contrast, when the affect cues were congruent with verbal frame, framing effects disappeared. These results suggest that verbal framing is given higher priority when other affect cues are incongruent. Further analysis revealed that participants were more risk‐averse when positive affect cues (positive tone or facial expressions) were congruently paired with a positive verbal frame whereas participants were more risk‐seeking when positive affect cues were incongruent with the verbal frame. In contrast, for negative affect cues, congruency promoted risk‐seeking tendency whereas incongruency increased risk‐aversion. Overall, the results show that facial and vocal cues interact with verbal framing and significantly affect risk communication. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Pan, Y. Q., R. Z. Liu, Erin Terpstra, Yanqing Wang, Fangfang Qiao, J. Wang, . . . Bo Pan. (2016). Dysregulation and Diagnostic Potential of microRNA in Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Alzheimers Disease, 49(1), 1-12.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases and is considered to be the main cause of cognitive impairment in elderly people. The major symptom of AD is progressive dementia that eventually results in dysfunction of daily life. Due to the fact that AD has a long period of incubation before clinical symptoms emerge, the available therapeutic treatments can only improve the symptoms but not delay the progression of AD. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore effective diagnostic approaches to catch and better treat the disease before clinical symptoms appear. Recent research revealed that abnormal expression of certain miRNA could have a crucial role in the pathological process of neurodegenerative disease including AD. Furthermore, given that AD patients show increased level of miRNAs in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, miRNAs are considered promising non-invasive candidates for AD diagnosis and prognosis. Here, we reviewed the current research related to implications of miRNAs during the development of AD, summarized of actively used approaches to identifying potential miRNA biomarkers in body fluids, and discussed the diagnostic potential of microRNAs as biomarkers for AD.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Mdaki, Kennedy S., Tricia D. Larsen, Lucinda J. Weaver, & Michelle L. Baack. (2016). Age Related Bioenergetics Profiles in Isolated Rat Cardiomyocytes Using Extracellular Flux Analyses. PLoS ONE, 11(2), 1-16.

Mitochondrial dysfunction is increasingly recognized and studied as a mediator of heart disease. Extracellular flux analysis (XF) has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate cellular bioenergetics in the context of cardiac health and disease, however its use and interpretation requires improved understanding of the normal metabolic differences in cardiomyocytes (CM) at various stages of maturation. This study standardized XF analyses methods (mitochondrial stress test, glycolytic stress test and palmitate oxidation test) and established age related differences in bioenergetics profiles of healthy CMs at newborn (NB1), weaning (3WK), adult (10WK) and aged (12–18MO) time points. Findings show that immature CMs demonstrate a more robust and sustained glycolytic capacity and a relative inability to oxidize fatty acids when compared to older CMs. The study also highlights the need to recognize the contribution of CO2 from the Krebs cycle as well as lactate from anaerobic glycolysis to the proton production rate before interpreting glycolytic capacity in CMs. Overall, this study demonstrates that caution should be taken to assure that translatable developmental time points are used to investigate mitochondrial dysfunction as a cause of cardiac disease. Specifically, XF analysis of newborn CMs should be reserved to study fetal/neonatal disease and older CMs (≥10 weeks) should be used to investigate adult disease pathogenesis. Knowledge gained will aid in improved investigation of developmentally programmed heart disease and stress the importance of discerning maturational differences in bioenergetics when developing mitochondrial targeted preventative and therapeutic strategies for cardiac disease.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Harris, William S., Juhua Luo, James V. Pottala, Karen L. Margolis, Mark A. Espeland, & Jennifer G. Robinson. (2016). Red Blood Cell Fatty Acids and Incident Diabetes Mellitus in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study. PLoS ONE, 11(2), 1-17.

Context: The relations between dietary and/or circulating levels of fatty acids and the development of type 2 diabetes is unclear. Protective associations with the marine omega-3 fatty acids and linoleic acid, and with a marker of fatty acid desaturase activity delta-5 desaturase (D5D ratio) have been reported, as have adverse relations with saturated fatty acids and D6D ratio. Objective: To determine the associations between red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid distributions and incident type 2 diabetes. Design: Prospective observational cohort study nested in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study. Setting: General population. Subjects: Postmenopausal women. Main Outcome Measures: Self-reported incident type 2 diabetes. Results: There were 703 new cases of type 2 diabetes over 11 years of follow up among 6379 postmenopausal women. In the fully adjusted models, baseline RBC D5D ratio was inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes [Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81–0.95) per 1 SD increase. Similarly, baseline RBC D6D ratio and palmitic acid were directly associated with incident type 2 diabetes (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04–1.25; and HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.14–1.35, respectively). None of these relations were materially altered by excluding incident cases in the first two years of follow-up. There were no significant relations with eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic or linoleic acids. Conclusions: Whether altered fatty acid desaturase activities or palmitic acid levels are causally related to the development of type 2 diabetes cannot be determined from this study, but our findings suggest that proportions of certain fatty acids in RBC membranes are associated with risk for type 2 diabetes.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Druzinsky, Robert E., James P. Balhoff, Alfred W. Crompton, …., Paula M. Mabee, Hans-Michael Muller, . . . Christine E. Wall. (2016). Muscle Logic: New Knowledge Resource for Anatomy Enables Comprehensive Searches of the Literature on the Feeding Muscles of Mammals. PLoS ONE, 11(2), 1-19.

Background: In recent years large bibliographic databases have made much of the published literature of biology available for searches. However, the capabilities of the search engines integrated into these databases for text-based bibliographic searches are limited. To enable searches that deliver the results expected by comparative anatomists, an underlying logical structure known as an ontology is required. Development and Testing of the Ontology: Here we present the Mammalian Feeding Muscle Ontology (MFMO), a multi-species ontology focused on anatomical structures that participate in feeding and other oral/pharyngeal behaviors. A unique feature of the MFMO is that a simple, computable, definition of each muscle, which includes its attachments and innervation, is true across mammals. This construction mirrors the logical foundation of comparative anatomy and permits searches using language familiar to biologists. Further, it provides a template for muscles that will be useful in extending any anatomy ontology. The MFMO is developed to support the Feeding Experiments End-User Database Project (FEED, ), a publicly-available, online repository for physiological data collected from in vivo studies of feeding (e.g., mastication, biting, swallowing) in mammals. Currently the MFMO is integrated into FEED and also into two literature-specific implementations of Textpresso, a text-mining system that facilitates powerful searches of a corpus of scientific publications. We evaluate the MFMO by asking questions that test the ability of the ontology to return appropriate answers (competency questions). We compare the results of queries of the MFMO to results from similar searches in PubMed and Google Scholar. Results and Significance: Our tests demonstrate that the MFMO is competent to answer queries formed in the common language of comparative anatomy, but PubMed and Google Scholar are not. Overall, our results show that by incorporating anatomical ontologies into searches, an expanded and anatomically comprehensive set of results can be obtained. The broader scientific and publishing communities should consider taking up the challenge of semantically enabled search capabilities.

Biology Department.

Jackson, K. H., J. Polreis, L. Sanborn, D. Chaima, & William S. Harris. (2016). Analysis of breast milk fatty acid composition using dried milk samples. International Breastfeeding Journal, 11, 7.

Background: The effect of breast milk fatty acid (FA) composition, particularly levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on infant health outcomes is unclear. Part of the reason for this is difficulties in collecting, storing and shipping milk samples to the laboratory. Here we report the validation of a dried milk spot (DMS) system to measure FA composition to help overcome these obstacles. Milk FA were measured by gas chromatography and reported as percent of total FA; the FA of primary interest in this study were DHA and industrially produced trans FA (iTFA). Experiments were carried out using pooled milk samples from US (n = 5) and Malawian women (n = 50). Experiments compared liquid vs. DMS samples (n = 55), assessed stability of FA composition under different storage conditions (n = 5), and compared the results from two different labs using the same methods (n = 5). Results: Both % DHA and % iTFA levels in liquid and DMS samples were strongly correlated (R-2 = 0.99 and 0.99, respectively, P < 0.0001). The % DHA in DMS samples was stable for up to four weeks at room temperature and up to three years at -80 degrees C; only slight deviations from the acceptable range of variability (+/- 15 %) occurred in the 4 degrees C and -20 degrees C conditions for % DHA. The % iTFA was stable under all conditions. All % DHA and % iTFA were within 15 % of the referent when analyzed in two laboratories. Conclusions: Valid FA composition values can be obtained from DMS samples using this robust collection and transport system which should facilitate studies of the role of milk FA composition in infant development.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Ujvari, G., T. Stevens, A. Svensson, …., Mark R. Sweeney, M. Gocke, . . . M. Zech. (2015). Two possible source regions for central Greenland last glacial dust. Geophysical Research Letters, 42(23), 10.

Dust in Greenland ice cores is used to reconstruct the activity of dust-emitting regions and atmospheric circulation. However, the source of dust material to Greenland over the last glacial period is the subject of considerable uncertainty. Here we use new clay mineral and < 10 mu m Sr-Nd isotopic data from a range of Northern Hemisphere loess deposits in possible source regions alongside existing isotopic data to show that these methods cannot discriminate between two competing hypothetical origins for Greenland dust: an East Asian and/or central European source. In contrast, Hf isotopes (< 10 mu m fraction) of loess samples show considerable differences between the potential source regions. We attribute this to a first-order clay mineralogy dependence of Hf isotopic signatures in the finest silt/clay fractions, due to absence of zircons. As zircons would also be absent in Greenland dust, this provides a new way to discriminate between hypotheses for Greenland dust sources.

Earth Sciences Department.

Jiang, L. L., D. Zang, S. G. Yi, …., Xuejun Wang, & J. B. Liu. (2016). A microRNA-mediated decrease in eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha promotes cell survival during PS-341 treatment. Scientific Reports, 6, 12.

MicroRNAs (miRs) play pivotal roles in carcinogenesis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that performs the folding, modification and trafficking of proteins targeted to the secretory pathway. Cancer cells often endure ER stress during tumor progression but use the adaptive ER stress response to gain survival advantage. Here we report: (i) A group of miRs, including miR-30b-5p and miR-30c-5p, are upregulated by proteasome inhibitor PS-341 treatment, in HepG2 and MDA-MB-453 cells. (ii) Two representative PS-341-induced miRs: miR-30b-5p and miR-30c-5p are found to promote cell proliferation and antiapoptosis in both tumor cells. (iii) eIF2 alpha is confirmed as the congenerous target of miR-30b-5p and miR-30c-5p, essential to the anti-apoptotic function of these miRs. (iv) Upregulation of miR-30b-5p or miR-30c-5p, which occurs latter than the increase of phosphorylated eIF2 alpha (p-eIF2 alpha) in the cell under ER stress, suppresses the p-eIF2 alpha/ATF4/CHOP pro-apoptotic pathway. (v) Inhibition of the miR-30b-5p or miR-30c-5p sensitizes the cancer cells to the cytotoxicity of proteasome inhibition. In conclusion, we unravels a new miRs-based mechanism that helps maintain intracellular proteostasis and promote cell survival during ER stress through upregulation of miR-30b-5p and miR-30c-5p which target eIF2 alpha and thereby inhibit the p-eIF2 alpha/ATF4/CHOP pro-apoptotic pathway, identifying miR-30b-5p and miR-30c-5p as potentially new targets for anti-cancer therapies.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Savinov, Alexi Y., Maryam Salehi, M. C. Yadav, I. Radichev, J. L. Millan, & O. V. Savinova. (2015). Transgenic Overexpression of Tissue-Nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase (TNAP) in Vascular Endothelium Results in Generalized Arterial Calcification. Journal of the American Heart Association, 4(12), 13.

Background-Ectopic vascular calcification is a common condition associated with aging, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and/or chronic kidney disease. Smooth muscle cells are the best characterized source of osteogenic progenitors in the vasculature; however, recent studies suggest that cells of endothelial origin can also promote calcification. To test this, we sought to increase the osteogenic potential of endothelial cells by overexpressing tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), a key enzyme that regulates biomineralization, and to determine the pathophysiological effect of endothelial TNAP on vascular calcification and cardiovascular function. Methods and Results-We demonstrated previously that mice transgenic for ALPL (gene encoding human TNAP) develop severe arterial medial calcification and reduced viability when TNAP is overexpressed in smooth muscle cells. In this study, we expressed the ALPL transgene in endothelial cells following endothelial-specific Tie2-Cre recombination. Mice with endothelial TNAP overexpression survived well into adulthood and displayed generalized arterial calcification. Genes associated with osteochondrogenesis (Runx2, Bglap, Spp1, Opg, and Col2a1) were upregulated in the aortas of endothelial TNAP animals compared with controls. Lesions in coronary arteries of endothelial TNAP mice showed immunoreactivity to Runx2, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and collagen II as well as increased deposition of sialoproteins revealed by lectin staining. By 23 weeks of age, endothelial TNAP mice developed elevated blood pressure and compensatory left ventricular hypertrophy with preserved ejection fraction. Conclusions-This study presented a novel genetic model demonstrating the osteogenic potential of TNAP-positive endothelial cells in promoting pathophysiological vascular calcification.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Edmunds, R. C., B. F. Su, J. P. Balhoff, B. F. Eames, Waslia M. Dahdul, …., . . . M. Westerfield. (2016). Phenoscape: Identifying Candidate Genes for Evolutionary Phenotypes. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 33(1), 13-24.

Phenotypes resulting from mutations in genetic model organisms can help reveal candidate genes for evolutionarily important phenotypic changes in related taxa. Although testing candidate gene hypotheses experimentally in nonmodel organisms is typically difficult, ontology-driven information systems can help generate testable hypotheses about developmental processes in experimentally tractable organisms. Here, we tested candidate gene hypotheses suggested by expert use of the Phenoscape Knowledgebase, specifically looking for genes that are candidates responsible for evolutionarily interesting phenotypes in the ostariophysan fishes that bear resemblance to mutant phenotypes in zebrafish. For this, we searched ZFIN for genetic perturbations that result in either loss of basihyal element or loss of scales phenotypes, because these are the ancestral phenotypes observed in catfishes (Siluriformes). We tested the identified candidate genes by examining their endogenous expression patterns in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. The experimental results were consistent with the hypotheses that these features evolved through disruption in developmental pathways at, or upstream of, brpf1 and eda/edar for the ancestral losses of basihyal element and scales, respectively. These results demonstrate that ontological annotations of the phenotypic effects of genetic alterations in model organisms, when aggregated within a knowledgebase, can be used effectively to generate testable, and useful, hypotheses about evolutionary changes in morphology.

Biology Department.

Raynie, Douglas E. (2016). Surfactant-Mediated Extractions, Part I: Cloud-Point Extraction. Lc Gc North America, 34(1), 14-+.

Chemistry Department.

Dixon, Mark D., & J. C. Stella. (2016). Temporal variability in hydrology modifies the influence of geomorphology on wetland distribution along a desert stream: a commentary on Dong et al. (2016). Journal of Ecology, 104(1), 31-32.

Biology Department.

Geske, Savannah, Randal Quevillon, Cindy Struckman-Johnson, & Keith Hansen. (2016). Comparisons of Contraceptive Use between Rural and Urban Teens. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 29(1), 33-41.

Study Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine if barriers in rural areas might decrease an adolescent’s likelihood of obtaining effective contraception. Previous studies have reported mixed results in comparisons of rural and urban contraception use. Design: Electronic survey. Setting: Midwestern Public University. Participants: Undergraduate and graduate women. Interventions: Questionnaire. Main Outcome Measures: Participants retrospectively recalled their contraceptive use and barriers to contraceptive use between the 9th and 12th grades. Results: A Barriers to Contraception Use Scale was created using exploratory factor analysis and yielded 31 questions with 1 underlying factor: barriers. Participants were identified as rural or urban using the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) definition and the participant’s self-identification. Overall, rural participants endorsed more barriers to accessing contraceptives than urban participants using the OMB definition (chi(2) (2; n = 388) = 2.04; P < .05), and self-identification (chi(2) (2; n = 398) = 2.37; P < .05). However, no differences were found in contraception use according to the OMB definition, t (380) = -1.90; P = .06, or self-identification, t (380) = -2.11; P > .05. The Barriers to Contraception Use Scale total score predicted whether an individual would have a prescription for contraceptives 70.5% of the time compared to the base rate of 54.1%. Conclusion: Although no rural-urban differences in actual contraception use were found, rural participants reported more barriers to accessing contraception, and those who endorsed more barriers were less likely to obtain contraceptives while in high school. Pregnancy prevention programs should thus take these barriers into account when developing future interventions.

Psychology Department.

Deitsch, E., E. M. Hibbard, & Jason L. Petersen. (2016). The UVS9 gene of Chlamydomonas encodes an XPG homolog with a new conserved domain. DNA Repair, 37, 33-42.

Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a key pathway for removing DNA damage that destabilizes the DNA double helix. During NER a protein complex coordinates to cleave the damaged DNA strand on both sides of the damage. The resulting lesion-containing oligonucleotide is displaced from the DNA and a replacement strand is synthesized using the undamaged strand as template. Ultraviolet (UV) light is known to induce two primary forms of DNA damage, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer and the 64 photoproduct, both of which destabilize the DNA double helix. The uvs9 strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was isolated based on its sensitivity to UV light and was subsequently shown to have a defect in NER. In this work, the UVS9 gene was cloned through molecular mapping and shown to encode a homolog of XPG, the structure-specific nuclease responsible for cleaving damaged DNA strands 3′ to sites of damage during NER. 3′ RACE revealed that the UVS9 transcript is alternatively polyadenylated. The predicted UVS9 protein is nearly twice as long as other XPG homologs, primarily due to an unusually long spacer region. Despite this difference, amino acid sequence alignment of UVS9p with XPG homologs revealed a new conserved domain involved in TFIIH interaction. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Gaher, Raluca M., C. O’Brien, P. Smiley, & Austin M. Hahn. (2016). Alexithymia, Coping Styles and Traumatic Stress Symptoms in a Sample of Veterans Who Experienced Military Sexual Trauma. Stress and Health, 32(1), 55-62.

The current study examined the association between alexithymia and coping styles (planning, positive reinterpretation and growth, social-emotion coping, and denial), and trauma symptoms in a clinical sample of 170 male and female veterans who experienced sexual trauma during military service. Denial was the only coping style positively associated with trauma symptoms, and it mediated the relationship between alexithymia and trauma symptoms. Alexithymia was negatively associated with planning. Likewise, alexithymia was negatively associated with social-emotional coping and with positive reinterpretation and growth. The results speak to the significant role that alexithymia has in predicting individual coping styles. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Psychology Department.

Harris, William S., K. F. Kennedy, T. M. Maddox, S. Kutty, & J. A. Spertus. (2016). Multiple differences between patients who initiate fish oil supplementation post-myocardial infarction and those who do not: the TRIUMPH Study. Nutrition Research, 36(1), 65-71.

The utility of fish oil supplements (FOS) in patients who survive an acute myocardial infarction (MI) remains controversial, with randomized trials showing less benefit than observational studies would suggest. The differences in the characteristics of MI patients who use FOS in routine clinical care are unknown but may help explain this discrepancy. We used data from a 24-site registry study in which extensive information was available on 4340 MI patients at admission and 1, 6, and 12 months postdischarge. After excluding those using FOS at admission (n = 651), those who died before the 1-month follow-up visit (n = 63), and those with missing data at 1 month (n = 1228), 2398 remained. Of them, 377 (16%) started FOS within 1 month of their MI. We analyzed 53 patient characteristics associated with FOS use. We observed differences (P < .001) in 20 demographic, socioeconomic, treatment, disease severity, and health status domains. The FOS users were more likely than nonusers to be white, married, financially secure, highly educated, and eating fish. They also had a higher ejection fraction at discharge, were more likely to have had in hospital percutaneous coronary interventions, and were more likely to have participated in cardiac rehabilitation programs. The FOS users were less likely to have a history of diabetes, alcohol abuse, stroke, MI, and angina. In conclusion, post-MI patients who initiate FOS within 1 month of discharge in routine clinical practice differ substantially from those who do not. These differences are strongly associated with a better post-MI prognosis and may illuminate several sources of unmeasured confounding in observational studies. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Allgrunn, Michael, & Christopher C. Douglas. (2015). The Impact of Smoking Bans on Bar and Restaurant Values. Journal of Economics (03616576), 41(2), 67-81.

The state of Florida implemented an indoor smoking ban in 2003 that exempted bars. Using a data set containing the sales price of bars and restaurants in Florida that spans 1999-2011, we utilize a difference-in-difference framework to examine whether or not a smoking ban impacts the value of bars and restaurants and in what direction. We find that the value of restaurants decreased following the smoking ban, while the value of bars increased. These results suggest that a smoking ban has a negative impact on a business’ value.

Beacom School of Business.

Wilson, Kevin. (2015). A Visit. Missouri Review, 38(4), 74-92.

English Department.

Clark, Brent B., C. Robert, & S. A. Hampton. (2016). The Technology Effect: How Perceptions of Technology Drive Excessive Optimism. Journal of Business and Psychology, 31(1), 87-102.

We propose that constant exposure to advances in technology has resulted in an implicit association between technology and success that has conditioned decision makers to be overly optimistic about the potential for technology to drive successful outcomes. Three studies examine this phenomenon and explore the boundaries of this “technology effect.” In Study 1, participants (N = 147) made simulated investment decisions where the information about technology was systematically varied. In Study 2 (N = 143), participants made decisions in a resource dilemma where technology was implicated in determining the amount of a resource available for harvest. Study 3 (N = 53 and N = 60) used two implicit association tests to examine the assumption that people associate technology with success. Results supported our assumption about an implicit association between technology and success, as well as a “technology effect” bias in decision making. Signals of high performance trigger the effect, and the effect is more likely when the technology invoked is unfamiliar. Excessive optimism that technology will result in success can have negative consequences. Individual investment decisions, organizational decisions to invest in R&D, and societal decisions to explore energy and climate change solutions might all be impacted by biased beliefs about the promise of technology. We are the first to systematically examine the optimistic bias in the technology effect, its scope, and boundaries. This research raises decision makers’ awareness and initiates research examining how the abstract notion of technology can influence perceptions of technological advances.

Beacom School of Business.

Love, Heather A. (2016). Cybernetic Modernism and the Feedback Loop: Ezra Pound’s Poetics of Transmission. Modernism-Modernity, 23(1), 89-111.

English Department.

Raizada, Amol, Nachiket Apte, & Scott Pham. (2016). Q Fever Endocarditis. Texas Heart Institute Journal, 43(1), 91-93.

Q fever is a zoonotic disease with a reservoir in mammals, birds, and ticks. Acute cases in human beings can be asymptomatic, or they can present with a flu-like illness, pneumonia, or hepatitis. Approximately 5% of cases progress to chronic Q fever. Endocarditis, the most typical manifestation of chronic Q fever, is usually associated with small vegetations that occur in patients who have had prior valvular damage or who are immunocompromised. We present what we think is the first reported case of superior mesenteric artery embolism from Q fever endocarditis of the aortic valve, in a 39-year-old woman who needed surgical embolectomy and subsequent aortic valve replacement.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Davies, Thomas L., Angeline M. Lavin, & David H. Moen. (2015). THE EFFECT OF RECENT INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE MISSTEPS ON TAXPAYER PERCEPTIONS. Journal of Business & Accounting, 8(1), 102-116.

The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is responsible for enforcing federal tax laws as well as collecting taxes owed by millions of taxpayers each year. As a result, the fiscal health of the country is impacted by the agency’s effectiveness in fulfilling its responsibilities. In recent years, most discretionary programs and related agencies, including the IRS, have experienced budget cuts in order to keep the national deficit from becoming larger. Less funding has caused the IRS to reduce its workforce as well as cut back on training those who remain. During this same time, well-publicized alleged missteps by the agency have raised concerns about its ability to accomplish its mission of collecting revenue when a significant tax gap already exists. This study reports on how the recent scandals within the IRS have impacted taxpayer perceptions of its overall performance, which can ultimately influence taxpayer compliance and likely add to the tax gap.

Beacom School of Business.

Witek, M., Miles D. Koppang, & G. M. Swain. (2016). Aliphatic Polyamine Oxidation Reaction Mechanism at Boron-doped Microcrystalline and Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Electrodes. Electroanalysis, 28(1), 151-160.

The oxidation reaction mechanism of several aliphatic polyamines was studied using diamond electrodes with different doping levels and non-diamond carbon impurity content. The important roles of surface boron and localized non-diamond carbon sites in the polyamine oxidation reaction mechanism were confirmed. A well defined oxidation peak was seen for all the amines that was dependent on the onset potential for water discharge. E-p(ox) shifted negative and the i(p)(ox) increased with increasing solution pH. i(p)(ox) also increased with increasing boron doping level or surface boron site density. FIA-EC analysis revealed a reproducible response for the aliphatic polyamines in a binary solvent (7/93%) acetonitrile/borate buffer, pH11.2. Optimum signal-to-background ratios for the aliphatic polyamines were seen at potentials between 650 and 670mV.

Chemistry Department.

Jones, Lindsey, Peter A. Kindle, Natasha Auch, Jessica Graupmann, Alicia Ray, Stephanie Utech, & Jenna Visser. (2013). Advice for BSW Students from Alumni of Rural Programs. Journal of Baccalaureate Social Work, 18, 157-172.

Students enrolled or interested in baccalaureate social work programs with a rural focus have access to scant research-based resources to consult for career and educational advice. This study explores open-ended advice provided by a nonprobability sample of BSW alumni (N=120). Online surveys were solicited from alumni from four different colleges with a rural emphasis. Major themes included the advice to examine areas of the social work field, to obtain a graduate social work degree, to take personal responsibility to assess individual suitability for social work, to expect poor pay and work stressors, and to develop strong self-care defenses.

School of Health Sciences.

Wang, X. T., Lay See Ong, & Jolene H. Tan. (2015). Sense and sensibility of ownership: Type of ownership experience and valuation of goods. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, 58, 171-177.

This study examined how the type of ownership experience affects the valuation of a good. We hypothesized that the sense of ownership is a psychological derivative of resource acquisition and allocation. We predicted a valuation order of stable ownership or no-ownership < alternating (interchanging) ownership < sudden reversals in ownership. One hundred and sixty-six participants played an object-acquisition “game”, a computer simulation of gaining or losing the ownership of an object (e.g., a pen, a mug, or a flashlight) with different outcome sequences, preprogramed but unbeknownst to the participants. After each game, the participant valued the target object by indicating their willingness-to-pay price, if the last outcome was a loss, or willingness-to-accept price, if the last outcome was a gain. The valuation of an object was highest after experiencing a final reversal in ownership from losses to a final gain or from gains to a final loss, followed by alternating ownership and stable (patrimonial) ownership or constant non-ownership. Wins or losses are not created equal due to different trajectories in how people come to own (lose) objects. The results also suggest that loss aversion is better understood as a specific result of ownership experience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Messler, Erick C., Aaron A. Lee, Randal P. Quevillon, & Raluca M. Simons. (2016). Parents do matter, but why? Examining two mediators of the association between parental approval and negative consequences of alcohol use. Journal of Substance Use, 21(2), 179-184.

College student drinking is a public health concern with potentially serious consequences. A growing body of literature indicates perceived parental approval of alcohol use is associated with drinking outcomes in college populations, and that parent-based interventions may be a viable way to reduce alcohol use on campus. However, researchers have not yet identified the mechanism responsible for this relationship. In this study, a path model was used to look at the relationship between perceived parental approval of drinking and negative consequences of alcohol use among undergraduate students (N = 632)viatwo mechanisms: perceived friends’ approval of drinking and perceived parental monitoring. The path model specified in this study indicated that perceived parental approval of drinking is associated with negative consequences of alcohol use, and that this effect is not fully attributed to perceived parental monitoring, injunctive norms of friends, gender or weekly alcohol consumption. As hypothesized, perceived friends’ approval of drinking partially mediated the relationship between perceived parental approval of drinking and negative consequences of alcohol use. Contrary to hypothesis, the path model did not provide support to the mediating role of perceived parental monitoring.

Psychology Department.

Cui, T. X., Y. M. Lai, J. S. Janicki, & Xuejun Wang. (2016). Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated protein quality control in cardiomyocytes. Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark, 21, 192-202.

Protein quality control (PQC) acts to minimize the level and toxicity of malfolded proteins in the cell. It is performed by an elaborate network of molecular chaperones and targeted protein degradation pathways. PQC monitors and maintains protein homeostasis or proteostasis in the cells. Whilst chaperones may actively promote refolding of malfolded proteins, the malfolded proteins which cannot be correctly refolded are degraded by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagic-lysosome pathway (ALP). The UPS degrades individual misfolded protein molecules, whereas the ALP removes large and less soluble protein aggregates and organelles. Emerging evidence indicates that dysregulated and inadequate PQC play an important role in the pathogenesis of not only classic conformational disease but more common forms of cardiac pathology such as cardiac pathological hypertrophy and heart failure. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master transcription factor of cellular defense, appears to regulate the USP and the ALP by directly controlling the expression of UPS- and ALP- related genes. This article highlights an emerging role of Nrf2 in the regulation of intracellular PQC as well as its potential involvement in cardiac pathology.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Cho, Chanhoo, J. T. Halford, S. Hsu, & L. L. Ng. (2016). Do managers matter for corporate innovation? Journal of Corporate Finance, 36, 206-229.

This paper examines the ability of latent firm and manager characteristics to explain variation in innovation productivity. Evidence suggests that latent, but not observable, firm and manager characteristics explain a large portion of the variation in a firm’s innovation productivity. Our tests mostly show that latent firm characteristics explain slightly more of the variation relative to latent manager characteristics. For robustness, our analysis shows no significant difference in the average change in innovation productivity and in abnormal returns following two different samples of manager-firm separations: one where managers’ expected innovation abilities are high and the other a random sample. Overall, the results suggest that compared to firm characteristics, managers matter moderately less for corporate innovation. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Beacom School of Business.

May, P. A., M. M. de Vries, A. S. Marais, W. O. Kalberg, …., & H. Eugene Hoyme. (2016). The continuum of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in four rural communities in south africa: Prevalence and characteristics. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 159, 207-218.

Background: Prevalence and characteristics of the continuum of diagnoses within fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were researched in previously unstudied rural, agricultural, lower socioeconomic populations in South Africa (ZA). Methods: Using an active case ascertainment approach among first grade learners, 1354 (72.6%) were consented into the study via: height, weight, and/or head circumference <= 25th centile and/or random selection as normal control candidates. Final diagnoses were made following: examination by pediatric dysmorphologists/geneticists, cognitive/behavioral testing, and maternal risk factor interviews. Results: FASD children were significantly growth deficient and dysmorphic: physical measurements, cardinal facial features of FAS, and total dysmorphology scores clearly differentiated diagnostic categories from severe to mild to normal in a consistent, linear fashion. Neurodevelopmental delays were also significantly worse for each of the FASD diagnostic categories, although not as consistently linear across groups. Alcohol use is well documented as the proximal maternal risk factor for each diagnostic group. Significant distal maternal risk factors in this population are: low body weight, body mass, education, and income; and high gravidity, parity, and age at birth of the index child. In this low SES, highly rural region, FAS occurs in 93-128 per 1000 children, PFAS in 58-86, and, ARND in 32-46 per 1000. Total FASD affect 182-259 per 1000 children or 18-26%. Conclusions: Very high rates of FASD exist in these rural areas and isolated towns where entrenched practices of regular binge drinking co-exist with challenging conditions for childbearing and child development. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Downs, C. J., J. L. Brown, Bernard W. M. Wone, E. R. Donovan, & J. P. Hayes. (2016). Speeding up Growth: Selection for Mass-Independent Maximal Metabolic Rate Alters Growth Rates. American Naturalist, 187(3), 295-307.

Investigations into relationships between life-history traits, such as growth rate and energy metabolism, typically focus on basal metabolic rate (BMR). In contrast, investigators rarely examine maximal metabolic rate (MMR) as a relevant metric of energy metabolism, even though it indicates the maximal capacity to metabolize energy aerobically, and hence it might also be important in trade-offs. We studied the relationship between energy metabolism and growth in mice (Mus musculus domesticus Linnaeus) selected for high mass-independent metabolic rates. Selection for high mass-independent MMR increased maximal growth rate, increased body mass at 20 weeks of age, and generally altered growth patterns in both male and female mice. In contrast, there was little evidence that the correlated response in mass-adjusted BMR altered growth patterns. The relationship between mass-adjusted MMR and growth rate indicates that MMR is an important mediator of life histories. Studies investigating associations between energy metabolism and life histories should consider MMR because it is potentially as important in understanding life history as BMR.

Biology Department.

Santosh, K. C. (2015). g-DICE: graph mining-based document information content exploitation. International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition, 18(4), 337-355.

In this paper, we present document information content (i.e. text fields) extraction technique via graph mining. Real-world users first provide a set of key text fields from the document image which they think are important. These fields are used to initialise a graph where nodes are labelled with the field names in addition to other features such as size, type and number of words, and edges are attributed with relative positioning between them. Such an attributed relational graph is then used to mine similar graphs from document images which are used to update the initial graph iteratively each time we extract them, to produce a graph model. Graph models, therefore, are employed in the absence of users. We have validated the proposed technique and evaluated its scientific impact on real-world industrial problem with the performance of 86.64% precision and 90.80% recall by considering all zones, viz. header, body and footer. More specifically, the proposed technique is well suited for table processing (i.e. extracting repeated patterns from the table) and it outperforms the state-of-the-art method by approximately more than 3%.

Computer Science Department.

Samra, Haifa, J. Dutcher, J. M. McGrath, M. Foster, L. Klein, G. Djira, . . . D. Wallenburg. (2015). Effect of Skin-to-Skin Holding on Stress in Mothers of Late-Preterm Infants A Randomized Controlled Trial. Advances in Neonatal Care, 15(5), 354-364.

Purpose: To examine the effect of skin-to-skin care (SSC) on stress perception between mothers who provided SSC to their late-preterm born infants and mothers who provided blanket holding. Design and Methods: This was a longitudinal 2-group randomized controlled trial of 40 infant-mother dyads recruited from a level 3 neonatal intensive care unit in the upper Midwest. Outcome Measure: Maternal stress was measured using the Parental Stressor : Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS : NICU) scale pre-and post-SSC intervention. Demographic and other mother and infant covariates were extracted from medical records. Physiologic stability was measured by the Stability of the Cardiorespiratory System in Preterm Infants (SCRIP) score. Study personnel used daily logs to track frequency and duration of SSC and holding sessions. Results: The intervention and the control groups had similar pre-(mean +/- standard deviation, 2.34 +/- 0.86 for SSC and 2.94 +/- 0.87 for holding) and post-intervention (mean +/- standard deviation, 2.55 +/- 0.95 for SSC and 2.78 +/- 0.90 for holding) overall stress scores. Hours of SSC holding positively correlated with the change in stress scores for the entire scale (r = 0.58; P =.001), and for infant appearance (r = 0.58; P =.001) and parent role alteration (r = 0.48; P =.02) subscales. This relationship remained significant after controlling for the infant’s length of stay and SCRIP score. Implications for Practice: Mothers who provide SSC may experience more stress related to a more facilitated progression in the mother and infant relationship. Implications for Research: The relationship between increased stress and the number of hours of SSC holding warrants further investigation.

School of Health Sciences.

Thada, Vaughn, Jake N. Miller, Attila D. Kovacs, & David A. Pearce. (2016). Tissue-specific variation in nonsense mutant transcript level and drug-induced read-through efficiency in the Cln1(R151X) mouse model of INCL. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 20(2), 381-385.

About 10% of inherited diseases are caused by nonsense mutations [Trends Mol Med 18 (2012) 688], and nonsense suppression drug therapy promoting translation through premature stop codons is an emerging therapeutic approach. Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL), a childhood neurodegenerative disease, results from mutations in the CLN1 gene encoding the lysosomal enzyme, palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1) [Biochim Biophys Acta 1832 (2013) 1806, Hum Mutat (2012) 63, Biochim Biophys Acta 1832 (2013) 1881]. The nonsense mutation p.R151X is the most common disease-causing CLN1 mutation Hum Mutat (2012) 63. In the novel Cln1(R151X) mouse model of INCL, we found large, tissue-specific variations in Cln1(R151X) mRNA level and PPT1 residual enzyme activity. These tissue-specific differences strongly influenced the read-through efficiency of ataluren (PTC124), a well-known nonsense suppression drug. A two-day treatment with ataluren (10 mg/kg) increased PPT1 enzyme activity in the liver and muscle, but not in any other tissue examined. Our study identifies a new challenge/hurdle for read-through drug therapy: variable efficiency of read-through therapy in the different tissues/organs because of tissue-specific variations in nonsense mutant transcript levels.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Kamble, P., H. Chen, M. L. Johnson, Vinod Bhatara, & R. R. Aparasu. (2015). Concurrent Use of Stimulants and Second-Generation Antipsychotics Among Children With ADHD Enrolled in Medicaid. Psychiatric Services, 66(4), 404-410.

Objective: This study examined the prevalence of and factors associated with concurrent use of long-acting stimulants (LAS) and second-generation antipsychotic agents among children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: The study involved retrospective longitudinal analysis of 2003-2007 Medicaid data from four states for children and adolescents between the ages of six and 17 years who were diagnosed as having ADHD and initiated LAS treatment. Concurrent use of LAS and second-generation antipsychotic medications was defined as simultaneous receipt of both medications for at least 14 days. On the basis of the conceptual framework of the Andersen behavioral model, multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with concurrent use. Results: Among the 61,793 children who initiated LAS treatment for ADHD, 11,866 (19.2%) received LAS and second-generation antipsychotics concurrently for at least 14 days. Overall, the average length of concurrent use was 130 +/- 98 days. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that concurrent use was higher among boys, blacks, and foster care children compared with their respective counterparts. Comorbid psychiatric conditions, including disorders that are not approved indications for second-generation antipsychotic use, were associated with concurrent use of LAS and second-generation antipsychotics. Conclusions: Almost one in five children and adolescents who initiated LAS also received second-generation antipsychotics concurrently for at least 14 days. Approved and nonapproved indications of second-generation antipsychotics influenced concurrent use in pediatric ADHD.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Allingham, Liesl. (2015). Gender and Narrative Crisis in Christoph Martin Wieland’s “Novella without a Title”. Eighteenth Century-Theory and Interpretation, 56(4), 427-444.

Languages, Linguistics and Philosophy Department.

Tsai, Tzong-Ru, Wen-Yun Sung, Y. L. Lio, Shing I. Chang, & Jye-Chyi Lu. (2016). Optimal Two-Variable Accelerated Degradation Test Plan for Gamma Degradation Processes. IEEE Transactions on Reliability, 65(1), 459-468.

An accelerated degradation test (ADT) can be used to assess the reliability of highly reliable products by using degradation information. In this study, to exhibit a monotone increasing pattern, the gamma process is used to model the degradation of a product subject to a constant-stress ADT of two loadings. Maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of the parameters of the ADT model were obtained. Given a budget for the total cost, an optimal ADT procedure was established to minimize the asymptotic variance of the MLE of the mean time to failure of a product, and the sample size and termination time of each run of the ADT at a constant measurement frequency were determined. An algorithm is provided to achieve an optimal ADT plan. An extensive Monte Carlo simulation was implemented to evaluate the sensitivity of the MLE variations to the sample size. A lumen degradation data set of light emitting diodes is presented to illustrate the proposed method.

Mathematics Department.

Hersrud, Samantha L., Ryan D. Geraets, K. L. Weber, C. H. Chan, & David A. Pearce. (2016). Plasma biomarkers for neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Febs Journal, 283(3), 459-471.

The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a group of neurodegenerative genetic diseases that primarily affect children and have no known cure. A unified clinical rating scale for the juvenile form of NCL has been developed, although it has not been validated in other subtypes and does not give a true measure of the pathophysiological changes occurring during disease progression. In the present study, we have identified candidate biomarkers in blood plasma of NCL disease using multiple proteomic approaches, with the aim of developing a panel of biomarkers that could serve as a metric for therapeutic response. Candidate biomarkers were identified as proteins with levels that significantly differed between patients and controls in both sample sets. The seven candidates identified have previously been associated with neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases. Multiplex immunoassay based testing was the most efficient and effective evaluation technique and could be employed on a broad scale to track patient response to treatment.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Wang, Keliang, Yuhe Cao, Xiaomin Wang, …., James D. Hoefelmeyer, & Qihua Fan. (2016). Rod-shape porous carbon derived from aniline modified lignin for symmetric supercapacitors. Journal of Power Sources, 307, 462-467.

Rod-shape porous carbon was prepared from aniline modified lignin via KOH activation and used as electrode materials for supercapacitors. The specific surface area, pore size and shape could be modulated by the carbonization temperature, which significantly affected the electrochemical performance. Unique rod-shape carbon with massive pores and a high BET surface area of 2265 m 2 g −1 were obtained at 700 °C in contrast to irregular morphology created at other carbonization temperatures. In 6 mol L −1 KOH electrolyte, a specific capacitance of 336 F g −1 , small resistance of 0.9 Ω and stable charge/discharge at current density of 1 A g −1 after 1, 000 cycles were achieved using rod-shape porous carbon as electrodes in an electrical double layer capacitor.

Chemistry Department.

Roh, Soonhee, Y. S. Lee, Y. Kim, S. Y. Park, & A. Chaudhuri. (2015). Gender Differences in the Roles of Religious Support and Social Network Support in Reducing Depressive Symptoms Among Older Korean Americans. Journal of Social Service Research, 41(4), 484-497.

This study examined gender differences in the interaction effects of religious support and social network support on depressive symptoms among older Korean Americans. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 85 Korean American women and 115 Korean American men aged 65 years or older living in New York City. A 2-step hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that the associations between religious support, social network support, and depressive symptoms were different for older Korean men and women. Among men, social network support was identified as a strong predictor for depressive symptoms. Conversely, religious support was identified as a predictor for depressive symptoms among women. The interaction between social network support and religious support was found to be statistically significant only for women. Additionally, the association of social networks with fewer depressive symptoms was stronger for women with high religious support. Our findings highlight the importance of gender differences in understanding psychological effects of social network support within a religious-cultural context and the need for geriatric practitioners to assess carefully the quality and types of social support systems. Further studies are needed to identify common and gender-specific risk/protective factors among older Korean Americans to develop gender-targeted preventions and interventions to improve their psychological well-being.

School of Health Sciences.

Raisanen, Samuel R., & Kathryn F. Birkeland. (2016). State appropriations and undergraduate borrowing: more debt, less money. Applied Economics Letters, 23(8), 566-570.

When state appropriations decrease, public universities respond by raising tuition. Students borrow more in response to both tuition increases and appropriation cuts. This article investigates the feedback of how borrowing and tuition influence state appropriations. Using a panel data set of 450 four-year public universities from 1999 to 2012, we employ three-stage least squares techniques to control for the endogeneity between state appropriations, tuition and student borrowing. There is evidence that state policy-makers respond to increases in university tuition and student borrowing by decreasing future appropriation levels. After controlling for the effect of appropriations on tuition and borrowing, a one-dollar increase in student borrowing reduces state appropriations per student by $0.06, and a one-dollar increase in tuition results in a decrease of $0.45 in state appropriations per student. When universities increase tuition for reasons other than a reduction in state appropriations, policy-makers respond with a significant cut in future appropriations which could signal an incentive strategy.

Beacom School of Business.

Sterczala, A. J., W. H. DuPont, Brent A. Comstock, S. D. Flanagan, T. K. Szivak, D. R. Hooper, . . . W. J. Kraemer. (2016). PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF NUCLEOTIDE SUPPLEMENTATION ON RESISTANCE EXERCISE STRESS IN MEN AND WOMEN. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(2), 569-578.

School of Education.

Ghimire, Niranjan, Brent L. Foss, Y. Y. Sun, & Ying Deng. (2016). Interactions among osteoblastic cells, Staphylococcus aureus, and chitosan-immobilized titanium implants in a postoperative coculture system: An in vitro study. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 104(3), 586-594.

Biomaterial-related infections (BRIs) have become a major challenge in the field of orthopedic implants. In this study, we delved into the problem of BRI and attempted to reduce the possibility of BRI incidence via surface modification of titanium (Ti) with chitosan (SA-CS-Ti). To comprehensively evaluate the anti-infection potential of SA-CS-Ti, we first constructed a postoperative infection (POI) model with varying concentrations of bacteria (10(2)CFU/sample and 10(4)CFU/sample) and a constant number of SaOS-2 cells (10(5)/sample). Then, we biologically characterized the interactions between the SaOS-2 cells, bacteria, and different Ti implants using the POI model. The results from the osteoblastic cell and bacterial attachment tests demonstrated that the SA-CS-Ti surfaces exhibit superior osteogenic behavior relative to other Ti surfaces studied while showing significant anti-infective activities in the POI model with a low infection ratio (bacteria: cell ratio of 0.001:1) 30min after infection. Additionally, the SA-CS-Ti surfaces showed significantly reduced (p<0.05) bacteria proliferation compared to the control Ti surfaces (UN-Ti), demonstrating their antifouling property. The significantly increased (p<0.05) sensitivity of Staphylococcus. aureus adhered to the SA-CS-Ti surfaces against cefazolin (1mg/L treatment) and gentamicin (10mg/L and 100mg/L treatment) in the coculture system augmented potential of SA-CS-Ti to be used as orthopedic implants. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 586-594, 2016.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

Dietzel, Ranae, Matt Liebman, …., Meghann Jarchow, & Sotirios Archontoulis. (2016). How efficiently do corn- and soybean-based cropping systems use water? A systems modeling analysis. Global Change Biology, 22(2), 666-681.

Agricultural systems are being challenged to decrease water use and increase production while climate becomes more variable and the world’s population grows. Low water use efficiency is traditionally characterized by high water use relative to low grain production and usually occurs under dry conditions. However, when a cropping system fails to take advantage of available water during wet conditions, this is also an inefficiency and is often detrimental to the environment. Here, we provide a systems-level definition of water use efficiency ( sWUE) that addresses both production and environmental quality goals through incorporating all major system water losses (evapotranspiration, drainage, and runoff). We extensively calibrated and tested the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator ( APSIM) using 6 years of continuous crop and soil measurements in corn- and soybean-based cropping systems in central Iowa, USA. We then used the model to determine water use, loss, and grain production in each system and calculated sWUE in years that experienced drought, flood, or historically average precipitation. Systems water use efficiency was found to be greatest during years with average precipitation. Simulation analysis using 28 years of historical precipitation data, plus the same dataset with ± 15% variation in daily precipitation, showed that in this region, 430 mm of seasonal (planting to harvesting) rainfall resulted in the optimum sWUE for corn, and 317 mm for soybean. Above these precipitation levels, the corn and soybean yields did not increase further, but the water loss from the system via runoff and drainage increased substantially, leading to a high likelihood of soil, nutrient, and pesticide movement from the field to waterways. As the Midwestern United States is predicted to experience more frequent drought and flood, inefficiency of cropping systems water use will also increase. This work provides a framework to concurrently evaluate production and environmental performance of cropping systems.

Biology Department.

Viboud, Cécile, Lone Simonsen, Rodrigo Fuentes, Jose Flores, Mark A. Miller, & Gerardo Chowell. (2016). Global Mortality Impact of the 1957-1959 Influenza Pandemic. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 213(5), 738-745.

<bold>Background: </bold>Quantitative estimates of the global burden of the 1957 influenza pandemic are lacking. Here we fill this gap by modeling historical mortality statistics.<bold>Methods: </bold>We used annual rates of age- and cause-specific deaths to estimate pandemic-related mortality in excess of background levels in 39 countries in Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, and the Americas. We modeled the relationship between excess mortality and development indicators to extrapolate the global burden of the pandemic.<bold>Results: </bold>The pandemic-associated excess respiratory mortality rate was 1.9/10 000 population (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.6 cases/10 000 population) on average during 1957-1959. Excess mortality rates varied 70-fold across countries; Europe and Latin America experienced the lowest and highest rates, respectively. Excess mortality was delayed by 1-2 years in 18 countries (46%). Increases in the mortality rate relative to baseline were greatest in school-aged children and young adults, with no evidence that elderly population was spared from excess mortality. Development indicators were moderate predictors of excess mortality, explaining 35%-77% of the variance. Overall, we attribute 1.1 million excess deaths (95% CI, .7 million-1.5 million excess deaths) globally to the 1957-1959 pandemic.<bold>Conclusions: </bold>The global mortality rate of the 1957-1959 influenza pandemic was moderate relative to that of the 1918 pandemic but was approximately 10-fold greater than that of the 2009 pandemic. The impact of the pandemic on mortality was delayed in several countries, pointing to a window of opportunity for vaccination in a future pandemic.

Mathematics Department.

Rasalingama, Shivatharsiny, & Ranjit T. Koodali. (2016). Visible-light driven oxygen evolution over CoTiO3 perovskites via a modified Pechini method: impact of humidity on their phase composition. Crystengcomm, 18(6), 868-871.

A set of CoTiO3 materials were synthesized using a modified Pechini method under different relative humidity conditions. Humidity alters the structural composition of the final materials via changing the coordination and/or oxidation state of the cobalt ion (Co2+) in the precursor solution. The amount of CoTiO3 present in the composite material was found to be the key factor for the variation in the amount of oxygen evolved.

Chemistry Department.

Ghosh, Suvankar, & O. Felix Offodile. (2016). A real options model of phased migration to cellular manufacturing. International Journal of Production Research, 54(3), 894-906.

