Posted by: tadeterman | January 20, 2018

January 2018

Antony, Stephanie, Ashlesha Kaushik, C. Mauriello, & Archana Chatterjee. (2017). “Non-Type b Haemophilus influenzae Invasive Infections in North Dakota and South Dakota, 2013-2015.” Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, 6(3), 281-284.

Reports of children with non-type b Haemophilus influenzae infection in the United States in recent years have been limited. Here, we report the spectrum and severity of disease associated with invasive non-type b H influenzae infection in 17 patients at 2 tertiary-care children’s hospitals over a 2-year period. Meningitis was the most common diagnosis. The majority of the patients had neurologic sequelae, and 1 patient died. The high proportions of hospitalization, intensive care utilization, and neurologic complications reveal that non-type b H influenzae infection was associated with significant morbidity in this pediatric population.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Baumgarten, Keith M., Roy Osborn, Will E. Schweinle, & M. J. Zens. (2018). “The influence of anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty using a subscapularis tenotomy on shoulder strength.” Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 27(1), 82-89.

Background and Hypothesis: There is limited evidence describing the influence of total shoulder arthroplasty on strength. The hypothesis was that after total shoulder arthroplasty, strength would improve compared with the preoperative state but remain inferior to that of the nonoperative shoulder. An additional aim was to determine whether strength improvement was associated with improvements in outcome scores and motion. Materials and methods: Thirty-six patients underwent total shoulder arthroplasty, with 31 patients (86%) having 1 year of follow-up for all outcomes. Patient-determined outcomes (Western Ontario Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder score; Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score; Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation rating; and shoulder activity level), range of motion, and strength were assessed. Isometric strength was determined for scaption and external rotation, as well as the liftoff test, belly-press test, and bear-hug test. Results: All strength measures improved, with significant increases in external rotation, the liftoff test, and the bear-hug test, but remained inferior to the nonoperative-side strength. Improved strength in the belly-press test was associated with greater improvement in Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation scores. Improvements in scaption and belly-press testing were associated with improvements in active flexion. Strength improvements in the liftoff test were associated with improved internal rotation in 90 degrees of abduction. Patients with improvements in strength had improvements in their shoulder activity level from baseline to final followup, whereas patients without improved strength test findings did not have improved shoulder activity levels. Conclusions: Total shoulder arthroplasty improved external rotation, liftoff, and bear-hug strength testing. Operative shoulder strength remained inferior to strength of the nonoperative shoulder. Patients with improvements in strength were more likely to have greater improvements in outcome scores and range of motion. Improvements in the shoulder activity level after anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty may be dependent on improvements in strength. (C) 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Chiang, Jyun-You, Nan Jiang, Trenton N. Brown, Tzong-Ru Tsai, & Y. L. Lio. (2017). “Control charts for generalized exponential distribution percentiles.” Communications in Statistics: Simulation & Computation, 46(10), 7827-7843.

The generalized exponential (GE) distribution, which was introduced by Mudholkar and Srivastava in 1993, has been studied for various applications of lifetime modelings. In this article, five control charts, that comprise the Shewhart-type chart and four parametric bootstrap charts based on maximum likelihood estimation method, the moment estimation method, probability plot method, and least-square error method for the GE percentiles, are investigated. An extensive Monte Carlo simulation study is conducted to compare the performance among all five control charts in terms of average run length. Finally, an example is given for illustration.

Mathematics Department.

 

Dachineni, R., D. R. Kumar, Eduardo Calegari, S. S. Kesharwani, R. Sankaranarayanan, T. Seefeldt, H. Tumala, & G. J. Bhat. (2017). “Salicylic acid metabolites and derivatives inhibit CDK activity: Novel insights into aspirin’s chemopreventive effects against colorectal cancer.” International Journal of Oncology, 51(6), 1661-1673.

Aspirin’s potential as a drug continues to be evaluated for the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC). Although multiple targets for aspirin and its metabolite, salicylic acid, have been identified, no unifying mechanism has been proposed to clearly explain its chemopreventive effects. Our goal here was to investigate the ability of salicylic acid metabolites, known to be generated through cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, and its derivatives as cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors to gain new insights into aspirin’s chemopreventive actions. Using in vitro kinase assays, for the first time, we demonstrate that salicylic acid metabolites, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA), as well as derivatives 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,4-DHBA), 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,6-DHBA), inhibited CDK1 enzyme activity. 2,3-DHBA and 2,6-DHBA did not inhibit CDK2 and 4; however, both inhibited CDK-6 activity. Interestingly, another derivative, 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic acid (2,4,6-THBA) was highly effective in inhibiting CDK1, 2, 4 and 6 activity. Molecular docking studies showed that these compounds potentially interact with CDK1. Immunoblotting experiments showed that aspirin acetylated CDK1, and pre-incubation with salicylic acid and its derivatives prevented aspirin-mediated CDK1 acetylation, which supported the data obtained from molecular docking studies. We suggest that intracellularly generated salicylic acid metabolites through CYP450 enzymes within the colonic epithelial cells, or the salicylic acid metabolites generated by gut microflora may significantly contribute to the preferential chemopreventive effect of aspirin against CRC through inhibition of CDKs. This novel hypothesis and mechanism of action in aspirin’s chemopreventive effects opens a new area for future research. In addition, structural modification to salicylic acid derivatives may prove useful in the development of novel CDK inhibitors in cancer prevention and treatment.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Ferris, D. G., R. Samakoses, S. L. Block, E. Lazcano-Ponce, J. A. Restrepo, J. Mehlsen, Archana Chatterjee, O. E. Iversen, A. Joshi, J. L. Chu, A. L. Krick, A. Saah, & R. Das. (2017). “4-Valent Human Papillomavirus (4vHPV) Vaccine in Preadolescents and Adolescents After 10 Years.” Pediatrics, 140(6), 9.

OBJECTIVES:We describe the final 10-year data for the long-term follow-up study of the 4-valent human papillomavirus (4vHPV) vaccine in preadolescents and adolescents. METHODS:In the base study (V501-018), 1661 sexually inactive boys and girls received the 4vHPV vaccine (early vaccination group [EVG], managed for 9.9 years) or a placebo at day 1, month 2, and month 6. Thereafter, at month 30, the placebo group (catch-up vaccination group [CVG], managed for 7.4 years) received the 4vHPV vaccine by using the same dosing schedule. Long-term anti-HPV type 6, 11, 16, and 18 immune responses were assessed. Effectiveness was estimated by calculating the incidence rate of the primary endpoints