The literature is replete with models that examine various aspects of cellular manufacturing (CM), such as optimisation of cell layouts. However, many firms may realise zero to marginal returns from CM. Given this uncertainty, the manager should first determine the value of CM to the firm before deploying it. Although traditional valuation models employing discounted cash flow analysis allow for uncertainty, they treat future investments as fixed when computing the investment’s present value. The real options (RO) logic of valuation allows the manager to exercise the option to invest in or abandon a project based on expected outcomes. Future investments are thus options. This paper presents an RO model for CM migration that addresses whether a firm should migrate to CM; and it prescribes thesequenceof cell deployment, which has not been addressed in the literature. Our model is also much more transparent and accessible to practitioners, with an accompanying software tool for prospective users. Finally, we use simulation extensively to discover the drivers of the optimal cell deployment sequence. Our results show that there is a complex interplay between net present value, speed of cellularisation, inter-cell learning and volatility in terms of their influence on the cell sequence.

Beacom School of Business.

Son, Jung Ho, Sem Raj Tamang, & James D. Hoefelmeyer. (2015). Crystal structure of bis(3-bromomesityl)(quinolin-1-ium-8-yl) boron(III) tribromide. Acta Crystallographica Section E-Crystallographic Communications, 71, 1114-+.

The title compound, C27H26.82BBr2.18N+center dot Br-3(-), is a cationic triarylborane isolated as its tribromide salt. The aryl substituents include a protonated 8-quinolyl group and two 3-bromomesityl groups. The molecule was prepared on combination of 3: 1 Br-2 and dimesityl(quinolin-8-yl) borane in hexanes. The refinement of the structure indicated a degree of ‘over-bromination’ (beyond two bromine atoms) for the cation. There are two tribromide ions in the asymmetric unit, both completed by crystallographic inversion symmetry.

Chemistry Department.

Miller, Ross A., D. R. Mody, Kimberly C. Tams, & M. J. Thrall. (2015). Glandular Lesions of the Cervix in Clinical Practice A Cytology, Histology, and Human Papillomavirus Correlation Study From 2 Institutions. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 139(11), 1431-1436.

Context.-The Papanicolaou (Pap) test has indisputably decreased cervical cancer mortality, as rates have declined by up to 80% in the United States since its implementation. However, the Pap test is considered less sensitive for detecting glandular lesions than for detecting those of squamous origin. Some studies have even suggested an increasing incidence of cervical adenocarcinoma, which may be a consequence of a relatively reduced ability to detect glandular lesions with cervical cancer screening techniques. Objective.-To evaluate the detection rate of glandular lesions with screening techniques currently used for cervical cancer screening and to provide insight as to which techniques are most efficacious in our study population. Design.-We retrospectively reviewed any available cytology, human papillomavirus (HPV), and histologic malignancy data in patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma in situ and adenocarcinoma from 2 geographically and socioeconomically disparate hospital systems. Identified patients having had a negative/unsatisfactory Pap test within 5 years of adenocarcinoma in situ or adenocarcinoma tissue diagnosis were considered Pap test screening failures. Patients with negative HPV tests on cytology samples were considered HPV screening failures. Results.-One hundred thirty cases were identified (age range, 22-93 years); 39 (30%) had no Pap history in our files. Eight of 91 remaining cases (8.8%) were screening failures. The detected sensitivity for identifying adenocarcinoma in situ/adenocarcinoma in this study was 91.2% by cytology alone and 92.3% when incorporating HPV testing. The most common cytologic diagnosis was atypical glandular cells (25 cases), and those diagnosed with adenocarcinoma were 7.4 years older than those diagnosed with adenocarcinoma in situ (50.3 versus 42.9 years). Nine of 24 HPV-tested cases (37.5%) were called atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance on cytology. Conclusions.-Our results highlight the importance of combined Pap and HPV cotesting. Although the number of cases identified is relatively small, our data suggest screening for squamous lesions facilitates the recognition of glandular lesions in the cervix. Additionally, increased use of combined Pap and HPV cotesting may decrease detection failure rates with regard to glandular lesions.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Xu, Tao, J. M. Miszuk, Yong Zhao, H. L. Sun, & Hao Fong. (2015). Electrospun Polycaprolactone 3D Nanofibrous Scaffold with Interconnected and Hierarchically Structured Pores for Bone Tissue Engineering. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 4(15), 2238-2246.

For the first time, electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) 3D nanofibrous scaffold has been developed by an innovative and convenient approach (i.e., thermally induced nanofiber self-agglomeration followed by freeze drying), and the scaffold possesses interconnected and hierarchically structured pores including macropores with sizes up to approximate to 300 mu m. The novel PCL 3D scaffold is soft and elastic with very high porosity of approximate to 96.4%, thus it is morphologically/structurally similar to natural extracellular matrix and well suited for cell functions and tissue formation. The in vitro studies reveal that the scaffold can lead to high cell viability; more importantly, it is able to promote more potent BMP2-induced chondrogenic than osteogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Consistent to the in vitro findings, the in vivo results indicate that the electrospun PCL 3D scaffold acts as a favorable synthetic extracellular matrix for functional bone regeneration through the physiological endochondral ossification process.

Biomedical Engineering Department, Sioux Falls Campus.

Gawecka, J. E., S. Boaz, K. Kasperson, H. Nguyen, Donald P. Evenson, & W. S. Ward. (2015). Luminal fluid of epididymis and vas deferens contributes to sperm chromatin fragmentation. Human Reproduction, 30(12), 2725-2736.

STUDY QUESTION: Do the luminal fluids of the epididymis and the vas deferens contribute to sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF) in mice? SUMMARY ANSWER: The luminal fluids of both organs are required for activating SCF in mice, but the vas deferens luminal fluid does this more efficiently than that of the epididymis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Mice sperm have the ability to degrade their DNA in an apoptotic-like fashion when treated with divalent cations in a process termed SCF. SCF has two steps: the induction of reversible double-strand DNA breaks at the nuclear matrix attachment sites, followed by the irreversible degradation of DNA by nuclease. Single stranded DNA breaks accompany SCF. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Luminal fluids from two reproductive organs of the mouse (B6D2F1 strain), the epididymis and vas deferens, were extracted and tested for SCF activation with divalent cations using four different combinations of the sperm and the surrounding luminal fluids: (i) in situ-sperm were kept in their luminal fluid and activated directly; (ii) reconstituted-sperm were centrifuged and resuspended in their luminal fluid before SCF activation; (iii) mixed-sperm were centrifuged and resuspended in the luminal fluid of the other organ; (iv) no luminal fluid-sperm were centrifuged and reconstituted in buffer. All four experiments were performed without (controls) and with divalent cations (resulting in SCF). For each experimental condition, two different mice were used and the analyses averaged. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: DNA damage by SCF was analyzed by three different methods, the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis and field inversion gel electrophoresis. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: In all three assays that we used, the vas deferens luminal fluid was much more efficient in stimulating SCF in the sperm from either source than that of the epididymis (P < 0.0001). Vas deferens sperm were capable of initiating lower levels of SCF in the absence of luminal fluid (P < 0.0001). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Analyses were performed in only one species, the mouse, but we used three separate assays in our analysis. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The data suggest that the luminal fluid of the male reproductive tract interacts with sperm during their transit providing a mechanism to degrade the DNA. We hypothesize that this is part of an apoptotic-like mechanism that allows the reproductive tract to eliminate defective sperm. The SCF model also allowed us to identify differences in the types of DNA lesions that the three tests can identify, providing important background information for the use of these tests clinically.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Huang, H. B., Y. N. Liao, N. N. Liu, …., Xuejun Wang, & J. B. Liu. (2016). Two clinical drugs deubiquitinase inhibitor auranofin and aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor disulfiram trigger synergistic anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo. Oncotarget, 7(3), 2796-2808.

Inhibition of proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (DUBs) is emerging as a novel strategy for cancer therapy. It was recently reported that auranofin (Aur), a gold (I)-containing compound used clinically to treat rheumatoid arthritis, is a proteasome-associated DUB inhibitor. Disulfiram (DSF), an inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase, is currently in clinical use for treating alcoholism. Recent studies have indicated that DSF can also act as an antitumor agent. We investigated the effect of combining DSF and Aur on apoptosis induction and tumor growth in hepatoma cancer cells. Here we report that (i) the combined treatment of Aur and DSF results in synergistic cytotoxicity to hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo; (ii) Aur and DSF in combination induces caspase activation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; (iii) pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK could efficiently block apoptosis but not proteasome inhibition induced by Aur and DSF combined treatment, and ROS is not required for Aur+DSF to induce apoptosis. Collectively, we demonstrate a model of synergism between DSF and proteasomeassociated DUB inhibitor Aur in the induction of apoptosis in hepatoma cancer cells, identifying a potential novel anticancer strategy for clinical use in the future.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Han, Yulun, Qingguo Meng, Bakhtiyor Rasulev, P. Stanley May, Mary T. Berry, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2015). Photofragmentation of the Gas-Phase Lanthanum Isopropylcyclopentadienyl Complex: Computational Modeling vs Experiment. Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 119(44), 10838-10848.

Photofragmentation of the lanthanum isopropylcyclopentadienyl complex, La(iCp), was explored through time-dependent excited-state molecular dynamics (TDESMD), excited-state molecular dynamics (ESMD), and thermal molecular dynamics (MD). Simulated mass spectra were extracted from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations through a new and simple method and compared to experimental photoionization time-of-flight (PI-TOF) mass spectra. The computational results indicate that the value of excitation energy and mechanism of excitation determine the dissociation process.

Chemistry Department.

Alaparthi, Madhubabu, Kadarkaraisamy Mariappan, E. Dufek, Mariah Hoffman, & Andrew G. Sykes. (2016). A new detection mechanism involving keto-enol tautomerization: selective fluorescence detection of Al(III) by dehydration of secondary alcohols in mixed DMSO/aqueous media. Rsc Advances, 6(14), 11295-11302.

A newmechanismfor the fluorescence detection of metal cations in solution is introduced involving a unique keto-enol tautomerization. Reduction of 1,8-anthraquinone-18-crown-5 yields the doubly reduced secondary alcohol, 2. Compound 2 acts as a chemodosimeter for Al(III) ions producing a strong blue emission due to the formation of the anthracene fluorophore, 3, via dehydration of the internal secondary alcohol in DMSO/aqueous solution. The enol form is not the most thermodynamically stable form under these conditions however and slowly converts to the keto form 4. Reduction of 1 with Fe/AcOH or the reaction of 2 with HCl directly yields compound 4, the keto tautomer of 3, which also produces the same blue emission in more polar solvents. Competition studies reveal that compound 2 produces a blue emission exclusively in the presence of the strong Lewis acidic Al(III) ion and at relatively low pH.

Chemistry Department.

Tamang, Sem Raj, & James D. Hoefelmeyer. (2015). Chloro({2- mesityl(quinolin-8-yl-kappa N)boryl -3,5-dimethyl-phenyl}methyl-kappa C)palladium(II) as a Catalyst for Heck Reactions. Molecules, 20(7), 12979-12991.

We recently reported an air and moisture stable 16-electron borapalladacycle formed upon combination of 8-quinolyldimesitylborane with bis(benzonitrile) dichloropalladium(II). The complex features a tucked mesityl group formed upon metalation of an ortho-methyl group on a mesityl; however it is unusually stable due to contribution of the boron p(z) orbital in delocalizing the carbanion that gives rise to an eta(4)-boratabutadiene fragment coordinated to Pd(II), as evidenced from crystallographic data. This complex was observed to be a highly active catalyst for the Heck reaction. Data of the catalyst activity are presented alongside data found in the literature, and initial comparison reveals that the borapalladacycle is quite active. The observed catalysis suggests the borapalladacycle readily undergoes reductive elimination; however the Pd(0) complex has not yet been isolated. Nevertheless, the ambiphilic ligand 8-quinolyldimesitylborane may be able to support palladium in different redox states.

Chemistry Department.

Onserio, Bernard O., Sem Raj Tamang, & James D. Hoefelmeyer. (2015). Crystal structure of 8-iodoquinolinium tetrachloridoaurate(III). Acta Crystallographica Section E-Crystallographic Communications, 71, M261-+.

The structure of the title salt, (C9H7IN)[AuCl4], is comprised of planar 8-iodoquinolinium cations (r.m.s. deviation = 0.05 angstrom) and square -planar tetrachloridoaurate(III) anions. The asymmetric unit contains one 8-iodoquinolinium cation and two halfs of [AuCl4](-) anions, in each case with the central Au-III atom located on an inversion center. Intermolecular halogen-halogen contacts were found between centrosymmetric pairs of I [3.6178 (4) angstrom] and Cl atoms [3.1484 (11), 3.3762 (13), and 3.4935 (12) angstrom]. Intermolecular N-H center dot center dot center dot Cl and C-H center dot center dot center dot Cl hydrogen bonding is also found in the structure. These interactions lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network. Additionally, there is an intramolecular N-H center dot center dot center dot I hydrogen bond between the aromatic iminium and iodine. There are no aurophilic interactions or short contacts between I and Au atoms, and there are no notable pi-stacking interactions between the aromatic cations.

Chemistry Department.

Maisto, S. A., & Jeffrey S. Simons. (2016). Research on the Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Arousal on Sexual Risk in Men who have Sex with Men: Implications for HIV Prevention Interventions. Aids and Behavior, 20, S158-S172.

The purpose of this paper was to describe and appraise the research evidence on the effects of acute alcohol intoxication and sexual arousal on sexual risk behaviors in men who have sex with men (MSM) and to examine its implications for design of HIV prevention interventions that target MSM. Toward that end, the paper begins with a discussion of research on sexual arousal in men and alcohol and their acute effects on sexual behaviors. This is followed by a review of empirical evidence on the combined acute effects of alcohol and sexual arousal in heterosexual men (the large majority of studies) and then in MSM. The empirical evidence and related theoretical developments then are integrated to derive implications for developing effective HIV prevention interventions that target MSM.

Psychology Department.

Hofman, Nicole L., Austin M. Hahn, Christine K. Tirabassi, & Raluca M. Gaher. (2016). Social support, emotional intelligence, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: A mediation analysis. Journal of Individual Differences, 37(1), 31-39.

Exposure to traumatic events and the associated risk of developing Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms is a significant and overlooked concern in the college population. It is important for current research to identify potential protective factors associated with the development and maintenance of PTSD symptoms unique to this population. Emotional intelligence and perceived social support are two identified protective factors that influence the association between exposure to traumatic events and PTSD symptomology. The current study examined the mediating role of social support in the relationship between emotional intelligence and PTSD symptoms. Participants included 443 trauma-exposed university students who completed online questionnaires. The results of this study indicated that social support mediates the relationship between emotional intelligence and reported PTSD symptoms. Thus, emotional intelligence is significantly associated with PTSD symptoms and social support may play an integral role in the relationship between emotional intelligence and PTSD. The current study is the first to investigate the role of social support in the relationship between emotional intelligence and PTSD symptoms. These findings have important treatment and prevention implications with regard to PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Messler, Erick C., Aaron A. Lee, Randal P. Quevillon, & Raluca M. Simons. (2016). Parents do matter, but why? Examining two mediators of the association between parental approval and negative consequences of alcohol use. Journal of Substance Use, 21(2), 179-184.

College student drinking is a public health concern with potentially serious consequences. A growing body of literature indicates perceived parental approval of alcohol use is associated with drinking outcomes in college populations, and that parent-based interventions may be a viable way to reduce alcohol use on campus. However, researchers have not yet identified the mechanism responsible for this relationship. In this study, a path model was used to look at the relationship between perceived parental approval of drinking and negative consequences of alcohol use among undergraduate students (N = 632) via two mechanisms: perceived friends’ approval of drinking and perceived parental monitoring. The path model specified in this study indicated that perceived parental approval of drinking is associated with negative consequences of alcohol use, and that this effect is not fully attributed to perceived parental monitoring, injunctive norms of friends, gender or weekly alcohol consumption. As hypothesized, perceived friends’ approval of drinking partially mediated the relationship between perceived parental approval of drinking and negative consequences of alcohol use. Contrary to hypothesis, the path model did not provide support to the mediating role of perceived parental monitoring. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Roh, Soonhee, Youseung Kim, Kyoung Hag Lee, Yeon-Shim Lee, Catherine E. Burnette, & Michael J. Lawler. (2015). Religion, social support, and life satisfaction among American Indian older adults. Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought, 34(4), 414-434.

This study examined the associations among religion, social support, and life satisfaction with 233 older American Indians in the Northern Plains region. Hierarchical regression indicated that those with higher religiousness and greater social support were found to have greater life satisfaction. Findings suggest that religion and social support provide promising pathways to build upon existing strengths to ameliorate mental health disparities. Health professionals must be sensitive to the complexities of religion and social support, and consider ways to incorporate cultural practices into health education and interventions to promote the quality of life for older American Indians. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

School of Health Sciences.

Posted by: reganenosusd | February 22, 2016

February 2016

Puumala, Susan E., & H. Eugene Hoyme. (2015). Epigenetics in Pediatrics. Pediatrics in Review, 36(1), 14-21.

Epigenetic mechanisms are external modifications of DNA that cause changes in gene function and are involved in many diseases. Specific examples of pediatric diseases with a known or suspected epigenetic component include Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, childhood leukemia, allergies, asthma, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, childhood obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Currently, epigenetically active treatments are being used to treat childhood leukemia. Potential epigenetically active treatments and preventive regimens are under study for other diseases. Pediatricians need to be aware of the epigenetic basis of disease to help inform clinical decision making in the future.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Munes, E. C., Mark D. Dixon, David L. Swanson, C. L. Merkord, & A. R. Benson. (2015). Large, infrequent disturbance on a regulated river: response of floodplain forest birds to the 2011 Missouri River flood. Ecosphere, 6(11), 19.

Floodplain forests are dynamic habitats that support a high diversity and abundance of birds. Periodic flood disturbance is important in the establishment and maintenance of the heterogeneous mosaic of vegetation communities across the riverine landscape. Human suppression of disturbance regimes has been implicated in the decline of bird species in these systems. Because few large rivers are not subject to flood control by dams and levees, opportunities to study avian responses to flood disturbance are limited. A large magnitude, long-duration flood event on the Missouri River, USA, during the summer of 2011 provided an opportunity to quantify post-flood changes in forest bird densities and species richness relative to pre-flood conditions on a riverine floodplain impacted by decades of flow regulation. We surveyed 75 forest sites on two segments of remnant floodplain forest along the Missouri National Recreational River (MNRR) in southeastern South Dakota and northeastern Nebraska and examined changes in density for 35 breeding landbird species from pre-flood (2009-2010) to post-flood (2012-2014) periods. We used a repeated measures ANOVA design to test the effects of year on average densities of birds and nesting guilds and confidence intervals to determine changes in densities of individual species and species richness. 19 of 35 focal species declined significantly one year after the flood (2012), but abundances of ten species recovered to pre-flood densities or higher within two years. In 2012, density declines of six species and density increases of two species were significantly correlated with a decrease in woody vegetation density and percent shrub cover. Average bird densities and the density of shrub nesters rebounded in 2013 to pre-flood levels and continued to increase through 2014. There were no significant changes in species richness at the level of forest habitat types between sampling years. Our results demonstrate short-term resilience of floodplain bird species to a major disturbance despite declines in early successional habitat and minimal recovery of woody vegetation.

Biology Department.

Simons, Jeffrey S., S. A. Maisto, Tyler B. Wray, & Noah N. Emery. (2016). Acute Effects of Intoxication and Arousal on Approach/Avoidance Biases Toward Sexual Risk Stimuli in Heterosexual Men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(1), 43-51.

This study tested the effects of alcohol intoxication and physiological arousal on cognitive biases toward erotic stimuli and condoms. Ninety-seven heterosexual men were randomized to 1 of 6 independent conditions in a 2 (high arousal or control) x 3 (alcohol target BAC = 0.08, placebo, or juice control) design and then completed a variant of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT). The AAT assessed reaction times toward approaching and avoiding erotic stimuli and condoms with a joystick. Consistent with hypotheses, the alcohol condition exhibited an approach bias toward erotic stimuli, whereas the control and placebo groups exhibited an approach bias toward condom stimuli. Similarly, the participants in the high arousal condition exhibited an approach bias toward erotic stimuli and the low arousal control condition exhibited an approach bias toward condoms. The results suggest that acute changes in intoxication and physiological arousal independently foster biased responding toward sexual stimuli and these biases are associated with sexual risk intentions.

Psychology Department.

Hahn, Austin M., Raluca M. Simons, & Jeffrey S. Simons. (2016). Childhood Maltreatment and Sexual Risk Taking: The Mediating Role of Alexithymia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(1), 53-62.

Childhood maltreatment is a significant predictor of sexual risk taking. The nature of this relationship is not fully understood; however, emotion dysregulation may play an important role. We tested the role of difficulty identifying and describing feelings (i.e., alexithymia) on the relationship between childhood maltreatment and sexual risk taking. Specifically, we hypothesized two mechanisms, one in which alexithymia is related to sexual risk taking via negative urgency and alcohol use and a second one in which alexithymia is related to sexual risk taking via neediness. The participants for this study were 425 sexually active college undergraduates (303 females, 122 males) between the ages of 18 and 25 years. The results of a structural equation model indicated that alexithymia accounted for a significant part of the relationship between child maltreatment and sexual risk behavior. Moreover, the relationship between alexithymia and sexual risk taking was fully accounted for by two separate paths. First, negative urgency and subsequent alcohol use partially mediated the relationship, and the second effect was accounted for by needy interpersonal style. Adverse experiences during childhood can impair emotional functioning and contribute to behavioral and interpersonal dysregulation.

Psychology Department.

Heap, S. P. H., A. Ramalingam, S. Ramalingam, & Brock V. Stoddard. (2015). ‘Doggedness’ or ‘disengagement’? An experiment on the effect of inequality in endowment on behaviour in team competitions. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 120, 80-93.

Teams often suffer from a free rider problem with respect to individual contributions. That putting teams into competition with each other can mitigate this problem is an important recent insight. However, we know little about how inequality in endowment between teams might influence this beneficial effect from competition. We address this question with an experiment where teams contribute to a public good that then determines their chances of winning a Tullock contest with another team. The boost to efforts from competition disappears when inequality is high. This is mainly because the ‘rich’ disengage’: they make no more contribution to a public good than they would when there is no competition. There is evidence that the ‘poor’ respond to moderate inequality ‘doggedly’, by expending more effort compared to competition with equality, but this ‘doggedness’ disappears too when inequality is high. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Beacom School of Business.

Horowitz, R., Stephen J. Cico, & J. Bailitz. (2016). POINT-OF-CARE ULTRASOUND: A NEW TOOL FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF GASTRIC FOREIGN BODIES IN CHILDREN? Journal of Emergency Medicine, 50(1), 99-103.

Background: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has been used to identify ingested gastric foreign bodies. Our aim was to describe the sonographic findings of radiopaque and radiolucent gastric foreign bodies (FBs) in children. Case Report: Three children ingested different FBs. Two were confirmed with standard radiographs, one was not identified radiographically but was passed in the stool. All three objects were initially found in the stomach using POCUS. Why Should An Emergency Physician Be Aware of This?: With increased training and comfort, emergency physicians may begin to use POCUS for identification and monitoring of ingested FBs in the pediatric population. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Hivrale, V., Y. Zheng, C. O. R. Puli, …., Abdelali Barakat, & R. Sunkar. (2016). Characterization of drought- and heat-responsive microRNAs in switchgrass. Plant Science, 242, 214-223.

Recent investigations revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in plant acclimation to stress conditions. Switchgrass, one of the important biofuel crop species can withstand hot and dry climates but the molecular basis of stress tolerance is relatively unknown. To identify miRNAs that are important for tolerating drought or heat, small RNAs were profiled in leaves of adult plants exposed to drought or heat. Sequence analysis enabled the identification of 29 conserved and 62 novel miRNA families. Notably, the abundances of several conserved and novel miRNAs were dramatically altered following drought or heat. Using at least one fold (log2) change as cut off, we observed that 13 conserved miRNA families were differentially regulated by both stresses, and, five and four families were specifically regulated by drought and heat, respectively. Similarly, using a more stringent cut off of two fold (log2) regulation, we found 5 and 16 novel miRNA families were upregulated but 6 and 7 families were downregulated under drought and heat, respectively. The stress-altered expression of a subset of miRNAs and their targets was confirmed using quantitative PCR. Overall, the switchgrass plants exposed to drought or heat revealed similarities as well as differences with respect to miRNA regulation, which could be important for enduring different stress conditions. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Biology Department.

O’Brien, L., Kathleen M. Eyster, & Keith A. Hansen. (2015). Retained Foreign Body: “Needle in a Haystack”. Journal of Patient Safety, 11(4), 228-229.

Retained foreign bodies remain an area of potential patient harm. This case describes a retained needle from distant surgery discovered at the time of the needle count after myomectomy.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Anderson, Jordan A., Sujan Lamichhane, T. Remund, P. Kelly, & Gopinath Mani. (2016). Preparation, characterization, in vitro drug release, and cellular interactions of tailored paclitaxel releasing polyethylene oxide films for drug-coated balloons. Acta Biomaterialia, 29, 333-351.

Drug-coated balloons (DCBs) are used to treat various cardiovascular diseases. Currently available DCBs carry drug on the balloon surface either solely or using different carriers. Several studies have shown that a significant amount of drug is lost in the blood stream during balloon tracking to deliver only a sub-therapeutic level of drug at the treatment site. This research is focused on developing paclitaxel (PAT) loaded polyethylene oxide (PEO) films (PAT-PEO) as a controlled drug delivery carrier for DCBs. An array of PAT-PEO films were developed in this study to provide tailored release of >90% of drug only at specific time intervals, which is the time frame required for carrying out balloon-based therapy. The characterizations of PAT-PEO films using SEM, FTIR, and DSC showed that the films developed were homogenous and the PAT was molecularly dispersed in the PEO matrix. Mechanical tests showed that most PAT-PEO films developed were flexible and ductile, with yield and tensile strengths not affected after PAT incorporation. The viability, proliferation, morphology, and phenotype of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) interacted with control-PEO and PAT-PEO films were investigated. All control-PEO and PAT-PEO films showed a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of SMCs, with the degree of inhibition strongly dependent on the w/v% of the polymer used. The PAT-PEO coating was produced on the balloons. The integrity of PAT-PEO coating was well maintained without any mechanical defects occurring during balloon inflation or deflation. The drug release studies showed that only 15% of the total PAT loaded was released from the balloons within the initial 1 min (typical balloon tracking time), whereas 80% of the PAT was released between 1 min and 4 min (typical balloon treatment time). Thus, this study demonstrated the use of PEO as an alternate drug delivery system for the balloons. Statement of Significance Atherosclerosis is primarily responsible for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in millions of patients every year. Drug-coated balloons (DCBs) are commonly used to treat various CVDs. However, in several currently used DCBs, a significant amount of drug is lost in the blood stream during balloon tracking to deliver only a sub-therapeutic level of drug at the treatment site. In this study, paclitaxel containing polyethylene oxide (PEO) films were developed to provide unique advantages including drug release profiles specifically tailored for balloon-based therapy, homogeneous films with molecularly dispersed drug, flexible and ductile films, and exhibits significant inhibitory effect on smooth muscle cell growth. Thus, this study demonstrated the use of PEO as an alternate drug delivery platform for DCBs to improve its efficacy. (C) 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

Son, Jung-Ho, Sem Raj Tamang, J. C. Yarbrough, & James D. Hoefelmeyer. (2015). Hydrolysis of 8-(pinacolboranyl)quinoline: where is the 8-quinolylboronic acid? Zeitschrift Fur Naturforschung Section B-a Journal of Chemical Sciences, 70(11), 775-781.

The compound 8-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-quinoline was prepared and found to hydrolyze rapidly in air; however, the expected product (quinolin-8-yl) boronic acid was not observed. Instead, the (quinolinium-8-yl) trihydroxyborate zwitterion or an anhydride were observed depending on the conditions of hydrolysis. The two products are related to one another in the degree of hydration, and the two forms could be interconverted. Both hydrolysis products were structurally characterized. Additionally, a commercial sample of ‘8-quinolylboronic acid’ was actually found to be the anhydride. The results call into question whether monomeric (quinolin-8-yl)boronic acid can actually be isolated in the neutral Lewis base-free form.

Chemistry Department.

Wolin, E., J. White, James V. Pottala, M. Sasinowski, T. Dall, T. D. Dayspring, . . . William S. Harris. (2015). Comparison of cardiometabolic risk biomarkers from a national. clinical laboratory with the US adult population. Journal of Clinical Lipidology, 9(6), 817-823.

BACKGROUND: Clinical laboratory patient databases are an untapped source of valuable diagnostic and prognostic information. However, the lack of associated clinical and/or demographic information and questionable generalizability to nonpatient populations often limit utility of these data. OBJECTIVES: This study compared levels of cardiometabolic biomarkers between a national clinical laboratory patient cohort (Health Diagnostic Laboratory [HD Lab]) and the US population as inferred from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2011-2012). METHODS: Sample sizes for HD Lab ranged from 199,000 to 739,000 and for NHANES from 2200 to 5300. The latter were weighted to represent the adult US population (similar to 220 million). Descriptive statistics were compared for body mass index, 5 lipid biomarkers, and 3 glycemic biomarkers. RESULTS: Using age-and sex-matched data, mean biomarker values (mgkIL unless noted) and percent differences (%) for HD Lab vs NHANES were body mass index (kg/m(2)), 29.1 vs 28.6 (1.7%); total cholesterol, 185 vs 193 (-4.1%); apolipoprotein B, 92 vs 90 (2.2%); low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 107 vs 115 (-7%); high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 53 vs 53 (0%); triglycerides, 128 vs 127 (0.8%); glucose, 99 vs 108 (-8.3%); insulin (uU/mL), 13.7 vs 13.4 (2.2%); and hemoglobin Alc (%), 5.6 vs 5.8 (-3.4%). Although all differences were statistically significant, only low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and glucose differed by more than 5%. These may reflect a greater use of medications among HD Lab patients and/or preanalytical factors. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiometabolic risk markers from a national clinical laboratory were broadly similar to those of the US population; thus, with certain caveats, data from the former may be generalizable to the latter. (C) 2015 National Lipid Association. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Holt, R. R., S. J. Yim, Gregory C. Shearer, R. M. Hackman, D. Djurica, J. W. Newman, . . . C. L. Keen. (2015). Effects of short-term walnut consumption on human microvascular function and its relationship to plasma epoxide content. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 26(12), 1458-1466.

Improved vascular function after the incorporation of walnuts into controlled or high-fat diets has been reported; however, the mechanism(s) underlying this effect of walnuts is(are) poorly defined. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the acute and short-term effects of walnut intake on changes in microvascular function and the relationship of these effects to plasma epoxides, the cytochrome-P450-derived metabolites of fatty acids. Thirty-eight hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women were randomized to 4 weeks of 5 g or 40 g of daily walnut intake. All outcomes were measured after an overnight fast and 4 h after walnut intake. Microvascular function, assessed as the reactive hyperemia index (RHI), was the primary outcome measure, with serum lipids and plasma epoxides as secondary measures. Compared to 5 g of daily walnut intake, consuming 40 g/d of walnuts for 4 weeks increased the RHI and Framingham RHI. Total cholesterol and low- and high-density cholesterol did not significantly change after walnut intake. The change in RHI after 4 weeks of walnut intake was associated with the change in the sum of plasma epoxides (r=0.65, P=.002) but not with the change in the sum of plasma hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. Of the individual plasma epoxides, arachidonic-acid-derived 14(15)-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid was most strongly associated with the change in microvascular function (r=0.72, P<.001). These data support the concept that the intake of walnut-derived fatty acids can favorably affect plasma epoxide production, resulting in improved microvascular function. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Chiang, J. Y., Y. L. Lio, & T. R. Tsai. (2015). Degradation Tests Using Geometric Brownian Motion Process for Lumen Degradation Data. Quality and Reliability Engineering International, 31(8), 1797-1806.

Running a traditional life test over an affordable time period with highly reliable products is inefficient to collect the lifetime information of products even if the products are subject to higher stress conditions. This fact makes it difficult to infer the reliability of highly reliable products. The accelerated degradation test (ADT) method has been suggested as an alternative to infer the reliability of highly reliable product based on its degradation measurements. The current study is motivated by the statistical modeling of the lumen degradation date set of transistor outline can packaged light emitting diodes (LEDs). All degradation measurements were collected from an ADT, which was conducted with two stress loadings, the ambient temperature and drive current. To study the reliability of the LEDs under the ADT, the geometric Brownian motion process and generalized Eyring model are applied to estimate the distribution parameters and percentiles of the LEDs. Planning strategies of the sample size and measurement times for the proposed ADT are established to minimize the asymptotic variance of maximum-likelihood estimator of the lower 100pth percentile of LED lifetimes under the given budget. An algorithm is provided to reach the planning strategy. The guidelines of this study can be extended to infer the reliability of other highly reliable product besides LEDs. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Mathematics Department.

Xu, Tao, Jacob M. Miszuk, Yong Zhao, Hongli L. Sun, & Hao Fong. (2015). Electrospun Polycaprolactone 3D Nanofibrous Scaffold with Interconnected and Hierarchically Structured Pores for Bone Tissue Engineering. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 4(15), 2238-2246.

For the first time, electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) 3D nanofibrous scaffold has been developed by an innovative and convenient approach (i.e., thermally induced nanofiber self-agglomeration followed by freeze drying), and the scaffold possesses interconnected and hierarchically structured pores including macropores with sizes up to approximate to 300 mu m. The novel PCL 3D scaffold is soft and elastic with very high porosity of approximate to 96.4%, thus it is morphologically/structurally similar to natural extracellular matrix and well suited for cell functions and tissue formation. The in vitro studies reveal that the scaffold can lead to high cell viability; more importantly, it is able to promote more potent BMP2-induced chondrogenic than osteogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Consistent to the in vitro findings, the in vivo results indicate that the electrospun PCL 3D scaffold acts as a favorable synthetic extracellular matrix for functional bone regeneration through the physiological endochondral ossification process.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus

Han, Yulun L., Q. G. Meng, B. Rasulev, P. Stanley May, Mary T. Berry, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2015). Photofragmentation of the Gas-Phase Lanthanum Isopropylcyclopentadienyl Complex: Computational Modeling vs Experiment. Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 119(44), 10838-10848.

Photofragmentation of the lanthanum isopropylcyclopentadienyl complex, La(iCp), was explored through time-dependent excited-state molecular dynamics (TDESMD), excited-state molecular dynamics (ESMD), and thermal molecular dynamics (MD). Simulated mass spectra were extracted from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations through a new and simple method and compared to experimental photoionization time-of-flight (PI-TOF) mass spectra. The computational results indicate that the value of excitation energy and mechanism of excitation determine the dissociation process.

Chemistry Department.

Mahoney, Luther, Shivatharsiny Rasalingam, Chia-Ming Wu, & Ranjit T. Koodali. (2015). Nanocasting of Periodic Mesoporous Materials as an Effective Strategy to Prepare Mixed Phases of Titania. Molecules, 20(12), 21881-21895.

Mesoporous titanium dioxide materials were prepared using a nanocasting technique involving silica SBA-15 as the hard-template. At an optimal loading of titanium precursor, the hexagonal periodic array of pores in SBA-15 was retained. The phases of titanium dioxide could be easily varied by the number of impregnation cycles and the nature of titanium alkoxide employed. Low number of impregnation cycles produced mixed phases of anatase and TiO2(B). The mesoporous TiO2 materials were tested for solar hydrogen production, and the material consisting of 98% anatase and 2% TiO2(B) exhibited the highest yield of hydrogen from the photocatalytic splitting of water. The periodicity of the pores was an important factor that influenced the photocatalytic activity. This study indicates that mixed phases of titania containing ordered array of pores can be prepared by using the nanocasting strategy.

Chemistry

Vogel, Dayton J., & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2015). First-Principles Treatment of Photoluminescence in Semiconductors. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 119(50), 27954-27964.

A comparison of two first-principles methodologies, (1) molecular dynamics (MD) sampling and (2) time integration along progression of Subsequently occupied excited states for computing emission spectra of semiconductors at different levels of accuracy is presented. Photoluminescence (PL) linewidth broadening is calculated to account for the motion of ionic positions. (1) In the MD sampling method, excited state lifetimes are assumed to be very short due to quick cascade therrnalization, leading to intense PL peaks in semicondudtors at transition energies corresponding to the bandgap energy of the materials, according to Kasha’s rule. Nuclear motion is modeled via adiabatic MD within VASP software. During MD, electronic orbital energies fluctuate through time according to electron phonon coupling terms. A sampling of possible radiative transition energies along the MD trajectory contributes to PL line width nhomogeneous broadening up Optically allowed transitions along fluctuating transition energies found at each MD time step model the emission spectra. (2) In the time integration method, nonadiabatic dynamics of a photoexcitation provides details of cascade thermalization and allows description of several channels of emission from long-lived intermediate states, taking into account non-radiative pathways, providing possible exceptions from Kasha’s rule and demonstrating relatively small PL line broadening sigma(2), so that sigma(1) >> sigma(2). PL spectra calculated using different methods are applied to nanostructured TiO2 semiconducting materials in different quantum confinement regimes, showing optical gap. narrowing due to confinement. Ti(OH)(4), which is a precursor in TiO, synthesis, wet TiO2 (001) nanowite, (NW), and TiO, anatase thin film: models are presented and compared with experimental PL results. Computed time,integrated PL spectra for the TiO2 (001) NW accurately describe the relevant PL energy and, when used in conjunction with the MD sampling PL method, provide the realistic PL line width.

Chemistry Department.

Maisto, S. A., & Jeffrey S. Simons. (2016). Research on the Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Arousal on Sexual Risk in Men who have Sex with Men: Implications for HIV Prevention Interventions. Aids and Behavior, 20, S158-S172.

The purpose of this paper was to describe and appraise the research evidence on the effects of acute alcohol intoxication and sexual arousal on sexual risk behaviors in men who have sex with men (MSM) and to examine its implications for design of HIV prevention interventions that target MSM. Toward that end, the paper begins with a discussion of research on sexual arousal in men and alcohol and their acute effects on sexual behaviors. This is followed by a review of empirical evidence on the combined acute effects of alcohol and sexual arousal in heterosexual men (the large majority of studies) and then in MSM. The empirical evidence and related theoretical developments then are integrated to derive implications for developing effective HIV prevention interventions that target MSM.

Psychology Department.

Posted by: reganenosusd | January 13, 2016

December 2015

Abdullah, Ammara, Sane, Sanam, Freeling, Jessica L., Wang, Hongmin, Zhang, Dong, & Rezvani, Khosrow. (2015). Nucleocytoplasmic Translocation of UBXN2A Is Required for Apoptosis during DNA Damage Stresses in Colon Cancer Cells. Journal of Cancer, 6(11), 1066-1078.

The subcellular localization, expression level, and activity of anti-cancer proteins alter in response to intrinsic and extrinsic cellular stresses to reverse tumor progression. The purpose of this study is to determine whether UBXN2A, an activator of the p53 tumor suppressor protein, has different subcellular compartmentalization in response to the stress of DNA damage. We measured trafficking of the UBXN2A protein in response to two different DNA damage stresses, UVB irradiation and the genotoxic agent Etoposide, in colon cancer cell lines. Using a cytosol-nuclear fractionation technique followed by western blot and immunofluorescence staining, we monitored and quantitated UBXN2A and p53 proteins as well as p53’s downstream apoptotic pathway. We showed that the anti-cancer protein UBXN2A acts in the early phase of cell response to two different DNA damage stresses, being induced to translocate into the cytoplasm in a dose-and time-dependent manner. UVB-induced cytoplasmic UBXN2A binds to mortalin-2 (mot-2), a known oncoprotein in colon tumors. UVB-dependent upregulation of UBXN2A in the cytoplasm decreases p53 binding to mot-2 and activates apoptotic events in colon cancer cells. In contrast, the shRNA-mediated depletion of UBXN2A leads to significant reduction in apoptosis in colon cancer cells exposed to UVB and Etoposide. Leptomycin B (LMB), which was able to block UBXN2A nuclear export following Etoposide treatment, sustained p53-mot-2 interaction and had partially antagonistic effects with Etoposide on cell apoptosis. The present study shows that nucleocytoplasmic translocation of UBXN2A in response to stresses is necessary for its anti-cancer function in the cytoplasm. In addition, LMB-dependent suppression of UBXN2A’s translocation to the cytoplasm upon stress allows the presence of an active mot-2 oncoprotein in the cytoplasm, resulting in p53 sequestration as well as activation of other mot-2-dependent growth promoting pathways.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Barr, J. L., Rasmussen, B. A., Tallarida, C. S., Scholl, Jamie L., Forster, Gina L., Unterwald, E. M., & Rawls, S. M. (2015). Ceftriaxone attenuates acute cocaine-evoked dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens of the rat. British Journal of Pharmacology, 172(22), 5414-5424.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Ceftriaxone is a beta-lactam antibiotic and glutamate transporter activator that reduces the reinforcing effects of psychostimulants. Ceftriaxone also reduces locomotor activation following acute psychostimulant exposure, suggesting that alterations in dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens contribute to its mechanism of action. In the present studies we tested the hypothesis that pretreatment with ceftriaxone disrupts acute cocaine-evoked dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with saline or ceftriaxone (200 mg kg(-1), i.p. x 10 days) and then challenged with cocaine (15 mg kg(-1), i.p.). Motor activity, dopamine efflux (via in vivo microdialysis) and protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the dopamine transporter and organic cation transporter as well as alpha-synuclein, Akt and GSK3 beta were analysed in the nucleus accumbens. KEY RESULTS Ceftriaxone-pretreated rats challenged with cocaine displayed reduced locomotor activity and accumbal dopamine efflux compared with saline-pretreated controls challenged with cocaine. The reduction in cocaine-evoked dopamine levels was not counteracted by excitatory amino acid transporter 2 blockade in the nucleus accumbens. Pretreatment with ceftriaxone increased Akt/GSK3 beta signalling in the nucleus accumbens and reduced levels of dopamine transporter, TH and phosphorylated a-synuclein, indicating that ceftriaxone affects numerous proteins involved in dopaminergic transmission. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results are the first evidence that ceftriaxone affects cocaine-evoked dopaminergic transmission, in addition to its well-described effects on glutamate, and suggest that its ability to attenuate cocaine-induced behaviours, such as psychomotor activity, is due in part to reduced dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Mardones, Wladimir, Callegari, Eduardo, & Eyzaguirre, Jaime. (2015). Heterologous expression of a Penicillium purpurogenum exo-arabinanase in Pichia pastoris and its biochemical characterization. Fungal Biology, 119(12), 1267-1278.

Arabinan is a component of pectin, which is one of the polysaccharides present in lignocelluose. The enzymes degrading the main chain of arabinan are the endo- (EC 3.2.1.99) and exo-arabinanases (3.2.1.-). Only three exo-arabinanases have been biochemically characterized; they belong to glycosyl hydrolase family 93. In this work, the cDNA of an exo-arabinanase (Arap2) from Penicillium purpurogenum has been heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. The gene is 1310 bp long, has three introns and codes for a protein of 380 amino acid residues; the mature protein has a calculated molecular mass of 39 823 Da. The heterologously expressed Arap2 has a molecular mass in the range of 60–80 kDa due to heterogeneous glycosylation. The enzyme is active on debranched arabinan with optimum pH of 4–5.5 and optimal temperature of 40 °C, and has an exo-type action mode, releasing arabinobiose from its substrates. The expression profile of arap2 in corncob and sugar beet pulp follows a different pattern and is not related to the presence of arabinan. This is the first exo-arabinanase studied from P. purpurogenum and the first expressed in yeast. The availability of heterologous Arap2 may be useful for biotechnological applications requiring acidic conditions.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Ouellette, Scot P., Rueden, Kelsey J., AbdelRahman, Y. M., Cox, J. V., & Belland, R. J. (2015). Identification and Partial Characterization of Potential FtsL and FtsQ Homologs of Chlamydia. Frontiers in Microbiology, 6.

Chlamydia is amongst the rare bacteria that lack the critical cell division protein FtsZ. By annotation, Chlamydia also lacks several other essential cell division proteins including the FtsLBQ complex that links the early (e.g., FtsZ) and late (e.g., Ftsl/Pbp3) components of the division machinery. Here, we report chlamydial FtsL and FtsQ homologs. Ct271 aligned well with Escherichia coli FtsL and shared sequence homology with it, including a predicted leucine-zipper like motif. Based on in silico modeling, we show that Ct764 has structural homology to FtsQ in spite of little sequence similarity. Importantly, ct271/ftsL and ct764/ftsQ are present within all sequenced chlamydial genomes and are expressed during the replicative phase of the chlamydial developmental cycle, two key characteristics for a chlamydial cell division gene. GFP-Ct764 localized to the division septum of dividing transformed chlamydiae, and, importantly, over-expression inhibited chlamydial development. Using a bacterial two-hybrid approach, we show that Ct764 interacted with other components of the chlamydial division apparatus. However, Ct764 was not capable of complementing an E. coli FtsQ depletion strain in spite of its ability to interact with many of the same division proteins as E. coli FtsQ, suggesting that chlamydial FtsQ may function differently. We previously proposed that Chlamydia uses MreB and other rod-shape determining proteins as an alternative system for organizing the division site and its apparatus. Chlamydial FtsL and FtsQ homologs expand the number of identified chlamydial cell division proteins and suggest that Chlamydia has likely kept the late components of the division machinery while substituting the Mre system for the early components.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Qin, Q. Y., Qu, C., Niu, T., Zang, H. M., Qi, L., Lyu, L. M., Wang, Xuejun, Nagarkatti, M., Nagarkatti, P., Janicki, J. S., Wang, X. L., & Cui, T. X. (2016). Nrf2-Mediated Cardiac Maladaptive Remodeling and Dysfunction in a Setting of Autophagy Insufficiency. Hypertension, 67(1), 107-117.

Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) appears to exert either a protective or detrimental effect on the heart; however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Herein, we uncovered a novel mechanism for turning off the Nrf2-mediated cardioprotection and switching on Nrf2-mediated cardiac dysfunction. In a murine model of pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling and dysfunction via transverse aortic arch constriction, knockout of Nrf2 enhanced myocardial necrosis and death rate during an initial stage of cardiac adaptation when myocardial autophagy function is intact. However, knockout of Nrf2 turned out to be cardioprotective throughout the later stage of cardiac maladaptive remodeling when myocardial autophagy function became insufficient. Transverse aortic arch constriction -induced activation of Nrf2 was dramatically enhanced in the heart with impaired autophagy, which is induced by cardiomyocyte-specific knockout of autophagy-related gene (Atg)5. Notably, Nrf2 activation coincided with the upregulation of angiotensinogen (Agt) only in the autophagy-impaired heart after transverse aortic arch constriction. Agt5 and Nrf2 gene loss-of-function approaches in combination with Jak2 and Fyn kinase inhibitors revealed that suppression of autophagy inactivated Jak2 and Fyn and nuclear translocation of Fyn, while enhancing nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and Nrf2-driven Agt expression in cardiomyocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that the pathophysiological consequences of Nrf2 activation are closely linked with the functional integrity of myocardial autophagy during cardiac remodeling. When autophagy is intact, Nrf2 is required for cardiac adaptive responses; however, autophagy impairment most likely turns off Fyn-operated Nrf2 nuclear export thus activating Nrf2-driven Agt transcription, which exacerbates cardiac maladaptation leading to dysfunction.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Smith, Justin P., Prince, Melissa A., Achua, Justin K., Robertson, James M., Anderson, Raymond T., Ronan, Patrick J., & Summers, Cliff H. (2016). Intensity of anxiety is modified via complex integrative stress circuitries. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 63, 351-361.

Escalation of anxious behavior while environmentally and socially relevant contextual events amplify the intensity of emotional response produces a testable gradient of anxiety shaped by integrative circuitries. Apprehension of the Stress-Alternatives Model apparatus (SAM) oval open field (OF) is measured by the active latency to escape, and is delayed by unfamiliarity with the passageway. Familiar OF escape is the least anxious behavior along the continuum, which can be reduced by anxiolytics such as icv neuropeptide S (NPS). Social aggression increases anxiousness in the SAM, reducing the number of mice willing to escape by 50%. The apprehension accompanying escape during social aggression is diminished by anxiolytics, such as exercise and corticotropin releasing-factor receptor 1 (CRF 1 ) antagonism, but exacerbated by anxiogenic treatment, like antagonism of α 2 -adrenoreceptors. What is more, the anxiolytic CRF 1 and anxiogenic α 2 -adrenoreceptor antagonists also modify behavioral phenotypes, with CRF 1 antagonism allowing escape by previously submissive animals, and α 2 -adrenoreceptor antagonism hindering escape in mice that previously engaged in it. Gene expression of NPS and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the central amygdala (CeA), as well as corticosterone secretion, increased concomitantly with the escalating anxious content of the mouse-specific anxiety continuum. The general trend of CeA NPS and BDNF expression suggested that NPS production was promoted by increasing anxiousness, and that BDNF synthesis was associated with learning about ever-more anxious conditions. The intensity gradient for anxious behavior resulting from varying contextual conditions may yield an improved conceptualization of the complexity of mechanisms producing the natural continuum of human anxious conditions, and potential therapies that arise therefrom.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Hargreaves Heap, Shaun P., Ramalingam, Abhijit, Ramalingam, Siddharth, & Stoddard, Brock V. (2015). ‘Doggedness’ or ‘disengagement’? An experiment on the effect of inequality in endowment on behaviour in team competitions. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 120, 80-93.

Teams often suffer from a free rider problem with respect to individual contributions. That putting teams into competition with each other can mitigate this problem is an important recent insight. However, we know little about how inequality in endowment between teams might influence this beneficial effect from competition. We address this question with an experiment where teams contribute to a public good that then determines their chances of winning a Tullock contest with another team. The boost to efforts from competition disappears when inequality is high. This is mainly because the ‘rich’ ‘disengage’: they make no more contribution to a public good than they would when there is no competition. There is evidence that the ‘poor’ respond to moderate inequality ‘doggedly’, by expending more effort compared to competition with equality, but this ‘doggedness’ disappears too when inequality is high.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Vijayalakshmi, Akshaya, Muehling, Darrel D., & Laczniak, Russell N. (2015). An Investigation of Consumers’ Responses to Comparative “Attack” Ads. Journal of Promotion Management, 21(6), 760-775.

The current study contributes to the ever-expanding literature pertaining to comparative advertising by focusing specifically on comparative “attack” ads. Using the persuasion resistance process as a theoretical foundation, our findings indicate that users committed to the comparative referent are much more likely to resist persuasive attempts than are less-committed users, and hold brand attitudes with greater confidence. However, commitment of the consumers to the comparative referent has little impact on their reactions to positively- versus negatively-framed comparative ads. This pattern of effects was observed in both immediate and delayed (two-week) ad exposure conditions.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Daigh, A. L. M., Zhou, X. B., Helmers, M. J., Pederson, C. H., Horton, R., Jarchow, Meghann, & Liebman, M. (2015). Subsurface Drainage Nitrate and Total Reactive Phosphorus Losses in Bioenergy-Based Prairies and Corn Systems. Journal of Environmental Quality, 44(5), 1638-1646.

We compare subsurface-drainage NO3-N and total reactive phosphorus (TRP) concentrations and yields of select bioenergy cropping systems and their rotational phases. Cropping systems evaluated were grain-harvested corn-soybean rotations, grain- and stover-harvested continuous corn systems with and without a cover crop, and annually harvested reconstructed prairies with and without the addition of N fertilizer in an Iowa field. Drainage was monitored when soils were unfrozen during 2010 through 2013. The corn-soybean rotations without residue removal and continuous corn with residue removal produced similar mean annual flow-weighted NO3-N concentrations, ranging from 6 to 18.5 mg N L-1 during the 4-yr study. In contrast, continuous corn with residue removal and with a cover crop had significantly lower NO3-N concentrations of 5.6 mg N L-1 when mean annual flow-weighted values were averaged across the 4 yr. Prairies systems with or without N fertilization produced significantly lower concentrations below <1 mg NO3-N L-1 than all the row crop systems throughout the study. Mean annual flow-weighted TRP concentrations and annual yields were generally low, with values <0.04 mg TRP L-1 and <0.14 kg TRP ha(-1), and were not significantly affected by any cropping systems or their rotational phases. Bioenergy-based prairies with or without N fertilization and continuous corn with stover removal and a cover crop have the potential to supply bioenergy feedstocks while minimizing NO3-N losses to drainage waters. However, subsurface drainage TRP concentrations and yields in bioenergy systems will need further evaluation in areas prone to higher levels of P losses.

Biology Department.

 

Thessen, A. E., Bunkers, D. E., Buttigieg, P. L., Cooper, L. D., Dahdul, Wasila M., Domisch, S., Franz, N. M., Jaiswal, P., Lawrence-Dill, C. J., Midford, P. E., Mungall, C. J., Ramirez, M. J., Specht, C. D., Vogt, L., Vos, R. A., Walls, R. L., White, J. W., Zhang, G. Y., Deans, A. R., Huala, E., Lewis, S. E., & Mabee, P. M. (2015). Emerging semantics to link phenotype and environment. Peerj, 3.

Understanding the interplay between environmental conditions and phenotypes is a fundamental goal of biology. Unfortunately, data that include observations on phenotype and environment are highly heterogeneous and thus difficult to find and integrate. One approach that is likely to improve the status quo involves the use of ontologies to standardize and link data about phenotypes and environments. Specifying and linking data through ontologies will allow researchers to increase the scope and flexibility of large-scale analyses aided by modern computing methods. Investments in this area would advance diverse fields such as ecology, phylogenetics, and conservation biology. While several biological ontologies are well-developed, using them to link phenotypes and environments is rare because of gaps in ontological coverage and limits to interoperability among ontologies and disciplines. In this manuscript, we present (1) use cases from diverse disciplines to illustrate questions that could be answered more efficiently using a robust linkage between phenotypes and environments, (2) two proof-of-concept analyses that show the value of linking phenotypes to environments in fishes and amphibians, and (3) two proposed example data models for linking phenotypes and environments using the extensible observation ontology (OBOE) and the Biological Collections Ontology (BCO); these provide a starting point for the development of a data model linking phenotypes and environments.

Biology Department.

 

Waters, R. Parrish, Rivalan, Marion, Bangasser, D. A., …., & Summers, Cliff H. (2015). Evidence for the role of corticotropin-releasing factor in major depressive disorder. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 58, 63-78.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a devastating disease affecting over 300 million people worldwide, and costing an estimated 380 billion Euros in lost productivity and health care in the European Union alone. Although a wealth of research has been directed toward understanding and treating MDD, still no therapy has proved to be consistently and reliably effective in interrupting the symptoms of this disease. Recent clinical and preclinical studies, using genetic screening and transgenic rodents, respectively, suggest a major role of the CRF 1 gene, and the central expression of CRF 1 receptor protein in determining an individual’s risk of developing MDD. This gene is widely expressed in brain tissue, and regulates an organism’s immediate and long-term responses to social and environmental stressors, which are primary contributors to MDD. This review presents the current state of knowledge on CRF physiology, and how it may influence the occurrence of symptoms associated with MDD. Additionally, this review presents findings from multiple laboratories that were presented as part of a symposium on this topic at the annual 2014 meeting of the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society (IBNS). The ideas and data presented in this review demonstrate the great progress that has been made over the past few decades in our understanding of MDD, and provide a pathway forward toward developing novel treatments and detection methods for this disorder.

Biology Department.

 

Zhang, Yufeng, Carter, Travis, Eyster, Kathleen, & Swanson, David L. (2015). Acute cold and exercise training up-regulate similar aspects of fatty acid transport and catabolism in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Journal of Experimental Biology, 218(24), 3885-3893.

Summit maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate (Msum) and maximum exercise metabolic rate (MMR) both increase in response to acute cold or exercise training in birds. Because lipids are the main fuel supporting both thermogenesis and exercise in birds, adjustments to lipid transport and catabolic capacities may support elevated energy demands from cold and exercise training. To examine a potential mechanistic role for lipid transport and catabolism in organismal cross-training effects (exercise effects on both exercise and thermogenesis, and vice versa), we measured enzyme activities and mRNA and protein expression in pectoralis muscle for several key steps of lipid transport and catabolism pathways in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) during acute exercise and cold training. Both training protocols elevated pectoralis protein levels of fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), cytosolic fatty acid-binding protein, and citrate synthase (CS) activity. However, mRNA expression of FAT/CD36 and both mRNA and protein expression of plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein did not change for either training group. CS activities in supracoracoideus, leg and heart, and carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) and β-hydroxyacyl CoA-dehydrogenase activities in all muscles did not vary significantly with either training protocol. Both Msum and MMR were significantly positively correlated with CPT and CS activities. These data suggest that up-regulation of trans-sarcolemmal and intramyocyte lipid transport capacities and cellular metabolic intensities, along with previously documented increases in body and pectoralis muscle masses and pectoralis myostatin (a muscle growth inhibitor) levels, are common mechanisms underlying the training effects of both exercise and shivering in birds.

Biology Department.

 

Baride, A., Meruga, J. M., Douma, C., Langerman, D., Crawford, G., Kellar, J. J., Cross, W. M., & May, P. Stanley. (2015). A NIR-to-NIR upconversion luminescence system for security printing applications. Rsc Advances, 5(123), 101338-101346.

A covert print-and-read system is demonstrated based on NIR-to-NIR upconversion luminescence. Inks activated with Yb3+/Tm3+ doped beta-NaYF4 upconversion nanoparticles were used to print covert features on various substrates, including paper, epoxy resin, and circuit boards. The Yb3+/Tm3+ doping concentrations were optimized to maximize the brightness of 800 nm upconversion emission excited with 980 nm light, while simultaneously minimizing unwanted blue upconversion. Images printed with the NIR-optimized inks are invisible to the naked eye under ambient lighting or under 980 nm excitation. NIR-to-NIR images are easily captured, however, using an inexpensive, modified point-and-shoot CCD camera, even at modest excitation power densities (1.5 W cm(-2)). It is demonstrated that the latent images can also be read through select hard or soft coatings which are opaque to visible light, such as black inkjet print, or dyed epoxy resin, without significant attenuation of brightness. The ability to protect the printed images with durable, opaque coatings increases the tamper-resistance and the covertness of the system; removes the requirement that the print be invisible on the bare substrate; and blocks any visible emission that might be present, even under very high excitation power densities.

Chemistry Deaprtment.

 

Jia, L., Sun, H. L., & Wang, Zhenqiang. (2015). Crystal structures and luminescent properties of new lanthanide(III) complexes derived from 2-phenyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylate. Rsc Advances, 5(117), 96855-96861.

In this work, five novel lanthanide(III) coordination polymers derived from 2-phenylpyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid (Hppmc), namely, [Ln(ppmc)(3)(H2O)(2)]center dot 2H(2)O [Ln = Eu (1), Tb (2)] and [Ln(ppmc)(3)(H2O)(2)] [Ln = Eu (3), Gd (4), Tb (5)] were successfully synthesized by a facile solution method and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, power X-ray diffraction (PXRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that subtly different reaction conditions result in disparate structural characteristics. For example, by combining Hppmc with lanthanide(III) ions at room temperature, compounds 1 and 2 featuring a carboxylate-bridging chain structure, in which the carboxylates adopt both chelating and bridging modes, are isolated. However, the reaction at 35 degrees C generates three isostructural compounds 3-5 with a distinct chain structure, in which the lanthanide ions are connected by carboxylates via syn-syn and syn-anti modes. Photoluminescent studies of the Eu3+ and Tb3+ complexes reveal that the Hppmc ligand is a better sensitizer for Tb3+ ion than for Eu3+ ion. The investigation of the relationship between the crystal structures and the photoluminescence properties indicate that the coordination environments of lanthanide ions and the arrangement of the ligands are the dominating factors that affect the luminescence behaviors of the solid samples.

Chemistry Department.

 

Loc, W. S., Quan, Z. W., Lin, Cuikun, Pan, J. F., Wang, Y. X., Yang, K. K., Jian, W. B., Zhao, B., Wang, H., & Fang, J. Y. (2015). Facet-controlled facilitation of PbS nanoarchitectures by understanding nanocrystal growth. Nanoscale, 7(45), 19047-19052.

Nanostructured lead sulphide is a significant component in a number of energy-related sustainable applications such as photovoltaic cells and thermoelectric components. In many micro-packaging processes, dimensionality-controlled nano-architectures as building blocks with unique properties are required. This study investigates different facet-merging growth behaviors through a wet-chemical synthetic strategy to produce high-quality controlled nanostructures of lead sulphide in various dimensionalities. It was found that 1D nanowires or 2D nanosheets can be obtained by the merging of reactive {111}- or {110}-facets, respectively, while promoting {100} facets in the early stages after nucleation leads to the growth of 0D nanocubes. The influence of temperature, capping ligands and co-solvent in facilitating the crystal facet growth of each intermediate seed is also demonstrated. The novelty of this work is characterized by the delicate manipulation of various PbS nanoarchitectures based on the comprehension of the facet-merging evolution. The synthesis of facet-controlled PbS nanostructures could provide novel building blocks with desired properties for use in many applications.

Chemistry Department.

 

Mottishaw, Jeffrey D., Erck, Adam R., Kramer, Jordan H., Sun, Haorn, & Koppang, Miles. (2015). Electrostatic Potential Maps and Natural Bond Orbital Analysis: Visualization and Conceptualization of Reactivity in Sanger’s Reagent. Journal of Chemical Education, 92(11), 1846-1852.

Frederick Sanger’s early work on protein sequencing through the use of colorimetric labeling combined with liquid chromatography involves an important nudeophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) reaction in which the N-terminus of a protein is tagged with Sanger’s reagent. Understanding the inherent differences between this SNAr reaction and other nudeophilic substitution reactions (S(N)1 and S(N)2) can be challenging for students learning organic chemistry. Here, both electrostatic potential (ESP) maps and natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses are employed to visualize and conceptualize Sanger’s key observation of the difference in reactivity between 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene. The utility of this method is extended to compare the reactivity of a series of halobenzenes for SNAr fluorination, a widely used reaction in pharmaceutical and medicinal fields. In combination with experimental results from the literature, the ESP maps and NBO analyses are consistent with and provide excellent corroboration with the reactivity of different substrates toward SNAr reactions.

Chemistry Department.

 

Zhao, D., Wu, Q., Yang, C. F., & Koodali, Ranjit T. (2015). Visible light driven photocatalytic hydrogen evolution over CdS incorporated mesoporous silica derived from MCM-48. Applied Surface Science, 356, 308-316.

An attempt to synthesize CdS incorporated MCM-48 by ion-exchange method is reported in this work. The mesoporous structure, crystalline structure, morphology and optical properties of the prepared samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption isotherm, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic activities were tested for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible irradiation. The CdS incorporated mesoporous silica exhibited high photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution but the cubic phase of MCM-48 was destroyed by the ion-exchange reaction and sulfidation process. The influence of synthesis temperature and the presence of Pt co-catalyst were also examined in this work. The photocatalytic performance of CdS-mSiO(2) was also studied by recycling experiments and by comparing with the CdS-MCM-48 in our previous work. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

 

Balasubramanian, Vinothini, Srinivasan, Rekha, Miskimins, Robin, & Sykes, Andrew G. (2016). A simple aza-crown ether containing an anthraquinone fluorophore for the selective detection of Mg(II) in living cells. Tetrahedron, 72(1), 205-209.

A new aza-crown ether anthraquinone-coupled chemosensor ( 2 ) has been synthesized and employed for the selective fluorescence detection of Mg(II) in the nanomolar range with limited interference by Ca(II) ion. The binding stoichiometry for the chemosensor with Mg(II) is found to be 2:1, and the binding constant was determined to be 2.9×10 9 M −2 and 5.1×10 9 M −2 in acetonitrile and DMSO, respectively. The chemosensor also shows negligible fluorescence enhancement from other alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metals. Chemosensor 2 has been used in the bioimaging of Mg(II) in embryonic mouse fibroblast NIH3T3 cells at both native concentrations and cells incubated with excess Mg(II). The chemosensor can access Mg(II) ions in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of the cells. The corrected total cell fluorescence is also calculated to confirm the uptake of the chemosensor in living cells.

Chemistry Department.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Scarborough, Rebecca, Zellou, Georgia, Mirzayan, Armik, & Rood, David S. (2015). Phonetic and phonological patterns of nasality in Lakota vowels. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 45(3), 289-309.

Lakota (Siouan) has both contrastive and coarticulatory vowel nasality, and both nasal and oral vowels can occur before or after a nasal consonant. This study examines the timing and degree patterns of acoustic vowel nasality across contrastive and coarticulatory contexts in Lakota, based on data from six Lakota native speakers. There is clear evidence of both anticipatory and carryover nasal coarticulation across oral and nasal vowels, with a greater degree of carryover than anticipatory nasalization. Nasality in carryover contexts is nonetheless restricted: the oral-nasal contrast is neutralized for high back vowels in this context and realized for three of the six speakers in low vowels. In the absence of nasal consonant context, contrastive vowel nasalization is generally greatest late in the vowel. Low nasal vowels in carryover contexts parallel this pattern (despite the location of the nasal consonant BEFORE the vowel), and low nasal vowels in anticipatory contexts are most nasal at the start of the vowel. We relate the synchronic patterns of coarticulation in Lakota to both its system of contrast and diachronic processes in the evolution of nasality in Lakota. These data reflect that coarticulatory patterns, as well as contrastive patterns, are grammatical and controlled by speakers.

Modern Languages and Linguistics.

 

Boettger, T., Thiel, C. W., Sun, Y., Macfarlane, R. M., & Cone, R. L. (2016). Decoherence and absorption of Er3+:KTiOPO4 (KTP) at 1.5 mu m. Journal of Luminescence, 169, 466-471.

We present results of laser absorption spectroscopy and two-pulse photon echo decoherence measurements on the lowest I-4(15/2) to lowest I-4(13/2) transition in Er3+: KTiOPO4 (KTP-potassium titanyl phosphate) for the optical transition located at 1537.238 nm. This transition was found to have an inhomogeneous absorption linewidth of 950 MHz and pronounced polarization dependence. Two-pulse photon echo decay measurements as a function of applied magnetic field strength at 1.9 K revealed a narrow homogeneous linewidth of 2.5 kHz at 02 T that increased to 5.8 kHz at 1.2 T and then decreased to 1.6 kHz at 4.5 T. This behavior was successfully described by decoherence due to Er3+-Er3+ magnetic dipole interactions. Significant superhyperfine coupling of Er3+ spins to the nuclear moments of ions in the host lattice was observed, modulating the photon echo decay at low magnetic fields and limiting the effective homogenous linewidth at high fields. Combined with the well-established potential of KTP for fabrication of high-quality optical waveguides and integrated non-linear frequency conversion, our results suggest that Er3+:KTP is a promising material system for practical spectral hole burning, signal processing, and quantum information applications. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Physics Department.

 

Fairholm, Matthew R., & Gronau, Taylor W. (2015). Spiritual leadership in the work of public administrators. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 12(4), 354-373.

This article focuses on the leadership practices of local public administrators that display elements of spiritual leadership in the workplace. It explores empirical research about municipal managers that suggests organizational leadership based on the notion of someone’s spirit, rather than merely someone’s bundle of workplace skills and abilities, is not only valid, but fairly common. The results illustrate that public administrators doing public administration admit that spiritual values, or a focus on the whole-soul of people, impact how they view leadership in their jobs and the public work they do every day. Potential elements of spiritual leadership culled from the research and leadership and Public Administration literature are shaped into a nascent model that serves to both describe and prescribe spiritual leadership perspectives, behaviors, and approaches to followers.

Political Science/Criminal Justice Department.

 

Gerrish, Ed. (2016). The Impact of Performance Management on Performance in Public Organizations: A Meta-Analysis. Public Administration Review, 76(1), 48-66.

Performance-based management is pervasive in public organizations; countless governments have implemented performance management systems with the hope that they will improve organizational effectiveness. However, there has been little comprehensive review of their impact. This article conducts a meta-analysis on the impact of performance management on performance in public organizations. It contributes to the current literature in three ways. First, it examines the effect of the ‘average’ performance management system. Second, it examines the influence of management: whether beneficial performance management practices moderate the average effect. Third, it examines the effect of ‘time’ on performance management. Using 2,188 effects from 49 studies, the analysis finds that performance management has a small average effect. However, the effect is substantially larger when indicators of best practices in high-quality studies are included, indicating that management practices have an important impact on the effectiveness of performance management systems. Evidence for the effect of time is mixed.

Political Science/Criminal Justice Department.

 

Eclov, J. A., Qian, Q. W., Redetzke, R., Chen, Q. H., Wu, S. C., Healy, C. L., Ortmeier, Steven B., Harmon, Erin, Shearer, G. C., & O’Connell, T. D. (2015). EPA, not DHA, prevents fibrosis in pressure overload-induced heart failure: potential role of free fatty acid receptor 4. Journal of Lipid Research, 56(12), 2297-2308.

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is half of all HF, but standard HF therapies are ineffective. Diastolic dysfunction, often secondary to interstitial fibrosis, is common in HFpEF. Previously, we found that supra-physiologic levels of omega 3-PUFAs produced by 12 weeks of omega 3-dietary supplementation prevented fibrosis and contractile dysfunction following pressure overload [transverse aortic constriction (TAC)], a model that resembles aspects of remodeling in HFpEF. This raised several questions regarding omega 3-concentration-dependent cardioprotection, the specific role of EPA and DHA, and the relationship between prevention of fibrosis and contractile dysfunction. To achieve more clinically relevant omega 3-levels and test individual omega 3-PUFAs, we shortened the omega 3-diet regimen and used EPA- and DHA-specific diets to examine remodeling following TAC. The shorter diet regimen produced omega 3-PUFA levels closer to Western clinics. Further, EPA, but not DHA, prevented fibrosis following TAC. However, neither omega 3-PUFA prevented contractile dysfunction, perhaps due to reduced uptake of omega 3-PUFA. Interestingly, EPA did not accumulate in cardiac fibroblasts. However, FFA receptor 4, a G protein-coupled receptor for omega 3-PUFAs, was sufficient and required to block transforming growth factor beta 1-fibrotic signaling in cultured cardiac fibroblasts, suggesting a novel mechanism for EPA. In summary, EPA-mediated prevention of fibrosis could represent a novel therapy for HFpEF.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Halaby, M. J., Harris, B. R. E., Miskimins, W. Keith, Cleary, M. P., & Yang, D. Q. (2015). Deregulation of Internal Ribosome Entry Site-Mediated p53 Translation in Cancer Cells with Defective p53 Response to DNA Damage. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 35(23), 4006-4017.

Synthesis of the p53 tumor suppressor and its subsequent activation following DNA damage are critical for its protection against tumorigenesis. We previously discovered an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) at the 5′ untranslated region of the p53 mRNA. However, the connection between IRES-mediated p53 translation and p53’s tumor suppressive function is unknown. In this study, we identified two p53 IRES trans-acting factors, translational control protein 80 (TCP80), and RNA helicase A (RHA), which positively regulate p53 IRES activity. Overexpression of TCP80 and RHA also leads to increased expression and synthesis of p53. Furthermore, we discovered two breast cancer cell lines that retain wild-type p53 but exhibit defective p53 induction and synthesis following DNA damage. The levels of TCP80 and RHA are extremely low in both cell lines, and expression of both proteins is required to significantly increase the p53 IRES activity in these cells. Moreover, we found cancer cells transfected with a shRNA against TCP80 not only exhibit decreased expression of TCP80 and RHA but also display defective p53 induction and diminished ability to induce senescence following DNA damage. Therefore, our findings reveal a novel mechanism of p53 inactivation that links deregulation of IRES-mediated p53 translation with tumorigenesis.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Kranzler, John H., Benson, Nicholas, & Floyd, Randy G. (2015). Using estimated factor scores from a bifactor analysis to examine the unique effects of the latent variables measured by the WAIS-IV on academic achievement. Psychological Assessment, 27(4), 1402-1416.

This study used estimated factor scores from a bifactor analysis of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) to examine the unique effects of its latent variables on academic achievement. In doing so, we addressed the potential limitation of multicollinearity in previous studies of the incremental validity of the WAIS-IV. First, factor scores representing psychometric g and 4 group factors representing the WAIS-IV index scales were computed from a bifactor model. Subtest and composite scores for the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition (WIAT-II) were then predicted from these estimated factor scores in simultaneous multiple regression. Results of this study only partially replicated the findings of previous research on the incremental validity of scores that can be derived from performance on the WAIS-IV. Although we found that psychometric g is the most important underlying construct measured by the WAIS-IV for the prediction of academic achievement in general, results indicated that the unique effect of Verbal Comprehension is also important for predicting achievement in reading, spelling, and oral communication skills. Based on these results, measures of both psychometric g and Verbal Comprehension could be cautiously interpreted when considering high school students’ performance in these areas of achievement.

School of Education [Former Faculty Member].

 

Amolins, Michael W., Ezrailson, Cathy M., Pearce, David A., Elliott, Amy J., & Vitiello, Peter F. (2015). Evaluating the effectiveness of a laboratory-based professional development program for science educators. Advances in Physiology Education, 39(4), 341-351.

The process of developing effective science educators has been a long-standing objective of the broader education community. Numerous studies have recommended not only depth in a teacher’s subject area but also a breadth of professional development grounded in constructivist principles, allowing for successful student-centered and inquiry-based instruction. Few programs, however, have addressed the integration of the scientific research laboratory into the science classroom as a viable approach to professional development. Additionally, while occasional laboratory training programs have emerged in recent years, many lack a component for translating acquired skills into reformed classroom instruction. Given the rapid development and demand for knowledgeable employees and an informed population from the biotech and medical industries in recent years, it would appear to be particularly advantageous for the physiology and broader science education communities to consider this issue. The goal of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a laboratory-based professional development program focused on the integration of reformed teaching principles into the classrooms of secondary teachers. This was measured through the program’s ability to instill in its participants elevated academic success while gaining fulfillment in the classroom. The findings demonstrated a significant improvement in the use of student-centered instruction and other reformed methods by program participants as well as improved self-efficacy, confidence, and job satisfaction. Also revealed was a reluctance to refashion established classroom protocols. The combination of these outcomes allowed for construction of an experiential framework for professional development in applied science education that supports an atmosphere of reformed teaching in the classroom.

School of Education.

 

Linn, Vicki, & Jacobs, Gera. (2015). Inquiry-Based Field Experiences: Transforming Early Childhood Teacher Candidates’ Effectiveness. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 36(4), 272-288.

Contemporary teacher preparation programs are challenged to provide transformational learning experiences that enhance the development of highly effective teachers. This mixed-methods case study explored the influence of inquiry-based field experiences as a pedagogical approach to teacher preparation. Four teacher candidates participated in a 15-week practicum hosted by four community-based early childhood classrooms. Research methods included peer discussions, self-assessments, coaching sessions facilitated by the instructor/researcher, and a survey. Triangulated content analysis indicated that inquiry-based field experiences positively contributed to the participants’ (a) understanding and application of core knowledge, (b) consciousness of teacher–child interactions, (c) appreciation of co-inquiry learning, and (d) utilization of reflective learning. Inquiry-based field experiences also positively contributed to the participants’ professional intentionality and discernment.

School of Education.

 

Posted by: reganenosusd | November 30, 2015

November 2015

Abdullah, Ammara, Sane, Sanam, Branick, Kate A., Freeling, Jessica L., Wang, Hongmin M., Zhang, D., & Rezvani, Khosrow. (2015). A plant alkaloid, veratridine, potentiates cancer chemosensitivity by UBXN2A-dependent inhibition of an oncoprotein, mortalin-2. Oncotarget, 6(27), 23561-23581.

Veratridine (VTD), an alkaloid derived from the Liliaceae plant shows anti-tumor effects; however, its molecular targets have not been thoroughly studied. Using a high-throughput drug screen, we found that VTD enhances transactivation of UBXN2A, resulting in upregulation of UBXN2A in the cytoplasm, where UBXN2A binds and inhibits the oncoprotein mortalin-2 (mot-2). VTD-treated cancer cells undergo cell death in UBXN2A- and mot-2-dependent manners. The cytotoxic function of VTD is grade-dependent, and the combined treatment with a sub-optimal dose of the standard chemotherapy, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and etoposide, demonstrated a synergistic effect, resulting in higher therapeutic efficacy. VTD influences the CD44+ stem cells, possibly through UBXN2A-dependent inhibition of mot-2. The VTD-dependent expression of UBXN2A is a potential candidate for designing novel strategies for colon cancer treatment because: 1) In 50% of colon cancer patients, UBXN2A protein levels in tumor tissues are significantly lower than those in the adjacent normal tissues. 2) Cytoplasmic expression of the mot-2 protein is very low in non-cancerous cells; thus, VTD can produce tumor-specific toxicity while normal cells remain intact. 3) Finally, VTD or its modified analogs offer a valuable adjuvant chemotherapy strategy to improve the efficacy of 5-FU-based chemotherapy for colon cancer patients harboring WT-p53.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Ambigapathy, Ganesh, Zheng, Zhaoqim, & Keifer, Joyce. (2015). Regulation of BDNF chromatin status and promoter accessibility in a neural correlate of associative learning. Epigenetics, 10(10), 981-993.

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression critically controls learning and its aberrant regulation is implicated in Alzheimer’s disease and a host of neurodevelopmental disorders. The BDNF gene is target of known DNA regulatory mechanisms but details of its activity-dependent regulation are not fully characterized. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the epigenetic regulation of the turtle BDNF gene (tBDNF) during a neural correlate of associative learning using an in vitro model of eye blink classical conditioning. Shortly after conditioning onset, the results from ChIP-qPCR show conditioning-dependent increases in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and repressor basic helix-loop-helix binding protein 2 (BHLHB2) binding to tBDNF promoter II that corresponds with transcriptional repression. In contrast, enhanced binding of ten-eleven translocation protein 1 (Tet1), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) to promoter III corresponds with transcriptional activation. These actions are accompanied by rapid modifications in histone methylation and phosphorylation status of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). Significantly, these remarkably coordinated changes in epigenetic factors for two alternatively regulated tBDNF promoters during conditioning are controlled by Tet1 and ERK1/2. Our findings indicate that Tet1 and ERK1/2 are critical partners that, through complementary functions, control learning-dependent tBDNF promoter accessibility required for rapid transcription and acquisition of classical conditioning.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Barr, Jeffrey L., Rassmussen, Bruce A., Tallarida, Christopher S., Scholl, Jamie L., Forster, Gina L., Unterwald, Ellen, & Rawls, Scott. (2015). Ceftriaxone attenuates acute cocaine evoked motor activity and dopaminergic neurotransmission in the dorsal and ventral striatum. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 156, e15-e15.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Lucas, Andrea L., Ouellette, Scot P., Kabeiseman, Emily J., Cichos, Kyle H., & Rucks, Elizabeth A. (2015). The trans-Golgi SNARE syntaxin 10 is required for optimal development of Chlamydia trachomatis. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 5.

Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular pathogen, grows inside of a vacuole, termed the inclusion. Within the inclusion, the organisms differentiate from the infectious elementary body (EB) into the reticulate body (RB). The RB communicates with the host cell through the inclusion membrane to obtain the nutrients necessary to divide, thus expanding the chlamydial population. At late time points within the developmental cycle, the RBs respond to unknown molecular signals to redifferentiate into infectious EBs to perpetuate the infection cycle. One strategy for Chlamydia to obtain necessary nutrients and metabolites from the host is to intercept host vesicular trafficking pathways. In this study we demonstrate that a trans -Golgi soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein (SNARE), syntaxin 10, and/or syntaxin 10 associated Golgi elements colocalize with the chlamydial inclusion. We hypothesized that Chlamydia utilizes the molecular machinery of syntaxin 10 at the inclusion membrane to intercept specific vesicular trafficking pathways in order to create and maintain an optimal intra-inclusion environment. To test this hypothesis, we used siRNA knockdown of syntaxin 10 to examine the impact of the loss of syntaxin 10 on chlamydial growth and development. Our results demonstrate that loss of syntaxin 10 leads to defects in normal chlamydial maturation including: variable inclusion size with fewer chlamydial organisms per inclusion, fewer infectious progeny, and delayed or halted RB-EB differentiation. These defects in chlamydial development correlate with an overabundance of NBD-lipid retained by inclusions cultured in syntaxin 10 knockdown cells. Overall, loss of syntaxin 10 at the inclusion membrane negatively affects Chlamydia. Understanding host machinery involved in maintaining an optimal inclusion environment to support chlamydial growth and development is critical toward understanding the molecular signals involved in successful progression through the chlamydial developmental cycle.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Morecraft, Robert J., Stilwell-Morecraft, Kimberly S., Ge, J., Cipolloni, P. B., & Pandya, D. N. (2015). Cytoarchitecture and cortical connections of the anterior insula and adjacent frontal motor fields in the rhesus monkey. Brain Research Bulletin, 119, 52-72.

The cytoarchitecture and cortical connections of the ventral motor region are investigated using Nissl, and NeuN staining methods and the fluorescent retrograde tract tracing technique in the rhesus monkey. On the basis of gradual laminar differentiation, it is shown that the ventral motor region stems from the ventral proisocortical area (anterior insula and dorsal Sylvian opercular region). The cytoarchitecture of the ventral motor region is shown to progress in three lines, as we have recently shown for the dorsal motor region. Namely, root (anterior insular and dorsal Sylvian opercular area ProM), belt (ventral premotor cortex) and core (precentral motor cortex) lines. This stepwise architectonic organization is supported by the overall patterns of corticocortical connections. Areas in each line are sequentially interconnected (intralineal connections) and all lines are interconnected (interlinear connections). Moreover, root areas, as well as some of the belt areas of the ventral and dorsal trend are interconnected. The ventral motor region is also connected with the ventral somatosensory areas in a topographic manner. The root and belt areas of ventral motor region are connected with paralimbic, multimodal and prefrontal (outer belt) areas. In contrast, the core area has a comparatively more restricted pattern of corticocortical connections. This architectonic and connectional organization is consistent in part, with the functional organization of the ventral motor region as reported in behavioral and neuroimaging studies which include the mediation of facial expression and emotion, communication, phonic articulation, and language in human.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Sathyanesan, Monica, Girgenti, Matthew J., Warner-Schmidt, Jennifer, & Newton, Samuel S. (2015). Indomethacin induced gene regulation in the rat hippocampus. Molecular Brain, 8.

Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as indomethacin are widely used to treat inflammatory diseases and manage pain, fever and inflammation in several conditions, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Although they predominantly function by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, important COX-independent actions also occur. These actions could be responsible for the adverse side effects associated with chronic and/or high dose usage of this popular drug class. Results: We examined gene regulation in the hippocampus after peripheral administration of indomethacin by employing a microarray approach. Secondary confirmation and the brain expression pattern of regulated genes was examined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Transglutaminase 2, serum glucocorticoid inducible kinase, Inhibitor of NF-kappa B and vascular endothelial growth factor were among genes that were prominently upregulated, while G-protein coupled receptor 56 and neuropeptide Y were among genes that were downregulated by indomethacin. Co-localization studies using blood vessel markers revealed that transglutaminase 2 was induced specifically in brain vasculature. Conclusions: The data demonstrate that COX-inhibitors can differentially regulate gene transcription in multiple, functionally distinctly cell types in the brain. The results provide additional insight into the molecular actions of COX-inhibitors and indicate that their effects on vasculature could influence cerebral blood flow mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Schlenker, Evelyn H., Del Rio, R., & Schultz, H. D. (2015). In adult female hamsters hypothyroidism stimulates D1 receptor-mediated breathing without altering D1 receptor expression. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 218, 32-39.

Hypothyroidism affects cardiopulmonary regulation and function of dopaminergic receptors. Here we evaluated effects of 5 months of hypothyroidism on dopamine D1 receptor modulation of breathing in female hamsters using a D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390. Euthyroid hamsters (EH) served as controls. Results indicated that hypothyroid female hamsters (HH) exhibited decreased body weights and minute ventilation (V-E) following hypoxia due to decreased frequency of breathing (F). Moreover, SCH 23390 administration in HH increased V-E by increasing tidal volume during exposure to air, hypoxia and following hypoxia. Relative to vehicle, SCH 23390 treatment decreased body temperature and hypoxic V-E responsiveness in both groups. In EH, SCH 23390 decreased Fin air, hypoxia and post hypoxia, and V-E during hypoxia trended to decrease (P=0.053). Finally, expression of Ell receptor protein was not different between the two groups in any region evaluated. Thus, hypothyroidism in older female hamsters affected D1 receptor modulation of ventilation differently relative to euthyroid animals, but not expression of D1 receptors. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Summers, Torrie, Wang, Yanqing, Hanten, Brandon, & Burrell, Brandon D. (2015). Physiological, pharmacological and behavioral evidence for a TRPA1 channel that can elicit defensive responses in the medicinal leech. Journal of Experimental Biology, 218(19), 3023-3031.

Transient receptor potential ankyrin subtype 1 (TRPA1) channels are chemosensitive to compounds such as allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, the active component of mustard oil) and other reactive electrophiles and may also be thermodetectors in many animal phyla. In this study, we provide the first pharmacological evidence of a putative TRPA1-like channel in the medicinal leech. The leech’s polymodal nociceptive neuron was activated by both peripheral and central application of the TRPA1 agonist AITC in a concentration-dependent manner. Responses to AITC were inhibited by the selective TRPA1 antagonist HC030031, but also by the TRPV1 antagonist SB366791. Other TRPA1 activators – N-methylmaleimide (NMM) and cinnamaldehyde (CIN) – also activated this nociceptive neuron, although HC030031 only inhibited the effects of NMM. The polymodal nociceptive neurons responded to moderately cold thermal stimuli (< 17 degrees C) and these responses were blocked by HC030031. AITC sensitivity was also found in the pressure-sensitive sensory neurons and was blocked by HC030031, but not by SB366791. AITC elicited a nocifensive withdrawal of the posterior sucker in a concentration-dependent manner that could be attenuated with HC030031. Peripheral application of AITC in vivo also produced swimming-like behavior that was attenuated by HC030031. These results suggest the presence of a TRPA1-like channel in the medicinal leech nervous system that responds to cold temperatures and may interact with the leech TRPV-like channel.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Teng, Y. F., Rezvani, Khosrow, & De Biasi, M. (2015). UBXN2A regulates nicotinic receptor degradation by modulating the E3 ligase activity of CHIP. Biochemical Pharmacology, 97(4), 518-530.

Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the alpha 3 subunit are known for their prominent role in normal ganglionic transmission while their involvement in the mechanisms underlying nicotine addiction and smoking-related disease has been emerging only in recent years. The amount of information available on the maturation and trafficking of alpha 3-containing nAChRs is limited. We previously showed that UBXN2A is a p97 adaptor protein that facilitates the maturation and trafficking of alpha 3-containing nAChRs. Further investigation of the mechanisms of UBXN2A actions revealed that the protein interacts with CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsc70 interacting protein), whose ubiquitin E3 ligase activity regulates the degradation of several disease-related proteins. We show that CHIP displays E3 ligase activity toward the alpha 3 nAChR subunit and contributes to its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. UBXN2A interferes with CHIP-mediated ubiquitination of a3 and protects the nicotinic receptor subunit from endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD). UBXN2A also cross-talks with VCP/p97 and HSC70/HSP70 proteins in a complex where 3 is likely to be targeted by CHIP. Overall,we identify CHIP as an E3 ligase for alpha 3 and UBXN2A as a protein that may efficiently regulate the stability of CHIP’s client substrates. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Yaoqian, Pan, Ruizhu, Liu, Terpstra, Erin, Wang, Yanqing, Qiao, Fangfang, Jin, Wang, Yigang, Tong, & Bo, Pan. (2016). Dysregulation and Diagnostic Potential of microRNA in Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 49(1), 1-12.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases and is considered to be the main cause of cognitive impairment in elderly people. The major symptom of AD is progressive dementia that eventually results in dysfunction of daily life. Due to the fact that AD has a long period of incubation before clinical symptoms emerge, the available therapeutic treatments can only improve the symptoms but not delay the progression of AD. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore effective diagnostic approaches to catch and better treat the disease before clinical symptoms appear. Recent research revealed that abnormal expression of certain miRNA could have a crucial role in the pathological process of neurodegenerative disease including AD. Furthermore, given that AD patients show increased level of miRNAs in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, miRNAs are considered promising non-invasive candidates for AD diagnosis and prognosis. Here, we reviewed the current research related to implications of miRNAs during the development of AD, summarized of actively used approaches to identifying potential miRNA biomarkers in body fluids, and discussed the diagnostic potential of microRNAs as biomarkers for AD.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Dececchi, T. Alexander, Balhoff, J. P., Lapp, H., & Mabee, Paula M. (2015). Toward Synthesizing Our Knowledge of Morphology: Using Ontologies and Machine Reasoning to Extract Presence/Absence Evolutionary Phenotypes across Studies. Systematic Biology, 64(6), 936-952.

The reality of larger and larger molecular databases and the need to integrate data scalably have presented a major challenge for the use of phenotypic data. Morphology is currently primarily described in discrete publications, entrenched in noncomputer readable text, and requires enormous investments of time and resources to integrate across large numbers of taxa and studies. Here we present a new methodology, using ontology-based reasoning systems working with the Phenoscape Knowledgebase (KB; kb.phenoscape.org), to automatically integrate large amounts of evolutionary character state descriptions into a synthetic character matrix of neomorphic (presence/absence) data. Using the KB, which includes more than 55 studies of sarcopterygian taxa, we generated a synthetic supermatrix of 639 variable characters scored for 1051 taxa, resulting in over 145,000 populated cells. Of these characters, over 76% were made variable through the addition of inferred presence/absence states derived by machine reasoning over the formal semantics of the source ontologies. Inferred data reduced the missing data in the variable character-subset from 98.5% to 78.2%. Machine reasoning also enables the isolation of conflicts in the data, that is, cells where both presence and absence are indicated; reports regarding conflicting data provenance can be generated automatically. Further, reasoning enables quantification and new visualizations of the data, here for example, allowing identification of character space that has been undersampled across the fin-to-limb transition. The approach and methods demonstrated here to compute synthetic presence/absence supermatrices are applicable to any taxonomic and phenotypic slice across the tree of life, providing the data are semantically annotated. Because such data can also be linked to model organism genetics through computational scoring of phenotypic similarity, they open a rich set of future research questions into phenotype-to-genome relationships.

Biology Department.

Liu, Ming, & Swanson, David L. (2015). Stopover duration, movement patterns and temporary home ranges of fall migrant yellow-rumped warblers Setophaga coronata in native and anthropogenic woodlands of the Northern Prairie region, USA. Journal of Avian Biology, 46(5), 452-461.

Stopover behavior of migrant birds is influenced by their energetic condition, but also by extrinsic factors, including weather conditions and habitat attributes such as vegetation structure, microclimates, predation pressure, competition, and food availability. Anthropogenic habitats may differ from natural habitats in these attributes, which could promote differing stopover behaviors for migrants in the two habitat types and affect overall habitat suitability. We used radio-telemetry to measure stopover behaviors of fall migrant yellow-rumped warblers Setophaga coronata in native riparian corridor woodlands (corridors) and anthropogenic woodlots (woodlots) in the Northern Prairie region. We measured stopover duration, movement rate, and temporary home range size for birds in both habitat types by attaching radio-transmitters and relocating birds to either corridor (n = 17) or woodlot (n = 16) study sites. We used AIC(C) to rank null, global, and reduced models, which included habitat type, energetic condition, habitat size, year, date, and movement rate (for stopover duration analyses only) as explanatory variables. Model rankings showed that habitat type was not included in any of the top models (Delta AIC(C) < 2) for movement behavior, temporary home range size, or stopover duration, which suggests similar functional habitat quality between the two habitat types. These data add similar behavioral responses for birds in the two habitat types to similar fattening rates and stress physiology, further confirming similar suitability of native and anthropogenic woodland habitats in this region as stopover habitat. We also applied logistic regression with a model selection approach, including cloud cover, tail wind component, temperature, and barometric pressure as independent variables, and departure decision as the dependent variable, to evaluate the effects of weather variables on departure. Model selection suggested that cloud cover is a prominent factor affecting departure decisions and the other variables may also influence departure decisions of yellow-rumped warblers from inland stopover sites.

Biology Department.

Budhi, S., Wu, Chia-Ming, Zhao, D., & Koodali, Ranjit T. (2015). Investigation of Room Temperature Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide Nanoclusters Dispersed on Cubic MCM-48 Mesoporous Materials. Catalysts, 5(3), 1603-1621.

Titania containing cubic MCM-48 mesoporous materials were synthesized successfully at room temperature by a modified Stober method. The integrity of the cubic mesoporous phase was retained even at relatively high loadings of titania. The TiO2-MCM-48 materials were extensively characterized by a variety of physico-chemical techniques. The physico-chemical characterization indicate that Ti4+ ions can be substituted in framework tetrahedral positions. The relative amount of Ti4+ ions in tetrahedral position was dependent on the order of addition of the precursor. Even at relatively high loadings of titania, no distinct bulk phase of titania could be observed indicating that the titania nanoclusters are well dispersed on the high surface area mesoporous material and probably exist as amorphous nanoclusters. The TiO2-MCM-48 materials were found to exhibit 100% selectivity in the cyclohexene oxidation at room temperature in the presence of tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP) as the oxidant. The results suggest that room temperature synthesis is an attractive option for the preparation of TiO2-MCM-48 materials with interesting catalytic properties.

Chemistry Department.

Yulun, Han, Qingguo, Meng, Bakhtiyor, Rasulev, May, P. Stanley, Mary, T. Berry, & Dmitri, S. Kilin. (2015). Photofragmentation of the Gas-Phase Lanthanum IsopropylcyclopentadienylComplex: Computational Modeling vs Experiment. Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 119(44), 10838-10848.

Photofragmentationof the lanthanum isopropylcyclopentadienyl complex,La(iCp), was explored through time-dependent excited-state moleculardynamics (TDESMD), excited-state molecular dynamics (ESMD), and thermalmolecular dynamics (MD). Simulated mass spectra were extracted from ab initiomolecular dynamics simulations through a new andsimple method and compared to experimental photoionization time-of-flight(PI–TOF) mass spectra. The computational results indicate thatthe value of excitation energy and mechanism of excitation determinethe dissociation process.

Chemistry Department.

Santosh, K. (2015). g-DICE: graph mining-based document information content exploitation. International Journal on Document Analysis & Recognition, 18(4), 337-355.

In this paper, we present document information content (i.e. text fields) extraction technique via graph mining. Real-world users first provide a set of key text fields from the document image which they think are important. These fields are used to initialise a graph where nodes are labelled with the field names in addition to other features such as size, type and number of words, and edges are attributed with relative positioning between them. Such an attributed relational graph is then used to mine similar graphs from document images which are used to update the initial graph iteratively each time we extract them, to produce a graph model. Graph models, therefore, are employed in the absence of users. We have validated the proposed technique and evaluated its scientific impact on real-world industrial problem with the performance of 86.64 % precision and 90.80 % recall by considering all zones, viz. header, body and footer. More specifically, the proposed technique is well suited for table processing (i.e. extracting repeated patterns from the table) and it outperforms the state-of-the-art method by approximately more than 3 %.

Computer Science Department.

Newswander, Chad B. (2015). Administrative Character. American Review of Public Administration, 45(6), 746-759.

Managerial competence expressed in the promise of science provides administrators with a set of dispositions. In attempting to achieve such a character, the Supreme Court set up a hard look orientation that used rational means to justify the substance of administrative power. Even though this mode of operation grants legitimacy resulting from meeting a high threshold, it also began to cripple administrative reasoning and movement. When problems are multifaceted, administrative character must be given room to explore. Taking this into consideration, the court also established an alternative space rooted in a soft look that encouraged a different type of administrative character. It has done this by establishing the foundations of a legal framework that privileges deference, which allows for prudence to emerge. Rooted in classical origin and updated in modern parlance, prudence can be leveraged as a way to not only deal with questions of law but also with substance.

Political Science and Criminal Justice Department.

Pirog, Maureen, & Gerrish, Ed. (2015). Impact of the Child Support Performance and Incentive Act on child support order establishment. Children & Youth Services Review, 58, 104-117.

This paper examines the impact of the Child Support Performance and Incentive Act (CSPIA) of 1998 on the establishment of child support orders for never-married mothers who receive welfare assistance compared to those that do not. We primarily focus on the first year of motherhood after the birth of the first child. Using Survey on Income and Program Participation (SIPP) data, we find that CSPIA changed the provision of service by 12 percentage points between these two groups, largely due to a significant increase in child support orders for non-welfare families; CSPIA did not substantially alter the order establishment rate for families receiving welfare.

Political Science and Criminal Justice Department.

Hahn, Austin M., Tirabassi, Christine K., Simons, Raluca M., & Simons, Jeffrey S. (2015). Military sexual trauma, combat exposure, and negative urgency as independent predictors of PTSD and subsequent alcohol problems among OEF/OIF veterans. Psychological Services, 12(4), 378-383.

This study tested a path model of relationships between military sexual trauma (MST), combat exposure, negative urgency, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and alcohol use and related problems. The sample consisted of 86 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans who reported drinking at least one alcoholic beverage per week. PTSD mediated the relationships between MST and alcohol-related problems, negative urgency and alcohol-related problems, and combat exposure and alcohol-related problems. In addition, negative urgency had a direct effect on alcohol problems. These results indicate that MST, combat exposure, and negative urgency independently predict PTSD symptoms and PTSD symptoms mediate their relationship with alcohol-related problems. Findings support previous literature on the effect of combat exposure and negative urgency on PTSD and subsequent alcohol-related problems. The current study also contributes to the limited research regarding the relationship between MST, PSTD, and alcohol use and related problems. Clinical interventions aimed at reducing emotional dysregulation and posttraumatic stress symptomology may subsequently improve alcohol-related outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Rivera, P. M., Gonzales-Backen, M. A., Yedlin, J., Brown, E. J., Schwartz, S. J., Caraway, S. Jean, Weisskirch, R. S., Kim, S. Y., & Ham, L. S. (2015). Family Violence Exposure and Sexual Risk-Taking Among Latino Emerging Adults: The Role of Posttraumatic Stress Symptomology and Acculturative Stress. Journal of Family Violence, 30(8), 967-976.

This study proposes that posttraumatic stress symptomology and acculturative stress may further explain the relationship between family violence exposure and sexual risk-taking behaviors among Latino emerging adults (N = 1,100). A moderated mediation analysis indicated that lifetime rates of family violence exposure were positively associated with sexual risk-taking via posttraumatic stress symptomology, and this mediation significantly varied as a function of acculturative stress. Overall, the findings of the current study underscore a need for a better understanding of how family violence exposure puts Latino emerging adults at risk for aversive health outcomes and suggest the use of an ecological systemic framework that examines the interactions between family, individual, and cultural systems in relation to health risk-taking behaviors.

Psychology Department.

Simons, Jeffrey S., Joseph Clarke, C., Simons, Raluca M., & Spelman, Philip J. (2016). Marijuana consequences in a motivational context: Goal congruence reduces likelihood of taking steps toward change. Addictive Behaviors, 52, 83-90.

This study tested a model of marijuana use, problems, and motivation and barriers to change among a sample of 422 undergraduate students ages 18-25 (M=19.68, SD=1.60) who used marijuana at least once in the past 6months. We tested a structural equation model (SEM) with use motives (i.e., coping, enhancement, and expansion), perceived use utility, and gender as exogenous variables predicting marijuana use behavior (i.e., use and problems), motivation to change (i.e., problem recognition and perceived costs and benefits of change), and the ultimate outcome, taking steps to reduce marijuana use. Controlling for level of use and problems, expansion motives had a direct effect on increased perceived costs of change and enhancement motives had direct inverse effects on problem recognition and perceived benefits of change. However, the total effect of expansion motives on taking steps was not significant. The perceived role of marijuana in achieving personal strivings (i.e., use utility) was inversely associated with problem recognition, perceived benefits of change, and taking steps toward change. In contrast, coping motives, despite being associated with greater perceived costs of change, were positively associated with taking steps. Problem recognition was positively associated with both increased perceived costs and benefits of reducing marijuana use, reflecting individuals’ ambivalence about change. As expected, perceived benefits and costs of reducing use were positively and negatively associated with taking steps toward changing marijuana use, respectively. The results identify individual difference factors that contribute to motivation for change and are consistent with motivational models of change readiness. These results highlight the extent to which integration of marijuana use with personal goal achievement may interfere with taking steps to change use patterns despite associated negative consequences.

Psychology Department.

Wang, X. T., Ong, L. S., & Tan, J. (2015). Sense and sensibility of ownership: Type of ownership experience and valuation of goods. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, 58, 171-177.

This study examined how the type of ownership experience affects the valuation of a good. We hypothesized that the sense of ownership is a psychological derivative of resource acquisition and allocation. We predicted a valuation order of stable ownership or no-ownership < alternating (interchanging) ownership < sudden reversals in ownership. One hundred and sixty-six participants played an object-acquisition “game”, a computer simulation of gaining or losing the ownership of an object (e.g., a pen, a mug, or a flashlight) with different outcome sequences, preprogramed but unbeknownst to the participants. After each game, the participant valued the target object by indicating their willingness-to-pay price, if the last outcome was a loss, or willingness-to-accept price, if the last outcome was a gain. The valuation of an object was highest after experiencing a final reversal in ownership from losses to a final gain or from gains to a final loss, followed by alternating ownership and stable (patrimonial) ownership or constant non-ownership. Wins or losses are not created equal due to different trajectories in how people come to own (lose) objects. The results also suggest that loss aversion is better understood as a specific result of ownership experience. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Psychology Department.

Belcher, Harolyn, Stone, Jacqueline, McFadden, Jenese, Hemmingson, Tyler, Kreutzer, Cary, Harris, Lisa, Wheeler, Barbara, Osdel, Joanne, Avila, Margaret, Yorker, Beatrice, Hoffman, Beth, & Turner-Musa, Jocelyn. (2015). Evaluating Maternal and Child Health and Leadership Competencies of Emerging MCH Leaders: The MCHC/RISE-UP Experience. Maternal & Child Health Journal, 19(12), 2560-2567.

Purpose: This study examines maternal and child health core competencies and leadership characteristics of undergraduate students following participation in the Maternal and Child Health Careers/Research Initiatives for Student Enhancement-Undergraduate Program (MCHC/RISE-UP). MCHC/RISE-UP is a 10-week public health leadership program designed to promote diversity in public health workforce through mentored research, community engagement and advocacy, and clinical experiences for undergraduate students. Description: The MCHC/RISE-UP is a national consortium of University Centers for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities including, (1) Kennedy Krieger Institute (Kennedy Krieger, lead institution) partnering with Morgan State University, a Historically Black University, (2) the University of South Dakota partnering with Tribal Serving Institutions; and (3) the University of Southern California Children’s Hospital-Los Angeles and their partner institution, California State University Los Angeles, a Hispanic Serving Institution. Assessment: Eighty-four junior and senior undergraduates and recent baccalaureate degree students who participated in the MCHC/RISE-UP worked on 48 maternal and child health projects. Following the MCHC/RISE-UP, students demonstrated statistically significant improvements in all maternal and child health core competencies. Transformational leadership characteristics also increased (mean increase 9.4, 95 % CI 7.2-11.8; p < 0.001). At closing interview, over twice as many students endorsed a public health career goal compared to program admission (17.9 vs 57.7 %; p = 0.022). Conclusion: Multi-institutional collaborative public health leadership programs may extend the reach and recruitment of diverse students into the maternal and child health field. Experiential, didactic, and mentored learning opportunities may enhance student integration of maternal and child health competencies and transformational leadership characteristics.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

Brudvig, Jon J., & Weimer, Jill M. (2015). X MARCKS the spot: myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate in neuronal function and disease. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 9.

Intracellular protein-protein interactions are dynamic events requiring tightly regulated spatial and temporal checkpoints. But how are these spatial and temporal cues integrated to produce highly specific molecular response patterns? A helpful analogy to this process is that of a cellular map, one based on the fleeting localization and activity of various coordinating proteins that direct a wide array of interactions between key molecules. One such protein, myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) has recently emerged as an important component of this cellular map, governing a wide variety of protein interactions in every cell type within the brain. In addition to its well-documented interactions with the actin cytoskeleton, MARCKS has been found to interact with a number of other proteins involved in processes ranging from intracellular signaling to process outgrowth. Here, we will explore these diverse interactions and their role in an array of brain-specific functions that have important implications for many neurological conditions.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Gawecka, Joanna E., Boaz, Segal, Kasperson, Kay, Hieu, Nguyen, Evenson, Donald P., Ward, W. Steven, & Nguyen, Hieu. (2015). Luminal fluid of epididymis and vas deferens contributes to sperm chromatin fragmentation. Human Reproduction, 30(12), 2725-2736.

Study Question: </bold>Do the luminal fluids of the epididymis and the vas deferens contribute to sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF) in mice?<bold>Summary Answer: </bold>The luminal fluids of both organs are required for activating SCF in mice, but the vas deferens luminal fluid does this more efficiently than that of the epididymis.<bold>What Is Known Already: </bold>Mice sperm have the ability to degrade their DNA in an apoptotic-like fashion when treated with divalent cations in a process termed SCF. SCF has two steps: the induction of reversible double-strand DNA breaks at the nuclear matrix attachment sites, followed by the irreversible degradation of DNA by nuclease. Single stranded DNA breaks accompany SCF.<bold>Study Design, Size, Duration: </bold>Luminal fluids from two reproductive organs of the mouse (B6D2F1 strain), the epididymis and vas deferens, were extracted and tested for SCF activation with divalent cations using four different combinations of the sperm and the surrounding luminal fluids: (i) in situ-sperm were kept in their luminal fluid and activated directly; (ii) reconstituted-sperm were centrifuged and resuspended in their luminal fluid before SCF activation; (iii) mixed-sperm were centrifuged and resuspended in the luminal fluid of the other organ; (iv) no luminal fluid-sperm were centrifuged and reconstituted in buffer. All four experiments were performed without (controls) and with divalent cations (resulting in SCF). For each experimental condition, two different mice were used and the analyses averaged.<bold>Participants/materials, Setting, Methods: </bold>DNA damage by SCF was analyzed by three different methods, the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis and field inversion gel electrophoresis.<bold>Main Results and the Role Of Chance: </bold>In all three assays that we used, the vas deferens luminal fluid was much more efficient in stimulating SCF in the sperm from either source than that of the epididymis (P < 0.0001). Vas deferens sperm were capable of initiating lower levels of SCF in the absence of luminal fluid (P < 0.0001).<bold>Limitations, Reasons For Caution: </bold>Analyses were performed in only one species, the mouse, but we used three separate assays in our analysis.<bold>Wider Implications Of the Findings: </bold>The data suggest that the luminal fluid of the male reproductive tract interacts with sperm during their transit providing a mechanism to degrade the DNA. We hypothesize that this is part of an apoptotic-like mechanism that allows the reproductive tract to eliminate defective sperm. The SCF model also allowed us to identify differences in the types of DNA lesions that the three tests can identify, providing important background information for the use of these tests clinically.<bold>Study Funding/competing Interests: </bold>Funding was obtained from the National Institutes of Health, USA Grant HD060722 to W.S.W. and SCSA Diagnostics, Brookings, SD, USA.Two of the authors work for SCSA Diagnostics, and one owns the company and the patents.<bold>Trial Registration Number: </bold>Trial registration number is only required for clinical trials.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Kovács, Attila D., Hof, Caitlin, & Pearce, David A. (2015). Abnormally increased surface expression of AMPA receptors in the cerebellum, cortex and striatum of Cln3−/− mice. Neuroscience Letters, 607, 29-34.

Mutations in the CLN3 gene cause a fatal neurodegenerative disorder, juvenile CLN3 disease. Exploring the cause of the motor coordination deficit in the Cln3 −/− mouse model of the disease we have previously found that attenuation of AMPA receptor activity in 1-month-old Cln3 −/− mice significantly improves their motor coordination [20] . To elucidate the mechanism of the abnormally increased AMPA receptor function in Cln3 −/− mice, we examined the surface expression of AMPA receptors using surface cross-linking in brain slices from 1-month-old wild type (WT) and Cln3 −/− mice. In surface cross-linked brain samples, Western blotting for AMPA receptor subunits revealed significantly increased surface levels of GluA1 and GluA2 in the cerebellum, and of GluA2 in the cortex and striatum of Cln3 −/− mice as compared to WT mice. Expression levels of the GluA4 subunit were similar in the cerebellum of WT and Cln3 −/− mice. While intracellular GluA1 levels in the WT and Cln3 −/− cerebellum or cortex were similar, the intracellular expression of GluA1 in the Cln3 −/− striatum was decreased to 56% of the WT level. Our results show a prominent increase in AMPA receptor surface expression in the brain of Cln3 −/− mice and suggest that CLN3 is involved in the regulation of AMPA receptor surface expression.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Larson, Eric A., & Wilke, R. A. (2015). Integration of Genomics in Primary Care. American Journal of Medicine, 128(11).

Primary care is changing rapidly. The wide-scale expansion of electronic medical records is redefining the way we approach chronic disease management, and automated decision support is increasingly being leveraged to reduce risk and optimize quality. Many of these interventions are now beginning to integrate genomic data. We explore the convergence of these 2 forces (expansion of clinical informatics and integration of translational genomics), and we highlight several applications where these forces are helping our patients avoid potentially preventable events. Because gene-environment interactions are dynamic, the utility of gene-based decision support varies over time. Primary care providers will serve a key role as our patients navigate these changes. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

May, Philip A., Keaster, C., Bozeman, R., Goodover, J., Blankenship, J., …., & Hoyme, H. Eugene. (2015). Prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome and partial fetal alcohol syndrome in a Rocky Mountain Region City. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 155, 118-127.

Background: The prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) in the United States (US) are not well known. Methods: This active case ascertainment study in a Rocky Mountain Region City assessed the prevalence and traits of children with FAS and PFAS and linked them to maternal risk factors. Diagnoses made by expert clinical dysmorphologists in multidisciplinary case conferences utilized all components of the study: dysmorphology and physical growth, neurobehavior, and maternal risk interviews. Results: Direct parental (active) consent was obtained for 1278 children. Averages for key physical diagnostic traits and several other minor anomalies were significantly different among FAS, PFAS, and randomly-selected, normal controls. Cognitive tests and behavioral checklists discriminated the diagnostic groups from controls on 12 of 14 instruments. Mothers of children with FAS and PFAS were significantly lower in educational attainment, shorter, later in pregnancy recognition, and suffered more depression, and used marijuana and methamphetamine during their pregnancy. Most pre-pregnancy and pregnancy drinking measures were worse for mothers of FAS and PFAS. Excluding a significant difference in simply admitting drinking during the index pregnancy (FAS and PFAS = 75% vs. 39.4% for controls), most quantitative intergroup differences merely approached significance. This community’s prevalence of FAS is 2.9-7.5 per 1000, PFAS is 7.9-17.7 per 1000, and combined prevalence is 10.9-25.2 per 1000 or 1.1-15%. Conclusions: Comprehensive, active case ascertainment methods produced rates of FAS and PFAS higher than predicted by long-standing, popular estimates. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Miller, Ross A., Mody, Dina R., Tams, Kimberlee C., & Thrall, Michael J. (2015). Glandular Lesions of the Cervix in Clinical Practice. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 139(11), 1431-1436.

Context.–The Papanicolaou (Pap) test has indisputably decreased cervical cancer mortality, as rates have declined by up to 80% in the United States since its implementation. However, the Pap test is considered less sensitive for detecting glandular lesions than for detecting those of squamous origin. Some studies have even suggested an increasing incidence of cervical adenocarcinoma, which may be a consequence of a relatively reduced ability to detect glandular lesions with cervical cancer screening techniques. Objective.–To evaluate the detection rate of glandular lesions with screening techniques currently used for cervical cancer screening and to provide insight as to which techniques are most efficacious in our study population. Design.–We retrospectively reviewed any available cytology, human papillomavirus (HPV), and histologic malignancy data in patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma in situ and adenocarcinoma from 2 geographically and socioeconomically disparate hospital systems. Identified patients having had a negative/unsatisfactory Pap test within 5 years of adenocarcinoma in situ or adenocarcinoma tissue diagnosis were considered Pap test screening failures. Patients with negative HPV tests on cytology samples were considered HPV screening failures. Results.–One hundred thirty cases were identified (age range, 22-93 years); 39 (30%) had no Pap history in our files. Eight of 91 remaining cases (8.8%) were screening failures. The detected sensitivity for identifying adenocarcinoma in situ/adenocarcinoma in this study was 91.2% by cytology alone and 92.3% when incorporating HPV testing. The most common cytologic diagnosis was atypical glandular cells (25 cases), and those diagnosed with adenocarcinoma were 7.4 years older than those diagnosed with adenocarcinoma in situ (50.3 versus 42.9 years). Nine of 24 HPV-tested cases (37.5%) were called atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance on cytology. Conclusions.–Our results highlight the importance of combined Pap and HPV cotesting. Although the number of cases identified is relatively small, our data suggest screening for squamous lesions facilitates the recognition of glandular lesions in the cervix. Additionally, increased use of combined Pap and HPV cotesting may decrease detection failure rates with regard to glandular lesions.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Song, Xue, Posgai, Amanda, Wasserfall, Clive, Myhr, Courtney, …., Rabinovitch, Alex, Savinov, Alexei, Battaglia, Manuela, Schatz, Desmond, Haller, Michael, Atkinson, Mark A., & Xue, Song. (2015). Combination Therapy Reverses Hyperglycemia in NOD Mice With Established Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes, 64(11), 3873-3884.

An increasing number of therapies have proven effective at reversing hyperglycemia in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes (T1D), yet situations of successful translation to human T1D are limited. This may be partly due to evaluating the effect of treating immediately at diagnosis in mice, which may not be reflective of the advanced disease state in humans at disease onset. In this study, we treated NOD mice with new-onset as well as established disease using various combinations of four drugs: antithymocyte globulin (ATG), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor (DPP-4i), and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). Therapy with all four drugs induced remission in 83% of new-onset mice and, remarkably, in 50% of NOD mice with established disease. Also noteworthy, disease remission occurred irrespective of initial blood glucose values and mechanistically was characterized by enhanced immunoregulation involving alterations in CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, and natural killer cells. This combination therapy also allowed for effective treatment at reduced drug doses (compared with effective monotherapy), thereby minimizing potential adverse effects while retaining efficacy. This combination of approved drugs demonstrates a novel ability to reverse T1D, thereby warranting translational consideration.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Xue, S., Posgai, A., Wasserfall, C., Myhr, C., Campbell-Thompson, M., Mathews, C. E., Brusko, T., Rabinovitch, Alex, Sayinov, Alexi, Battaglia, M., Schatz, D., Haller, M., & Atkinson, M. A. (2015). Combination Therapy Reverses Hyperglycemia in NOD Mice With Established Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes, 64(11), 3873-3884.

An increasing number of therapies have proven effective at reversing hyperglycemia in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes (T1D), yet situations of successful translation to human T1D are limited. This may be partly due to evaluating the effect of treating immediately at diagnosis in mice, which may not be reflective of the advanced disease state in humans at disease onset. In this study, we treated NOD mice with new-onset as well as established disease using various combinations of four drugs: antithymocyte globulin (ATG), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor (DPP-4i), and a proton pump inhibitor (PP. Therapy with all four drugs induced remission in 83% of new-onset mice and, remarkably, in 50% of NOD mice with established disease. Also noteworthy, disease remission occurred irrespective of initial blood glucose values and mechanistically was characterized by enhanced immunoregulation involving alterations in CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, and natural killer cells. This combination therapy also allowed for effective treatment at reduced drug doses (compared with effective monotherapy), thereby minimizing potential adverse effects while retaining efficacy. This combination of approved drugs demonstrates a novel ability to reverse T1D, thereby warranting translational consideration.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Roh, Soonhee, Brown-Rice, Kathleen A., Lee, K. H., Lee, Y. S., Yee-Melichar, D., & Talbot, E. P. (2015). Attitudes Toward Mental Health Services Among American Indians by Two Age Groups. Community Mental Health Journal, 51(8), 970-977.

This study examined determinants of attitudes toward mental health services with a sample of American Indian younger-old-adults (aged 50-64, n = 158) and American Indian older-old adults (aged 65 and older, n = 69). Adapting Andersen’s behavioral model of healthcare utilization, predisposing factors, mental health needs, and enabling factors were considered as potential predictors. Female and those with higher levels of social support tend to report more positive attitudes toward mental health services. Culture-influenced personal belief was associated with negative attitudes toward mental health services among American Indian younger-old -adults. Age and higher chronic medical conditions were significantly related to negative attitudes toward mental health services. Health insurance was positively associated with positive attitudes toward mental health services in the American Indian older-old adults. Findings indicate that practitioners should engage how culture, social support, and chronic conditions influence the response to mental health needs when working with older American Indians.

School of Health Sciences

School of Education

Cross, S. L., Drywater-Whitekiller, V., Holder, L. A., Norris, Debra, Caringi, J., & Trautman, A. (2015). NCWWI Tribal Traineeship Programs: Promoting Diversity in the Child Welfare Workforce. Journal of Social Work Education, 51, S225-S238.

Twelve universities and one American Indian (AI) tribal college were selected for the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute’s 5-year stipend traineeship program. These tribal traineeships were designed to provide social work child welfare education for tribal and nontribal students. Twenty-two AI students and 58 nontribal students completed a bachelor or master’s of social work degree. The students’ field placements were in tribal agencies or public agencies that served a segment of the AI population. These programs were enhanced through the use of valuable relationships (i.e., partnerships, mentorships, allies), and cultural competence was a key aspect of the students’ education. The students’ education was enriched with a specific child welfare curriculum, cultural teachings, tribal traineeship collaborations, and tribal community events.

School of Health Sciences.

Isaacson, Mary, Karel, Beth, Varilek, Brandon M., Steenstra, Whitney J., Tanis-Heyenga, Jordan P., & Wagner, Amanda. (2015). Insights From Health Care Professionals Regarding Palliative Care Options on South Dakota Reservations. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 26(5), 473-479.

Purpose: Palliative care options are limited for Native Americans (NA) in South Dakota (SD). This exploratory study offers the perspectives of Native and non-Native health care professionals regarding palliative care specific to NAs. Design: Semi-structured interviews were conducted (N = 7) with participants representing NA (4) and non-Native (3) ethnicities. NonNative participants were practicing health care professionals in palliative medicine, whereas the NA health care professionals had experience with palliative care. Findings: Concept analysis revealed two main themes and five subthemes: (a) barriers to palliative care, for example, insufficient funding, lack of infrastructure, and misconceptions; and (b) implementation strategies, for example, openness and listening and creating the right team. Discussion: Genuine interest and concern exists for the provision of palliative care to NA communities using collaborative and innovative approaches. Implications: To address the health disparities of the NA population specific to palliative care, public health policy reform and education for health professionals are necessary.

School of Health Sciences.

Louw, Adriaan, Puentedura, Emilio J., & Zimney, Kory. (2015). A clinical contrast: physical therapists with low back pain treating patients with low back pain. Physiotherapy Theory & Practice, 31(8), 562-567.

Patients with low back pain (LBP) often display faulty beliefs and cognitions regarding their pain experience. Pain neuroscience education (PNE) aims to alter the pain experience by targeting these faulty beliefs and cognitions. One PNE strategy aims specifically to reframe commonly held beliefs about tissues by patients with LBP as the single source of pain. In line with this reasoning, it is hypothesized that physical therapists (PT) treating patients with LBP may indeed experience similar, if not worse, pain experiences while treating a patient with LBP. To date, this assumption has never been studied. A PT LBP questionnaire was developed, validated and distributed to a convenience sample of attendees of an international PT conference. One-hundred and ten PTs completed the questionnaire for a 71% response rate. Ninety percent of the PTs reported having experienced LBP, with 27% at the conference experiencing LBP at the time. Of the PTs that have experienced LBP 75% reported not having received any imaging; 81% no formal diagnoses, 58% no treatment and 86% not having missed work due to LBP. Eighty-six percent of therapists reported having experienced LBP while treating a patient with LBP, with 50% convinced their LBP was higher than the LBP experienced by the patient they were treating. The results from this study indicate PTs often treat patients with LBP while suffering LBP. It is suggested that this knowledge may potentially help patients with LBP reconceptualize their LBP experience leading to expedited recovery.

School of Health Sciences.

Riebschleger, J., Norris, Debra, Pierce, B., Pond, D. L., & Cummings, C. (2015). Preparing Social Work Students for Rural Child Welfare Practice: Emerging Curriculum Competencies. Journal of Social Work Education, 51, S209-S224.

Multiple issues that are unique to child welfare social work practice in rural areas markedly affect workforce recruitment and retention, yet little attention is given to the proficiencies needed to equip emerging social workers for this growing area of the field. Curriculum content is needed that provides students with the opportunity to master the skills needed to thrive as child welfare social workers in rural areas. Using an evidence-based practice critical thinking model as a guide, a systematic review of literature and documents addresses many of the competencies needed to prepare social work students for child welfare practice in rural areas. These competencies are identified. Suggestions for integration into the social work curriculum are offered.

School of Health Sciences.

Roh, Soonhee, Kim, Youseung, Lee, Kyoung Hag, Lee, Yeon-Shim, Burnette, Catherine E., & Lawler, Michael J. (2015). Religion, Social Support, and Life Satisfaction Among American Indian Older Adults. Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work, 34(4), 414-434.

This study examined the associations among religion, social support, and life satisfaction with 233 older American Indians in the Northern Plains region. Hierarchical regression indicated that those with higher religiousness and greater social support were found to have greater life satisfaction. Findings suggest that religion and social support provide promising pathways to build upon existing strengths to ameliorate mental health disparities. Health professionals must be sensitive to the complexities of religion and social support, and consider ways to incorporate cultural practices into health education and interventions to promote the quality of life for older American Indians.

School of Health Sciences.

 

 

 

 

 

Posted by: reganenosusd | October 15, 2015

October 2015

Baack, Michelle L., Susan E. Puumala, Stephen E. Messier, Deborah K. Pritchett, & William S. Harris. (2015). What is the relationship between gestational age and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) levels? Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 100, 5-11.

Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are increasingly transferred from mother to fetus late in pregnancy. Infants born before this transfer is complete are at risk for deficiency. This study determines the relationship between gestational age (GA) and circulating LCPUFA levels to better understand the unique needs of premature infants born at various GAs. Whole blood was collected within the first 7 days of life from 60 preterm ( 34 weeks GA) and 30 term infants (<= 38 weeks GA) and FA levels were analyzed. Since concurrent intravenous lipid emulsion can skew composition data, blood LCPUFA concentrations were also measured. Levels were compared among groups, and linear regression models were used to examine the association between FA composition and GA. Preterm infants had significantly lower DHA and ARA levels than term peers, and whether assessed as concentrations or compositions, both directly correlated with GA (p < 0.0001). Moreover, FA comparisons suggest that premature infants have impaired synthesis of LCPUFAs from precursors and may require preformed DHA and ARA. This study confirms that essential FA status is strongly related to GA, and that those babies born the earliest are at the greatest risk of LCPUFA deficiency. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Dahdul, Wasila, T. Alexander Dececchi, N. Ibrahim, H. Lapp, & Paula Mabee. (2015). Moving the mountain: analysis of the effort required to transform comparative anatomy into computable anatomy. Database-the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation, 7.

The diverse phenotypes of living organisms have been described for centuries, and though they may be digitized, they are not readily available in a computable form. Using over 100 morphological studies, the Phenoscape project has demonstrated that by annotating characters with community ontology terms, links between novel species anatomy and the genes that may underlie them can be made. But given the enormity of the legacy literature, how can this largely unexploited wealth of descriptive data be rendered amenable to large-scale computation? To identify the bottlenecks, we quantified the time involved in the major aspects of phenotype curation as we annotated characters from the vertebrate phylogenetic systematics literature. This involves attaching fully computable logical expressions consisting of ontology terms to the descriptions in character-bytaxon matrices. The workflow consists of: (i) data preparation, (ii) phenotype annotation, (iii) ontology development and (iv) curation team discussions and software development feedback. Our results showed that the completion of this work required two person-years by a team of two post-docs, a lead data curator, and students. Manual data preparation required close to 13% of the effort. This part in particular could be reduced substantially with better community data practices, such as depositing fully populated matrices in public repositories. Phenotype annotation required similar to 40% of the effort. We are working to make this more efficient with Natural Language Processing tools. Ontology development (40%), however, remains a highly manual task requiring domain (anatomical) expertise and use of specialized software. The large overhead required for data preparation and ontology development contributed to a low annotation rate of approximately two characters per hour, compared with 14 characters per hour when activity was restricted to character annotation. Unlocking the potential of the vast stores of morphological descriptions requires better tools for efficiently processing natural language, and better community practices towards a born-digital morphology.

Biology Department.

Wang, Guojian, Mark Amman, Hao Mei, Dongming Mei, Klaus Irmscher, Yutong Guan, & Gang Yang. (2015). Crystal growth and detector performance of large size High-purity Ge crystals. Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 39, 54-60.

High-purity germanium crystals approximately 12 cm in diameter were grown in a hydrogen atmosphere using the Czochralski method. The dislocation density of the crystals was determined to be in the range of 2000–4200 cm −2 , which meets a requirement for use as a radiation detector. The axial and radial distributions of impurities in the crystals were measured and are discussed. A planar detector was also fabricated from one of the crystals and then evaluated for electrical and spectral performance. Measurements of gamma-ray spectra from Cs-137 and Am-241 sources demonstrate that the detector has excellent energy resolution.

Physics Department.

Balasanthiran, Choumini, Bo Zhao, Cuikon Lin, P. Stanley May, Mary T. Berry, & James D. Hoefelmeyer. (2015). Self-limiting adsorption of Eu3+ on the surface of rod-shape anatase TiO2 nanocrystals and post-synthetic sensitization of the europium-based emission. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 459, 63-69.

The surface of oleic acid stabilized rod-shape anatase TiO2 nanocrystals was modified by adsorption of Eu3+ ions. The Eu3+ attachment showed Langmuir adsorption behavior, thus the loading of Eu3+ could be controlled precisely up to surface saturation coverage. The Eu3+-TiO2 nanorods show weak Eu3+ based luminescence. However, addition of thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA) leads to coordination of the ligand to the Eu3+ centers and the TTFA-Eu3+-TiO2 materials exhibit strong Eu3+ fluorescence sensitized by the TTFA ligand. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

Richardson, Maurine V., Margaret B. Miller, James A. Richardson, & Mary Kathleen Sacks. (2015). LITERARY BAGS TO ENCOURAGE FAMILY INVOLVEMENT. Reading Improvement, 52(3), 126-131.

The article focuses on the use of literacy bags by the parents for early child’s language and literacy development. It mentions the use of several literacy bags according to different grade levels which include Book Bags, which are like a writing briefcase, Family Literacy Bags, which have a parent letter attached to it and Bluebird Baggage, which could be used by second and third graders.

School of Education [all 3 USD authors are emeritus faculty members]

Horton, Thomas J. (2015). Efficiencies and Antitrust Reconsidered: An Evolutionary Perspective. Antitrust Bulletin, 60(2), 168-187.

The author reconsiders the issue of efficiencies and antitrust from the perspectives of evolutionary biology and the growing field of evolutionary economics. He begins by discussing how the term efficiency as currently used in antitrust today is more of a term of social science and economic ideology than a meaningful scientific concept. He then moves on to address how the lessons of evolutionary biology and economics, including the need for systemic diversity and unremitting competition at all systemic levels, can be applied to structural antitrust and efficiencies analyses. The author concludes that it is time to bring fresh perspectives to the study of efficiencies and antitrust. He recommends a series of reforms, including increased and more aggressive enforcement against horizontal mergers between competitors; renewed interest in vertical mergers and agreements; and more aggressive guarding of competitive diversity and opportunity against unfair predatory conduct by dominant firms, monopolies, and oligopolies.

School of Law.

Brown-Rice, Kathleen, & Susan Furr. (2015). Gatekeeping Ourselves: Counselor Educators’ Knowledge of Colleagues’ Problematic Behaviors. Counselor Education & Supervision, 54(3), 176-188.

Counselor educators in programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs ( N = 335) were surveyed about their knowledge of colleagues’ problems of professional competency (PPC). Findings suggest most participants are aware of colleagues with PPC. Professional behavior standards must be developed for those entrusted with counselor preparation.

School of Education.

Battaglia, Agatino, J. C. Carey, & S. T. South. (2015). Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome: A review and update. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C-Seminars in Medical Genetics, 169(3), 216-223.

Since 4p- was first described in 1961, significant progress has been made in our understanding of this classic deletion disorder. We have been able to establish a more complete picture of the WHS phenotype associated with distal 4p monosomy, and we are working to delineate the phenotypic effects when each gene on distal 4p is hemizygous. Our aim is to provide genotype-specific anticipatory guidance and recommendations to families of individuals with a diagnosis of WHS. In addition, establishing the molecular underpinnings of the disorder will potentially suggest targets for molecular treatments. Thus, the next step is to determine the precise effects of specific gene deletions. As we look forward to deepening our understanding of distal 4p deletion, our focus will continue to be on the establishment of robust genotype-phenotype correlations and the penetrance of these phenotypes. We will continue to follow our WHS cohort closely as they age to determine the presence or absence of some of these comorbidities, including hepatic neoplasms, hematopoietic dysfunction, and recurrence of seizures. We will also continue to refine the critical regions for other phenotypes as we enroll additional (hopefully informative) participants into the research study and as the mechanisms of the genes in these regions are elucidated. New animal models will also be developed to further our understanding of the effects of hemizygosity as well as to serve as models for treatment development. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Davis, Dona L., A. Maurstad, & S. Dean. (2015). My Horse Is My Therapist: The Medicalization of Pleasure among Women Equestrians. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 29(3), 298-315.

Pink t-shirts that proclaim My horse is my therapist are for sale in a wide variety of horse-sport catalogues. Literature on the healing power of human-nonhuman animal encounters and the practice of a variety of animal-assisted therapy programs, such as hippotherapy and equine-facilitated therapy, show dramatic growth over the last 30 years. Less attention is paid to the role that horse-human interactions may play in more popular accountings of well-being and impairment among a sample of everyday riders. Analysis of 50 lifecycle narratives, collected from accomplished but nonprofessional equestriennes, demonstrates the complex and ambiguous ways in which women draw from their experience of human-horse relationships as they challenge and transgress the borderlands between pleasure and impairment. Combining the perspectives of multispecies ethnography and medical anthropology that engages the complexities of well-being, analysis is informed by and contributes to recent controversies concerning the medicalization of normality and pleasure in DSM 5.

Anthropology and Sociology Department [Emeritus].

Davis, Drew R., J. L. Watters, G. Kohler, C. Whitsett, N. A. Huron, R. M. Brown, . . . C. D. Siler. (2015). Redescription of the rare Philippine false gecko Pseudogekko brevipes (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) and description of a new species. Zootaxa, 4020(2), 357-374.

Recent investigations into the species diversity of false geckos (genus Pseudogekko Taylor) have revealed several cryptic species, highlighting the need for a more thorough understanding of diversity within this enigmatic genus of endemic Philippine geckos. Newly available genetic data reveal that two of the four currently recognized species are complexes of multiple deeply divergent evolutionary lineages. In this paper we evaluate species diversity in one of these complexes, P. brevipes Boettger, and describe one additional new species. For nearly a century, P. brevipes has been recognized as a single, “widespread” species with a geographic range spanning two major faunal regions and several island groups. Poor understanding of this species has persisted due to both limited sampling and its apparent rarity. We evaluate both morphological and genetic data to define species limits in P. brevipes, and find character-based evidence to justify the recognition of two unique evolutionary lineages, one of which we describe as a new species (P. atiorum sp. nov.). The species included in this study have allopatric distributions and differ from congeners by numerous diagnostic characters of external morphology, and therefore should be recognized as full species in accordance with lineage-based species concepts. This newly described species increases the total number of species of Pseudogekko to seven.

Biology Department.

Foss, Berit L., Niranjan Ghimire, Ruogu Tang, Yuyu Sun, & Ying Deng. (2015). Bacteria and osteoblast adhesion to chitosan immobilized titanium surface: A race for the surface. Colloids & Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 134, 370-376.

In order to evaluate the anti-infective efficacy of the titanium implant materials, two co-culture systems, a low-bacteria/osteoblast (L-B) and a high-bacteria/osteoblast system (H-B), were established. Untreated (UN-Ti), sulfuric acid-treated (SA-Ti), and chitosan immobilized titanium (SA-CS-Ti) materials were developed and evaluated. Bacteria and osteoblast behaviors, including initial attachment (evaluated at 30 mins), adhesion (evaluated at 4 h), and osteoblast spreading on each material surface were evaluated using quantification assays, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and confocal microscopy. Quantification analysis at 30 mins showed significantly higher number of osteoblast present on SA-CS-Ti in both L-B (10,083 ± 2626) and H-B (23,592 ± 2233) than those on the UN-Ti ( p < 0.05). SEM observation and confocal microscopy results showed more surface area was occupied by adhered osteoblasts on SA-CS-Ti than UN-Ti and SA-Ti in both co-culture systems at 30 mins. At all time points, SA-CS-Ti had the lowest level of bacterial adhesion compared to UN-Ti and SA-Ti in both co-culture systems. A significantly ( p < 0.05) lower number of bacteria were recovered from SA-CS-Ti (2233 ± 681) in the H-B system compared to UN-Ti (5367 ± 1662) and SA-Ti (4533 ± 680) at 4 h. Quantitative and qualitative co-culture results show the great potential of chitosan immobilization onto implant materials to prevent implant-associated infections.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

Simons, Raluca M., Austin M. Hahn, Jeffrey S. Simons, & Sam Gaster. (2015). Control and Alcohol-Problem Recognition Among College Students. Journal of American College Health, 63(6), 373-379.

Objective: This study examined negative control (ie, perceived lack of control over life outcomes) and need for control as predictors of alcohol-problem recognition, evaluations (good/ bad), and expectancies (likely/unlikely) among college students. The study also explored the interaction between the need for control and alcohol consumption in alcohol-related outcomes. Participants: Participants were a convenience sample of 500 college students from a rural Midwest university. Data were collected during the 2009-2010 academic year. Methods: Participants completed a survey assessing control and alcohol-problem recognition, evaluations, and expectancies. Results: Negative control demonstrated a significant positive association with alcohol-problem recognition, evaluations, and expectancies after controlling for gender and alcohol consumption. Need for control did not have a main effect. However, the interaction was significant in that the association between need for control and negative evaluation of alcohol problems was strongest among participants with the highest levels of alcohol consumption. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that individuals’ differences in sense of control are associated with alcohol-problem recognition, evaluations, and expectancies in young adults.

Psychology Department.

Larson, Katie E., & Maria Carrillo-Marquez. (2015). Endogenous methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus endophthalmitis after leg trauma. Journal of Aapos, 19(4), 387-389.

We present a case of endogenous endophthalmitis in a 13-year-old boy with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sepsis. The patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain after intermittent anisocoria was noted on examination, leading to a diagnosis of endophthalmitis with a chorodial abscess.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Roh, Soonhee, Lee Yeon-Shim, Kim Youseung, Park So-Young, & Chaudhuri Anoshua. (2015). Gender Differences in the Roles of Religious Support and Social Network Support in Reducing Depressive Symptoms Among Older Korean Americans. Journal of Social Service Research, 41(4), 484-497.

This study examined gender differences in the interaction effects of religious support and social network support on depressive symptoms among older Korean Americans. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 85 Korean American women and 115 Korean American men aged 65 years or older living in New York City. A 2-step hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that the associations between religious support, social network support, and depressive symptoms were different for older Korean men and women. Among men, social network support was identified as a strong predictor for depressive symptoms. Conversely, religious support was identified as a predictor for depressive symptoms among women. The interaction between social network support and religious support was found to be statistically significant only for women. Additionally, the association of social networks with fewer depressive symptoms was stronger for women with high religious support. Our findings highlight the importance of gender differences in understanding psychological effects of social network support within a religious-cultural context and the need for geriatric practitioners to assess carefully the quality and types of social support systems. Further studies are needed to identify common and gender-specific risk/protective factors among older Korean Americans to develop gender-targeted preventions and interventions to improve their psychological well-being.

School of Health Sciences.

Bubak, Andrew N., Nathaniel S. Rieger, Michael J. Watt, Kenneth J. Renner, & John G. Swallow. (2015). David vs. Goliath: Serotonin modulates opponent perception between smaller and larger rivals. Behavioural Brain Research, 292, 521-527.

During agonistic encounters, the perception of a larger opponent through morphological signaling typically suppresses aggression in the smaller individual, preventing contest intensity escalation. However, non-morphological factors such as central serotonin (5-HT) activity can influence individual aggression, potentially altering contest intensity despite initial size discrepancies. When male stalk-eyed flies ( Teleopsis dalmanni ) fight, contest escalation is directly proportional to similarity in body size, with escalation being lower in size-mismatched contests. We have shown that both high-intensity aggression and the probability of winning are increased in males with pharmacologically elevated 5-HT relative to size-matched non-treated opponents. Here, we hypothesized that, in size-mismatched contests, increasing brain 5-HT in the smaller opponent could similarly increase aggression and counteract the low contest intensity normally driven by size discrepancy. Size-mismatched male pairs (greater than 5% difference in eyestalk length) engaged in a forced fight paradigm, with the smaller fly either untreated or with pharmacologically elevated 5-HT levels. The expression of high-intensity aggressive behaviors was significantly increased in smaller treated opponents, but the probability of winning was not altered. This suggests that while elevated serotonergic activity can increase aggression and intensity despite perception of a larger opponent, this is not sufficient to overcome size biases with respect to contest outcome. However, the fact that larger opponents continued to win against smaller treated flies was not simply a function of size. Instead, untreated larger males adjusted their fighting strategy to match the increased aggression of their smaller treated opponent, suggesting contextual flexibility in behavior based on individual opponent assessment.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Manda, P., J. P. Balhoff, H. Lapp, Paula Mabee, & T. J. Vision. (2015). Using the phenoscape knowledgebase to relate genetic perturbations to phenotypic evolution. Genesis, 53(8), 561-571.

The abundance of phenotypic diversity among species can enrich our knowledge of development and genetics beyond the limits of variation that can be observed in model organisms. The Phenoscape Knowledgebase (KB) is designed to enable exploration and discovery of phenotypic variation among species. Because phenotypes in the KB are annotated using standard ontologies, evolutionary phenotypes can be compared with phenotypes from genetic perturbations in model organisms. To illustrate the power of this approach, we review the use of the KB to find taxa showing evolutionary variation similar to that of a query gene. Matches are made between the full set of phenotypes described for a gene and an evolutionary profile, the latter of which is defined as the set of phenotypes that are variable among the daughters of any node on the taxonomic tree. Phenoscape’s semantic similarity interface allows the user to assess the statistical significance of each match and flags matches that may only result from differences in annotation coverage between genetic and evolutionary studies. Tools such as this will help meet the challenge of relating the growing volume of genetic knowledge in model organisms to the diversity of phenotypes in nature. The Phenoscape KB is available at . genesis 53:561-571, 2015. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Biology Department.

Muthusamy, N., L. J. Sommerville, …., Jill M. Weimer, & H. T. Ghashghaei. (2015). MARCKS-dependent mucin clearance and lipid metabolism in ependymal cells are required for maintenance of forebrain homeostasis during aging. Aging Cell, 14(5), 764-773.

Ependymal cells (ECs) form a barrier responsible for selective movement of fluids and molecules between the cerebrospinal fluid and the central nervous system. Here, we demonstrate that metabolic and barrier functions in ECs decline significantly during aging in mice. The longevity of these functions in part requires the expression of the myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate (MARCKS). Both the expression levels and subcellular localization of MARCKS in ECs are markedly transformed during aging. Conditional deletion of MARCKS in ECs induces intracellular accumulation of mucins, elevated oxidative stress, and lipid droplet buildup. These alterations are concomitant with precocious disruption of ependymal barrier function, which results in the elevation of reactive astrocytes, microglia, and macrophages in the interstitial brain tissue of young mutant mice. Interestingly, similar alterations are observed during normal aging in ECs and the forebrain interstitium. Our findings constitute a conceptually new paradigm in the potential role of ECs in the initiation of various conditions and diseases in the aging brain.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Zhang, Yufeng, Marisa O. King, Erin Harmon, Kathleen Eyster, & David L. Swanson. (2015). Migration-induced variation of fatty acid transporters and cellular metabolic intensity in passerine birds. Journal of Comparative Physiology B-Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology, 185(7), 797-810.

Because lipids are the main fuel supporting avian endurance activity, lipid transport and oxidation capacities may increase during migration. We measured enzyme activities, mRNA expression and protein levels in pectoralis and heart for several key steps of lipid transport and catabolism pathways to investigate whether these pathways were upregulated during migration. We used yellow-rumped (Setophaga coronata) and yellow (S. petechia) warblers and warbling vireos (Vireo gilvus) as study species because they all show migration-induced increases in organismal metabolic capacities. For yellow-rumped warblers, beta-hydroxyacyl CoA-dehydrogenase (HOAD) activities and fatty acid transporter mRNA and/or protein levels were higher during spring than fall in pectoralis and heart, except that fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) protein levels showed the opposite pattern in heart. Lipid transporter protein levels, but not mRNA expression, in pectoralis and heart of warbling vireos were higher either during spring or fall than summer, but this was not true for HOAD activities. For yellow warblers, pectoralis, but not heart, protein levels of lipid transporters were upregulated during migration relative to summer, but this pattern was not evident for mRNA expression or HOAD activity. Finally, muscle and heart citrate synthase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase activities showed little seasonal variation for any species. These data suggest that pectoralis and heart lipid transport and catabolism capacities are often, but not universally, important correlates of elevated organismal metabolic capacity during migration. In contrast, migration-induced variation in cellular metabolic intensity and mitochondrial membrane transport are apparently not common correlates of the migratory phenotype in passerines.

Biology Department.

Fu, Y. Y., D. M. Zhao, Bo Pan, J. H. Wang, Y. Y. Cui, F. S. Shi, . . . L. F. Yang. (2015). Proteomic Analysis of Protein Expression Throughout Disease Progression in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Alzheimers Disease, 47(4), 915-926.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Mice in the transgenic A beta PPswe/PS1dE9 mouse line express a chimeric mouse/human amyloid-beta protein precursor (Mo/HuA beta PP695swe) and mutant human presenilin 1 (PS1-dE9) associated with early-onset AD. Knowing the protein expression in these mice may offer better understanding of the pathological changes in AD. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry techniques to compare protein expression in A beta PPswe/PS1dE9 mice with age-matched wild-type mice throughout the disease progression. We identified 15 proteins that were significantly different between the A beta PPswe/PS1dE9 mice and age-matched controls and also changed with disease development. Among those, the expression levels of the following proteins in A beta PPswe/PS1dE9 mice were at least 1.5 times higher than those in normal mice: DCC-interacting protein 13-beta, serum albumin, creatine kinase B-type, heat shock 70 kDa protein 1A, T-complex protein 1 subunit beta, adenylate kinase isoenzyme 1, pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit beta mitochondrial, and V-type proton ATPase catalytic subunit A. Levels of the following proteins in A beta PPswe/PS1dE9 mice were at least 1.5 times lower than those in normal mice: dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2, actin cytoplasmic 2, isoform 1 of V-type proton ATPase catalytic subunit, tubulin alpha-1C chain, F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-2, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1, and actin cytoplasmic 1. These proteins are involved in regulating various cellular functions, including cytoskeletal structure, energy metabolism, synaptic components, and protein degradation. These findings indicate altered protein expression in the pathogenesis of AD and illuminate novel therapeutic avenues for treatment in AD.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Lio, Yuhlong, J. C. Lu, & L. Y. Ruan. (2015). Robust Parameter Design for Quality and Reliability Issues Based on Accelerated Degradation Measurements. Ieee Transactions on Reliability, 64(3), 949-959.

Manufacturing quality and lifetime testing conditions may affect product reliability measurements. The literature for the design of experiments (DOE) and robust product optimization considering both quality and reliability issues is scarce. This article develops a model to include both manufacturing variables and accelerated degradation test (ADT) conditions. A simple algorithm provides calculations of the maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of these model parameters and percentile lifetimes. Variances of these estimates are derived based on large sample theory. Our DOE plans focus on deciding replication sizes and proportions of the test-units allocated at three stress levels for various manufacturing and ADT conditions. This work also explores robust parameter design (RPD) optimizations for selected controllable manufacturing variables to achieve the longest product lifetime and smallest variation in lifetime distributions.

Mathematics Department.

Pauli, Jonathan N., Wynne E. Moss, …., & Timothy H. Heaton. (2015). Examining the uncertain origin and management role of martens on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. Conservation Biology, 29(5), 1257-1267.

Conservation biologists are generally united in efforts to curtail the spread of non-native species globally. However, the colonization history of a species is not always certain, and whether a species is considered non-native or native depends on the conservation benchmark. Such ambiguities have led to inconsistent management. Within the Tongass National Forest of Alaska, the status of American marten ( Martes americana) on the largest, most biologically diverse and deforested island, Prince of Wales (POW), is unclear. Ten martens were released to POW in the early 1930s, and it was generally believed to be the founding event, although this has been questioned. The uncertainty surrounding when and how martens colonized POW complicates management, especially because martens were selected as a design species for the Tongass. To explore the history of martens of POW we reviewed other plausible routes of colonization; genetically and isotopically analyzed putative marten fossils deposited in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene to verify marten occupancy of POW; and used contemporary genetic data from martens on POW and the mainland in coalescent simulations to identify the probable source of the present-day marten population on POW. We found evidence for multiple routes of colonization by forest-associated mammals beginning in the Holocene, which were likely used by American martens to naturally colonize POW. Although we cannot rule out human-assisted movement of martens by Alaskan Natives or fur trappers, we suggest that martens be managed for persistence on POW. More generally, our findings illustrate the difficulty of labeling species as non-native or native, even when genetic and paleo-ecological data are available, and support the notion that community resilience or species invasiveness should be prioritized when making management decisions rather than more subjective and less certain conservation benchmarks.

Earth Sciences Department.

Tsai, T. R., Yuhlong Lio, N. Jiang, Y. J. Lin, & Y. Y. Fan. (2015). Economical sampling plans with warranty based on truncated data from Burr type XII distribution. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 66(9), 1511-1518.

Economical sampling plans to ensure the qualities of Burr type XII distributed lifetimes were established using a truncated life test. The Bayesian inference method was used to address the lot-to-lot variation of products. The sampling plan was characterized by the sample size and the acceptance number to minimize the expected total cost. A simple empirical Bayesian estimation method was provided to estimate the hyperparameters of prior distribution, and simulation studies were conducted to validate the proposed empirical Bayesian estimation method. Lastly, the application of this proposed method was illustrated using two examples.

Mathematics Department.

Cárcel-Trullols, Jaime, Attila D. Kovács, & David A. Pearce. (2015). Cell biology of the NCL proteins: What they do and don’t do. BBA – Molecular Basis of Disease, 1852(10), 2242-2255.

The fatal, primarily childhood neurodegenerative disorders, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), are currently associated with mutations in 13 genes. The protein products of these genes (CLN1 to CLN14) differ in their function and their intracellular localization. NCL-associated proteins have been localized mostly in lysosomes (CLN1, CLN2, CLN3, CLN5, CLN7, CLN10, CLN12 and CLN13) but also in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (CLN6 and CLN8), or in the cytosol associated to vesicular membranes (CLN4 and CLN14). Some of them such as CLN1 (palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1), CLN2 (tripeptidyl-peptidase 1), CLN5, CLN10 (cathepsin D), and CLN13 (cathepsin F), are lysosomal soluble proteins; others like CLN3, CLN7, and CLN12, have been proposed to be lysosomal transmembrane proteins. In this review, we give our views and attempt to summarize the proposed and confirmed functions of each NCL protein and describe and discuss research results published since the last review on NCL proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: “Current Research on the Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (Batten Disease)”.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Hooper, D. R., L. L. Dulkis, P. J. Secola, …., Brett A. Comstock, T. K. Szivak, . . . W. J. Kraemer. (2015). Roles of an Upper-Body Compression Garment on Athletic Performances. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29(9), 2655-2660.

Hooper, DR, Dulkis, LL, Secola, PJ, Holtzum, G, Harper, SP, Kalkowski, RJ, Comstock, BA, Szivak, TK, Flanagan, SD, Looney, DP, DuPont, WH, Maresh, CM, Volek, JS, Culley, KP, and Kraemer, WJ. Roles of an upper-body compression garment on athletic performances. J Strength Cond Res 29(9): 2655-2660, 2015-Compression garments (CGs) have been previously shown to enhance proprioception; however, this benefit has not been previously shown to transfer to improved performance in sports skills. The purpose of this study was to assess whether enhanced proprioception and comfort can be manifested in improved sports performance of high-level athletes. Eleven Division I collegiate pitchers (age: 21.0 +/- 2.9 years; height: 181.0 +/- 4.6 cm; weight: 89.0 +/- 13.0 kg; body fat: 12.0 +/- 4.1%) and 10 Division I collegiate golfers (age: 20.0 +/- 1.3 years; height: 178.1 +/- 3.9 cm; weight: 76.4 +/- 8.3 kg; body fat: 11.8 +/- 2.6%) participated in the study. A counterbalanced within-group design was used. Subjects performed the respective baseball or golf protocol wearing either typical noncompressive (NC) or the experimental CG. Golfers participated in an assessment of driving distance and accuracy, as well as approach shot, chipping, and putting accuracy. Pitchers were assessed for fastball accuracy and velocity. In pitchers, there was a significant (p <= 0.05) improvement in fastball accuracy (NC: 0.30 +/- 0.04 vs. CG: 0.21 +/- 0.07 cm). There were no differences in pitching velocity. In golfers, there were significant (p <= 0.05) improvements in driving accuracy (NC: 86.7 +/- 30.6 vs. CG: 68.9 +/- 18.5 feet), as well as approach shot accuracy (NC: 26.6 +/- 11.9 vs. CG: 22.1 +/- 8.2 feet) and chipping accuracy (NC: 2.9 +/- 0.6 vs. CG: 2.3 +/- 0.6 inch). There was also a significant (p <= 0.05) increase in comfort for the golfers (NC: 3.7 +/- 0.8 vs. CG: 4.5 +/- 1.0). These results demonstrate that comfort and performance can be improved with the use of CGs in high-level athletes being most likely mediated by improved proprioceptive cues during upper-body movements.

School of Education.

Shan, L. L., Ming Liu, C. Wu, L. Zhao, S. W. Li, L. S. Xu, . . . Y. Q. Gu. (2015). Multi-small molecule conjugations as new targeted delivery carriers for tumor therapy. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 10, 5571-5591.

In response to the challenges of cancer chemotherapeutics, including poor physicochemical properties, low tumor targeting ability, and harmful side effects, we developed a new tumor-targeted multi-small molecule drug delivery platform. Using paclitaxel (PTX) as a model therapeutic, we prepared two prodrugs, ie, folic acid-fluorescein-5(6)-isothiocyanate-arginine-paclitaxel (FA-FITC-Arg-PTX) and folic acid-5-aminofluorescein-glutamic-paclitaxel (FA-5AF-Glu-PTX), composed of folic acid (FA, target), amino acids (Arg or Glu, linker), and fluorescent dye (fluorescein in vitro or near-infrared fluorescent dye in vivo) in order to better understand the mechanism of PTX prodrug targeting. In vitro and acute toxicity studies demonstrated the low toxicity of the prodrug formulations compared with the free drug. In vitro and in vivo studies indicated that folate receptor-mediated uptake of PTX-conjugated multi-small molecule carriers induced high antitumor activity. Notably, compared with free PTX and with PTX-loaded macromolecular carriers from our previous study, this multi-small molecule-conjugated strategy improved the water solubility, loading rate, targeting ability, antitumor activity, and toxicity profile of PTX. These results support the use of multi-small molecules as tumor-targeting drug delivery systems.

Biology Department.

Skulas-Ray, A. C., M. R. Flock, C. K. Richter, William S. Harris, S. G. West, & P. M. Kris-Etherton. (2015). Red Blood Cell Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA n-3) is Inversely Associated with Triglycerides and C-reactive Protein (CRP) in Healthy Adults and Dose-Dependently Increases Following n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation. Nutrients, 7(8), 6390-6404.

The role of the long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in lipid metabolism and inflammation has been extensively studied; however, little is known about the relationship between docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3) and inflammation and triglycerides (TG). We evaluated whether n-3 DPA content of red blood cells (RBC) was associated with markers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting TG prior to n-3 supplementation in two studies (Study 1: n = 115, aged 20-44 years, body mass index (BMI) 20-30 kg/m(2), TG = 34-176 mg/dL; Study 2: n = 28, aged 22-65 years, BMI 24-37 kg/m(2), TG = 141-339 mg/dL). We also characterized the dose-response effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on RBC n-3 DPA after five months of supplementation with fish oil (Study 1: 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1800 mg/day EPA + DHA) and eight weeks of prescription n-3 ethyl esters (Study 2: 0, 850, and 3400 mg/day EPA + DHA). In Study 1, RBC n-3 DPA was inversely correlated with CRP (R-2 = 36%, p < 0.001) and with fasting TG (r = -0.30, p = 0.001). The latter finding was replicated in Study 2 (r = -0.33, p = 0.04). In both studies, n-3 supplementation significantly increased RBC n-3 DPA dose-dependently. Relative increases were greater for Study 1, with increases of 29%-61% vs. 14%-26% for Study 2. The associations between RBC n-3 DPA, CRP, and fasting TG may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis and chronic inflammatory diseases and warrant further study.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Hanlon, S. M., K. J. Lynch, Jacob L. Kerby, & M. J. Parris. (2015). The effects of a fungicide and chytrid fungus on anuran larvae in aquatic mesocosms. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(17), 12929-12940.

The amphibian disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has been linked to significant amphibian declines over the past three decades. The most severe effects of the pathogen have been primarily observed in relatively pristine areas that are not affected by many anthropogenic factors. One hypothesis concerning improved amphibian persistence with Bd in disturbed landscapes is that contaminants may abate the effects of Bd on amphibians. Recent laboratory studies have shown that pesticides, specifically the fungicide thiophanate-methyl (TM), can kill Bd outside of hosts and clear Bd infections within hosts. Using aquatic mesocosms, we tested the hypothesis that TM (0.43 mg/L) would alter growth and development of Lithobates sphenocephalus (southern leopard frog) tadpoles and Bd-infection loads in infected individuals. We hypothesized that the scope of such alterations and infection clearing would be affected by aquatic community variables, specifically zooplankton. TM altered zooplankton diversity (reduced cladoceran and increased copepod and ostracod abundances) and caused mortality to all tadpoles in TM-exposed tanks. In TM-free tanks, Bd-exposed tadpoles in high-density treatments metamorphosed smaller than Bd-unexposed, effects that were reversed in low-density treatments. Our study demonstrates the potential adverse effects of a fungicide and Bd on tadpoles and aquatic systems.

Biology Department.

Gonzalez-Olivares, E., & Jose D. Flores. (2015). CONSEQUENCES OF MULTIPLE ALLEE EFFECT IN AN OPEN ACCESS FISHERY MODEL. Journal of Biological Systems, 23, S101-S121.

This work deals with the dynamics of a bioeconomic continuous time model, where the combined action of the fishing effort exerted by men (as a predator) and multiple Allee effect or depensation on the growth rate of a self-regenerating resource (the prey) are considered. It has been recently established that a depensation phenomenon appears by diverse causes and new functions have been proposed to describe multiple Allee effects. One of these formalizations is here incorporated in the well-known Smith’s model, one of the simplest models to open access fisheries. We prove that this new and complex expression is topologically equivalent to a simpler form. Then, we postulate that the parsimony principle must be used to describe this phenomenon. It is also shown that in the phase plane of biomass-effort on the proposed model, the origin is an attractor equilibrium for all parameters values as a consequence of the Allee effect. Moreover, there is a subset of the parameter values, for which two limit cycles exist surrounding the unique positive equilibrium point of the system, one of them being asymptotically stable (the non damped oscillatory tragedy of the commons); hence, multiestability exists, particularly three-stability.

Mathematics Department.

Hahn, Austin M.Raluca M. Simons, & Jeffrey S. Simons. (2015). Childhood maltreatment and sexual risk taking: The mediating role of alexithymia. Archives of Sexual Behavior.

Childhood maltreatment is a significant predictor of sexual risk taking. The nature of this relationship is not fully understood; however, emotion dysregulation may play an important role. We tested the role of difficulty identifying and describing feelings (i.e., alexithymia) on the relationship between childhood maltreatment and sexual risk taking. Specifically, we hypothesized two mechanisms, one in which alexithymia is related to sexual risk taking via negative urgency and alcohol use and a second one in which alexithymia is related to sexual risk taking via neediness. The participants for this study were 425 sexually active college undergraduates (303 females, 122 males) between the ages of 18 and 25 years. The results of a structural equation model indicated that alexithymia accounted for a significant part of the relationship between child maltreatment and sexual risk behavior. Moreover, the relationship between alexithymia and sexual risk taking was fully accounted for by two separate paths. First, negative urgency and subsequent alcohol use partially mediated the relationship, and the second effect was accounted for by needy interpersonal style. Adverse experiences during childhood can impair emotional functioning and contribute to behavioral and interpersonal dysregulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

 Kindle, Karen J. (2015). Selecting Words for Instruction During Primary Read-alouds. Reading Horizons, 54(1), 48-77.

Reading aloud is a wide-spread practice in early childhood and primary classrooms that is purported to develop a range of literacy skills, including vocabulary. Since it is not feasible to teach all of the words in a given text, efforts to maximize the instructional power of read-aloud events have included research regarding word selection. This study explores the extent to which research-based practices for selecting words for instruction have been incorporated into the practices of four primary grade teachers. Findings indicate that teachers may rely more on intuition and personal experience to select words rather than following expert’s recommendations. Implications for practice, teacher preparation programs, and further research are discussed.

School of Education.

Monroe, Emy M., & Hugh B. Britten. (2015). Single-sample estimation of effective population size in several populations of the endangered Hine’s emerald dragonfly. Freshwater Science, 34(3), 1058-1064.

Hine’s emerald dragonfly (Somatochlora hineana) is the only odonate on the US Endangered Species list. It prefers discrete fen-and-wet-meadow habitat from Ontario, Canada, to Missouri, USA. This habitat has been destroyed across much of S. hineana’s range. Its conservation genetics were assessed by microsatellite analysis in a previous study. We applied 2 common single-sample estimators to the same data set to estimate effective population size (Ne), or effective number of breeders, in 5 populations (separated into adult and naiad stage classes) across the species’ range in 2008 and 2010-2011. Populations of the species in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, the Door Peninsula of Wisconsin, and along the Des Plaines River Valley in Illinois are made up of individuals collected from multiple sites, but the other 2 populations, at Cedarburg Bog, Wisconsin, and along the Lower Wisconsin River, consist of samples from single habitats disjunct from other known sites. Ne for S. hineana were similar to those for other endangered insects and ranged from 22 adults in the Des Plaines River Valley population in 2010 to 200 adults in the Door Peninsula population in 2010 based on approximate Bayesian estimation in ONeSAMP and from 8 naiads in the Door Peninsula population to 419 adults in the Des Plaines River Valley population based on the linkage disequilibrium method in NeEstimator. These Ne values confirm the endangered status of this species and indicate that efforts to maintain current habitats and connectivity to suitable habitat are essential to maintaining genetic diversity.

Biology Department.

Jungho, SonSem Raj Tamang, & James D. Hoefelmeyer. (2015). Crystal structure of bis(3-bromomesityl)(quinolin-1 ‘ium-8-yl)boron(lll) tribromide. Acta Crystallographica: Section E (International Union of Crystallography – IUCr), 71(9), 1114-1116.

The title compound, C27H26.82BBr2.18N+·Br3-, is a cationic triarylborane isolated as its tribromide salt. The aryl substituents include a protonated 8-quinolyl group and two 3-bromomesityl groups. The molecule was prepared on combination of 3:1 Br2 and dimesityl(quinolin-8-yl)borane in hexanes. The refinement of the structure indicated a degree of ‘over-bromination’ (beyond two bromine atoms) for the cation. There are two tribromide ions in the asymmetric unit, both completed by crystallographic inversion symmetry.

Chemistry Department.

Emery, Noah N., & Jeffrey S. Simons. (2015). Mood & alcohol-related attentional biases: New considerations for gender differences and reliability of the visual-probe task. Addictive Behaviors, 50, 1-5.

Introduction: Alcohol-related attentional biases are positively associated with drinking history and may represent a mechanism by which alcohol use behavior is maintained over time. This study was designed to address two unresolved issues regarding alcohol-related attention biases. Specifically, this study tested whether acute changes in positive and negative mood increase attentional biases toward alcohol cues and whether coping and enhancement drinking motives moderate these effects. Methods: Participants were 100 college students aged 18–25, who drank alcohol at least once in the last 90days. In a 2×3 mixed design, participants were randomized to one of three mood conditions (neutral, negative, or positive) and completed visual-probe tasks pre- and post-mood-induction. Results: Attentional biases toward alcohol cues were significantly associated with alcohol consumption among men, but not women. Although the mood manipulation was highly successful, attentional biases did not vary as a function of mood condition and hypothesized moderating effects of drinking motives were not significant. Conclusions: The largely null findings of the experiment are discussed in light of the fact that the visual probe task had poor reliability. Issues related to the reliability of visual-probe task are discussed, as more research is needed to evaluate and improve the psychometrics of this method. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Novick, Andrew M., Gina L. Forster, James E. Hassell, Daniel R. Davies, Jamie L. Scholl, Kenneth J. Renner, & Michael J. Watt. (2015). Increased dopamine transporter function as a mechanism for dopamine hypoactivity in the adult infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex following adolescent social stress. Neuropharmacology, 97(x), 194-200.

Being bullied during adolescence is associated with later mental illnesses characterized by deficits in cognitive tasks mediated by prefrontal cortex (PFC) dopamine (DA). Social defeat of adolescent male rats, as a model of teenage bullying victimization, results in medial PFC (mPFC) dopamine (DA) hypofunction in adulthood that is associated with increased drug seeking and working memory deficits. Increased expression of the DA transporter (DAT) is also seen in the adult infralimbic mPFC following adolescent defeat. We propose the functional consequence of this increased DAT expression is enhanced DA clearance and subsequently decreased infralimbic mPFC DA availability. To test this, in vivo chronoamperometry was used to measure changes in accumulation of the DA signal following DAT blockade, with increased DAT-mediated clearance being reflected by lower DA signal accumulation. Previously defeated rats and controls were pre-treated with the norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor desipramine (20 mg/kg, ip.) to isolate infralimbic mPFC DA clearance to DAT, then administered the selective DAT inhibitor GBR-12909 (20 or 40 mg/kg, sc.). Sole NET inhibition with desipramine produced no differences in DA signal accumulation between defeated rats and controls. However, rats exposed to adolescent social defeat demonstrated decreased DA signal accumulation compared to controls in response to both doses of GBR-12909, indicating greater DAT-mediated clearance of infralimbic mPFC DA. These results suggest that protracted increases in infralimbic mPFC DAT function represent a mechanism by which adolescent social defeat stress produces deficits in adult mPFC DA activity and corresponding behavioral and cognitive dysfunction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Simons, Jeffrey S., Thomas A. Wills, Noah N. Emery, & Russell M. Marks. (2015). Quantifying alcohol consumption: Self-report, transdermal assessment, and prediction of dependence symptoms. Addictive Behaviors, 50, 205-212.

Research on alcohol use depends heavily on the validity of self-reported drinking. The present paper presents data from 647days of self-monitoring with a transdermal alcohol sensor by 60 young adults. We utilized a biochemical measure, transdermal alcohol assessment with the WrisTAS, to examine the convergent validity of three approaches to collecting daily self-report drinking data: experience sampling, daily morning reports of the previous night, and 1-week timeline follow-back (TLFB) assessments. We tested associations between three pharmacokinetic indices (peak concentration, area under the curve (AUC), and time to reach peak concentration) derived from the transdermal alcohol signal and within- and between- person variation in alcohol dependence symptoms. The WrisTAS data corroborated 85.74% of self-reported drinking days based on the experience sampling data. The TLFB assessment and combined experience sampling and morning reports agreed on 87.27% of drinking days. Drinks per drinking day did not vary as a function of wearing or not wearing the sensor; this indicates that participants provided consistent reports of their drinking regardless of biochemical verification. In respect to self-reported alcohol dependence symptoms, the AUC of the WrisTAS alcohol signal was associated with dependence symptoms at both the within- and between- person level. Furthermore, alcohol dependence symptoms at baseline predicted drinking episodes characterized in biochemical data by both higher peak alcohol concentration and faster time to reach peak concentration. The results support the validity of self-report alcohol data, provide empirical data useful for optimal design of daily process sampling, and provide an initial demonstration of the use of transdermal alcohol assessment to characterize drinking dynamics associated with risk for alcohol dependence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Anderson, Carla, & Karen Card. (2015). Effective practices of financial education for college students: Students’ perceptions of credit card use and financial responsibility. College Student Journal, 49(2), 271-279.

The purpose of this quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group study was to determine the influence that a financial education intervention administered in First Year Experience courses had on students’ perceptions of their financial behavior such as compulsive spending and credit card use. This study utilized the five-point Likert-type scales: Compulsive Buying Scale (d’Astous, Maltais, & Roberge, 1990) and the Degree of Irrational Credit Use Scale (d’Astous, 1990) to assess a student’s predisposition to spend compulsively and to make unwise decisions with credit cards. This study included 502 students who were enrolled in a First Year Experience course at a mid-sized land-grant Great Plains university. The data were analyzed using t tests and analysis of covariance to determine if a significant difference existed between the groups. There were significant differences in the Compulsive Buying Scale pretest scores between the men and women, indicating that women may have a higher propensity to compulsively spend than men. Analysis of covariance found significant differences between the control group and both treatment groups for many individual questions on the Compulsive Buying Scale posttest as well as the composite posttest score (p <. 05). This revealed that the inclusion of financial education in first-year seminars makes a positive difference on the student’s perception of their financial behavior regarding compulsive spending decisions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

School of Education.  Anderson graduated from EDAD/AHED program with doctorate and remains with SDSU.

Maisto, Stephen A., & Jeffrey S. Simons. (2015). Research on the effects of alcohol and sexual arousal on sexual risk in men who have sex with men: Implications for hiv prevention interventions. AIDS and Behavior, x(x), xcxxxxxxx.

The purpose of this paper was to describe and appraise the research evidence on the effects of acute alcohol intoxication and sexual arousal on sexual risk behaviors in men who have sex with men (MSM) and to examine its implications for design of HIV prevention interventions that target MSM. Toward that end, the paper begins with a discussion of research on sexual arousal in men and alcohol and their acute effects on sexual behaviors. This is followed by a review of empirical evidence on the combined acute effects of alcohol and sexual arousal in heterosexual men (the large majority of studies) and then in MSM. The empirical evidence and related theoretical developments then are integrated to derive implications for developing effective HIV prevention interventions that target MSM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Dou, Wei-Dong, Shu-Ping Huang, & Chun-Sing Lee. (2015). Graphene-enhanced intermolecular interaction at interface between copper- and cobalt-phthalocyanines. Journal of Chemical Physics, 143(13), 1-7.

Interfacial electronic structures of copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc), cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPc), and graphene were investigated experimentally by using photoelectron spectroscopy. While the CuPc/graphene interface shows flat band structure and negligible interfacial dipole indicating quite weak molecule-substrate interaction, the CuPc/CoPc/graphene interface shows a large interfacial dipole and obvious energy level bending. Controlled experiments ruled out possible influences from the change in film structure of CuPc and pure π-π interaction between CoPc and CuPc. Analysis based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory reveals that the decrease in the work function for the CuPc/CoPc/graphene system is induced by the intermolecular interaction between CuPc and CoPc which is enhanced owning to the peculiar electronic properties at the CoPc-graphene interface.

Chemistry Department.

Goyeneche, Alicia A., Michael Koch, Maria C. Bell, & Carlos M. Telleria. (2015). Long-term primary culture of a clear cell ovarian carcinoma reveals an epithelial-mesenchymal cooperative interaction. Cancer Cell International, 15(1), 1-9.

Background: We studied a primary culture developed from a biopsy of a clear cell carcinoma of the ovary (O-CCC) by (a) assessing its capacity to retain in vitro pathological features of the tumor of origin; (b) characterizing the main cells released from the complex mass without forced purification of any particular cellular entity; and (c) investigating its long-term proliferative capacity. Methods: A primary cell culture was developed from a pelvic mass diagnosed as an O-CCC. The morphological analysis of the cell culture was carried out by phase contrast microscopy. Markers of epithelial, mesenchymal, and tumor initiating cells were evaluated by immunocytochemistry. Cell proliferation was studied by detection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporated into newly synthesized DNA. As a biomarker of O-CCC, we assessed the expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 1β. Results: We show that cells with epithelial morphological features express E-cadherin and expand with time in culture, a fact that the incorporation of BrdU confirms. Cells with mesenchymal-like characteristics that express the mesenchymal marker vimentin, however, allocate to the edges of the epithelial compartment. Moreover, we found that some cells with epithelial features also expressed vimentin. At the beginning of incubation, over 60 % of primary cells expressed the O-CCC marker HNF1β; such percentage declined upon passaging. We show that epithelial not mesenchymal cells undergo DNA replication, and that few cells in both epithelial and mesenchymal compartments express the stem-like tumor antigen CD133. Conclusions: We provide proof-of-principle that cells separated in bulk from a biopsy of an O-CCC can be maintained in culture for several months, and that two consistent cellular compartments–one epithelial that retains the O-CCC marker HNF1β, and another mesenchymal–persist, and seem to have a cooperative interaction leading to the multiplication of epithelial cells within a mesenchymal cellular environment.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Sathyanesan, Monica, M. J. Girgenti, J. Warner-Schmidt, & Samuel S. Newton. (2015). Indomethacin induced gene regulation in the rat hippocampus. Molecular Brain, 8, 12.

Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as indomethacin are widely used to treat inflammatory diseases and manage pain, fever and inflammation in several conditions, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Although they predominantly function by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, important COX-independent actions also occur. These actions could be responsible for the adverse side effects associated with chronic and/or high dose usage of this popular drug class. Results: We examined gene regulation in the hippocampus after peripheral administration of indomethacin by employing a microarray approach. Secondary confirmation and the brain expression pattern of regulated genes was examined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Transglutaminase 2, serum glucocorticoid inducible kinase, Inhibitor of NF-kappa B and vascular endothelial growth factor were among genes that were prominently upregulated, while G-protein coupled receptor 56 and neuropeptide Y were among genes that were downregulated by indomethacin. Co-localization studies using blood vessel markers revealed that transglutaminase 2 was induced specifically in brain vasculature. Conclusions: The data demonstrate that COX-inhibitors can differentially regulate gene transcription in multiple, functionally distinctly cell types in the brain. The results provide additional insight into the molecular actions of COX-inhibitors and indicate that their effects on vasculature could influence cerebral blood flow mechanisms.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Hall, P., Heather A. Love, & S. Uesugi. (2015). 21CW: Norbert Wiener in the 21st Century. Ieee Technology and Society Magazine, 34(3), 33-34.

English Department

Hopkins, Paul N., James V. Pottala, & M. Nazeem Nanjee. (2015). A comparative study of four independent methods to measure LDL particle concentration. Atherosclerosis (00219150), 243(1), 99-106.

Background Low-density lipoprotein particle concentration (LDL-P) is generally more predictive of clinical cardiovascular endpoints than LDL cholesterol (LDL-C). Few studies have directly compared multiple LDL-P methods, particularly with ultracentrifugation. Objective Examine comparability and precision of 4 LDL-P methods. Methods We divided serum from 48 subjects into blinded triplicates and measured LDL-P in 3 separate laboratories by 4 methods: ultracentrifugation (reference method), a novel electrophoretic method, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) by 2 independent methods: a 400 MHz Vantera ® instrument supplied by Liposcience (LS-NMR) and operated at ARUP Laboratories, and a 600 MHz Bruker instrument (ASCEND 600) operated at Health Diagnostic Laboratory (HD-NMR). Results Of the 4 methods, ultracentrifugation was the most precise and LS-NMR the least; the latter had a significantly greater CV (p < 0.0001) as compared with all 3 of the other methods, although all CVs were clinically acceptable. The electrophoretic method showed similar precision to ultracentrifugation, while HD-NMR was intermediate. The HD-NMR had the slope closest to 1 (0.90, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.09) and the intercept closest to 0 (−48, −353 to 256) compared to the ultracentrifugation method in Deming regression models. While the two NMR methods correlated well (r = 0.95) with each other and had a slope equivalent to 1 (1.08, 0.98 to 1.19), their intercept in Deming regression excluded 0 (194, 53 to 335) indicating a vertical shift between the two methods. Conclusions This LDL-P method comparison may prove useful for future research and clinical applications. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Atherosclerosis (00219150) is the property of Elsevier Science and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Shalowitz, David I., Allison G. Smith, Maria C. Bell, & Randall K. Gibb. (2015). Teleoncology for gynecologic cancers. Gynecologic Oncology, 139(1), 172-177.

Teleoncology describes cancer care provided remotely to improve access to care in rural or underserved areas. In the United States, 14.8 million women live more than 50 miles away from the closest gynecologic oncologist; 4.3 million women live more than 100 miles distant. Teleoncology may therefore partially relieve the geographic barriers to high-quality gynecologic cancer care these women experience. Little has been published on the feasibility of remote provision of high-quality care for gynecologic cancers, perhaps owing to the particular difficulties inherent in remote management of patients who may require both medical and surgical intervention. In this article, we review the data supporting the use of telemedicine in the treatment of cancer patients with a specific focus on applicability to management of gynecologic malignancies. We further add our group’s experience with the treatment of rural, underserved gynecologic cancer patients. We believe that development of teleoncologic systems is critical to ensure that all women have access to high-quality gynecologic cancer care, regardless of where they reside.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

Gaher, Raluca M., Ashley M. Arens, & Hanako Shishido. (2015). Alexithymia as a Mediator Between Childhood Maltreatment and Impulsivity. Stress & Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 31(4), 274-280.

The article discusses the study regarding the association between childhood maltreatment (CM), negative urgency, and alexithymia. The method for the analysis on the role of alexithymia as mediator between impulsivity and childhood maltreatment was developed considering the examination on the effects of maltreatment and alexithymia subscales. It mentions that the analyses indicates that children growing in a punishing environment was indirectly associated with negative urgency.

Psychology Department.

Teng, Yanfen, Khosrow Rezvani, & Mariella De Biasi. (2015). UBXN2A regulates nicotinic receptor degradation by modulating the E3 ligase activity of CHIP. Biochemical Pharmacology, 97(4), 518-530.

Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the α3 subunit are known for their prominent role in normal ganglionic transmission while their involvement in the mechanisms underlying nicotine addiction and smoking-related disease has been emerging only in recent years. The amount of information available on the maturation and trafficking of α3-containing nAChRs is limited. We previously showed that UBXN2A is a p97 adaptor protein that facilitates the maturation and trafficking of α3-containing nAChRs. Further investigation of the mechanisms of UBXN2A actions revealed that the protein interacts with CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsc70 interacting protein), whose ubiquitin E3 ligase activity regulates the degradation of several disease-related proteins. We show that CHIP displays E3 ligase activity toward the α3 nAChR subunit and contributes to its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. UBXN2A interferes with CHIP-mediated ubiquitination of α3 and protects the nicotinic receptor subunit from endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD). UBXN2A also cross-talks with VCP/p97 and HSC70/HSP70 proteins in a complex where α3 is likely to be targeted by CHIP. Overall,we identify CHIP as an E3 ligase for α3 and UBXN2A as a protein that may efficiently regulate the stability of CHIP’s client substrates.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Newswander, Chad B. (2015). Administrative Character: Hard and Soft Look Considerations. American Review of Public Administration, 45(6), 746-759.

Managerial competence expressed in the promise of science provides administrators with a set of dispositions. In attempting to achieve such a character, the Supreme Court set up a hard look orientation that used rational means to justify the substance of administrative power. Even though this mode of operation grants legitimacy resulting from meeting a high threshold, it also began to cripple administrative reasoning and movement. When problems are multifaceted, administrative character must be given room to explore. Taking this into consideration, the court also established an alternative space rooted in a soft look that encouraged a different type of administrative character. It has done this by establishing the foundations of a legal framework that privileges deference, which allows for prudence to emerge. Rooted in classical origin and updated in modern parlance, prudence can be leveraged as a way to not only deal with questions of law but also with substance.

Political Science and Criminal Justice Department.

Yampolsky, Lev Y., Erliang Zeng, Jacqueline Lopez, Patricia J. Williams, Kenneth B. Dick, John K. Colbourne, & Michael E. Pfrender. (2014). Functional genomics of acclimation and adaptation in response to thermal stress in Daphnia. BMC Genomics, 15(1), 859-870.

Background: Gene expression regulation is one of the fundamental mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity and is expected to respond to selection in conditions favoring phenotypic response. The observation that many organisms increase their stress tolerance after acclimation to moderate levels of stress is an example of plasticity which has been long hypothesized to be based on adaptive changes in gene expression. We report genome-wide patterns of gene expression in two heat-tolerant and two heat-sensitive parthenogenetic clones of the zooplankton crustacean Daphnia pulex exposed for three generations to either optimal (18°C) or substressful (28°C) temperature. Results: A large number of genes responded to temperature and many demonstrated a significant genotype-by-environment (GxE) interaction. Among genes with a significant GxE there were approximately equally frequent instances of canalization, i.e. stronger plasticity in heat-sensitive than in heat-tolerant clones, and of enhancement of plasticity along the evolutionary vector toward heat tolerance. The strongest response observed is the across-the-board down-regulation of a variety of genes occurring in heat-tolerant, but not in heat-sensitive clones. This response is particularly obvious among genes involved in core metabolic pathways and those responsible for transcription, translation and DNA repair. Conclusions: The observed down-regulation of metabolism, consistent with previous findings in yeast and Drosophila, may reflect a general compensatory stress response. The associated down-regulation of DNA repair pathways potentially creates a trade-off between short-term benefits of survival at high temperature and long-term costs of accelerated mutation accumulation.

Computer Science Department.

Rivera, Peter, Melinda Gonzales-Backen, …., S. Jean Caraway, Robert Weisskirch, Su Kim, & Lindsay Ham. (2015). Family Violence Exposure and Sexual Risk-Taking Among Latino Emerging Adults: The Role of Posttraumatic Stress Symptomology and Acculturative Stress. Journal of Family Violence, 30(8), 967-976.

This study proposes that posttraumatic stress symptomology and acculturative stress may further explain the relationship between family violence exposure and sexual risk-taking behaviors among Latino emerging adults ( N = 1,100). A moderated mediation analysis indicated that lifetime rates of family violence exposure were positively associated with sexual risk-taking via posttraumatic stress symptomology, and this mediation significantly varied as a function of acculturative stress. Overall, the findings of the current study underscore a need for a better understanding of how family violence exposure puts Latino emerging adults at risk for aversive health outcomes and suggest the use of an ecological systemic framework that examines the interactions between family, individual, and cultural systems in relation to health risk-taking behaviors.

Psychology Department.

Fercho, Kelene, Lee A. Baugh, & Elizabeth K. Hanson. (2015). Effects of Alphabet-Supplemented Speech on Brain Activity of Listeners: An fMRI Study. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, 58(5), 1452-1463.

Purpose: The purpose of this article was to examine the neural mechanisms associated with increases in speech intelligibility brought about through alphabet supplementation. Method: Neurotypical participants listened to dysarthric speech while watching an accompanying video of a hand pointing to the 1st letter spoken of each word on an alphabet display (treatment condition) or a scrambled display (control condition). Their hemodynamic response was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging, using a sparse sampling event-related paradigm. Speech intelligibility was assessed via a forced-choice auditory identification task throughout the scanning session. Results: Alphabet supplementation was associated with significant increases in speech intelligibility. Further, alphabet supplementation increased activation in brain regions known to be involved in both auditory speech and visual letter perception above that seen with the scrambled display. Significant increases in functional activity were observed within the posterior to mid superior temporal sulcus/superior temporal gyrus during alphabet supplementation, regions known to be involved in speech processing and audiovisual integration. Conclusion: Alphabet supplementation is an effective tool for increasing the intelligibility of degraded speech and is associated with changes in activity within audiovisual integration sites. Changes in activity within the superior temporal sulcus/superior temporal gyrus may be related to the behavioral increases in intelligibility brought about by this augmented communication method.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus AND Communication Disorders Department

Specker, B., N. W. Thiex, & Ramu G. Sudhagoni. (2015). Does Exercise Influence Pediatric Bone? A Systematic Review. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 473(11), 3658-3672.

Periods of growth are thought to be the best time to increase bone mineral content, bone area, and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) through increased loading owing to high rates of bone modeling and remodeling. However, questions remain regarding whether a benefit of exercise is seen at all bone sites, is dependent on pubertal status or sex of the child, or whether other factors such as diet modify the response to exercise. We asked: (1) Does bone-loading exercise in childhood consistently increase bone mineral content, bone area, or aBMD? (2) Do effects of exercise differ depending on pubertal status or sex? (3) Does calcium intake modify the bone response to exercise? A literature search identified 22 unique trials for inclusion in this meta-analysis of the effect of exercise on bone changes by bone site, pubertal status, and sex. Sample sizes ranged from 16 to 410 subjects 3 to 18 years old with length of intervention ranging from 3 to 36 months. Fifteen of 22 trials were randomized (child randomized in nine, classroom/school randomized in six) and seven were observational trials. Ten trials were Level 2 and 11 were Level 3 based on the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine criteria. Random effects models tested the difference (intervention mean effect-control mean effect) in percent change in bone mineral content, bone area, and aBMD. Meta-regression was used to identify sources of heterogeneity and funnel plots were used to assess publication bias. Children assigned to exercise had greater mean percent changes in bone mineral content and aBMD than children assigned to the control groups. Mean differences (95% CI) in bone mineral content percent change between intervention and control groups at total body (0.8; 95% CI, 0.3-1.3; p = 0.003), femoral neck (1.5; 95% CI, 0.5-2.5; p = 0.003), and spine (1.7; 95% CI, 0.4-3.1; p = 0.01) were significant with no differences in bone area (all p > 0.05). There were greater percent changes in aBMD in intervention than control groups at the femoral neck (0.6; 95% CI, 0.2-1.1; p = 0.006) and spine (1.2; 95% CI, 0.6-1.8; p < 0.001). Benefit of exercise was limited to children who were prepubertal (bone mineral content: total body [0.9; 95% CI, 0.2-1.7; p = 0.01], femoral neck [1.8; 95% CI, 0.0-3.5; p = 0.047], spine [3.7; 95% CI, 0.8-6.6; p = 0.01], and aBMD: femoral neck [0.6; 95% CI, -0.1-1.2; p = 0.07], spine [1.5; 95% CI, 0.7-2.3; p < 0.001]), with no differences among children who were pubertal (all p > 0.05). Changes in aBMD did not differ by sex (all p > 0.05), although the number of studies providing male-specific results was small (six of 22 eligible studies included boys). There was significant heterogeneity in bone mineral content and bone area for which a source could not be identified. Heterogeneity in spine aBMD was reduced by including calcium intake and intervention length as covariates. Three trials designed to determine whether calcium intake modified the bone response to exercise all reported a greater effect of exercise on leg bone mineral content in children randomized to receive supplemental calcium than those receiving placebo. Exercise interventions during childhood led to 0.6% to 1.7% greater annual increase in bone accrual, with effects predominantly among children who were prepubertal. If this effect were to persist into adulthood, it would have substantial implications for osteoporosis prevention. It is important to identify sources of heterogeneity among studies to determine factors that might influence the bone response to increased exercise during growth. Level II, therapeutic study.

School of Health Sciences.

Berry, Mary T., & P. Stanley May. (2015). Disputed Mechanism for NIR-to-Red Upconversion Luminescence in NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+. Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 119(38), 9805-9811.

The most commonly proposed mechanisms for NIR-to-red upconversion in the well-studied material beta-NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ are evaluated in order to resolve inconsistencies that persist in the literature. Each of four possible mechanisms is evaluated in terms of the direct analysis of spectroscopic data. It is shown that there are no important mechanisms that involve the first excited state of Er3+, I-4(13/2), as an intermediate state. A large body of evidence overwhelmingly supports the proposed mechanism of Anderson et al., which suggests an intimate connection between NIR-to-red and NIR-to-blue upconversion. Namely, both red and blue upconversion are produced primarily by a three-photon excitation process that proceeds through the green emitting state to a dense manifold of states, (4)G/K-2, above the blue emitting state, H-2(9/2). Competing relaxation mechanisms out of (4)G/K-2 determine the relative amounts of blue and red upconversion produced. Multiphonon relaxation from (4)G/K-2 results in blue upconversion, whereas back energy transfer from Er3+ ((4)G/K-2) to Yb3+ (F-2(7/2)) results in red emission.

Chemistry Department.

Li, J., W. X. Ma, H. Z. Li, N. Hou, Xuejun Wang, I. M. Kim, . . . H. B. Su. (2015). NEDD8 Ultimate Buster 1 Long (NUB1L) Protein Suppresses Atypical Neddylation and Promotes the Proteasomal Degradation of Misfolded Proteins. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 290(39), 23850-23862.

Neddylation is a posttranslational modification that controls diverse biological processes by covalently conjugating the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 to specific targets. Neddylation is commonly mediated by NEDD8-specific enzymes (typical neddylation) and, sometimes, by ubiquitin enzymes (atypical neddylation). Although typical neddylation is known to regulate protein function in many ways, the regulatory mechanisms and biological consequence of atypical neddylation remain largely unexplored. Here we report that NEDD8 conjugates were accumulated in the diseased hearts from mouse models and human patients. Proteotoxic stresses induced typical and atypical neddylation in cardiomyocytes. Loss of NUB1L exaggerated atypical neddylation, whereas NUB1L overexpression repressed atypical neddylation through promoting the degradation of NEDD8. Activation of atypical neddylation accumulated a surrogate misfolded protein, GFPu. In contrast, suppression of atypical neddylation by NUB1L overexpression enhanced GFPu degradation. Moreover, NUB1L depletion accumulated a cardiomyopathy-linked misfolded protein, CryAB(R120G), whereas NUB1L overexpression promoted its degradation through suppressing neddylation of ubiquitinated proteins in cardiomyocytes. Consequently, NUB1L protected cells from proteotoxic stress-induced cell injury. In summary, these data indicate that NUB1L suppresses atypical neddylation and promotes the degradation of misfolded proteins by the proteasome. Our findings also suggest that induction of NUB1L could potentially become a novel therapeutic strategy for diseases with increased proteotoxic stress.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Posted by: reganenosusd | August 31, 2015

Fall 2015

Ghersa, F., J. Burdisso, S. S. Vallcaneras, …., Carlos M. Telleria, & M. Casais. (2015). Neuromodulation of the luteal regression: presence of progesterone receptors in coeliac ganglion. Experimental Physiology, 100(8), 935-946.

New Findings What is the central question of this study? The processes involved in luteal involution have not yet been clarified and, in general, have been studied only from a hormonal point of view. We investigated whether progesterone, from the coeliac ganglion through the superior ovarian nerve, is able to modify the luteal regression of late pregnancy in the rat. What is the main finding and its importance? We showed that the luteal regression might be reversed by the neural effect of progesterone and demonstrated the presence of its receptors in the coeliac ganglion. This suggests that the peripheral neural pathway, through neuron-hormone interaction, represents an additional mechanism to control luteal function in addition to the classical endocrine regulation. The corpus luteum (CL) is a transitory endocrine gland that produces progesterone (P). At the end of its useful life, it suffers a process of functional and structural regression until its complete disappearance from the ovary. To investigate whether P is able to regulate the process of luteal regression through the peripheral neural pathway, we used the coeliac ganglion (CG)-superior ovarian nerve-ovary system from rats on day21 of pregnancy. We stimulated the CG with P and analysed the functional regression through ovarian P release measured by radioimmunoassay, expression by RT-PCR and activity of luteal 3- and 20-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (anabolic and catabolic P enzymes, respectively). The luteal structural regression was evaluated through a study of apoptosis measured by TUNEL assay and the expression of apoptotic factors, such as Bcl-2, Bax, Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) by RT-PCR. To explore whether the effects mediated by P on the CL may be associated with P receptors, their presence in the CG was investigated by immunohistochemistry. In the group stimulated with P in the CG, the ovarian P release and the 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity increased, whereas the expression and activity of 20-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase decreased. In addition, a decrease in the number of apoptotic nuclei and a decrease of the expression of FasL were observed. We demonstrated the presence of P receptors in the CG. Overall, our results suggest that the regression of the CL of late pregnancy may be reprogrammed through the peripheral neural pathway, and this effect might be mediated by P bound to its receptor in the CG.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Halaby, M. J., Y. Li, B. R. Harris, S. X. Jiang, W. Keith Miskimins, M. P. Cleary, & D. Q. Yang. (2015). Translational Control Protein 80 Stimulates IRES-Mediated Translation of p53 mRNA in Response to DNA Damage. Biomed Research International, 9.

Synthesis of the p53 tumor suppressor increases following DNA damage. This increase and subsequent activation of p53 are essential for the protection of normal cells against tumorigenesis. We previously discovered an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that is located at the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of p53 mRNA and found that the IRES activity increases following DNA damage. However, the mechanism underlying IRES-mediated p53 translation in response to DNA damage is still poorly understood. In this study, we discovered that translational control protein 80 (TCP80) has increased binding to the p53 mRNA in vivo following DNA damage. Overexpression of TCP80 also leads to increased p53 IRES activity in response to DNA damage. TCP80 has increased association with RNA helicase A (RHA) following DNA damage and overexpression of TCP80, along with RHA, leads to enhanced expression of p53. Moreover, we found that MCF-7 breast cancer cells with decreased expression of TCP80 and RHA exhibit defective p53 induction following DNA damage and diminished expression of its downstream target PUMA, a proapoptotic protein. Taken together, our discovery of the function of TCP80 and RHA in regulating p53 IRES and p53 induction following DNA damage provides a better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate IRES-mediated p53 translation in response to genotoxic stress.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Novick, Andrew M., Gina L. Forster, James E. Hassell, Daniel R. Davies, Jamie L. Scholl, Kenneth J. Renner,& Michael J. Watt. (2015). Increased dopamine transporter function as a mechanism for dopamine hypoactivity in the adult infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex following adolescent social stress. Neuropharmacology, 97, 194-200.

Being bullied during adolescence is associated with later mental illnesses characterized by deficits in cognitive tasks mediated by prefrontal cortex (PFC) dopamine (DA). Social defeat of adolescent male rats, as a model of teenage bullying victimization, results in medial PFC (mPFC) dopamine (DA) hypofunction in adulthood that is associated with increased drug seeking and working memory deficits. Increased expression of the DA transporter (DAT) is also seen in the adult infralimbic mPFC following adolescent defeat. We propose the functional consequence of this increased DAT expression is enhanced DA clearance and subsequently decreased infralimbic mPFC DA availability. To test this, in vivo chronoamperometry was used to measure changes in accumulation of the DA signal following DAT blockade, with increased DAT-mediated clearance being reflected by lower DA signal accumulation. Previously defeated rats and controls were pre-treated with the norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor desipramine (20 mg/kg, ip.) to isolate infralimbic mPFC DA clearance to DAT, then administered the selective DAT inhibitor GBR-12909 (20 or 40 mg/kg, sc.). Sole NET inhibition with desipramine produced no differences in DA signal accumulation between defeated rats and controls. However, rats exposed to adolescent social defeat demonstrated decreased DA signal accumulation compared to controls in response to both doses of GBR-12909, indicating greater DAT-mediated clearance of infralimbic mPFC DA. These results suggest that protracted increases in infralimbic mPFC DAT function represent a mechanism by which adolescent social defeat stress produces deficits in adult mPFC DA activity and corresponding behavioral and cognitive dysfunction.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Ranek, Mark J., Hanqiao Zheng, Wei Huang, Asangi R. Kumarapeli, Jie Li, Jinbao Liu, & Xuejun Wang. (2015). Genetically induced moderate inhibition of 20S proteasomes in cardiomyocytes facilitates heart failure in mice during systolic overload. Journal of Molecular & Cellular Cardiology, 85, 273-281.

The in vivo function status of the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) in pressure overloaded hearts remains undefined. Cardiotoxicity was observed during proteasome inhibitor chemotherapy, especially in those with preexisting cardiovascular conditions; however, proteasome inhibition (PsmI) was also suggested by some experimental studies as a potential therapeutic strategy to curtail cardiac hypertrophy. Here we used genetic approaches to probe cardiac UPS performance and determine the impact of cardiomyocyte-restricted PsmI (CR-PsmI) on cardiac responses to systolic overload. Transgenic mice expressing an inverse reporter of the UPS (GFPdgn) were subject to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to probe myocardial UPS performance during systolic overload. Mice with or without moderate CR-PsmI were subject to TAC and temporally characterized for cardiac responses to moderate and severe systolic overload. After moderate TAC (pressure gradient: ~ 40 mm Hg), cardiac UPS function was upregulated during the first two weeks but turned to functional insufficiency between 6 and 12 weeks as evidenced by the dynamic changes in GFPdgn protein levels, proteasome peptidase activities, and total ubiquitin conjugates. Severe TAC (pressure gradients > 60 mm Hg) led to UPS functional insufficiency within a week. Moderate TAC elicited comparable hypertrophic responses between mice with and without genetic CR-PsmI but caused cardiac malfunction in CR-PsmI mice significantly earlier than those without CR-PsmI. In mice subject to severe TAC, CR-PsmI inhibited cardiac hypertrophy but led to rapidly progressed heart failure and premature death, associated with a pronounced increase in cardiomyocyte death. It is concluded that cardiac UPS function is dynamically altered, with the initial brief upregulation of proteasome function being adaptive; and CR-PsmI facilitates cardiac malfunction during systolic overload.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Broadbent, C. D., D. S. Brookshire, Mark D. Dixon, & …. (2015). Valuing preservation and restoration alternatives for ecosystem services in the southwestern USA. Ecohydrology, 8(5), 851-862.

Conservation of freshwater ecosystems in the semi-arid southwestern USA is a critical issue as these systems support habitat for wildlife and provide consumptive use for humankind. Economists have utilized stated preference techniques to value non-marketed goods and services such as freshwater ecosystems for much of the last four decades. Recently, Boyd and Banzhaf (2007) have advocated for ecosystem accounting units to be created in valuing ecosystem services such as freshwater ecosystems. Working collectively, a team of physical and social scientists developed a set of ecological endpoints for two river regions in the southwestern USA and used these ecological endpoints in a contingent valuation survey to obtain willingness to pay values for restoration and preservation alternatives. The results demonstrate statistically significant preservation and restoration estimates for the Upper San Pedro and restoration estimates for the Middle Rio Grande ecosystems. Copyright (c) 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Biology Department.

Dixon, Mark D., Christopher J. Boever, Victoria L. Danzeisen, Christopher L. Merkord, Eszter C. Munes, Michael L. Scott, . . . Tim C. Cowman. (2015). Effects of a “natural’ flood event on the riparian ecosystem of a regulated large-river system: the 2011 flood on the Missouri River, USA. Ecohydrology, 8(5), 812-824.

Flow regulation has significantly altered hydrological, geomorphic, and ecological processes on the Missouri River. Cumulative effects are evident in declines in cottonwood (Populus deltoides) recruitment and in altered forest age structure and composition. Record runoff in 2011 exceeded reservoir capacity on the Upper and Middle Missouri, leading to a 500-year recurrence interval flood in terms of volume, with the highest peak discharge in 59years and flood durations of up to 3months. We assessed the effects of this large infrequent disturbance’ by comparing pre-flood (2006-2009) to post-flood (2012) changes in riparian forests along two unchannelized segments of the Missouri River. Live shrub and tree density declined sharply within young forest stands (<30years). Higher proportions of non-native (Elaeagnus angustifolia) and upland (Juniperus virginiana) trees showed evidence of recent mortality than did the native cottonwood. Sandbar area increased sharply from 2006 to 2012 and area of young forests declined, with particularly sharp declines in sapling stands that had established following the previous post-dam record flow releases in 1997. Cottonwood recruitment was widespread in 2012, but nearly all seedling patches occurred on sandbars in the active channel rather than on overbank sites, with moderately high (61-77%) seedling mortality over 2012-2013. Physical and operational constraints within the regulated Missouri River limited the restorative effects of the 2011 flood and will likely limit future forest recovery. Process-based riparian restoration would require restoring flow and sediment regimes that more closely mimic historical conditions, as well as overcoming the physical legacies of decades of flow regulation. Copyright (c) 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Biology Department.

Harmon, Erin, Marisa O. King, Zhang Yufeng,& David L. Swanson. (2015). Summer-to-Winter Phenotypic Flexibility of Fatty Acid Transport and Catabolism in Skeletal Muscle and Heart of Small Birds. Physiological& Biochemical Zoology, 88(5), 535-549.

Prolonged shivering in birds is mainly fueled by lipids. Consequently, lipid transport and catabolism are vital for thermogenic performance and could be upregulated along with thermogenic capacity as part of the winter phenotype. We investigated summer-to-winter variation in lipid transport and catabolism by measuring mRNA expression, protein levels, and enzyme activities for several key steps of lipid transport and catabolic pathways in pectoralis muscle and heart in two small temperate-zone resident birds, American goldfinches (Spinus tristis) and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Cytosolic fatty acid binding protein (FABPc; a key component of intramyocyte lipid transport) mRNA and/or protein levels were generally higher in winter for pectoralis muscle and heart for both species. However, seasonal variation in plasma membrane lipid transporters, fatty acyl translocase, and plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein in pectoralis and heart differed between the two species, with winter increases for chickadees and seasonal stability or summer increases for goldfinches. Catabolic enzyme activities generally showed limited seasonal differences for both tissues and both species. These data suggest that FABPc is an important target of upregulation for the winter phenotype in pectoralis and heart of both species. Plasma membrane lipid transporters and lipid catabolic capacity were also elevated in winter for chickadees but not for goldfinches. Because the two species show differential regulation of distinct aspects of lipid transport and catabolism, these data are consistent with other recent studies documenting that different bird species or populations employ a variety of strategies to promote elevated winter thermogenic capacity.

Biology Department.

Johnson, W. C., M. A. Volke, Michael L. Scott, & Mark D. Dixon. (2015). The dammed Missouri: prospects for recovering Lewis and Clark’s River. Ecohydrology, 8(5), 765-771.

The world’s dams and reservoirs are aging. The ecological effects of a half-century or more of flow regulation and sediment alteration are becoming apparent. What remains of the highly dynamic channel and riparian ecosystem of the Missouri River described by Lewis and Clark has become static. Recent long-term studies have determined that some of the impacts on the Missouri River ecosystem turned out as predicted, such as the failure of cottonwood-dominated riparian forests to successfully establish and survive on a broad scale. Other changes were surprises, such as the effect of disease eliminating a formerly dominant tree species and the appearance of mainstem and tributary deltas affecting channel slope, floodplain hydrology, and vegetation. Restoration of the river’s hydrologic and sediment regime has been delayed long enough that the chances of functional ecosystem restoration have been greatly reduced and complicated. Two phases are now needed to attempt to restore the riparian ecosystem: one to repair the effects of post-dam changes (channel incision, bank stabilization) and another to reestablish pre-dam flow and sediment regimes. The prospects for restoration of this valuable ecosystem, rich in history and in goods and services provided to the public, are dim. Time has diminished the chances that restoration or even rehabilitation can be achieved. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Biology Department.

Zhang, Yufeng F., Kathy Eyster, J. S. Liu, & David L. Swanson. (2015). Cross-training in birds: cold and exercise training produce similar changes in maximal metabolic output, muscle masses and myostatin expression in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Journal of Experimental Biology, 218(14), 2190-2200.

Maximal metabolic outputs for exercise and thermogenesis in birds presumably influence fitness through effects on flight and shivering performance. Because both summit (M-sum, maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate) and maximum (MMR, maximum exercise metabolic rate) metabolic rates are functions of skeletal muscle activity, correlations between these measurements and their mechanistic underpinnings might occur. To examine whether such correlations occur, we measured the effects of experimental cold and exercise training protocols for 3 weeks on body (M-b) and muscle (M-pec) masses, basalmetabolic rate(BMR), M-sum, MMR, pectoralism RNA and protein expression for myostatin, and mRNA expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2 (metalloproteinase activators of myostatin) in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Both training protocols increased M-sum, MMR, M-b and M-pec, but BMR increased with cold training and decreased with exercise training. No significant differences occurred for pectoralis myostatin mRNA expression, but cold and exercise increased the expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2. Pectoralis myostatin protein levels were generally reduced for both training groups. These data clearly demonstrate cross-training effects of cold and exercise in birds, and are consistent with a role for myostatin in increasing pectoralis muscle mass and driving organismal increases in metabolic capacities.

Biology Department.

Zhang, Yufeng F., Marissa O. King, Erin Harmon, & David L. Swanson. (2015). Summer-to-Winter Phenotypic Flexibility of Fatty Acid Transport and Catabolism in Skeletal Muscle and Heart of Small Birds. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 88(5), 535-549.

Prolonged shivering in birds is mainly fueled by lipids. Consequently, lipid transport and catabolism are vital for thermogenic performance and could be upregulated along with thermogenic capacity as part of the winter phenotype. We investigated summer-to-winter variation in lipid transport and catabolism by measuring mRNA expression, protein levels, and enzyme activities for several key steps of lipid transport and catabolic pathways in pectoralis muscle and heart in two small temperate-zone resident birds, American goldfinches (Spinus tristis) and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Cytosolic fatty acid binding protein (FABP(c); a key component of intramyocyte lipid transport) mRNA and/or protein levels were generally higher in winter for pectoralis muscle and heart for both species. However, seasonal variation in plasma membrane lipid transporters, fatty acyl translocase, and plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein in pectoralis and heart differed between the two species, with winter increases for chickadees and seasonal stability or summer increases for goldfinches. Catabolic enzyme activities generally showed limited seasonal differences for both tissues and both species. These data suggest that FABP(c) is an important target of upregulation for the winter phenotype in pectoralis and heart of both species. Plasma membrane lipid transporters and lipid catabolic capacity were also elevated in winter for chickadees but not for goldfinches. Because the two species show differential regulation of distinct aspects of lipid transport and catabolism, these data are consistent with other recent studies documenting that different bird species or populations employ a variety of strategies to promote elevated winter thermogenic capacity.

Biology Department.

Eichler, B., J. Erickson, J. Keppen, Andrew Sykes, & Grigoriy Sereda. (2015). A non-planar crystal polymorph of 1,2-bis(9-anthracenyl)ethyne. Tetrahedron Letters, 56(31), 4574-4577.

1,2-Bis(9-anthracenyl)ethyne was synthesized and a new crystal polymorph was discovered. The previously reported structure was completely planar with a torsional angle between the two anthracenyl rings of 0.0 degrees, whereas the new polymorph had a torsional angle of 66.6 degrees. The new polymorph also stacks differently between molecules and has greater pi-electron overlap. In solution, the spectroscopic characteristics of both polymorphs were identical, but in the solid-state, results of red-shifted spectra for the co-planar polymorph indicate a strikingly simple example of the effect on UV-vis and fluorescence spectra of extending pi-conjugation wrapped up in one molecule with two polymorphs. It was also determined that the co-planar polymorph is favored with rapid crystallization, whereas the twisted polymorph prefers slow crystallization. This may indicate that the co-planar polymorph is kinetically favored and the twisted polymorph is thermodynamically favored. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

Kilina, Svetlana, Dmitri Kilin, & Sergei Tretiak. (2015). Light-Driven and Phonon-Assisted Dynamics in Organic and Semiconductor Nanostructures. Chemical Reviews, 115(12), 5929-5978.

The article discusses photophysical properties, sensitivity to the structural disorder and surface effects of semiconductor colloidal quantum dots (QD), single-walled carbon nanotubes and conjugated polymers also called organic semiconductors. It highlights the role of computational modeling to elucidate structure-function relationship in nanostructured materials and talks about geometry optimization and electronic structure calculation along with QD-ligand interactions.

Chemistry Department.

Mahoney, Luther, Rui Peng, Chia-Ming Wu, Jonas Baltrusaitis, & Ranjit T. Koodali. (2015). Solar simulated hydrogen evolution using cobalt oxide nanoclusters deposited on titanium dioxide mesoporous materials prepared by evaporation induced self-assembly process. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 40(34), 10795-10806.

Cobalt containing TiO 2 mesoporous materials were prepared by Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly (EISA) process. The resulting mesoporous materials were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen physisorption, Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The photocatalytic activities of the mesoporous materials were investigated for hydrogen production under solar simulated conditions. The non-modified TiO 2 sample produced only 4 μmole H 2 /g catalyst after 4 h of irradiation. In contrast, the Co containing mesoporous materials produced significantly higher amounts of hydrogen under identical conditions. The highest solar hydrogen evolution (634 μmole H 2 /g catalyst after 4 h of irradiation) was from the Co-TiO 2 -0.5 material. The physico-chemical characterization results indicate that the Co 2+ ions are dispersed as oxide species on the surface of the mesoporous titania. These cobalt surface species act as trap sites preventing recombination of the charge carriers as shown by PL measurements. The addition of Co 2+ ions to the synthesis mixture prevents the formation of anatase-to-rutile which favorably permits more solar hydrogen production.

Chemistry Department.

Chiang, Jyun-You, Tzong-Ru Tsai, Y. Lio Lio, Wanbo Lu, & Daimin Shi. (2015). An integrated approach for the optimization of tolerance design and quality cost. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 87, 186-192.

Different normality-based optimization strategy (NBOS) methods have been developed and used to perform quality improvement in the past few decays. Improving the quality of a production process using a NBOS method possibly incurs misleading results if the quality measurements follow a skewed distribution. An integrated model, with components of a tolerance cost model for the determinations of optimal tolerance limits and a quality investment model for the identification of optimal investment level, is applied to establish a new optimization strategy method for the skew normal distribution (SND), named SNDOS method. The SND generalizes the normal distribution to include skewed distributions as members, and hence the SNDOS method is applicable for quality improvement either the distribution of quality measurements follow a symmetric or skewed distribution. Two examples about car seat production process are used to illustrate the application of the SNDOS method. The sensitivity of the SNDOS method to the loss coefficient of the integrated model is evaluated for different inputs of the skewness parameter of the SND through a numerical study.

Mathematics Department.

Tsai, Tzong-Ru, Yuhlong Lio, Nan Jiang, Yu-Jau Lin, & Ya-Yen Fan. (2015). Economical sampling plans with warranty based on truncated data from Burr type XII distribution. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 66(9), 1511-1518.

Economical sampling plans to ensure the qualities of Burr type XII distributed lifetimes were established using a truncated life test. The Bayesian inference method was used to address the lot-to-lot variation of products. The sampling plan was characterized by the sample size and the acceptance number to minimize the expected total cost. A simple empirical Bayesian estimation method was provided to estimate the hyperparameters of prior distribution, and simulation studies were conducted to validate the proposed empirical Bayesian estimation method. Lastly, the application of this proposed method was illustrated using two examples.

Mathematics Department.

Bahar, A. N., S. Waheed, & Nazir Hossain. (2015). A new approach of presenting reversible logic gate in nanoscale. Springerplus, 4, 7.

Conventional lithography-based VLSI design technology deployed to optimize low-powered-computing and higher scale integration of semiconductor components. However, this downscaling trend confronts serious challenges of tunneling and leakage current increment to the Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology on nanoscale regimes. To resolve the physical restriction of the CMOS, Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) technology dedicates for the nanoscale technology that embrace a new information transformation technique. However, QCA is limited to the design of the sequential and combinational circuits only. This paper presents some highly scalable features reversible logic gate for the QCA technology. In addition, proposed layout compared with CMOS technology, offer a better reduction in size up to 233 times.

Physics Department.

Miller, Ross A., L. L. Waters, D. R. Mody, & Kimberlee C. Tams. (2015). Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix A Cytology-Histology-Human Papillomavirus Correlation in Clinical Practice. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 139(6), 776-781.

Context.-Cervical cancer mortality has declined by 74% in the United States since the implementation of the Papanicolaou (Pap) test. Nevertheless, more than 12 000 US women annually develop cervical cancer, and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCa) remains the predominant cervical malignancy. Objective.-To evaluate screening techniques used in the detection of SqCa of the cervix and provide insights regarding which technique(s) is (are) most efficacious in our study population. Design.-We retrospectively reviewed all available cytologic, human papillomavirus (HPV), and histologic malignancy burden data from patients diagnosed with SqCa. The clinical data were collected from 2 geographically and socioeconomically diverse hospital systems. Cases in which identified patients had a Pap test with a negative result/unsatisfactory specimen within 5 years of SqCa tissue diagnosis were considered Pap test screening failures. Cases in which patients were diagnosed with HPV-negative SqCa were considered HPV screening failures. Results.-Eighty-eight cases (patients’ ages ranging from 19 to 73 years) were identified. Of those, cytologic history was available for 64 cases present in our electronic medical history record. Three cases were cytology screening failures (one being an unsatisfactory specimen) and 3 cases were HPV screening failures (one being the cytologic unsatisfactory case). Although measuring sensitivity in practice has limitations, we calculated the SqCa detection sensitivity at 95.3% by Pap test alone and 97% when HPV DNA testing was incorporated. Conclusions.-Our results highlight the necessity of combining Pap and HPV testing. Although the number of cases identified is relatively small, our data suggest detection failures will decrease as the practice of combining HPV and Pap testing increases.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Posted by: reganenosusd | August 28, 2015

Summer 2015

Niemonen, Jack. (2015). Whither the White Working Class? A Comment on Khanna and Harris, “Discovering Race in a “Post-Racial’ World: Teaching Race through Primetime Television”.Teaching Sociology, 43(3), 236-241. 

Even though I recognize the value of using the mass media to teach sociological concepts and reveal racial biases, I caution against the use of classroom exercises that are developed solely in the context of whiteness studies. Overarching statements of white privilege mask complex race-class interactions generally and the mass media’s stereotypical depictions of the white working class specifically. In this conversation, I explain why the use of the concept white privilege in and of itself obfuscates more than it reveals complex race-class interactions today.

Anthropology and Sociology.

McCormick, Kara, Jiang, Z., Zhu, L. C., Lawson, S. R., Langenhorst, R., Ransburgh, R., Brunick, ColinTracy, Miranda C.Hurtig, Heather R.Mabee, Leah M.Mingo, Mark, Li, Y. H., Webby, R. J., Huber, Victor C., & Fang, Y. (2015). Construction and Immunogenicity Evaluation of Recombinant Influenza A Viruses Containing Chimeric Hemagglutinin Genes Derived from Genetically Divergent Influenza A H1N1 Subtype Viruses. Plos One, 10(6).

Background and Objectives Influenza A viruses cause highly contagious diseases in a variety of hosts, including humans and pigs. To develop a vaccine that can be broadly effective against genetically divergent strains of the virus, in this study we employed molecular breeding (DNA shuffling) technology to create a panel of chimeric HA genes. Methods and Results Each chimeric HA gene contained genetic elements from parental swine influenza A viruses that had a history of zoonotic transmission, and also from a 2009 pandemic virus. Each parental virus represents a major phylogenetic clade of influenza A H1N1 viruses. Nine shuffled HA constructs were initially screened for immunogenicity in mice by DNA immunization, and one chimeric HA (HA-129) was expressed on both a A/Puerto Rico/8/34 backbone with mutations associated with a live, attenuated phenotype (PR8(LAIV)-129) and a A/swine/Texas/4199-2/98 backbone (TX98-129). When delivered to mice, the PR8(LAIV)-129 induced antibodies against all four parental viruses, which was similar to the breadth of immunity observed when HA-129 was delivered as a DNA vaccine. This chimeric HA was then tested as a candidate vaccine in a nursery pig model, using inactivated TX98-129 virus as the backbone. The results demonstrate that pigs immunized with HA-129 developed antibodies against all four parental viruses, as well as additional primary swine H1N1 influenza virus field isolates. Conclusion This study established a platform for creating novel genes of influenza viruses using a molecular breeding approach, which will have important applications toward future development of broadly protective influenza virus vaccines.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Rajkowska, Grazyna, Mahajan, Gouri, Maciag, Dorota, Sathyanesan, Monica, Iyo, Abiye H., Moulana, Mohadetheh, Kyle, Patrick B., Woolverton, William L., Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose Javier, Stockmeier, Craig A., & Newton, Samuel S. (2015). Oligodendrocyte morphometry and expression of myelin – Related mRNA in ventral prefrontal white matter in major depressive disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 65, 53-62.

White matter disturbance in the ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) in major depressive disorder (MDD) has been noted with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). However, the cellular and molecular pathology of prefrontal white matter in MDD and potential influence of antidepressant medications is not fully understood. Oligodendrocyte morphometry and myelin-related mRNA and protein expression was examined in the white matter of the vPFC in MDD. Sections of deep and gyral white matter from the vPFC were collected from 20 subjects with MDD and 16 control subjects. Density and size of CNPase-immunoreactive (-IR) oligodendrocytes were estimated using 3-dimensional cell counting. While neither density nor soma size of oligodendrocytes was significantly affected in deep white matter, soma size was significantly decreased in the gyral white matter in MDD. In rhesus monkeys treated chronically with fluoxetine there was no significant effect on oligodendrocyte morphometry. Using quantitative RT-PCR to measure oligodendrocyte-related mRNA for CNPase, PLP1, MBP, MOG, MOBP, Olig1 and Olig2, in MDD there was a significantly reduced expression of PLP1 mRNA (which positively correlated with smaller sizes) and increased expression of mRNA for CNPase, OLIG1 and MOG. The expression of CNPase protein was significantly decreased in MDD. Altered expression of four myelin genes and CNPase protein suggests a mechanism for the degeneration of cortical axons and dysfunctional maturation of oligodendrocytes in MDD. The change in oligodendrocyte morphology in gyral white matter may parallel altered axonal integrity as revealed by DTI.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Yuan, Sharleen, & Burrell, Brian D. (2013). Nonnociceptive afferent activity depresses nocifensive behavior and nociceptive synapses via an endocannabinoid-dependent mechanism. Journal of Neurophysiology, 110(11), 2607-2616.

Previously, low-frequency stimulation (LFS) of a nonnociceptive touch-sensitive neuron has been found to elicit endocannabinoid-dependent long-term depression (eCB-LTD) in nociceptive synapses in the leech central nervous system (CNS) that requires activation of a presynaptic transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)-like receptor by postsynaptically synthesized 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). This capacity of nonnociceptive afferent activity to reduce nociceptive signaling resembles gate control of pain, albeit longer lasting in these synaptic experiments. Since eCB-LTD has been observed at a single sensory-motor synapse, this study examines the functional relevance of this mechanism, specifically whether this form of synaptic plasticity has similar effects at the behavioral level in which additional, intersegmental neural circuits are engaged. Experiments were carried out using a semi-intact preparation that permitted both synaptic recordings and monitoring of the leech whole body shortening, a defensive withdrawal reflex that was elicited via intracellular stimulation of a single nociceptive neuron (the N cell). The same LFS of a nonnociceptive afferent that induced eCB-LTD in single synapses also produced an attenuation of the shortening reflex. Similar attenuation of behavior was also observed when 2-AG was applied. LFS-induced behavioral and synaptic depression was blocked by tetrahydrolipstatin (THL), a diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor, and by SB366791, a TRPV1 antagonist. The effects of both THL and SB366791 were observed following either bath application of the drug or intracellular injection into the presynaptic (SB366791) or postsynaptic (THL) neuron. These findings demonstrate a novel, endocannabinoid-based mechanism by which nonnociceptive afferent activity may modulate nocifensive behaviors via action on primary afferent synapses.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Cyr, Tim, Windels, Steve K., Moen, Ron, & Warmbold, Jerry W. (2014). DIVERSITY AND ABUNDANCE OF TERRESTRIAL GASTROPODS IN VOYAGEURS NATIONAL PARK, MN: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE RISK OF MOOSE BECOMING INFECTED WITH PARELAPHOSTRONGYLUS TENUIS. Alces, 50, 121-132.

Voyageurs National Park (VNP) has a stable population of about 40-50 moose (AIces alces). Recent declines in moose abundance in adjacent areas in northern Minnesota raise concerns about the long-term viability of moose in VNP. The parasitic nematode Parelaphostrongylus tenuis has been documented in moose in VNP and has been implicated in moose declines in other populations. Terrestrial gastropods are the intennediate hosts for P. tenuis, and describing spatial and temporal differences in their abundance should increase understanding about the risk of P. tenuis infection for VNP moose at the individual and population levels. We used cardboard sheets to estimate species composition and abundance of terrestrial gastropods in representative vegetation communities in VNP. We collected a total of 6,595 gastropods representing 25 species, 22 terrestrial snails and 3 slugs; 8 are known vectors of P. tenuis, including the slug Deroceras laeve, the most common species found. Gastropods were more abundant in September than July, and in upland forests (maximum = 555 gastropods/ m2) more than in wetter lowlands (20 gastropods/m2). We used location data from GPScollared moose in VNP to estimate the relative exposure of moose to gastropods that could be infected with P. tenuis larvae. The boreal hardwood forest and northern spruce-fir forest ecotypes had the highest use by moose and high abundance of P. tenuis vectors in summer, and may pose the greatest risk for infection. Habitat use and the related risk of ingesting gastropod vectors varied by individual moose. Our method can be extended in moose range to estimate the relative risk of P. tenuis infection.

Biology Department [Student]

Furness, Ambur N., & Soluk, Daniel A. (2015). The potential of diversion structures to reduce roadway mortality of the endangered Hine’s emerald dragonfly (Somatochlora hineana). Journal of Insect Conservation, 19(3), 449-455.

Roadways near wetlands and ponds inflict high roadkill rates on a wide variety of taxa. For threatened or endangered species that typically do not have large adult populations, fast reproduction rates, and/or rapid recolonization rates, such mortality is likely to have significant population consequences. Thus, exploring ways to reduce roadkill rates will have considerable conservation benefits. In this study, we evaluate whether a diversion structure can be used to modify flight behavior of the endangered Hine’s emerald dragonfly (Somatochlora hineana) in ways that would reduce roadway mortality. Flight behavior of adult S. hineana was observed with and without two 3 m high nets spaced at 6 and 12 m to simulate a small and a larger roadway. The netting significantly deterred (p < 0.0001) S. hineana adults from crossing the simulated roadway. Flight height was also influenced significantly (p = 0.0025) with flight heights over the 6 m net spacing being higher than those over the 12 m spacing. This study suggests that the use of diversion netting in areas where sensitive dragonfly species interact with motor vehicles might aid in reducing roadway mortality and might help reduce the overall impact of roadways on wetland ecosystems.

Biology Department.

Eichler, Barrett, Erickson, Jeremy, Keppen, Joseph, Sykes, Andrew, & Sereda, Grigoriy. (2015). A non-planar crystal polymorph of 1,2-bis(9-anthracenyl)ethyne. Tetrahedron Letters: International Organ for the Rapid Publication of Preliminary Communications in Organic Chemistry, 56(31), 4574-4577.

1,2-Bis(9-anthracenyl)ethyne was synthesized and a new crystal polymorph was discovered. The previously reported structure was completely planar with a torsional angle between the two anthracenyl rings of 0.0°, whereas the new polymorph had a torsional angle of 66.6°. The new polymorph also stacks differently between molecules and has greater π–electron overlap. In solution, the spectroscopic characteristics of both polymorphs were identical, but in the solid-state, results of red-shifted spectra for the co-planar polymorph indicate a strikingly simple example of the effect on UV–vis and fluorescence spectra of extending π-conjugation wrapped up in one molecule with two polymorphs. It was also determined that the co-planar polymorph is favored with rapid crystallization, whereas the twisted polymorph prefers slow crystallization. This may indicate that the co-planar polymorph is kinetically favored and the twisted polymorph is thermodynamically favored.

Chemistry Department.

Mariappan, KadarkaraisamyAlaparthi, MadhubabuHoffman, MariahRama, Myriam AlcantarBalasubramanian, VinothiniJohn, Danielle M., & Sykes, Andrew G. (2015). Improved selectivity for Pb(II) by sulfur, selenium and tellurium analogues of 1,8-anthraquinone-18-crown-5: synthesis, spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography and computational studies. Dalton Transactions, 44(26), 11774-11787.

We report here a series of heteroatom-substituted macrocycles containing an anthraquinone moiety as a fluorescent signaling unit and a cyclic polyheteroether chain as the receptor. Sulfur, selenium, and tellurium derivatives of 1,8-anthraquinone-18-crown-5 (1) were synthesized by reacting sodium sulfide (Na2S), sodium selenide (Na2Se) and sodium telluride (Na2Te) with 1,8-bis(2-bromoethylethyleneoxy) anthracene-9,10-dione in a 1 : 1 ratio. The optical properties of the new compounds are examined and the sulfur and selenium analogues produce an intense green emission enhancement upon association with Pb(II) in acetonitrile. Selectivity for Pb(II) is markedly improved as compared to the oxygen analogue 1 which was also competitive for Ca(II) ion. UV-Visible and luminescence titrations reveal that 2 and 3 form 1 : 1 complexes with Pb(II), confirmed by single-crystal X-ray studies where Pb(II) is complexed within the macrocycle through coordinate covalent bonds to neighboring carbonyl, ether and heteroether donor atoms. Cyclic voltammetry of 2-8 showed classical, irreversible oxidation potentials for sulfur, selenium and tellurium heteroethers in addition to two one-electron reductions for the anthraquinone carbonyl groups. DFT calculations were also conducted on 1, 2, 3, 6, 6 + Pb(II) and 6 + Mg(II) to determine the trend in energies of the HOMO and the LUMO levels along the series.

Chemistry Department.

Shen, W., Lin, X., Jiang, Chaoyang, Li, C. Y., Lin, H. X., Huang, J. T., Wang, S., Liu, G. K., Yan, X. M., Zhong, Q. L., & Ren, B. (2015). Reliable Quantitative SERS Analysis Facilitated by Core-Shell Nanoparticles with Embedded Internal Standards. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, 54(25), 7308-7312.

Quantitative analysis is a great challenge in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Core-molecule-shell nanoparticles with two components in the molecular layer, a framework molecule to form the shell, and a probe molecule as a Raman internal standard, were rationally designed for quantitative SERS analysis. The signal of the embedded Raman probe provides effective feedback to correct the fluctuation of samples and measuring conditions. Meanwhile, target molecules with different affinities can be adsorbed onto the shell. The quantitative analysis of target molecules over a large concentration range has been demonstrated with a linear response of the relative SERS intensity versus the surface coverage, which has not been achieved by conventional SERS methods.

Chemistry Department.

Jorgensen, Lindsey E., & Messersmith, Jessica J. (2015). Impact of Aging and Cognition on Hearing Assistive Technology Use. Seminars in Hearing, 36(3), 162-174.

Many factors go into appropriate recommendation and use of hearing assistive technology (HAT). The aging auditory system presents with its own complications and intricacies; there are many types of age-related hearing loss, and it is possible that the underlying cause of hearing loss can significantly impact the recommendations and performance with HATs. The audiologist should take into consideration peripheral and central auditory function when selecting HATs for the aging adult population as well as when selecting appropriate types of technology including personal sound amplification products, hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other assistive technology. The cognitive ability of the patient plays a central role in the recommendations of HAT. It is possible that the use of HATs could mitigate some of the effects of cognitive decline and thus should be considered as early as possible. Assessment of ability and appropriate recommendations are crucial to consistent use of HAT devices.

Communication Disorders Department.

Emery, Noah N., & Simons, Jeffrey S. (2015). Mood & alcohol-related attentional biases: New considerations for gender differences and reliability of the visual-probe task. Addictive Behaviors, 50, 1-5.

Introduction Alcohol-related attentional biases are positively associated with drinking history and may represent a mechanism by which alcohol use behavior is maintained over time. This study was designed to address two unresolved issues regarding alcohol-related attention biases. Specifically, this study tested whether acute changes in positive and negative mood increase attentional biases toward alcohol cues and whether coping and enhancement drinking motives moderate these effects. Methods Participants were 100 college students aged 18–25, who drank alcohol at least once in the last 90 days. In a 2 × 3 mixed design, participants were randomized to one of three mood conditions (neutral, negative, or positive) and completed visual-probe tasks pre- and post-mood-induction. Results Attentional biases toward alcohol cues were significantly associated with alcohol consumption among men, but not women. Although the mood manipulation was highly successful, attentional biases did not vary as a function of mood condition and hypothesized moderating effects of drinking motives were not significant. Conclusions The largely null findings of the experiment are discussed in light of the fact that the visual probe task had poor reliability. Issues related to the reliability of visual-probe task are discussed, as more research is needed to evaluate and improve the psychometrics of this method.

Psychology Department.

Simons, Jeffrey S., Wills, Thomas A., Emery, Noah N., & Marks, Russell M. (2015). Quantifying alcohol consumption: Self-report, transdermal assessment, and prediction of dependence symptoms. Addictive Behaviors, 50, 205-212.

Research on alcohol use depends heavily on the validity of self-reported drinking. The present paper presents data from 647 days of self-monitoring with a transdermal alcohol sensor by 60 young adults. We utilized a biochemical measure, transdermal alcohol assessment with the WrisTAS, to examine the convergent validity of three approaches to collecting daily self-report drinking data: experience sampling, daily morning reports of the previous night, and 1-week timeline follow-back (TLFB) assessments. We tested associations between three pharmacokinetic indices (peak concentration, area under the curve (AUC), and time to reach peak concentration) derived from the transdermal alcohol signal and within- and between- person variation in alcohol dependence symptoms. The WrisTAS data corroborated 85.74% of self-reported drinking days based on the experience sampling data. The TLFB assessment and combined experience sampling and morning reports agreed on 87.27% of drinking days. Drinks per drinking day did not vary as a function of wearing or not wearing the sensor; this indicates that participants provided consistent reports of their drinking regardless of biochemical verification. In respect to self-reported alcohol dependence symptoms, the AUC of the WrisTAS alcohol signal was associated with dependence symptoms at both the within- and between- person level. Furthermore, alcohol dependence symptoms at baseline predicted drinking episodes characterized in biochemical data by both higher peak alcohol concentration and faster time to reach peak concentration. The results support the validity of self-report alcohol data, provide empirical data useful for optimal design of daily process sampling, and provide an initial demonstration of the use of transdermal alcohol assessment to characterize drinking dynamics associated with risk for alcohol dependence.

Psychology Department.

Barta, Ashley L., Nutescu, Edith A., Thompson, Paul A., Bussey, Henry I., & Gulseth, Michael P. (2015). Relationship between time spent at extreme International Normalized Ratios and time in therapeutic range with bleeding and thrombosis in warfarin-treated patients. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 72(14), 1188-1194.

Purpose. The relationship between the time spent at extreme International Normalized Ratios (INRs) and the time in the therapeutic range (TTR) with bleeding and thrombosis in warfarin-treated patients was examined. Methods. Consecutive patients treated with warfarin for atrial fibrillation or for venous thrombosis who were managed by the anticoagulation management service or adult internal medicine clinic of a large, tertiary care, integrated health system between June 1, 2011, and October 9, 2012, were eligible for study inclusion. Data collected for the outcomes analysis included INRs and dates; current use of aspirin, clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticagrelor, ticlopidine, or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs; and any clinically significant bleeding or thrombosis events identified. Results. In the 837 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 636.5 patient-years of therapy were provided, of which 14.4 patient-years (2.26% of time) were spent at INRs of <1.5; 2.9 patient-years of therapy (0.45% of time) were spent at INRs of >4.5. The patient population had a mean individual TTR of 65%. The percentage of time at an INR of >4.5 was positively associated with an increased risk of major bleeding (p = 0.0085). The percentage of time spent with an INR of <1.5 was not associated with a significant increase in the risk of thrombosis. Conclusion. The percentage of time spent with an INR of >4.5 was associated with an increased risk of major bleeding in patients receiving warfarin for atrial fibrillation or for venous thrombosis at two outpatient clinics. The relationships between thrombosis risk and the TTR or the time spent at an INR of <1.5 were not significant, but the thromboembolic event rate was unusually low, as was the time spent at an INR of <1.5.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Belcher, Harolyn M. E., Stone, Jacqueline D., McFadden, Jenese A., Hemmingson, Tyler A., …., Osdel, Joanne, Avila, Margaret, Yorker, Beatrice, Hoffman, Beth R., & Turner-Musa, Jocelyn O. (2015). Evaluating maternal and child health and leadership competencies of emerging mch leaders: The mchc/rise-up experience. Maternal and Child Health Journal.

Purpose: This study examines maternal and child health core competencies and leadership characteristics of undergraduate students following participation in the Maternal and Child Health Careers/Research Initiatives for Student Enhancement-Undergraduate Program (MCHC/RISE-UP). MCHC/RISE-UP is a 10-week public health leadership program designed to promote diversity in public health workforce through mentored research, community engagement and advocacy, and clinical experiences for undergraduate students.Description: The MCHC/RISE-UP is a national consortium of University Centers for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities including, (1) Kennedy Krieger Institute (Kennedy Krieger, lead institution) partnering with Morgan State University, a Historically Black University, (2) the University of South Dakota partnering with Tribal Serving Institutions; and (3) the University of Southern California Children’s Hospital-Los Angeles and their partner institution, California State University Los Angeles, a Hispanic Serving Institution.Assessment: Eighty-four junior and senior undergraduates and recent baccalaureate degree students who participated in the MCHC/RISE-UP worked on 48 maternal and child health projects. Following the MCHC/RISE-UP, students demonstrated statistically significant improvements in all maternal and child health core competencies. Transformational leadership characteristics also increased (mean increase 9.4, 95 % CI 7.2–11.8; p < 0.001). At closing interview, over twice as many students endorsed a public health career goal compared to program admission (17.9 vs 57.7 %; p = 0.022).Conclusion: Multi-institutional collaborative public health leadership programs may extend the reach and recruitment of diverse students into the maternal and child health field. Experiential, didactic, and mentored learning opportunities may enhance student integration of maternal and child health competencies and transformational leadership characteristics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Dey, NandinaWilliams, CaseyLeyland-Jones, Brian, & De, Pradip. (2015). A critical role for HER3 in HER2-amplified and non-amplified breast cancers: function of a kinase-dead RTK. American Journal of Translational Research, 7(4), 733-750.

ERBB3/HER3 is the most intriguing RTK by virtue of its ability to transduce multiple cytosolic signals for the proliferation and growth of tumor cells in spite of being a “kinase dead” receptor that binds to its true ligand, heregulin. Although other members of the HER3 family like EGFR and HER2 have long been recognized to be associated with breast tumorigenesis and studied because of their predictive and prognostic value, the significance of HER3 as an irrefutable component of HER family signalosome is a relatively new development. The recent understanding of signals originating from the oncogenic partnership of HER3 with HER2 in the context of HER2 amplification/overexpression showed the critical clinical value for the treatment of HER2+BC. The downstream signaling cascade (included but not limited to the PI3K signaling) associated with signals originating from HER2:HER3 dimers play a vital role in the tumorigenesis, drug-resistance and tumor progression of HER2+BC. The upregulation of HER3 activity provides an alternate “escape route” via which tumor cells bypass either the inhibition of the HER family RTKs or the inhibition of the downstream PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway. By understanding the signaling that provides this “escape route” for these tumor cells treated with a targeted therapy (HER2 inhibitors or inhibitors of downstream PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway), we are just beginning to appreciate the prognostic value of HER3 in breast cancer. In this review, we will discuss the relevance of HER3 signaling in the context of, (1) downstream oncogenic signals and (2) therapeutic options in HER2 amplified BC.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Ferley, Derek D., & Vukovich, Marshall D. (2015). TIME-TO-FATIGUE DURING INCLINE TREADMILL RUNNING: IMPLICATIONS FOR INDIVIDUALIZED TRAINING PRESCRIPTION. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29(7), 1855-1862.

Ferley, DD and Vukovich, MD. Time-to-fatigue during incline treadmill running: Implications for individualized training prescription. J Strength Cond Res 29(7): 1855-1862, 2015Uphill running has been touted as a key interval training tactic for distance runners despite few scientifically derived recommendations for individualized training prescription. To date, a majority of uphill training research has focused on shorter, faster training bouts; however, longer, slower bouts based on an individual’s velocity at maximum oxygen consumption (Vmax) may prove more effective. One potential longer bout length may be associated with the time Vmax can be maintained (Tmax), an approach proven effective in level-grade interval training. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation included examining the Tmax, heart rate, and test-retest reliability of incline treadmill running (INC) on a 10% grade at 65, 70, 75, 80, and 85%Vmax compared with level-grade running at Vmax. Twelve moderately trained distance runners (age, 26.4 +/- 4.8; body mass, 64.3 +/- 12.9 kg; height, 171.2 +/- 9.3 cm; and V.o(2)max, 56.6 +/- 7.6 mlmin(-1)kg(-1)) completed 2 Tmax INC trials at each submaximal Vmax and a level-grade Tmax at Vmax. The dependent variables were Tmax, heart rate plateau (HRPlateau), and half-time to heart rate plateau (1/2HR(Plateau)) of each condition. Statistical significance was set to p 0.05. Student’s t-test revealed no significant differences in Tmax, HRPlateau, and 1/2HR(Plateau) between trials 1 and 2 at any INC condition. One-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences in (a) Tmax during INC at 75, 80, and 85%Vmax and level-grade at Vmax and (b) 1/2HR(Plateau) during INC at 80 and 85%Vmax and all other conditions. In conclusion, Tmax and heart rate dynamics during INC proved reliable, and simple regression analysis revealed approximate to 68%Vmax during INC yields the same level-grade Tmax at Vmax.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Hanson, Jessica D., Nothwehr, F., Yang, J. G., & Romitti, P. (2015). Indirect and Direct Perceived Behavioral Control and the Role of Intention in the Context of Birth Control Behavior. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19(7), 1535-1542.

Unintended pregnancies can have negative consequences for both mother and child. The focus of this study was to utilize perceived behavioral control measures (PBC; part of the theory of planned behavior) to identify relevant behavioral determinants of birth control use. This study also tested associations between direct and indirect PBC measures and intention of birth control use and between intention and birth control use. The methods included a randomly selected sample of patients at a health care system in the Upper Midwest who were sent a self-administered survey, with 190 non-pregnant women returning completed surveys. Participants indicated a high level of control over using birth control, and a significant positive correlation was observed between direct and indirect PBC measures. Participants also reported high intentions to use birth control, and a significant positive correlation was observed between intention and PBC. Additionally, both PBC measures and intention were independently and significantly associated with behavior, and PBC remained significantly associated with behavior when intention was added into the model. In conclusion, compared to the previous literature, this study is unique in that it examines indirect PBC measures and also the important role that PBC plays with actual birth control behavior.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Maher, Diane M., Khan, Sheema, Nordquist, Jordan L.Ebeling, Mara C.Bauer, Nichole A., Kopel, Lucas, Singh, Man Mohan, Halaweish, Fathi, Bell, Maria C., Jaggi, Meena, & Chauhan, Subhash C. (2015). Ormeloxifene efficiently inhibits ovarian cancer growth. Cancer Letters, 356(2), 606-612.

Ovarian cancer continues to be a leading cause of cancer related deaths for women. Anticancer agents effective against chemo-resistant cells are greatly needed for ovarian cancer treatment. Repurposing drugs currently in human use is an attractive strategy for developing novel cancer treatments with expedited translation into clinical trials. Therefore, we examined whether ormeloxifene (ORM), a non-steroidal Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM) currently used for contraception, is therapeutically effective at inhibiting ovarian cancer growth. We report that ORM treatment inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cell lines, including cell lines resistant to cisplatin. Furthermore, ORM treatment decreases Akt phosphorylation, increases p53 phosphorylation, and modulates the expression and localization patterns of p27, cyclin E, cyclin D1, and CDK2. In a pre-clinical xenograft mouse ORM treatment significantly reduces tumorigenesis and metastasis. These results indicate that ORM effectively inhibits the growth of cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. ORM is currently in human use and has an established record of patient safety. Our encouraging in vitro and pre-clinical in vivo findings indicate that ORM is a promising candidate for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Munce, Thayne A.Dorman, Jason C.Thompson, Paul A.Valentine, Verle D., & Bergeron, Michael F.(2015). Head Impact Exposure and Neurologic Function of Youth Football Players. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 47(8), 1567-1576.

Football players are subjected to repetitive impacts that may lead to brain injury and neurologic dysfunction. Knowledge about head impact exposure (HIE) and consequent neurologic function among youth football players is limited. Purpose: This study aimed to measure and characterize HIE of youth football players throughout one season and explore associations between HIE and changes in selected clinical measures of neurologic function. Methods: Twenty-two youth football players (11-13 yr) wore helmets outfitted with a head impact telemetry (HIT) system to quantify head impact frequency, magnitude, duration, and location. Impact data were collected for each practice (27) and game (9) in a single season. Selected clinical measures of balance, oculomotor performance, reaction time, and self-reported symptoms were assessed before and after the season. Results: The median individual head impacts per practice, per game, and throughout the entire season were 9, 12, and 252, respectively. Approximately 50% of all head impacts (6183) had a linear acceleration between 10g and 20g, but nearly 2% were greater than 80g. Overall, the head impact frequency distributions in this study population were similar in magnitude and location as in high school and collegiate football, but total impact frequency was lower. Individual changes in neurologic function were not associated with cumulative HIE. Conclusion: This study provides a novel examination of HIE and associations with short-term neurologic function in youth football and notably contributes to the limited HIE data currently available for this population. Whereas youth football players can experience remarkably similar head impact forces as high school players, cumulative subconcussive HIE throughout one youth football season may not be detrimental to short-term clinical measures of neurologic function.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Benson, Nicholas, Beaujean, A. Alexander, & Taub, Gordon E. (2015). Using Score Equating and Measurement Invariance to Examine the Flynn Effect in the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 50(4), 398-415.

The Flynn effect (FE; i.e., increase in mean IQ scores over time) is commonly viewed as reflecting population shifts in intelligence, despite the fact that most FE studies have not investigated the assumption of score comparability. Consequently, the extent to which these mean differences in IQ scores reflect population shifts in cognitive abilities versus changes in the instruments used to measure these abilities is unclear. In this study, we used modern psychometric tools to examine the FE. First, we equated raw scores for each common subtest to be on the same scale across instruments. This enabled the combination of scores from all three instruments into one of 13 age groups before converting raw scores into Z scores. Second, using age-based standardized scores for standardization samples, we examined measurement invariance across the second (revised), third, and fourth editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Results indicate that while scores were equivalent across the third and fourth editions, they were not equivalent across the second and third editions. Results suggest that there is some evidence for an increase in intelligence, but also call into question many published FE findings as presuming the instruments’ scores are invariant when this assumption is not warranted.

School of Education.

Brown-Rice, Kathleen A., Furr, Susan, & Jorgensen, Maribeth. (2015). Analyzing Greek Members Alcohol Consumption by Gender and the Impact of Alcohol Education Interventions. Journal of Alcohol & Drug Education, 59(1), 19-38.

Members of the Greek community have been found to engage in riskier alcohol drinking behaviors and have higher alcohol-related negative consequences. A sample of Greek members were surveyed in Spring of 2013 (n = 372). It was found that The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) scores were significantly higher for male respondents than female respondents. During the fall semester, alcohol education sessions were offered to all members of the Greek community. Of the respondents who attended alcohol education sessions (n = 334), 55% reported these sessions changed their perception of high risk drinking. Implications for alcohol education programming are discussed.

School of Education.

Roh, Soonhee, Lee, Yeon-Shim, Lee, Kyoung, Shibusawa, Tazuko, & Yoo, Grace. (2015). Friends, Depressive Symptoms, and Life Satisfaction Among Older Korean Americans. Journal of Immigrant & Minority Health, 17(4), 1091-1097.

This study examined the interactive effects of social network support and depressive symptoms on life satisfaction among older Korean Americans (KAs). Using data from a sample of 200 elders in a large metropolitan area ( M = 72.50, SD = 5.15), hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the interaction between social network support and depressive symptoms on life satisfaction among older KAs. After controlling for demographic variables, both social network support and depressive symptoms were identified as predictors for life satisfaction. Interaction effects indicated strong associations between higher social network support specifically from friends and lower depressive symptoms with higher levels of life satisfaction. Findings highlight the important role that friends play in terms of social network support for the mental health of older KAs, and the need for geriatric practitioners to monitor and assess the quality of social network support-including friendships-when working with older KAs.

School of Health Sciences.

Posted by: reganenosusd | April 20, 2015

February – April 2015

Moran III, James D., Marilyn J. Wells, & Angela Smith-Aumen. (2015). Making Undergraduate Research a Central Strategy in High-Impact Practice Reform: The PASSHE Journey. New Directions for Higher Education, 2015(169), 61-71.

This chapter describes undergraduate research expansion in the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education (PASSHE) in the context of both fiscal and student enrollment challenges.

Academic Affairs.

King, Marisa, Yufeng Zhang, Travis Carter, Jake Johnson, Erin Harmon, & David Swanson. (2015). Phenotypic flexibility of skeletal muscle and heart masses and expression of myostatin and tolloid-like proteinases in migrating passerine birds. Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic & Environmental Physiology, 185(3), 333-342.

Migrant birds require large flight muscles and hearts to enhance aerobic capacity and support sustained flight. A potential mechanism for increasing muscle and heart masses during migration in birds is the muscle growth inhibitor myostatin and its metalloproteinase activators, tolloid-like proteinases (TLL-1 and TLL-2). We hypothesized that myostatin, TLL-1 and TLL-2 are downregulated during migration in pectoralis and hearts of migratory passerines to promote hypertrophy. We measured seasonal variation of tissue masses, mRNA expression of myostatin, TLL- 1, and TLL- 2, and myostatin protein levels in pectoralis muscle and heart for yellow warblers ( Setophaga petechia), warbling vireos ( Vireo gilvus), and yellow-rumped warblers ( Setophaga coronata). Pectoralis mass was greatest in spring for warbling vireos and yellow warblers, but was stable between spring and fall for yellow-rumped warblers. Heart mass was higher in spring than in fall for yellow-rumped warblers, lowest in fall for warbling vireos, and seasonally stable for yellow warblers. Pectoralis and heart mRNA expression of myostatin and the TLLs did not differ significantly for any of the three species, offering little support for our hypothesis for a prominent role for myostatin in regulating migration-induced variation in pectoralis and heart masses. In contrast, pectoralis myostatin protein levels were lowest in spring for all three species, consistent with our hypothesis. Myostatin protein levels in heart, however, were seasonally stable for warbling vireos and yellow warblers, and increased in spring relative to fall for yellow-rumped warblers. These data offer mixed support for our hypothesis for the pectoralis, but suggest that myostatin is not a prominent regulator of migration-induced heart hypertrophy. Moreover, the different seasonal patterns for pectoralis mRNA and protein expression suggest that post-transcriptional modification of myostatin may contribute to pectoralis mass regulation during migration.

Biology Department.

Kim, Dae In, K.C. Birendra, & Kyle J. Roux. (2015). Making the LINC: SUN and KASH protein interactions. Biological Chemistry, 396(4), 295-310.

Cell nuclei are physically integrated with the cytoskeleton through the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex, a structure that spans the nuclear envelope to link the nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton. Outer nuclear membrane KASH domain proteins and inner nuclear membrane SUN domain proteins interact to form the core of the LINC complex. In this review, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the reported protein-protein interactions for KASH and SUN domain proteins. This critical structure, directly connecting the genome with the rest of the cell, contributes to a myriad of cellular functions and, when perturbed, is associated with human disease.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Jorgensen, Maribeth F., & Kelly Duncan. (2015). A Grounded Theory of Master’s-Level Counselor Research Identity. Counselor Education & Supervision, 54(1), 17-31.

A grounded theory approach was used to examine the research identity of 17 master’s-level counseling trainees and practitioners. The emergent theory gave an understanding to sources of variation in the process and outcome of research identity. The authors provide recommendations for counselor educators to use with current and former students.

School of Education.

Kindle, Peter A., & Mary A. Caplan. (2015). Understanding Fringe Economic Behavior: A Bourdieusian-informed Meta-ethnography. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 42(1), 49-71.

This paper is a meta-ethnography of four low-income communities in order to explore fringe economic behaviors. Rejecting the interpretation of fringe economic behaviors as irrational, we affirm these behaviors as viable alternatives for people marginalized in the mainstream economy. Using a meta-ethnographic method and employing the concepts of sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, we identify the habitus and social capital values of each community as distinct Bourdieusian fields and conclude that an awareness of the localized development of a fringe economic cluster with distinct goals and rules undermines one-size-its-all social welfare programs.

School of Health Sciences.

Jehl, J. R., A. E. Henry, & David L. Swanson. (2015). Ratios, adaptations, and the differential metabolic capability of avian flight muscles. Journal of Avian Biology, 46(2), 119-124.

The eared grebe Podiceps nigricollis shows seasonal variation in the relative size of the major flight muscles that lift and lower the wing: respectively, supracoracoideus (s) and pectoralis (p). S/p ratios are low (approximate to 0.07-0.12) when grebes are in flying condition, higher (approximate to 0.11-0.15) when staging and flightless, and extreme (to 0.29) when starving. Shifts were driven by changes in the protein content in the pectoralis; intramuscular fat had little effect. S/p ratios also vary seasonally in the red knot Calidris canutus and are higher in birds newly arrived in breeding areas than at other times. If that increase was an adaptive response to promote wing-lifting in association with various breeding behaviors as suggested, one would expect it to result from an absolute increase in the post-arrival size of the supracoracoideus, which was not observed. Instead, we propose that it is unrelated to enhancing the upstroke but results from a decrease in the size of the pectoralis, which is a consequence of the greater rate at which this muscle is catabolized in times of exertion and stress, as at the end of a long migration or during starvation. Fuller data on the size, morphology and physiology of individual muscles at various stages of the annual cycle and migration will help to clarify how ratio changes are achieved, and evaluate potential adaptive significance.

Biology Department.

King, Marrisa O., Yufeng Zhang, Travis Carter, Jake Johnson, Erin Harmon, & David L. Swanson. (2015). Phenotypic flexibility of skeletal muscle and heart masses and expression of myostatin and tolloid-like proteinases in migrating passerine birds. Journal of Comparative Physiology B-Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology, 185(3), 333-342.

Migrant birds require large flight muscles and hearts to enhance aerobic capacity and support sustained flight. A potential mechanism for increasing muscle and heart masses during migration in birds is the muscle growth inhibitor myostatin and its metalloproteinase activators, tolloid-like proteinases (TLL-1 and TLL-2). We hypothesized that myostatin, TLL-1 and TLL-2 are downregulated during migration in pectoralis and hearts of migratory passerines to promote hypertrophy. We measured seasonal variation of tissue masses, mRNA expression of myostatin, TLL-1, and TLL-2, and myostatin protein levels in pectoralis muscle and heart for yellow warblers (Setophaga petechia), warbling vireos (Vireo gilvus), and yellow-rumped warblers (Setophaga coronata). Pectoralis mass was greatest in spring for warbling vireos and yellow warblers, but was stable between spring and fall for yellow-rumped warblers. Heart mass was higher in spring than in fall for yellow-rumped warblers, lowest in fall for warbling vireos, and seasonally stable for yellow warblers. Pectoralis and heart mRNA expression of myostatin and the TLLs did not differ significantly for any of the three species, offering little support for our hypothesis for a prominent role for myostatin in regulating migration-induced variation in pectoralis and heart masses. In contrast, pectoralis myostatin protein levels were lowest in spring for all three species, consistent with our hypothesis. Myostatin protein levels in heart, however, were seasonally stable for warbling vireos and yellow warblers, and increased in spring relative to fall for yellow-rumped warblers. These data offer mixed support for our hypothesis for the pectoralis, but suggest that myostatin is not a prominent regulator of migration-induced heart hypertrophy. Moreover, the different seasonal patterns for pectoralis mRNA and protein expression suggest that post-transcriptional modification of myostatin may contribute to pectoralis mass regulation during migration.

Biology Department.

Wesner, Jeff S., & M. C. Belk. (2015). Variation in the trophic position of common stream fishes and its relationship to the presence of a rare fish, northern leatherside chub (Lepidomeda copei). Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 24(2), 234-241.

Variation in trophic position can be caused by structural changes in food webs that may affect the presence of, or be affected by the presence of, individual species. We examined variation in the trophic position of fishes across 14 stream sites in the Bear River drainage, WY, USA. This drainage is the focus of ongoing conservation of northern leatherside chub (Lepidomeda copei). Our goals were (i) to describe variation in trophic position of individual species and (ii) to determine whether these measures differed between sites with and without northern leatherside chub. Mean trophic position of individual fish species varied between 0 and 3 trophic positions across sites. For two of these species, trophic position declined at sites without northern leatherside chub. Importantly, habitat surveys from a previous study at 10 of these sites revealed no differences in habitat suitability for northern leatherside chub. This suggests that trophic position revealed systematic differences among sites that were not apparent based on traditional species-habitat modelling. We outline possible mechanisms behind these patterns and argue that monitoring variation in trophic position can complement traditional, habitat-based methods for understanding species distributions.

Biology Department.

Jensen, Stephanie, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2015). Electronic properties of nickel-doped TiO2 anatase. Journal of Physics-Condensed Matter, 27(13), 14.

Atomistic details of electron transfer in semiconductor materials are characterized for TiO2 thin film surfaces doped with nickel. A periodic slab model of eight atomic layers exposes the (1 0 0) crystallographic surface and is covered with a monolayer of water. The density of states, absorption spectra, partial charge densities, molecular dynamics, and non-adiabatic couplings are compared between doped and undoped models. Our results show that Ni doping improves several electronic properties including lowering the band gap, increasing visible light absorption, and shortening the relaxation time of holes rather than electrons, which maximizes charge separation. The different mechanisms of electron and hole dynamics are discussed. The computed characteristics of a doped semiconductor material have practical potential for increasing efficiency of a photo-electrochemical cells.

Chemistry Department.

Vazhappilly, Tijo, Dmitri S. Kilin, & David A. Micha. (2015). Modeling the surface photovoltage of silicon slabs with varying thickness. Journal of Physics-Condensed Matter, 27(13), 9.

The variation with thickness of the energy band gap and photovoltage at the surface of a thin semiconductor film are of great interest in connection with their surface electronic structure and optical properties. In this work, the change of a surface photovoltage (SPV) with the number of layers of a crystalline silicon slab is extracted from models based on their atomic structure. Electronic properties of photoexcited slabs are investigated using generalized gradient and hybrid density functionals, and plane wave basis sets. Si(1 1 1) surfaces have been terminated by hydrogen atoms to compensate for dangling bonds and have been described by large supercells with periodic boundary conditions. Calculations of the SPV of the Si slabs have been done in terms of the reduced density matrix of the photoactive electrons including dissipative effects due to their interaction with medium phonons and excitons. Surface photovoltages have been calculated for model Si slabs with 4-12, and 16 layers, to determine convergence trends versus slab thickness. Band gaps and the inverse of the SPVs have been found to scale nearly linearly with the inverse thickness of the slab, while the electronic density of states increases quadratically with thickness. Our calculations show the same trends as experimental values indicating band gap reduction and absorption enhancement for Si films of increasing thickness. Simple arguments on confined electronic structures have been used to explain the main effects of changes with slab thickness. A procedure involving shifted electron excitation energies is described to improve results from generalized gradient functionals so they can be in better agreement with the more accurate but also more computer intensive values from screened exchange hybrid functionals.

Chemistry Department.

Jimenez, E. Y., C. Mangani, R. Ashorn, William S. Harris, K. Maleta, & K. G. Dewey. (2015). Breast milk from women living near Lake Malawi is high in docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 95, 71-78.

Adequate long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) intake is critical during the fetal and infant periods. We quantified fatty acid content of breast milk (n=718) and plasma from six month old infants (n=412) in southern Malawi, and in usipa (n=3), a small dried fish from Lake Malawi. Compared to global norms, Malawian breast milk fatty acid content (% of total fatty acids) was well above average levels of arachidonic acid [ARA] (0.69% vs. 0.47%) and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] (0.73% vs. 0.32%). Average Malawian infant plasma ARA (7.5%) and DHA (3.8%) levels were comparable to those reported in infants consuming breast milk with similar fatty acid content. The amounts (mg) of DHA, EPA and ARA provided by a 3 oz (85 g) portion of dried usipa (1439, 659 and 360, respectively) are considerably higher than those for dried salmon. Usipa may be an important source of LCPUFA for populations in this region. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Pickens, C. A., L. M. Sordillo, S. S. Comstock, William S. Harris, K. Hortos, B. Kovan, & J. I. Fenton. (2015). Plasma phospholipids, non-esterified plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and oxylipids are associated with BMI. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 95, 31-40.

The obese lipid profile is associated with increased free fatty acids and triacylglycerides. Currently, little is known about the plasma lipid species associated with obesity. In this study, we compared plasma lipid fatty acid (FA) profiles as a function of BMI. Profiling phospholipid (PL) FAs and their respective oxylipids could predict which obese individuals are more likely to suffer from diseases associated with chronic inflammation or oxidative stress. We investigated the relationship between BMI and plasma PL (PPL) FA composition in 126 men using a quantitative gas chromatography analysis. BMI was inversely associated with both PPL nervonic and linoleic acid (LA) but was positively associated with both dihomo-gamma-linolenic and palmitoleic acid. Compared to lean individuals, obese participants were more likely to have omega-6 FAs, except arachidonic acid and LA, incorporated into PPLs. Obese participants were less likely to have EPA and DHA incorporated into PPLs compared to lean participants. Non-esterified plasma PUFA and oxylipid analysis showed omega-6 oxylipids were more abundant in the obese plasma pool. These omega-6 oxylipids are associated with increased angiogenesis (i.e. epoxyeicosatrienoates), reactive oxygen species (i.e. 9-hydroxyeicosatetraenoate), and inflammation resolution (i.e. Lipoxin A4). In summary, BMI is directly associated with specific PPL FA and increased omega-6 oxylipids. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Miller, Jake N., Attila D. Kovacs, & David A. Pearce. (2015). The novel Cln1(R151X) mouse model of infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL) for testing nonsense suppression therapy. Human Molecular Genetics, 24(1), 185-196.

The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), also known as Batten disease, are a group of autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorders in children characterized by the progressive onset of seizures, blindness, motor and cognitive decline and premature death. Patients with mutations in CLN1 primarily manifest with infantile NCL (INCL or Haltia-Santavuori disease), which is second only to congenital NCL for its age of onset and devastating progression. CLN1 encodes a lysosomal enzyme, palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1). Nonsense mutations in CLN1 account for 52.3% of all disease causing alleles in infantile NCL, the most common of which worldwide is the p.R151X mutation. Previously, we have shown how nonsense-mediated decay is involved in the degradation of CLN1 mRNA transcripts containing the p. R151X mutation in human lymphoblast cell lines. We have also shown how the read-through drugs gentamicin and ataluren (PTC124) increase CLN1 (PPT1) enzyme activity. Here, we provide the initial characterization of the novel Cln1(R151X) mouse model of infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis that we have generated. This nonsense mutation model recapitulates the molecular, histological and behavioral phenotypes of the human disease. Cln1(R151X) mice showed a significant decrease in Cln1 mRNA level and PPT1 enzyme activity, accumulation of autofluorescent storage material, astrocytosis and microglial activation in the brain. Behavioral characterization of Cln1(R151X) mice at 3 and 5 months of age revealed significant motor deficits as measured by the vertical pole and rotarod tests. We also show how the read-through compound ataluren (PTC124) increases PPT1 enzyme activity and protein level in Cln1(R151X) mice in a proof-of-principle study.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Morecraft, Robert J., Jizhi Ge, Kimberly S. Stilwell-Morecraft, D. W. McNeal, S. M. Hynes, M. A. Pizzimenti, . . . W. G. Darling. (2015). Vulnerability of the Medial Frontal Corticospinal Projection Accompanies Combined Lateral Frontal and Parietal Cortex Injury in Rhesus Monkey. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 523(4), 669-697.

Concurrent damage to the lateral frontal and parietal cortex is common following middle cerebral artery infarction, leading to upper extremity paresis, paresthesia, and sensory loss. Motor recovery is often poor, and the mechanisms that support or impede this process are unclear. Since the medial wall of the cerebral hemisphere is commonly spared following stroke, we investigated the spontaneous long-term (6 and 12 month) effects of lateral frontoparietal injury (F2P2 lesion) on the terminal distribution of the corticospinal projection (CSP) from intact, ipsilesional supplementary motor cortex (M2) at spinal levels C5 to T1. Isolated injury to the frontoparietal arm/hand region resulted in a significant loss of contralateral corticospinal boutons from M2 compared with controls. Specifically, reductions occurred in the medial and lateral parts of lamina VII and the dorsal quadrants of lamina IX. There were no statistical differences in the ipsilateral CSP. Contrary to isolated lateral frontal motor injury (F2 lesion), which results in substantial increases in contralateral M2 labeling in laminae VII and IX (McNeal et al. [2010] J. Comp. Neurol. 518:586-621), the added effect of adjacent parietal cortex injury to the frontal motor lesion (F2P2 lesion) not only impedes a favorable compensatory neuroplastic response but results in a substantial loss of M2 CSP terminals. This dramatic reversal of the CSP response suggests a critical trophic role for cortical somatosensory influence on spared ipsilesional frontal corticospinal projections, and that restoration of a favorable compensatory response will require therapeutic intervention. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:669-697, 2015. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Reinbold, Emily D., Jamie L. Scholl, Kathryn M. Oliver, Michael J. Watt, & Gina L. Forster. (2014). Central CRF2 receptor antagonism reduces anxiety states during amphetamine withdrawal. Neuroscience Research, 89, 37-43.

Increased depressive and anxiety-like behaviors are exhibited by rats and humans during withdrawal from psychostimulants. Anxiety-like behaviors observed during amphetamine withdrawal are mediated by increased expression and activity of corticotropin releasing factor type 2 (CRF2) receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus (dRN). Anxiety-like behavior of rats during withdrawal can be reversed by CRF2 receptor antagonism in the dRN, but the efficacy of global central CRF2 receptor antagonism is unknown. Rats were treated with amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, ip.) or saline daily for 2 weeks, and were tested for anxiety-like behaviors during withdrawal. Rats undergoing withdrawal showed increased anxiety-like behavior, which was reduced by ventricular infusion of the CRF2 antagonist antisauvagine-30 (ASV 2 mu g/2 mu I). Surprisingly, ventricular ASV increased anxiety-like behavior in rats pre-treated with saline, but had an anxiolytic effect in un-treated rats. Western blots were performed to determine whether differences in CRF receptor densities could explain ASV-induced behavioral results. Saline pre-treated rats showed reduced CRF1 receptor expression in the lateral septum compared to amphetamine pre-treated and untreated rats. Overall, these results suggest that central CRF2 antagonism reduces anxiety states during amphetamine withdrawal, and that behavioral effects may be dependent upon the balance of CRF1 and CRF2 receptor activity in anxiety-related regions. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Zutkis, A. A., Srivishnupriya Anbalagan, Michael S. Chaussee, & A. V. Dmitriev. (2014). Inactivation of the Rgg2 Transcriptional Regulator Ablates the Virulence of Streptococcus pyogenes. Plos One, 9(12), 21.

Streptococcus pyogenes adapts to different niches encountered in the human host via the activity of numerous regulatory proteins including the Rgg family of transcriptional regulators. The S. pyogenes chromosome encodes four Rgg paralogues designated Rgg1 (RopB), Rgg2 (MutR), Rgg3, and Rgg4 (ComR). In order to understand the role of the Rgg2 protein in the regulation of metabolic and virulence-associated properties of S. pyogenes, the rgg2 gene was inactivated in the M1 serotype strain SF370. Inactivation of rgg2 increased the growth yield of S. pyogenes in THY broth, increased biofilm formation, and increased production of SIC, which is an important virulence factor that inhibits complement mediated lysis. To identify Rgg2-regulated genes, the transcriptomes of SF370 and the rgg2 mutant strains were compared in the middle-exponential and post-exponential phases of growth. Rgg2 was found to control the expression of dozens of genes primarily in the exponential phase of growth, including genes associated with virulence (sse, scpA, slo, nga, mf-3), DNA transformation, and nucleotide metabolism. Inactivation of rgg2 decreased the ability of S. pyogenes to adhere to epithelial cells. In addition, the mutant strain was more sensitive to killing when incubated with human blood and avirulent in a murine bacteremia model. Finally, inoculation of mice with the avirulent rgg2 mutant of S. pyogenes SF370 conferred complete protection to mice subsequently challenged with the wild-type strain. Restoration of an intact rgg2 gene in mutant strain restored the wild-type phenotypes. Overall, the results demonstrate that Rgg2 is an important regulatory protein in S. pyogenes involved in controlling genes associated with both metabolism and virulence.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Shewchuk, R. M., Greg L. Carlson, M. Klosterman, S. Cullen, & H. Y. Qu. (2014). Frictions as Barriers to Perioperative Alignment: Results From a Latent Class Analysis. Quality Management in Health Care, 23(3), 188-200.

The quality of the relationship between the sterile processing department (SPD) and the operating room (OR) is an important determinant of OR safety and performance. In this article, the concept of “friction” refers to the SPD behaviors and attributes that can negatively affect OR performance. Panels of SPD professionals initially were asked to identify and operationally define different ways in which behaviors of a hospital’s SPD could compromise OR performance. A national convenience sample of OR nurses (N = 291) rated 14 frictions in terms of their agreement or disagreement that each had a negative effect on OR performance in their hospital. Overall, more than 50% of the entire sample agreed that 2 frictions, “SPD does not communicate effectively with the OR” (55%) and “SPD inventories are insufficient for surgical volume” (52%), had negative effect on OR performance. However, a latent class analysis revealed 3 distinct classes of nurses who varied with respect to their level of agreement that SPD-OR frictions negatively affected OR performance. The observed heterogeneity in how different groups of nurses viewed different frictions suggests that effective efforts aimed at reducing performance-limiting frictions should be customized so that resources can be used where they are most needed.

Beacom School of Business.

Nguyen, H. T., H. Park, Karen L. Koster, R. E. Cahoon, H. T. M. Nguyen, J. Shanklin, . . . E. B. Cahoon. (2015). Redirection of metabolic flux for high levels of omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acid accumulation in camelina seeds. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 13(1), 38-50.

Seed oils enriched in omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids, including palmitoleic acid (16:19) and cis-vaccenic acid (18:111), have nutraceutical and industrial value for polyethylene production and biofuels. Existing oilseed crops accumulate only small amounts (<2%) of these novel fatty acids in their seed oils. We demonstrate a strategy for enhanced production of omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids in camelina (Camelina sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) that is dependent on redirection of metabolic flux from the typical 9 desaturation of stearoyl (18:0)-acyl carrier protein (ACP) to 9 desaturation of palmitoyl (16:0)-acyl carrier protein (ACP) and coenzyme A (CoA). This was achieved by seed-specific co-expression of a mutant 9-acyl-ACP and an acyl-CoA desaturase with high specificity for 16:0-ACP and CoA substrates, respectively. This strategy was most effective in camelina where seed oils with similar to 17% omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids were obtained. Further increases in omega-7 fatty acid accumulation to 60-65% of the total fatty acids in camelina seeds were achieved by inclusion of seed-specific suppression of 3-keto-acyl-ACP synthase II and the FatB 16:0-ACP thioesterase genes to increase substrate pool sizes of 16:0-ACP for the 9-acyl-ACP desaturase and by blocking C18 fatty acid elongation. Seeds from these lines also had total saturated fatty acids reduced to similar to 5% of the seed oil versus similar to 12% in seeds of nontransformed plants. Consistent with accumulation of triacylglycerol species with shorter fatty acid chain lengths and increased monounsaturation, seed oils from engineered lines had marked shifts in thermotropic properties that may be of value for biofuel applications.

Biology Department.

Siler, C. D., L. J. Welton, Drew R. Davis, J. L. Watters, C. S. Davey, A. C. Diesmos, . . . R. M. Brown. (2014). TAXONOMIC REVISION OF THE PSEUDOGEKKO COMPRESICORPUS COMPLEX (REPTILIA: SQUAMATA: GEKKONIDAE), WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF THREE NEW SPECIES. Herpetological Monographs, 28, 110-139.

Recent phylogenetic analysis of false geckos, genus Pseudogekko, revealed unrecognized diversity within these exceedingly rare and enigmatic Philippine forest geckos. Newly available genetic datasets revealed that two of the four currently recognized species are complexes of multiple, deeply divergent evolutionary lineages. In this paper we evaluate species diversity in the Pseudogekko compresicorpus Complex and describe three new species in this unique clade of endemic Philippine geckos. For nearly a century, P. compresicorpus has been recognized as a single, “widespread” species with a geographic range spanning three major faunal regions and several isolated islands. This perception of the species’ wide geographic range has persisted due to the rarity of this species. We evaluate morphological data, in light of a recent phylogenetic study on the genus, to define species limits in P. compresicorpus, finding character-based evidence that unambiguously supports the recognition of four unique evolutionary lineages within the complex, three of which we describe as new species. These evolutionary species correspond to monophyletic lineages supported in recent molecular studies. We also address the historically controversial generic affiliation of Pseudogekko labialis and conclude that this poorly known species is a member of the genus Lepidodactylus. All species recognized in this study possess allopatric geographic ranges and differ from congeners by numerous diagnostic characters of external morphology and, therefore, should be recognized as full species in accordance with any lineage-based species concept. This study nearly doubles the known diversity of Philippine false geckos.

Biology Department.

Stager, M., David L. Swanson, & Z. A. Cheviron. (2015). Regulatory mechanisms of metabolic flexibility in the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). Journal of Experimental Biology, 218(5), 767-+.

Small temperate birds reversibly modify their aerobic performance to maintain thermoregulatory homeostasis under seasonally changing environmental conditions and these physiological adjustments may be attributable to changes in the expression of genes in the underlying regulatory networks. Here, we report the results of an experimental procedure designed to gain insight into the fundamental mechanisms of metabolic flexibility in the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). We combined genomic transcriptional profiles with measures of metabolic enzyme activities and whole-animal thermogenic performance from juncos exposed to four 6-week acclimation treatments that varied in temperature (cold, 3 degrees C; warm, 24 degrees C) and photoperiod (short day, 8 h light: 16 h dark; long day, 16 h light: 8 h dark). Cold-acclimated birds increased thermogenic capacity compared with warm-acclimated birds, and this enhanced performance was associated with upregulation of genes involved in muscle hypertrophy, angiogenesis, and lipid transport and oxidation, as well as with catabolic enzyme activities. These physiological changes occurred over ecologically relevant timescales, suggesting that birds make regulatory adjustments to interacting, hierarchical pathways in order to seasonally enhance thermogenic capacity.

Biology Department.

Wesner, Jeff S., P. Meyers, E. J. Billman, & M. C. Belk. (2015). Habitat selection and consumption across a landscape of multiple predators. Ecology and Evolution, 5(1), 121-129.

Predator community composition can alter habitat quality for prey by changing the strength and direction of consumptive effects. Whether predator community composition also alters prey density via nonconsumptive effects during habitat selection is not well known, but is important for understanding how changes to predator communities will alter prey populations. We tested the hypothesis that predator community composition (presence of caged trout, caged dragonflies, or caged trout+dragonflies) alters colonization of aquatic mesocosms by ovipositing aquatic insects. In a previous experiment in this system, we found a spatial contagion effect, in which insects avoided pools with predators, but only when predator-free pools were isolated (similar to 5m away from predator pools). Here, we removed the isolated predator-free pools, allowing us to test whether insects would make fine-scale (similar to 1m) oviposition decisions in the absence of preferred isolated pools. We also estimated consumptive effects by allowing predators to feed on colonists for 5days following colonization. All insects collected after 21days were dipterans, dominated by Chironomidae. Total colonization, measured as the number of developing larvae after 21days, was not affected by either predator presence or composition. Consumption was significant in the trout only treatment, reducing larval insect density by 46 +/- 37% (mean +/- SE). No other predator treatment significantly reduced prey density, although the proportion of chironomid larvae in protective cases increased in response to direct predation from dragonflies, indicating an antipredatory behavioral response. Taken together, these results reveal that predator community composition altered larval survival and behavior, but colonizing females either did not or could not assess these risks across small scales during oviposition.

Biology Department.

Thiruppathi, Eagappanath, M. K. Larson, & Gapinath Mani. (2015). Surface Modification of CoCr Alloy Using Varying Concentrations of Phosphoric and Phosphonoacetic Acids: Albumin and Fibrinogen Adsorption, Platelet Adhesion, Activation, and Aggregation Studies. Langmuir, 31(1), 358-370.

CoCr alloy is commonly used in various cardiovascular medical devices for its excellent physical and mechanical properties. However, the formation of blood clots on the alloy surfaces is a serious concern. This research is focused on the surface modification of CoCr alloy using varying concentrations (1, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mM) of phosphoric acid (PA) and phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) to generate various surfaces with different wettability, chemistry, and roughness. Then, the adsorption of blood plasma proteins such as albumin and fibrinogen and the adhesion, activation, and aggregation of platelets with the various surfaces generated were investigated. Contact angle analysis showed PA and PAA coatings on CoCr provided a gradient of hydrophilic surfaces. FTIR showed PA and PAA were covalently bound to CoCr surface and formed different bonding configurations depending on the concentrations of coating solutions used. AFM showed the formation of homogeneous PA and PAA coatings on CoCr. The single and dual protein adsorption studies showed that the amount of albumin and fibrinogen adsorbed on the alloy surfaces strongly depend on the type of PA and PAA coatings prepared by different concentrations of coating solutions. All PA coated CoCr showed reduced platelet adhesion and activation when compared to control CoCr. Also, 75 and 100 mM PA-CoCr showed reduced platelet aggregation. For PAA coated CoCr, no significant difference in platelet adhesion and activation was observed between PAA coated CoCr and control CoCr. Thus, this study demonstrated that CoCr can be surface modified using PA for potentially reducing the formation of blood clots and improving the blood compatibility of the alloy.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

Mariappan, Kadarkaraisamy, Janani Sindhu Ragothaman, Vinothini Balasubramanian, Mariah Hoffman, Madhubabu Alaparthi, & Andrew G. Sykes. (2015). Palladium(II) complexes of anthraquinone-based As-O-As type and Se-O-Se type bipodands. Synthesis, X-ray crystallography and catalytic properties. Inorganica Chimica Acta, 429, 46-50.

The reaction of the Ph2As anion with 1,8-bis(2-bromoethoxy) anthracene-9,10-dione in 2: 1 ratio generates 1,8-bis(2-diphenylarsinoethoxy) anthracene-9,10-dione (L1). L1 and 1,8-bis(2-phenylselenoethoxy) anthraquinone (L2) reacted with bis(benzonitrile) palladium(II) chloride in 1: 1 ratio yielding Pd(L1)Cl-2 (1) and Pd(L2)Cl-2 (2). X-ray structures of 1 and 2 revealed that L1 and L2 chelate with Pd(II) and form a convex square planar geometry. The catalytic properties of both Pd(II) complexes in the Heck reaction was investigated, and the results show that compound 2 acts as a better catalyst than 1. The redox behavior of L1, 1 and 2 versus Ag/AgCl are also explored. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

Meng, Qingguo, Jiangchao Chen, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2015). Proton reduction at surface of transition metal nanocatalysts. Molecular Simulation, 41(1-3), 134-145.

Catalytic activities of neutral and charged palladium (Pd) nanoparticles are compared for hydrogen reduction half-reaction. In this work the sequential H-2 dissociation from the surface of a Pd13H24 cluster is systematically studied by ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) at the density functional theory level. AIMD simulation is launched by preparing initial values of momenta of all nuclei in the model corresponding to a temperature range of 0-1700K. AIMD simulation provides the trajectories of all the atoms in the cluster. A sequential H-2 desorption up to seven molecules is observed from the cluster surface due to thermal motion of nuclei. Modifications of total charge on the neutral Pd13H24 cluster model are found to affect surface H-2 desorption behaviour. A desorption rate of H-2 molecule on both neutral and charged Pd13H24 clusters is compared to the data of Pt13H24 cluster reported previously. The H-2 desorption energy on all the investigated clusters is also determined. The results reveal that Pd-13 cluster presents a higher catalytic activity than Pt-13 cluster.

Chemistry Department.

Peng, Rui, J. Baltrusaitis, Chia-Ming Wu, & Ranjit T. Koodali. (2015). Pd-Ti-MCM-48 cubic mesoporous materials for solar simulated hydrogen evolution. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 40(2), 905-918.

A facile synthetic method (in as little as four hours) for simultaneously loading high amounts of titania (Si/Ti = 3) and Pd-0 co-catalyst (0.1 wt.% per gram of total catalyst) in cubic mesoporous MCM-48 material was developed at room temperature. The solar simulated photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from photocatalysts containing Pd and TiO2 nanoclusters in periodic cubic MCM-48 and aperiodic mesoporous silica was compared. The results indicate that the periodicity of the mesoporous silica support, the oxidation state of Pd, the location and dispersion of Pd have a significant impact on the photocatalytic activity. Periodic cubic MCM-48 mesoporous silica containing Pd in close contact with titania exhibit superior hydrogen evolution rates, compared to Pd-0-TiO2 containing aperiodic mesoporous silica. The highly ordered and open three-dimensional mesoporous cubic MCM-48 support has high surface area and facilitate good dispersion and close contact of titania and Pd. At very low loadings of 0.1 wt.% of Pd, hydrogen yield was found to be 560 mu mol h(-1), which is among the highest reported in the literature for Pd containing TiO2 based materials under solar simulated conditions. The results suggest that the pore architecture of the support is also an important parameter that governs the photocatalytic activity. In addition, the Pd-0-mesoporous materials in general possess higher activity than Pd2+ containing mesoporous materials. The photocatalysts were extensively characterized by a variety of techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen sorption analysis, transmission and scanning electron microscopic studies, photoluminescence, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), CO Chemisorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Copyright (C) 2014, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

Rasalingam, Shivatharsiny, Chia-Ming Wu, & Ranjit T. Koodali. (2015). Modulation of Pore Sizes of Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysts by a Facile Template Free Hydrothermal Synthesis Method: Implications for Photocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine B. Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces, 7(7), 4368-4380.

Mesoporous TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared in ethanol media by using relatively green, template free sol-gel technique. A mild hydrothermal treatment procedure was employed to tune the pore sizes of the materials. Comprehensive techniques that include powder X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, specific surface area analysis, electron microscopy, FT-IR, TGA, and xi-potential measurements were used to characterize the titania materials. Porosity (pore size and pore volume) of the materials were found to be key factors for the variation in the rate of photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B; in addition to specific surface area, and surface hydroxyl groups. An increase in porosity permits effective transport of the dye molecules resulting in an increase in the rate of the degradation in materials having larger pores. A detailed electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) study was carried out for selected materials to identify photodegraded intermediates and products formed during the degradation of rhodamine B. In addition, experiments were also carried out to understand the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In summary, this work provides a simple way to tune pore sizes without the use of any template and an insight into the influence of pore size for the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B.

Chemistry Department.

Vazhappilly, T., Dmitri S. Kilin, & D. A. Micha. (2015). Modeling the surface photovoltage of silicon slabs with varying thickness. Journal of Physics-Condensed Matter, 27(13), 9.

The variation with thickness of the energy band gap and photovoltage at the surface of a thin semiconductor film are of great interest in connection with their surface electronic structure and optical properties. In this work, the change of a surface photovoltage (SPV) with the number of layers of a crystalline silicon slab is extracted from models based on their atomic structure. Electronic properties of photoexcited slabs are investigated using generalized gradient and hybrid density functionals, and plane wave basis sets. Si(1 1 1) surfaces have been terminated by hydrogen atoms to compensate for dangling bonds and have been described by large supercells with periodic boundary conditions. Calculations of the SPV of the Si slabs have been done in terms of the reduced density matrix of the photoactive electrons including dissipative effects due to their interaction with medium phonons and excitons. Surface photovoltages have been calculated for model Si slabs with 4-12, and 16 layers, to determine convergence trends versus slab thickness. Band gaps and the inverse of the SPVs have been found to scale nearly linearly with the inverse thickness of the slab, while the electronic density of states increases quadratically with thickness. Our calculations show the same trends as experimental values indicating band gap reduction and absorption enhancement for Si films of increasing thickness. Simple arguments on confined electronic structures have been used to explain the main effects of changes with slab thickness. A procedure involving shifted electron excitation energies is described to improve results from generalized gradient functionals so they can be in better agreement with the more accurate but also more computer intensive values from screened exchange hybrid functionals.

Chemistry Department.

Yao, Ge, Cuikun Lin, Qingguo Meng, P. Stanley May, & Mary T. Berry. (2015). Calculation of Judd-Ofelt parameters for Er3+ in beta-NaYF4: Yb3+, Er3+ from emission intensity ratios and diffuse reflectance spectra. Journal of Luminescence, 160, 276-281.

We report the calculation of Er3+ Judd-Ofelt (JO) parameters for beta-phase NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+. The parameters were extracted from measured emission intensity ratios and the diffuse reflectance spectrum, augmented by a single radiative rate constant The derived parameters were used to calculate the entire suite of radiative rate constants for the f-f transitions of Er3+ in the visible and near infrared (NIR) range and to calculate the absorbance spectrum. Two sets of JO parameter values, in units of pm(2), were calculated using two available sets of reduced matrix elements (Omega(2)=236, Omega(4)=-022, Omega(6)=1.24) and (Omega(2)=2.43, Omega(4)=0.21, Omega(6) = 122). (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

Yao, Ge, Qingguo Meng, Mary T. Berry, P. Stanley May, & Dimitri S. Kilin. (2015). Molecular dynamics in finding nonadiabatic coupling for beta-NaYF4: Ce3+ nanocrystals. Molecular Physics, 113(3-4), 385-391.

Optical and electronic properties of cerium ions doped into solid host matrices are explored by density functional theory (DFT). A spin-polarised (unrestricted) DFT + U approach is applied to beta-NaYF4: Ce3+ nanocrystals, in which the Hubbard U – J value is determined through experimental fitting to be 8.5 eV for yttrium, and 2.9 eV for cerium. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the energies of the localised f-like orbitals of the Ce3+ dopant exhibit strong thermal fluctuations compared to that of the p- and d-shaped orbitals due to charge-density localisation. Our observation of mixing between the d and f orbitals of Ce3+ ion is consistent with experimental results. Combining time-dependent density matrix methodology, ab initio molecular dynamics, and on-the-fly nonadiabatic couplings simulates nonradiative transitions between electronic states at ambient temperature. Transition rates between individual orbitals decrease with their energy difference, which is similar to the format of the energy gap law. These transitions contribute to integrated rates of nonradiative thermalisation of different electronic excitations to the lowest excited state through multiple pathways. The integrated rates of thermalisation decrease with energy difference of the initial photoexcitation and the final excitation.

Chemistry Department.

Lushbough, Carol M., Etienne Z. Gnimpieba, & R. Dooley. (2015). Life science data analysis workflow development using the bioextract server leveraging the iPlant collaborative cyberinfrastructure. Concurrency and Computation-Practice & Experience, 27(2), 408-419.

In order to handle the vast quantities of biological data gener6ated by high-throughput experimental technologies, the BioExtract Server (bioextract.org) has leveraged iPlant Collaborative () functionality to help address big data storage and analysis issues in the bioinformatics field. The BioExtract Server is a Web-based, workflow-enabling system that offers researchers a flexible environment for analyzing genomic data. It provides researchers with the ability to save a series of BioExtract Server tasks (e.g., query a data source, save a data extract, and execute an analytic tool) as a workflow and the opportunity for researchers to share their data extracts, analytic tools, and workflows with collaborators. The iPlant Collaborative is a community of researchers, educators, and students working to enrich science through the development of cyberinfrastructurethe physical computing resources, collaborative environment, virtual machine resources, and interoperable analysis software and data servicesthat are essential components of modern biology. The iPlant AGAVE Advanced Programming Interface, developed through the iPlant Collaborative, is a hosted, Software-as-a-Service resource providing access to a collection of high performance computing and cloud resources. Leveraging AGAVE, the BioExtract Server gives researchers easy access to multiple high performance computers and delivers computation and storage as dynamically allocated resources via the Internet. (c) 2014 The Authors. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Computer Science Department.

Wang, L. Y., D. Ware, Carol M. Lushbough, N. Merchant, & L. Stein. (2015). A genome-wide association study platform built on iPlant cyber-infrastructure. Concurrency and Computation-Practice & Experience, 27(2), 420-432.

We demonstrate a flexible genome-wide association study platform built upon the iPlant Collaborative Cyber-infrastructure. The platform supports big data management, sharing, and large-scale study of both genotype and phenotype data on clusters. End users can add their own analysis tools and create customized analysis workflows through the graphical user interfaces in both iPlant Discovery Environment and BioExtract server. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Computer Science Department.

Meng, Qingguo, P. Stanley May, Mary T. Berry, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2015). Time-resolved electronic and optical properties of a thiolate-protected Au-38 nanocluster. Molecular Physics, 113(3-4), 408-417.

Density functional theory and density matrix theory are employed to investigate the time-dependent optical and electronic properties of an Au-14 nanocluster protected by six cyclic thiolate ligands, Au-4(SCH3)(4). The Au-14[Au-4(SCH3)(4)](6) nanocluster, i.e. Au-38(SCH3)(24), is equivalent to a truncated-octahedral face-centred cubic Au-38 core coated by a monolayer of 24 methylthiol molecules. The electronic and optical properties, such as density of states, linear absorption spectra, nonradiative nonadiabatic dissipative electronic dynamics and radiative emission spectra were calculated and compared for the core Au-14 and thiolate-protected Au-38(SCH3)(24) nanocluster. The main observation from computed photoluminescence for both models is a mechanism of radiative emission. Specifically, a strong contribution to light emission intensity originates from intraband transitions inside the conduction band (CB) in addition to interband LUMO -> HOMO transition (HOMO: highest occupied molecular orbital and LUMO: lowest unoccupied molecular orbital). Such comparison clarifies the contributions from Au core and methylthiol ligands to the electronic and optical properties of the Au-38(SCH3)(24) nanocluster.

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Meng, Qingguo May, Stanley P. Berry, Mary T. Kilin, Dmitri S.

South Dakota Governor’s Office of Economic Development, NSF [EPS-0903804]; DOE, BES – Chemical Sciences, NERSC [DE-AC02-05CH11231, 86898]

This work was supported financially by the South Dakota Governor’s Office of Economic Development, NSF award EPS-0903804, DOE, BES – Chemical Sciences, NERSC Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, allocation Award 86898, ‘Computational Modeling of Photo-catalysis and Photoinduced Charge Transfer Dynamics on Surfaces’. Computational resources of USD High Performance Computing facilities operated by Douglas Jennewein, the Dean’s Opportunity Fund of the College of Arts and Sciences, University of South Dakota.

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TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD

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Masotti, A., P. Uva, Laura Davis-Keppen, L. Basel-Vanagaite, L. Cohen, E. Pisaneschi, . . . B. Dallapiccola. (2015). Keppen-Lubinsky Syndrome Is Caused by Mutations in the Inwardly Rectifying K+ Channel Encoded by KCNJ6. American Journal of Human Genetics, 96(2), 295-300.

Keppen-Lubinsky syndrome (KPLBS) is a rare disease mainly characterized by severe developmental delay and intellectual disability, microcephaly, large prominent eyes, a narrow nasal bridge, a tented upper lip, a high palate, an open mouth, tightly adherent skin, an aged appearance, and severe generalized lipodystrophy. We sequenced the exomes of three unrelated individuals affected by KPLBS and found de novo heterozygous mutations in KCNJ6 (GIRK2), which encodes an inwardly rectifying potassium channel and maps to the Down syndrome critical region between DIRK1A and DSCR4. In particular, two individuals shared an in-frame heterozygous deletion of three nucleotides (c.455_457del) leading to the loss of one amino acid (p.Thr152del). The third individual was heterozygous for a missense mutation (c.460G>A) which introduces an amino acid change from glycine to serine (p.Gly154Ser). In agreement with animal models, the present data suggest that these mutations severely impair the correct functioning of this potassium channel. Overall, these results establish KPLBS as a channelopathy and suggest that KCNJ6 (GIRK2) could also be a candidate gene for other lipodystrophies. We hope that these results will prompt investigations in this unexplored class of inwardly rectifying K+ channels.

ISI Document Delivery No.: CA9WY

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Masotti, Andrea Uva, Paolo Davis-Keppen, Laura Basel-Vanagaite, Lina Cohen, Lior Pisaneschi, Elisa Celluzzi, Antonella Bencivenga, Paola Fang, Mingyan Tian, Mingyu Xu, Xun Cappa, Marco Dallapiccola, Bruno

Italian Ministry of Health; company BVLGARI

The authors are indebted to the families who contributed to this study. The financial support of the Italian Ministry of Health and the company BVLGARI is fully acknowledged.

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Tinguely, Joseph. (2015). The Implicit Affection Between Kantian Judgment and Aristotelian Rhetoric. Philosophy and Rhetoric, 48(1), 1-25.

Recent scholarship on Kant and rhetoric suggests an inclusive relation between affectivity and cognitive judgment, but that position runs counter to a traditional philosophical opposition between sensibility and rationality. A way to overcome this opposition comes into view in the overlap in three significant areas between Kantian judgment and Aristotelian rhetoric. First, each allows that communicative capacities operate within the way a perceptual object or scene appears in the first place. Secondly, each significantly broadens such communicative capacities so as to include the entire conceptual form of one’s disposition or orientation to the world as a whole. Thirdly, each links those broad mental dispositions to specifically affective states of mind. Taken together, the areas of overlap between Kantian judgment and Aristotelian rhetoric adumbrate an integrated picture of the affective sensibilities and cognitive capacities largely missing from the contemporary landscape.

Languages, Linguistics & Philosophy Department.

Mertens, S., K. Dolde, M. Korzeczek, F. Glueck, S. Groh, Ryan D. Martin, . . . M. Steidl. (2015). Wavelet approach to search for sterile neutrinos in tritium beta-decay spectra. Physical Review D, 91(4), 10.

Sterile neutrinos in the mass range of a few keV are candidates for both cold and warm dark matter. An admixture of a heavy neutrino mass eigenstate to the electron neutrino would result in a minuscule distortion-a kink-in a beta-decay spectrum. In this paper we show that a wavelet transform is a very powerful shape analysis method to detect this signature. For a tritium source strength, similar to what is expected from the KATRIN experiment, a statistical sensitivity to active-to-sterile neutrino mixing down to sin(2)theta = 10(-6) (90% C. L.) can be obtained after three years of measurement time. It is demonstrated that the wavelet approach is largely insensitive to systematic effects that result in smooth spectral modifications. To make full use of this analysis technique a high- resolution measurement (FWHM of similar to 100 eV) of the tritium beta-decay spectrum is required.

Physics Department.

Zhang, C., & D. M. Mei. (2014). Measuring muon-induced neutrons with liquid scintillation detector at Soudan mine. Physical Review D, 90(12), 13.

We report a direct detection of muon-induced high-energy neutrons with a 12-liter neutron detector fabricated with EJ-301 liquid scintillator operating at Soudan mine for about two years. The detector response to energy from a few MeV up to similar to 20 MeV has been calibrated using radioactive sources and cosmic-ray muons. Subsequently, we have calculated the scintillation efficiency for nuclear recoils, up to a few hundred MeV, using Birks’ law in the Monte Carlo simulation. Data from an exposure of 655.1 days were analyzed and neutron-induced recoil events were observed in the energy region from 4 to 50 MeV, corresponding to fast neutrons with kinetic energy up to a few hundred MeV, depending on the scattering angle. Combining with the Monte Carlo simulation, the measured muon-induced fast neutron flux is determined to be (2.23 +/- 0.52(sta) +/- 0.99(sys) x 10(-9) cm(-2) s(-1) (E-n > 20 MeV), in a reasonable agreement with the model prediction. The muon flux is found to be (1.65 +/- 0.02(sta) +/- 0.1(sys)) x 10(-7) cm(-2) s(-1) (E-mu > 1 GeV), consistent with other measurements. As a result, the muon-induced high-energy gamma-ray flux is simulated to be 7.08 x 10(-7) cm(-2) s(-1) (E-gamma > 1 MeV) for the depth of Soudan.

Physics Department.

Newswander, Chad B. (2015). Guerrilla Statesmanship: Constitutionalizing an Ethic of Dissent. Public Administration Review, 75(1), 126-134.

According to judicial precedents, administrators informed by their expertise can speak on issues of public concern under First Amendment protections. In one sense, they could dissent by working against their employers in an attempt to direct issues of public concern through an educational function. The power to act like a statesman in raising such issues allows administrators to lead from behind and in front, as long as certain judicial thresholds are met. However, the U.S. Supreme Court recently moved to tighten the scope of such activity. This article assesses how an ethic of dissent has been translated into a constitutional perspective that at first was moderately constrained and later became very restricted. While the move to limit an ethic of dissent provides necessary constraints, it also may have weakened administrators’ ability to perform necessary statesmanship acts rooted in guerrilla government to achieve the common good.

Political Science Department.

Newswander, Chad B., & Lynita K. Newswander. (2015). Metis: Using Wile and Wisdom to Inform Administrative Discretion. American Review of Public Administration, 45(2), 153-166.

When seeking to accomplish public ends in a prudent manner, administrators are occasionally put in precarious situations that require a degree of metis. Metis is a distinct form of knowledge characterized by a mixture of wile and wisdom and is valuable because it can offer viable alternatives for solving complex problems in contingent situations. Individualized problems often require administrators to forego routinized recommendations and pursue a path to prudence through shrewd thinking and action. However, if metis is not properly contained, it runs the risk of sinking under the weight of unscrupulous motivation and of negatively affecting the legitimacy of administrative action. What is important is that a crafty ethos is bound within a proper sphere. This is why a bounded metis informed by a modified version of intermediate scrutiny may provide a meaningful guide that legitimizes the ability of administrators to handle ambiguous situations in a prudent manner.

Political Science Department.

Rao, L. L., X. T. Wang, & S. Li. (2015). Investment choice and perceived mating intentions regulated by external resource cues and internal fluctuation in blood glucose levels. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 7.

We examined resource allocation priorities in the framework of an updated Maslow hierarchy of fundamental human needs. In Experiment 1, the participants in the food abundance priming condition viewing photos of high-calorie food allocated more money to savings than to spending. However, the participants preferred spending to savings under the condition of mating availability priming with romantic photographs. In Experiment 2, before and after drinking either water or a sugary beverage, fasting participants rated photos of a conversation between a man and a woman. Water drinking lowered the rating scores of mating intentions as well as blood glucose (BG) levels. The sugary drink buffered this decline in sexual perceptivity. Overall, the change in BG levels was positively associated with changes in the ratings of mating intentions but was not associated with other likelihood ratings. These results suggest that both external cues of food and mating resources and internal BG fluctuation regulate the cognitive priority of physiological needs vs. mate acquisition and retention.

Psychology Department.

Milanovich, Samuel, J. Peterson, J. Allred, C. Stelloh, K. Rajasekaran, J. Fisher, . . . S. Rao. (2015). Sall4 overexpression blocks murine hematopoiesis in a dose-dependent manner. Experimental Hematology, 43(1), 53-64.

Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4) is a transcription factor that exists in two splice isoforms, SALL4a and SALL4b, and regulates transcription in embryonic stem cells, hematopoiesis, and acute myeloid leukemia. Constitutive overexpression of SALL4 in mice induces acute myeloid leukemia. Interestingly, a potential benefit of using SALL4 to facilitate ex vivo hematopoietic stem cell expansion has been proposed. However, distinct roles for how SALL4 contributes to normal versus malignant processes remain undefined. Here we show that SALL4b is the predominant isoform in murine hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors. Overexpression of either SALL4 isoform in hematopoietic stem cells or progenitors impairs hematopoietic colony formation and expansion in vitro. Lineage-negative bone marrow overexpressing SALL4b fails to engraft and reconstitute hematopoiesis when transplanted. We found that both SALL4a and SALL4b overexpression impair hematopoiesis, in part through dose-dependent repression of BMI1. Additionally, we have identified the following potential novel SALL4 target genes in hematopoiesis: ARID5B (SALL4a and SALL4b), EZH2, and KLF2 (SALL4a). Lastly, we found that SALL4 expression is variable in acute myeloid leukemia, ranging from no expression to levels comparable to embryonic stem cells. These results show that SALL4 isoforms contribute to only a subset of acute myeloid leukemia and that overexpression of SALL4 isoforms impairs hematopoiesis through repression of BMI1. Together these data demonstrate the sensitivity of hematopoiesis to appropriately balanced SALL4 expression, highlighting the importance of regulating this dynamic in potential therapeutic applications such as ex vivo stem cell expansion. Copyright (C) 2015 ISEH – International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Naesgaard, P. A., V. Ponitz, H. Aarsetoey, …., William S. Harris, H. Staines, & D. T. Nilsen. (2015). Prognostic Utility of Vitamin D in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients in Coastal Norway. Disease Markers, 11.

Background. An inverse relationship between cardiovascular risk and levels of vitamin D and omega-3 index may exist. Objectives. To evaluate the prognostic utility of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in 871 patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and to assess the seasonal correlation between 25(OH)D and the omega-3 index in 456 ACS patients from southwestern Norway. Results. In the univariate analysis the hazard ratio (HR) at 2-year follow-up for all-cause mortality in the highest as compared to the lowest quartile of 25(OH)D in the total population was 0.61 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.37-1.00), P = 0.050. At 7-year follow-up, the corresponding HR for all-cause mortality was 0.66 (95% CI, 0.49-0.90), P = 0.008, and for females alone 0.51 (95% CI, 0.32-0.83), P = 0.006. Quartile survival did not differ in the multivariable analysis, whereas 25(OH) D < 40nM (< 16 ng/mL) was found to be independently related to mortality. Seasonal differences in 25(OH)D, but not for the omega-3 index, were noted, and the two biomarkers were positively correlated, especially during winter-spring; Pearson’s correlation coefficient was 0.358, P < 0.001. Conclusion. Vitamin D levels are related to survival, especially in females, and correlate with the omega-3 index.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Newman, J. W., T. L. Pedersen, Verdayne R. Brandenburg, William S. Harris, & Gregory C. Shearer. (2014). Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters on the Oxylipin Composition of Lipoproteins in Hypertriglyceridemic, Statin-Treated Subjects. Plos One, 9(11), 12.

Background: Oxylipins mediate inflammation, vascular tension, and more. Their presence in lipoproteins could explain why lipoproteins mediate nearly identical activities. Methods: To determine how oxylipins are distributed in the lipoproteins of hypertriglyceridemic subjects, and whether omega-3 fatty acids alter them in a manner consistent with improved cardiovascular health, we recruited 15 dyslipidemic subjects whose levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were at goal but who remained hypertriglyceridemic (200-499 mg/dL). They were treated them with the indicated dose of 4 g/d omega-3 acid ethyl esters (P-OM3) for 8 weeks. Measured oxylipins included mid-chain alcohols (HETEs, HEPEs and HDoHEs), ketones (KETEs), epoxides (as EpETrEs, EpETEs, and EpDPEs). Results: At baseline, arachidonate-oxylipins (HETEs, KETEs, and EpETrEs) were most abundant in plasma with the greatest fraction of total abundance (mean vertical bar 95% CI vertical bar) being carried in high density lipoproteins (HDL); 42% vertical bar 31, 57 vertical bar followed by very low density lipoproteins (VLDL); 27% vertical bar 20, 36 vertical bar; and LDL 21% vertical bar 16, 28 vertical bar. EPA- and DHA-derived oxylipins constituted less than 11% of total. HDL carried alcohols and epoxides but VLDL was also rich in ketones. Treatment decreased AA-derived oxylipins across lipoprotein classes (-23% vertical bar-33, -12 vertical bar, p = 0.0003), and expanded EPA-(322% vertical bar 241, 422 vertical bar, p<0.0001) and DHA-derived oxylipins (123% vertical bar 80, 176 vertical bar, p<0.0001). Conclusions: Each lipoprotein class carries a unique oxylipin complement. P-OM3 treatment alters the oxylipin content of all classes, reducing pro-inflammatory and increasing anti-inflammatory species, consistent with the improved inflammatory and vascular status associated with the treatment.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Roohani, P., T. Emiru, A. Carpenter, C. Luzzio, Jerome Freeman, S. Scarberry, . . . G. Parry. (2014). Late onset multiple sclerosis: Is it really late onset? Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, 3(4), 444-449.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common demyelinating disease, and onset over the age of 50 years is referred to as late onset MS (LOMS). It has been thought that LOMS patients will be more likely to exhibit a primary progressive (PPMS) clinical course. Objective: To identify the clinical characteristics of demyelinating disease in patients over the age of 50 years from four different MS centers in the Northern Midwest USA. Methods: We reviewed medical records of all patients seen at the MS centers and identified those who were 50 years of age or more at the time of first spontaneously reported symptoms. We included those who were diagnosed with MS or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and excluded MS mimickers. Demographics, initial clinical course diagnosis, clinical characteristics, and any available five-year follow up data were collected. The clinical course was reevaluated in each patient with careful questioning regarding any prior focal neurological symptoms that had persisted for at least 48 h, not otherwise explained. Those with a prior event who were initially diagnosed with PPMS or CIS were reclassified as secondary-progressive MS (SPMS) and relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) respectively. Results: We identified 124 patients from a total of 3700 patients, making LOMS 3.4% MS in our population. The initial clinical course was RRMS in 50 (40%), PPMS in 44 (36%), SPMS in 15 (12%), and CIS in 15 (12%) patients. After reclassification the clinical course was RRMS in 55 (44%), PPMS in 25 (20%), SPMS in 34 (28%), and CIS in 10 (8%) patients. The clinical syndrome was identified as acute for 77 patients (62%) with transverse myelitis (N=25, 32%) as the most common type. The clinical syndrome was chronic for 47 patients (37%) and again transverse myelitis (N=24, 51%) was the most common type. Five-year follow up data was available for 44% of these patients. Discussion: LOMS is rare and RRMS is the most common clinical course. Reclassification of the clinical course, not done before in any other LOMS study, with careful questioning regarding a prior neurological event reveals that SPMS is the most common type of progressive MS and PPMS may be less common than previously thought. Transverse myelitis is the most common clinical presentation. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Sundram, Vasudha, A. Ganju, Joshua E. Hughes, S. Khan, S. C. Chauhan, & M. Jaggi. (2014). Protein Kinase D1 attenuates tumorigenesis in colon cancer by modulating beta-catenin/T cell factor activity. Oncotarget, 5(16), 6867-6884.

Over 80% of colon cancer development and progression is a result of the dysregulation of beta-catenin signaling pathway. Herein, for the first time, we demonstrate that a serine-threonine kinase, Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1), modulates the functions of beta-catenin to suppress colon cancer growth. Analysis of normal and colon cancer tissues reveals downregulation of PKD1 expression in advanced stages of colon cancer and its co-localization with beta-catenin in the colon crypts. This PKD1 downregulation corresponds with the aberrant expression and nuclear localization of beta-catenin. In-vitro investigation of the PKD1-beta-catenin interaction in colon cancer cells reveal that PKD1 overexpression suppresses cell proliferation and clonogenic potential and enhances cell-cell aggregation. We demonstrate that PKD1 directly interacts with beta-catenin and attenuates beta-catenin transcriptional activity by decreasing nuclear beta-catenin levels. Additionally, we show that inhibition of nuclear beta-catenin transcriptional activity is predominantly influenced by nucleus targeted PKD1. This subcellular modulation of beta-catenin results in enhanced membrane localization of beta-catenin and thereby increases cell-cell adhesion. Studies in a xenograft mouse model indicate that PKD1 overexpression delayed tumor appearance, enhanced necrosis and lowered tumor hypoxia. Overall, our results demonstrate a putative tumor-suppressor function of PKD1 in colon tumorigenesis via modulation of beta-catenin functions in cells.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Tintle, N. L., J. V. Pottala, S. Lacey, V. Ramachandran, J. Westra, A. Rogers, . . . G. C. Shearer. (2015). A genome-wide association study of saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated red blood cell fatty acids in the Framingham Heart Offspring Study. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 94, 65-72.

Most genome-wide association studies have explored relationships between genetic variants and plasma phospholipid fatty acid proportions, but few have examined apparent genetic influences on the membrane fatty acid profile of red blood cells (RBC). Using RBC fatty acid data from the Framingham Offspring Study, we analyzed over 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association with 14 RBC fatty acids identifying 191 different SNPs associated with at least 1 fatty acid. Significant associations (p < 1 x 10(-8)) were located within five distinct 1 MB regions. Of particular interest were novel associations between (1) arachidonic acid and PCOLCE2 (regulates apoA-I maturation and modulates apoA-I levels), and (2) oleic and linoleic acid and LPCAT3 (mediates the transfer of fatty acids between glycerolipids). We also replicated previously identified strong associations between SNPs in the FADS (chromosome 11) and ELOVL (chromosome 6) regions. Multiple SNPs explained 8-14% of the variation in 3 high abundance ( > 11%) fatty acids, but only 1-3% in 4 low abundance ( < 3%) fatty acids, with the notable exception of dihomo-gamma linolenic acid with 53% of variance explained by SNPs. Further studies are needed to determine the extent to which variations in these genes influence tissue fatty acid content and pathways modulated by fatty acids. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

van Dongen, J., Erik A. Ehli, R. C. Slieker, M. Bartels, Z. M. Weber, Gareth E. Davies, . . . D. I. Boomsma. (2014). Epigenetic Variation in Monozygotic Twins: A Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation in Buccal Cells. Genes, 5(2), 347-365.

DNA methylation is one of the most extensively studied epigenetic marks in humans. Yet, it is largely unknown what causes variation in DNA methylation between individuals. The comparison of DNA methylation profiles of monozygotic (MZ) twins offers a unique experimental design to examine the extent to which such variation is related to individual-specific environmental influences and stochastic events or to familial factors (DNA sequence and shared environment). We measured genome-wide DNA methylation in buccal samples from ten MZ pairs (age 8-19) using the Illumina 450k array and examined twin correlations for methylation level at 420,921 CpGs after QC. After selecting CpGs showing the most variation in the methylation level between subjects, the mean genome-wide correlation (rho) was 0.54. The correlation was higher, on average, for CpGs within CpG islands (CGIs), compared to CGI shores, shelves and non-CGI regions, particularly at hypomethylated CpGs. This finding suggests that individual-specific environmental and stochastic influences account for more variation in DNA methylation in CpG-poor regions. Our findings also indicate that it is worthwhile to examine heritable and shared environmental influences on buccal DNA methylation in larger studies that also include dizygotic twins.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Newland, Lisa A. (2015). Family well-being, parenting, and child well-being: Pathways to healthy adjustment. Clinical Psychologist, 19(1), 3-14.

Family well-being provides a foundation for positive parenting and child well-being. Many previous studies have outlined the possible connections between family well-being, parenting, and child well-being, yet translating research into practice continues to be problematic. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature (from 2000 to 2014) on family and child well-being in order to create a model of well-being that is useful for both researchers and practitioners. The model builds upon Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory, and is differentiated from other prominent models of family functioning by focusing on bolstering family strengths and well-being (as opposed to ameliorating family stress, risk, or deficits) and on supporting child well-being (as opposed to treating maladjustment). The model addresses family well-being (parental well-being, family self-sufficiency, and family resiliency), developmental parenting (affection, responsiveness, encouragement, teaching, engagement, positive discipline, and co-parenting), and child well-being (physical and mental health, self-regulation, social and cognitive competence). Direct and indirect connections between model components and possible moderating factors are discussed. A theory of change model is proposed as a tool for practitioners from a variety of disciplines and fields to guide their work with families. Recommendations for clinicians, limitations of the model, and future directions are discussed.

School of Education.

Newland, Lisa A., Michael J. Lawler, Jarod T. Giger, Soonhee Roh, & Eliann R. Carr. (2015). Predictors of Children’s Subjective Well-Being in Rural Communities of the United States. Child Indicators Research, 8(1), 177-198.

This study examined children’s subjective well-being in a rural Midwestern United States sample of children (N = 1,286). Fifth grade (M (age) = 10.66, SD = .55, range 10-12 years) and 7th grade (M (age) = 12.63, SD = .55, range 12-14 years) children completed an adapted version of the previously tested Children’s Worlds survey, measuring children’s subjective well-being. Surveys included individual factors (age, gender, number of residences), contextual factors of home and family (home environment, family relationships, parent involvement), life and neighborhood (financial resources, life stress, neighborhood quality), school (teacher relationships, school climate, school satisfaction), and peers (peer relationships), and subjective well-being measures for life satisfaction, mental health, and self-image. Though children’s subjective well-being was predicted by a number of individual, home and family, life and neighborhood, school, and peer variables, the strongest predictors of child well-being were relationships, school, and gender (males had higher scores). The reliability of the regression models were assessed by bootstrap resampling. Results are discussed in the context of an ecological, relationship-based framework of child well-being.

School of Health Sciences

School of Education

Sarriera, J. C., F. Casas, L. Bedin, D. Abs, M. R. Strelhow, D. Gross-Manos, & Jarod T. Giger. (2015). Material Resources and Children’s Subjective Well-Being in Eight Countries. Child Indicators Research, 8(1), 199-209.

The objective of this research is to examine the relationship between children’s perception of their available material resources and their subjective well-being. Participants (n = 13,953) resided in eight countries and were largely female (57 %), between the ages of 10-14 (M = 12.05; SD = 0.59). Each child completed a culturally appropriate country-survey that included demographic information and validated measures from the International Survey of Children’s Well-Being project (ISCIWeB), which included the Student’s Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS) and material resources items. We tested a relational model for predicting subjective well-being and applied structural equation modelling (SEM) to the data. Results indicated that children in Uganda had limited access to material resources and the lowest average of well-being. Together with Algeria and South Africa, Uganda also had the strongest associations between the access to material resources and the SLSS. Even with access to all material resources evaluated, well-being scores are also lower in the case of South Korea, probably due to the so-called “Asian bias”. Children from Israel, Brazil, Spain, and England were similar in their levels of satisfaction and well-being. Our model fit the data well and revealed significant relationships between material resources and child subjective well-being in each country. Preliminary results underscore the importance of assessing material well-being in children and highlight the role material resources have in influencing children’s subjective well-being, especially in cases of children experiencing severe resource deprivation. Our model warrants further testing to replicate and extend our findings. Recommendations for future research are provided.

School of Health Sciences.

Bollinger, Stephen S., Weltman, Nathan Y., Gerdes, A. M., & Schlenker, Evelyn H. (2015). T-3 supplementation affects ventilatory timing & glucose levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus model. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 205, 92-98.

Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can affect ventilation, metabolism, and fasting blood glucose levels. Hypothyroidism may be a comorbidity of T2DM. In this study T2DM was induced in 20 female Sprague Dawley rats using Streptozotocin (STZ) and Nicotinamide (N). One of experimental STZ/N groups (N=10 per group) was treated with a low dose of triiodothyronine (T-3). Blood glucose levels, metabolism and ventilation (in air and in response to hypoxia) were measured in the 3 groups. STZ/N-treated rats increased fasting blood glucose compared to control rats eight days and 2 months post-STZ/N injections indicating stable induction of T2DM state. Treatments had no effects on ventilation, metabolism or body weight. After one month of T-3 supplementation, there were no physiological indications of hyperthyroidism, but T-3 supplementation altered ventilatory timing and decreased blood glucose levels compared to STZ/N rats. These results suggest that low levels of T-3 supplementation could offer modest effects on blood glucose and ventilatory timing in this T2M model. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Chen, X., Shi, X. P., Zhao, C., …., Wang, Xuejun, & Liu, J. B. (2014). Anti-rheumatic agent auranofin induced apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia cells resistant to imatinib through both Bcr/Abl-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Oncotarget, 5(19), 9118-9132.

Resistance to Imatinib mesylate (IM) is an emerging problem for patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). T315I mutation in the Bcr-Abl is the predominant mechanism of the acquired resistance to IM and second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Therefore it is urgent to search for new measures to overcome TKI-resistance. Auranofin (AF), clinically used to treat rheumatic arthritis, was recently approved by US Food and Drug Administration for Phase II clinical trial to treat cancer. In contrast to the reports that AF induces apoptosis by increasing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels via inhibiting thioredoxin reductase, our recent study revealed that AF-induced apoptosis depends on inhibition of proteasomal deubiquitinases (UCHL5 and USP14). Here we report that (i) AF induces apoptosis in both Bcr-Abl wild-type cells and Bcr-Abl-T315I mutation cells and inhibits the growth of IM-resistant Bcr-Abl-T315I xenografts in vivo; (ii) AF inhibits Bcr-Abl through both downregulation of Bcr-Abl gene expression and Bcr-Abl cleavage mediated by proteasome inhibition-induced caspase activation; (iii) proteasome inhibition but not ROS is required for AF-induced caspase activation and apoptosis. These findings support that AF overcomes IM resistance through both Bcr/Abl-dependent and -independent mechanisms, providing great clinical significance for cancer treatment.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Gauliard, E., Ouellette, Scot P., Rueden, Kelsey J., & Ladant, D. (2015). Characterization of interactions between inclusion membrane proteins from Chlamydia trachomatis. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 5.

Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens of eukaryotes. The bacteria grow in an intracellular vesicle called an inclusion, the membrane of which is heavily modified by chlamydial proteins called lncs (Inclusion membrane proteins). lncs represent 7-10% of the genomes of Chlamydia and, given their localization at the interface between the host and the pathogen, likely play a key role in the development and pathogenesis of the bacterium. However, their functions remain largely unknown. Here, we characterized the interaction properties between various Inc proteins of C. trachomatis, using a bacterial two-hybrid (BACTH) method suitable for detecting interactions between integral membrane proteins. To validate this approach, we first examined the oligomerization properties of the well-characterized IncA protein and showed that both the cytoplasmic domain and the transmembrane region independently contribute to IncA oligomerization. We then analyzed a set of Inc proteins and identified novel interactions between these components. Two small lncs, IncF, and Ct222, were found here to interact with many other Inc proteins and may thus represent interaction nodes within the inclusion membrane. Our data suggest that the Inc proteins may assemble in the membrane of the inclusion to form specific multi-molecular complexes in an hierarchical and temporal manner. These studies will help to better define the putative functions of the Inc proteins in the infectious process of Chlamydia.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Killian, J. K., Miettinen, M., Walker, R. L., …., Killian, M. Scott, Lau, C. C., Pineda, M., Walling, J., Stevenson, H., Smith, C., Wang, Z. F., Lasota, J., Kim, S. Y., Boikos, S. A., Helman, L. J., & Meltzer, P. S. (2014). Recurrent epimutation of SDHC in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Science Translational Medicine, 6(268).

Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a conserved effector of cellular metabolism and energy production, and loss of SDH function is a driver mechanism in several cancers. SDH-deficient gastrointestinal stromal tumors (dSDH GISTs) collectively manifest similar phenotypes, including hypermethylated epigenomic signatures, tendency to occur in pediatric patients, and lack of KIT/PDGFRA mutations. dSDH GISTs often harbor deleterious mutations in SDH subunit genes (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD, termed SDHx), but some are SDHx wild type (WT). To further elucidate mechanisms of SDH deactivation in SDHx-WT GIST, we performed targeted exome sequencing on 59 dSDH GISTs to identify 43 SDHx-mutant and 16 SDHx-WT cases. Genome-wide DNA methylation and expression profiling exposed SDHC promoter-specific CpG island hypermethylation and gene silencing in SDHx-WT dSDH GISTs [ 15 of 16 cases (94%)]. Six of 15 SDHC-epimutant GISTs occurred in the setting of the multitumor syndrome Carney triad. We observed neither SDHB promoter hypermethylation nor large deletions on chromosome 1q in any SDHx-WT cases. Deep genome sequencing of a 130-kbp (kilo-base pair) window around SDHC revealed no recognizable sequence anomalies in SDHC-epimutant tumors. More than 2000 benign and tumor reference tissues, including stem cells and malignancies with a hypermethylator epigenotype, exhibit solely a non-epimutant SDHC promoter. Mosaic constitutional SDHC promoter hypermethylation in blood and saliva from patients with SDHC-epimutant GIST implicates a postzygotic mechanism in the establishment and maintenance of SDHC epimutation. The discovery of SDHC epimutation provides a unifying explanation for the pathogenesis of dSDH GIST, whereby loss of SDH function stems from either SDHx mutation or SDHC epimutation.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Li, Hao, Scholl, Jamie L., Tu, Wenyu, Hassell, James E., Watt, Michael J., Forster, Gina L., & Renner, Kenneth J. (2014). Serotonergic responses to stress are enhanced in the central amygdala and inhibited in the ventral hippocampus during amphetamine withdrawal. European Journal of Neuroscience, 40(11), 3684-3692.

Withdrawal from amphetamine increases anxiety and reduces the ability to cope with stress, which are factors that are believed to contribute to drug relapse. Stress-induced serotonergic transmission in the central nucleus of the amygdala is associated with anxiety states and fear. Conversely, stress-induced increases in ventral hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) levels have been linked to coping mechanisms. The goal of this study was to investigate the neurobiological changes induced by amphetamine that contribute to stress sensitivity during withdrawal. We tested the hypothesis that limbic serotonergic responses to restraint stress would be altered in male Sprague-Dawley rats chronically pretreated with amphetamine (2.5mg/kg, intraperitoneal) and then subjected to 2weeks of withdrawal. Amphetamine withdrawal resulted in increased stress-induced behavioral arousal relative to control treatment, suggesting that drug withdrawal induced greater sensitivity to the stressor. When microdialysis was used to determine the effects of restraint on extracellular 5-HT, stress-induced increases in 5-HT levels were abolished in the ventral hippocampus and augmented in the central amygdala during amphetamine withdrawal. Reverse dialysis of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone into the ventral hippocampus blocked the stress-induced increase in 5-HT levels in saline-pretreated rats, suggesting that glucocorticoid receptors mediate stress-induced increases in 5-HT levels in the ventral hippocampus. However, mifepristone had no effect on stress-induced increases in 5-HT levels in the central amygdala, indicating that stress increases 5-HT levels in this region independently of glucocorticoid receptors. During amphetamine withdrawal, the absence of stress-induced increases in ventral hippocampal 5-HT levels combined with enhanced stress-induced serotonergic responses in the central amygdala may contribute to drug relapse by decreasing stress-coping ability and heightening stress responsiveness.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Liu, N. N., Li, X. F., Huang, H. B., …., Wang, Xuejun, & Liu, J. B. (2014). Clinically used antirheumatic agent auranofin is a proteasomal deubiquitinase inhibitor and inhibits tumor growth. Oncotarget, 5(14), 5453-5471.

Proteasomes are attractive emerging targets for anti-cancer therapies. Auranofin (Aur), a gold-containing compound clinically used to treat rheumatic arthritis, was recently approved by US Food and Drug Administration for Phase II clinical trial to treat cancer but its anti-cancer mechanism is poorly understood. Here we report that (i) Aur shows proteasome-inhibitory effect that is comparable to that of bortezomib/Velcade (Vel); (ii) different from bortezomib, Aur inhibits proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (DUBs) UCHL5 and USP14 rather than the 20S proteasome; (iii) inhibition of the proteasome-associated DUBs is required for Aur-induced cytotoxicity; and (iv) Aur selectively inhibits tumor growth in vivo and induces cytotoxicity in cancer cells from acute myeloid leukemia patients. This study provides important novel insight into understanding the proteasome-inhibiting property of metal-containing compounds. Although several DUB inhibitors were reported, this study uncovers the first drug already used in clinic that can inhibit proteasome-associated DUBs with promising anti-tumor effects.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Butler, Stephen A., & Ghosh, D. (2015). Individual differences in managerial accounting judgments and decision making. British Accounting Review, 47(1), 33-45.

Managers are influenced in their decisions by the information provided by managerial accountants. Two typical examples from textbooks are the irrelevance of sunk costs and, more recently, the affect of knowing the outcome of a decision or revised budget forecast. Individual differences in the cognitive ability of decision makers to use information can lead to systematic differences in judgments. We identify and label one of these individual cognitive differences comprehensive thinking ability: the ability to think about multiple paths, branches or alternatives. Significant comprehensive thinking ability is likely to mitigate systematic differences in judgment in many contexts. We report the results of a series of studies using a variation on the investment trap (sunk cost or irrelevant cost) problem and a probability revision task. The findings suggest that comprehensive thinking ability may also explain other common systematic differences in judgment. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Beacom School of Business.

Balhoff, J. P., Dahdul, Wasila M., Dececchi, T. Alexander, Lapp, H., Mabee, Paula M., & Vision, T. J. (2014). Annotation of phenotypic diversity: decoupling data curation and ontology curation using Phenex. Journal of Biomedical Semantics, 5.

Background: Phenex (http://phenex.phenoscape.org/) is a desktop application for semantically annotating the phenotypic character matrix datasets common in evolutionary biology. Since its initial publication, we have added new features that address several major bottlenecks in the efficiency of the phenotype curation process: allowing curators during the data curation phase to provisionally request terms that are not yet available from a relevant ontology; supporting quality control against annotation guidelines to reduce later manual review and revision; and enabling the sharing of files for collaboration among curators. Results: We decoupled data annotation from ontology development by creating an Ontology Request Broker (ORB) within Phenex. Curators can use the ORB to request a provisional term for use in data annotation; the provisional term can be automatically replaced with a permanent identifier once the term is added to an ontology. We added a set of annotation consistency checks to prevent common curation errors, reducing the need for later correction. We facilitated collaborative editing by improving the reliability of Phenex when used with online folder sharing services, via file change monitoring and continual autosave. Conclusions: With the addition of these new features, and in particular the Ontology Request Broker, Phenex users have been able to focus more effectively on data annotation. Phenoscape curators using Phenex have reported a smoother annotation workflow, with much reduced interruptions from ontology maintenance and file management issues.

Biology Department.

Bubak, A. N., Grace, J. L., Watt, Michael J., Renner, Kenneth J., & Swallow, J. G. (2014). Neurochemistry as a bridge between morphology and behavior: Perspectives on aggression in insects. Current Zoology, 60(6), 778-790.

Aggression is a common behavioral trait shared in many animals, including both vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the type and intensity of agonistic encounters and displays can vary widely both across and within species, resulting in complicated or subjective interpretations that create difficulties in developing theoretical models that can be widely applied. The need to easily and objectively identify quantifiable behaviors and their associated morphologies becomes especially important when attempting to decipher the neurological mechanisms underlying this complex behavior. Monoamines, neuropeptides, and pheromones have been implicated as important neuromodulators for agonistic displays in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Additionally, recent breakthroughs in insect research have revealed exciting proximate mechanisms important in aggression that may be broadly relevant, due to the relatively high conservation of these neurochemical systems across animal taxa. In this review, we present the latest research demonstrating the importance of monoamines, neuropeptides, and pheromones as neuromodulators for aggression across a variety of insect species. Additionally, we describe the stalk-eyed fly as a model system for studying aggression, which integrates physiological, morphological, and neurochemical approaches in exploring detailed mechanisms responsible for this common yet complex behavior. We conclude with our perspective on the most promising lines of future research aimed at understanding the proximate and ultimate mechanisms underlying aggressive behaviors.

Biology Department.

Davis, Drew R., & Gabor, Caitlin R. (2015). Behavioral and physiological antipredator responses of the San Marcos salamander, Eurycea nana. Physiology & Behavior, 139, 145-149.

Exposure to predatory stimuli typically results in the elevation of circulating glucocorticoid levels and a behavioral response of freezing or escape behavior in many prey species. Corticosterone (CORT) is the main glucocorticoid in amphibians and is known to be important in modulating many behaviors and developmental functions. The federally threatened San Marcos salamander, Eurycea nana, decreases activity in response to both native and introduced predatory fish, however, experience may further influence these interactions. To better understand the indirect effects of fish predators on this salamander, we examined both the antipredator behavior and water-borne CORT release rates in response to chemical cues (kairomones) from two fish species that varied in temporal risk of predation: (1) a low encounter frequency predator (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides), (2) a high encounter frequency predator (redbreast sunfish, Lepomis auritus), and (3) a blank water control. Salamanders reduced activity (antipredator response) after exposure to both predator treatments, but not to the blank water control, and the response to M. salmoides was significantly stronger than that to L. auritus. The CORT response (post-stimulus/pre-stimulus release rates) did not differ between the blank water control and L. auritus treatments, and both were significantly less than the CORT response to M. salmoides. Overall, E. nana showed a decreased antipredator response and no CORT response towards the high encounter frequency L. auritus as compared to the low encounter frequency M. salmoides. Eurycea nana may mute antipredator and CORT responses to high temporal frequency predators. There was, however, no correlation between CORT release rates and antipredator behavior, which suggests that the presence of predators may be affecting CORT response and behavior independently. (c) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Biology Department.

Jarchow, Meghann E., Liebman, M., Dhungel, S., Dietzel, R., Sundberg, D., Anex, R. P., Thompson, M. L., & Chua, T. (2015). Trade-offs among agronomic, energetic, and environmental performance characteristics of corn and prairie bioenergy cropping systems. Global Change Biology Bioenergy, 7(1), 57-71.

Cellulosic bioenergy production provides opportunities to utilize a range of cropping systems that can enhance the multifunctionality of agricultural landscapes. In a 9-ha field experiment located on fertile land in Boone County, IA, USA, we directly compared a corn-soybean rotation harvested for grain, continuous corn harvested for grain and stover, continuous corn harvested for grain and stover with a rye cover crop, newly reconstructed prairie harvested for biomass and fertilized with nitrogen, and unfertilized newly reconstructed prairie harvested for biomass. Comparisons were made using four performance indicators: harvestable yield, net energy balance (NEB), root production, and nutrient balances. We found trade-offs among systems in terms of the measured performance indicators. Continuous corn systems were the highest yielding, averaging 13Mgha(-1) of harvested biomass (grain plus stover), whereas fertilized and unfertilized prairies produced the least harvested biomass at 8.8 and 6.5Mgha(-1), respectively. Mean NEBs were highest in continuous corn systems at 45.1GJha(-1), intermediate in the corn-soybean rotation at 28.6GJha(-1), and lowest in fertilized and unfertilized prairies at 11.4 and 10.5GJha(-1), respectively. Concomitant with the high yields of the continuous corn systems were the large nutrient requirements of these systems compared to the prairie systems. Continuous corn with rye required three times more nitrogen inputs than fertilized prairie. Root production, on the other hand, was on average seven times greater in the prairie systems than the annual crop systems. On highly fertile soils, corn-based cropping systems are likely to play an important role in maintaining the high productivity of agricultural landscapes, but alternative cropping systems, such as prairies used for bioenergy production, can produce substantial yield, require minimal externally derived inputs, and can be incorporated into the landscape at strategic locations to maximize the production of other ecosystem services.

Biology Department.

Nguyen, H. T., Park, H., Koster, Karen L., Cahoon, R. E., Nguyen, H. T. M., Shanklin, J., Clemente, T. E., & Cahoon, E. B. (2015). Redirection of metabolic flux for high levels of omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acid accumulation in camelina seeds. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 13(1), 38-50.

Seed oils enriched in omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids, including palmitoleic acid (16:19) and cis-vaccenic acid (18:111), have nutraceutical and industrial value for polyethylene production and biofuels. Existing oilseed crops accumulate only small amounts (<2%) of these novel fatty acids in their seed oils. We demonstrate a strategy for enhanced production of omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids in camelina (Camelina sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) that is dependent on redirection of metabolic flux from the typical 9 desaturation of stearoyl (18:0)-acyl carrier protein (ACP) to 9 desaturation of palmitoyl (16:0)-acyl carrier protein (ACP) and coenzyme A (CoA). This was achieved by seed-specific co-expression of a mutant 9-acyl-ACP and an acyl-CoA desaturase with high specificity for 16:0-ACP and CoA substrates, respectively. This strategy was most effective in camelina where seed oils with similar to 17% omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids were obtained. Further increases in omega-7 fatty acid accumulation to 60-65% of the total fatty acids in camelina seeds were achieved by inclusion of seed-specific suppression of 3-keto-acyl-ACP synthase II and the FatB 16:0-ACP thioesterase genes to increase substrate pool sizes of 16:0-ACP for the 9-acyl-ACP desaturase and by blocking C18 fatty acid elongation. Seeds from these lines also had total saturated fatty acids reduced to similar to 5% of the seed oil versus similar to 12% in seeds of nontransformed plants. Consistent with accumulation of triacylglycerol species with shorter fatty acid chain lengths and increased monounsaturation, seed oils from engineered lines had marked shifts in thermotropic properties that may be of value for biofuel applications.

Biology Department.

Han, Yulun, Micha, D. A., & Kilin, Dmitri S. (2015). Ab initio study of the photocurrent at the Au/Si metal-semiconductor nanointerface. Molecular Physics, 113(3-4), 327-335.

Photo-induced charge transfer at the interface of two materials is a fundamental process in photovoltaic applications. In this study, we have considered a model of a simplified photovoltaic cell composed of a Si nanocrystal co-doped with Al and P, interfacing with Au electrodes. The photo-induced time-dependent electric currents were computed from a combination of ab initio electronic structure and time-dependent density matrix methodology, and using the continuity equation for electronic currents. A dissipative equation of motion for the reduced density matrix for electronic degrees of freedom is used to study the phonon-induced relaxation of hot electrons in the simulated system. Equations are solved in a basis set of orbitals generated ab initio from a density functional. Non-adiabatic couplings between electronic orbitals are computed on-the-fly along nuclear trajectories. Charge carrier dynamics induced by selected photoexcitations show that hole relaxation in energy and in space is much faster than electron relaxation. The overall net charge transfer across the slab is small; however, local currents at the Si/Au interfaces are substantial. It is also shown that the relaxation of the induced current can be used to parameterise the dynamical conductivity by means of a fluctuation-dissipation relation.

Chemistry Department.

Ho, W. K., Zhang, Z. Z., Lin, W., Huang, Shuping, Zhang, X. W., Wang, X. X., & Huang, Y. (2015). Copolymerization with 2,4,6-Triaminopyrimidine for the Rolling-up the Layer Structure, Tunable Electronic Properties, and Photocatalysis of g-C3N4. Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces, 7(9), 5497-5505.

Copolymerization with 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine (TAP) is developed for precise substitution of one nitrogen with carbon atom in the triazine ring of polymeric g-C3N4. Direct incorporation of C4N2 ring from TAP into the network retains the structural features of g-C3N4, but induces the rolling-up of g-C3N4 sheets into tubular configuration. The band gap energy is narrowed from 2.7 to 2.4 eV by a negative shift of valence band of the g-C3N4 photocatalyst, which enhances charge-carrier migration and separation, leading to higher photocatalytic activity for NO gas pollutant removal. It is attributed to the decrease of the pi-deficiency and the generation of imbalanced electron density in pi-electron conjugated units of g-C3N4 by TAP incorporation. This work provides a significant technique for precise control of heteroatom in the framework of g-C3N4 to finely adjust its intrinsic electronic properties and its photocatalytic properties.

Chemistry Department.

Clark, Prentiss. (2014). Pulse for Pulse in Harmony with the Universal Whole: Hearing “Self-Reliance” Anew. Nineteenth-Century Literature, 69(3), 319-341.

This essay recounts how Ralph Waldo Emerson, the nineteenth-century thinker perhaps most associated with individualism, is equally, and perhaps necessarily, a student of the intimacies in which we exist. More specifically, the essay contests the explanatory power criticism generally attributes to what Emerson called “self-reliance” by delineating how “self-reliance” (the idea and the 1841 essay by this name) participates in Emerson’s broad work of investigating what he termed “man’s true position in the universe” and its implications for one’s conduct of life. In this reading, which draws from Emerson’s neglected as well as canonical essays, lectures, and sermons, “the infinitude of the private man”-the “one doctrine” Emerson says he teaches in all his lectures-has less to do with the singular human self as such than with our standing ever amid innumerable and consequential relations and accountable for all it entails. Ultimately, this essay hopes to demonstrate how Emerson speaks, from the first, to the ethical potential of rediscovering our connections-connections to ourselves, fellow persons, nature, and beyond (even when at the distances to which our differences can put us).

English Department.

De, Pradip, Carlson, J., Leyland-Jones, Brian, & Dey, Nawdini. (2014). Oncogenic nexus of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A): an oncoprotein with many hands. Oncotarget, 5(13), 4581-4602.

Oncoprotein CIP2A a Cancerous Inhibitor of PP2A forms an “oncogenic nexus” by virtue of its control on PP2A and MYC stabilization in cancer cells. The expression and prognostic function of CIP2A in different solid tumors including colorectal carcinoma, head & neck cancers, gastric cancers, lung carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, esophageal cancers, pancreatic carcinoma, brain cancers, breast carcinoma, bladder cancers, ovarian carcinoma, renal cell carcinomas, tongue cancers, cervical carcinoma, prostate cancers, and oral carcinoma as well as a number of hematological malignancies are just beginning to emerge. Herein, we reviewed the recent progress in our understanding of (1) how an ” oncogenic nexus” of CIP2A participates in the tumorigenic transformation of cells and (2) how we can prospect/view the clinical relevance of CIP2A in the context of cancer therapy. The review will try to understand the role of CIP2A (a) as a biomarker in cancers and evaluate the prognostic value of CIP2A in different cancers (b) as a therapeutic target in cancers and (c) in drug response and developing chemo-resistance in cancers.

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Cited Reference Count: 127

De, Pradip Carlson, Jennifer Leyland-Jones, Brian Dey, Nandini

Impact journals llc

Albany

Hanlon, S. M., Lynch, K. J., Kerby, Jacob, & Parris, M. J. (2015). Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis exposure effects on foraging efficiencies and body size in anuran tadpoles. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 112(3), 237-242.

Chytridiomycosis, the amphibian disease caused by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is fatal to adults of many species. Bd is largely sublethal to amphibian larvae; however, it is known to reduce larval (i.e. tadpole) growth rates, with possible long-term effects on population dynamics and fitness. We conducted an experiment to test how Bd altered southern leopard frog Lithobates sphenocephalus tadpole mouthpart damage, percentage of food ingested, and subsequent body size. We examined our results using path analyses. We hypothesized that Bd would increase mouthpart damage, causing less food to be ingested, and ultimately reduce body size. In our model, both Bd exposure and increased mouthpart damage significantly reduced food ingested and subsequent body size. However, our study provides evidence against the long-standing hypothesis of mouthpart damage as a pathway for Bd-induced reductions in larval group. Here we provide evidence for reduced foraging efficiency (percentage of food ingested) as a mechanism for Bd-induced reductions in body size. This work highlights the importance of studying the sublethal effects of Bd on larval amphibians.

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Cited Reference Count: 31

Hanlon, Shane M. Lynch, Kyle J. Kerby, Jake Parris, Matthew J.

Inter-research

Oldendorf luhe

Balakrishnan, N., Jiang, Nan, Tsai, T. R., Lio, Y. L., & Chen, D. G. (2015). Reliability Inference on Composite Dynamic Systems Based on Burr Type-XII Distribution. IEEE Transactions on Reliability, 64(1), 144-153.

Failure of a component in a composite dynamic system often induces a higher load on surviving components, and increases the hazard rate. Statistical inferential procedures on composite dynamic systems are developed here based on a Burr type-XII distribution with a power-trend hazard rate function. Point estimates of the Burr type-XII parameters, and interval estimates of the baseline survival function are obtained based on the maximum-likelihood estimates, and the Fisher information matrix. A test procedure is presented for examining the relationship between the hazard rate function and the number of failed components. The performance of the proposed method is then evaluated by means of an extensive Monte Carlo simulation study. An example is finally presented for illustrative purpose.

Mathematics Department.

Hecock, R. D., & Jepsen, Eric M. (2014). The Political Economy of FDI in Latin America 1986-2006: A Sector-Specific Approach. Studies in Comparative International Development, 49(4), 426-447.

This study examines the political determinants of foreign direct investment (FDI) across 15 Latin American countries from 1986 to 2006. In contrast to existing scholarship, we focus on the causes of investment by economic sector-primary resources, manufacturing, and services. Additionally, a regional focus on Latin America helps to control for omitted variables by comparing relatively similar countries. We find substantial variation in the causes and characteristics of FDI across sector. Specifically, manufacturing investment is volatile and attracted to less democratic regimes. In contrast, investment in primary resources privileges greater democracy and property rights protection, while FDI in services is associated with public fiscal responsibility. These results yield important theoretical and practical implications for scholars and policymakers throughout the region.

Political Science Department.

Brennan, M. L., Adam, M. P., Seaver, L. H., Myers, Angela, Schelley, S., Zadeh, N., Hudgins, L., & Bernstein, J. A. (2015). Increased Body Mass in Infancy and Early Toddlerhood in Angelman Syndrome Patients with Uniparental Disomy and Imprinting Center Defects. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 167A(1), 142-146.

The diagnosis of Angelman syndrome (AS) is based on clinical features and genetic testing. Developmental delay, severe speech impairment, ataxia, atypical behavior and microcephaly by two years of age are typical. Feeding difficulties in young infants and obesity in late childhood can also be seen. The NIH Angelman-Rett-Prader-Willi Consortium and others have documented genotype-phenotype associations including an increased body mass index in children with uniparental disomy (UPD) or imprinting center (IC) defects. We recently encountered four cases of infantile obesity in non-deletion AS cases, and therefore examined body mass measures in a cohort of non-deletion AS cases. We report on 16 infants and toddlers (ages 6 to 44 months; 6 female, and 10 male) with severe developmental delay. Birth weights were appropriate for gestational age in most cases, >97th% in one case and not available in four cases. The molecular subclass case distribution consisted of: UPD (n = 2), IC defect (n = 3), UPD or IC defect (n = 3), and UBE3A mutation (n = 8). Almost all (7 out of 8) UPD, IC and UPD/IC cases went on to exhibit >90th% age-and gender-appropriate weight for height or BMI within the first 44 months. In contrast, no UBE3A mutation cases exhibited obesity or pre-obesity measures (percentiles ranged from <3% to 55%). These findings demonstrate that increased body mass may be evident as early as the first year of life and highlight the utility of considering the diagnosis of AS in the obese infant or toddler with developmental delay, especially when severe. Although a mechanism explaining the association of UPD, and IC defects with obesity has not been identified, recognition of this correlation may inform investigation of imprinting at the PWS/AS locus and obesity. (C) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Dorman, Jason C., Valentine, Verle D., Munce, Thayne A., Tjarks, B. Joel, Thompson, Paul A., & Bergeron, Michael F. (2015). Tracking postural stability of young concussion patients using dual-task interference. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 18(1), 2-7.

Objectives: This study examined the diagnostic benefit of using dual-task interference balance testing in young concussion patients and the longitudinal changes in postural stability that occur relative to other standard clinical assessments of concussion injury. Design: Longitudinal, case-control. Methods: Eighteen patients (16.6 (1.6)y) diagnosed with a concussion provided 22 separate ratings to characterize the severity of their current concussion-related symptoms and were evaluated for postural stability at each of four clinical visits. Twenty-six injury-free adolescents (17 (2.8) y) performed balance testing on two occasions, separated by 1 week. Results: There was a progressive decrease in self-reported symptoms from visit 1 to visit 4 (P<0.0001-0.001). A similar improvement occurred in postural stability, indicated by 95% ellipse area and velocity. However, the differences in ellipse area and velocity were significant only between visit 1 and the rest of the visits as a whole (P<0.0001-0.05). There was a significant difference between concussion patients and healthy, injury-free participants in ellipse area and velocity during visit 1. A group difference was also observed in ellipse area on visit 2, but only during the two balance tests that involved a concomitant secondary cognitive task. Conclusions: Improvements in postural stability coincide with reductions in reported symptoms, though apparent recovery of these selected measures of postural stability seemingly occurs sooner. Because of the distinguishing time course of recovery indicated by dual-task interference balance testing, this type of balance testing assessment may be particularly valuable in evaluating integrated functional impairment and recovery in young concussion patients. (C) 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Guo, Q. S., Wang, Y. Q., Tripathi, P., Manda, K. R., Mukherjee, Malay, Chaklader, M., Austin, P. F., Surendran, Kameswaran, & Chen, F. (2015). Adam10 Mediates the Choice between Principal Cells and Intercalated Cells in the Kidney. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 26(1), 149-159.

A disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 10 (Adam10), a member of the ADAM family of cell membrane-anchored proteins, has been linked to the regulation of the Notch, EGF, E-cadherin, and other signaling pathways. However, it is unclear what role Adam10 has in the kidney in vivo. In this study, we showed that Adam10 deficiency in ureteric bud (UB) derivatives leads to a decrease in urinary concentrating ability, polyuria, and hydronephrosis in mice. Furthermore, Adam10 deficiency led to a reduction in the percentage of aquaporin 2 (Aqp2)(+) principal cells (PCs) in the collecting ducts that was accompanied by a proportional increase in the percentage of intercalated cells (ICs). This increase was more prominent in type A ICs than in type B ICs. Foxi1, a transcription factor important for the differentiation of ICs, was upregulated in the Adam10 mutants. The observed reduction of Notch activity in Adam10 mutant collecting duct epithelium and the similar reduction of PC/IC ratios in the collecting ducts in mice deficient for mindbomb E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1, a key regulator of the Notch and Wnt/receptor-like tyrosine kinase signaling pathways, suggest that Adam10 regulates cell fate determination through the activation of Notch signaling, probably through the regulation of Foxi1 expression. However, phenotypic differences between the Adam10 mutants, the Mib1 mutants, and the Foxi1 mutants suggest that the functions of Adam10 in determining the fate of collecting duct cells are more complex than those of a simple upstream factor in a linear pathway involving Notch and Foxi1.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Jung, Y. S., Vermeer, Paola D., Vermeer, Daniel W., Lee, S. J., Goh, A. R., Ahn, H. J., & Lee, John H. (2015). CD200: Association with cancer stem cell features and response to chemoradiation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Head and Neck-Journal for the Sciences and Specialties of the Head and Neck, 37(3), 327-335.

BackgroundThe purpose of this study was to characterize the expression of CD200, a membrane protein that functions in immune evasion, to examine its correlations with cancer stem cell (CSC)-like features and analyze its response to chemotherapy and radiation in human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive (+) and negative (-) head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). MethodsCD200 expression was analyzed in several HNSCC cell lines. CD200 was overexpressed in HPV(+) murine tonsil epithelial cells, its effects on Shh and Bmi-1 were examined in vitro, and tumor growth and response to chemoradiation were analyzed in vitro and in vivo. ResultsCD200 was diversely expressed and consistently associated with expression of Bmi-1 and Shh. Overexpression of CD200 induced Bmi-1 and Shh. Tumors grew similarly between C57BL/6 and Rag1(-/-) C57BL/6 mice. CD200 expression enhanced the resistance to chemoradiation only in vivo. ConclusionCD200 was related to CSC features and modulates response to chemoradiation in vivo. Attenuating this might be a potential therapeutic strategy. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 37: 327-335, 2015

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Kaess, B. M., Harris, William S., Lacey, S., Larson, M. G., Hamburg, N. M., Vita, J. A., Robins, S. J., Benjamin, E. J., Mitchell, G. F., & Vasan, R. S. (2015). The relation of red blood cell fatty acids with vascular stiffness, cardiac structure and left ventricular function: The Framingham Heart Study. Vascular Medicine, 20(1), 5-13.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been associated with beneficial influences on cardiovascular health. However, the underlying mechanisms are not clear, and data on the relations of polyunsaturated fatty acids to subclinical disease measures such as vascular stiffness and cardiac function are sparse and inconclusive. In a large community-based cohort, we examined the relations of omega-3 and other fatty acids to a comprehensive panel of vascular function measures (assessing microvascular function and large artery stiffness), cardiac structure and left ventricular function. Red blood cell (RBC) membrane fatty acid composition, a measure of long-term fatty acid intake, was assessed in participants of the Framingham Offspring Study and Omni cohorts and related to tonometry-derived measures of vascular stiffness and to a panel of echocardiographic traits using partial correlations. Up to n=3055 individuals (56% women, mean age 66 years) were available for analyses. In age- and sex-adjusted models, higher RBC omega-3 content was moderately associated (p0.002) with several measures of vascular stiffness and function in a protective direction. However, after multivariable adjustment, only an association of higher RBC omega-3 content with lower carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (a measure of aortic stiffness) remained significant (r = -0.06, p=0.002). In secondary analyses, higher linoleic acid, the major nutritional omega-6 fatty acid, was associated with smaller left atrial size, even after multivariable adjustment (r = -0.064, p<0.001). In conclusion, in our cross-sectional community-based study, we found several associations consistent with the notion of protective effects of omega-3 and linoleic acid. The clinical significance of these modest associations remains to be elucidated.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Khan, S., Ebeling, Mara C., Zaman, M. S., Sikander, M., …., Thompson, Paul A., Jaggi, M., & Chauhan, S. C. (2014). MicroRNA-145 targets MUC13 and suppresses growth and invasion of pancreatic cancer. Oncotarget, 5(17), 7599-7609.

Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis due to late diagnosis and ineffective therapeutic multimodality. MUC13, a transmembrane mucin is highly involved in pancreatic cancer progression. Thus, understanding its regulatory molecular mechanisms may offer new avenue of therapy for prevention/treatment of pancreatic cancer. Herein, we report a novel microRNA (miR-145)-mediated mechanism regulating aberrant MUC13 expression in pancreatic cancer. We report that miR-145 expression inversely correlates with MUC13 expression in pancreatic cancer cells and human tumor tissues. miR-145 is predominantly present in normal pancreatic tissues and early Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) precursor lesions (PanIN I) and is progressively suppressed over the course of development from PanIN II/III to late stage poorly differentiated PDAC. We demonstrate that miR-145 targets 3′ untranslated region of MUC13 and thus downregulates MUC13 protein expression in cells. Interestingly, transfection of miR-145 inhibits cell proliferation, invasion and enhances gemcitabine sensitivity. It causes reduction of HER2, P-AKT, PAK1 and an increase in p53. Similar results were found when MUC13 was specifically inhibited by shRNA directed at MUC13. Additionally, intratumoral injections of miR-145 in xenograft mice inhibited tumor growth via suppression of MUC13 and its downstream target, HER2. These results suggest miR-145 as a novel regulator of MUC13 in pancreatic cancer.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Kuppast, B., Spyridaki, K., Lynch, C., Hu, Yuehan, Liapakis, G., Davies, Gareth E., & Fahmy, H. (2015). Synthesis of New Thiazolo 4,5-d pyrimidines as Corticotropin Releasing Factor Modulators. Medicinal Chemistry, 11(1), 50-59.

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a neurohormone that plays a crucial role in integrating the body’s overall response to stress. It appears necessary and sufficient for the organism to mount functional, physiological and endocrine responses to stressors. CRF is released in response to various triggers such as chronic stress. The role of CRF and its involvement in these neurological disorders suggest that new drugs that can target the CRF function or bind to its receptors may represent a new development of neuropsychiatric medicines to treat various stress-related disorders including depression, anxiety and addictive disorders. Based on pharmacophore of the CRF1 receptor antagonists, a new series of thiazolo[4,5-d] pyrimidines were synthesized as Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor modulators and the prepared compounds carry groups shown to produce optimum binding affinity to CRF receptors. Twenty two compounds were evaluated for their CRF1 receptor binding affinity in HEK 293 cell lines and two compounds 5o and 5s showed approximately 25% binding affinity to CRF1 receptors. Selected compounds (5c and 5f) were also evaluated for their effect on expression of genes associated with depression and anxiety disorders such as CRF1, CREB1, MAO-A, SERT, NPY, DatSLC6a3, and DBH and significant upregulation of CRF1 mRNA has been observed with compound 5c.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Hooper, D. R., Cook, B. M., Comstock, Brent A., Szivak, T. K., Flanagan, S. D., Looney, D. P., DuPont, W. H., & Kraemer, W. J. (2015). SYNTHETIC GARMENTS ENHANCE COMFORT, THERMOREGULATORY RESPONSE, AND ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE COMPARED WITH TRADITIONAL COTTON GARMENTS. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29(3), 700-707.

The ability of a fabric to transfer moisture is referred to as “wicking,” and an increase in this property may have benefits in terms of comfort and thermoregulation. However, this phenomenon has not been studied in the context of sporting-type activities. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess whether comfort, thermal physiological parameters, and physical performance can be affected by the garment that is used. Ten men (age: 27.5 +/- 4.4 years; height: 169.3 +/- 14.2 cm; weight: 80.05 +/- 10.87 kg) and 10 women (age: 26.8 +/- 3.7 years; height: 166.6 +/- 4.46 cm; weight: 64.63 +/- 4.49 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. A within-group crossover counterbalanced design was used that included the Illinois Agility Run (IAR) and the Multistage Fitness Test (MSFT). The IAR was also performed while wearing protective padding. The protocol was completed on 2 occasions, once while wearing a cotton garment (C) and again while wearing a polyester (P) garment. Questionnaires referring to sensations of various components of comfort were completed after each test. The P garment provided significantly (p <= 0.05) greater comfort in men and women after both the IAR and the MSFT. The P garment led to significantly (p <= 0.05) improved performance during the IAR in women. The P garment also provided significantly (p <= 0.05) greater body mass loss during the protocol in women. This study demonstrated dramatic increases in the comfort of P garments, including while using protective equipment. This study also discovered the influence of P garments on anaerobic tasks and also revealed dramatic sex differences, where women seem to be much more sensitive to the benefits of P garments. Strength and conditioning coaches should be aware of the dramatic impact of garment choice, in aerobic and anaerobic tasks, particularly in women.

School of Education.

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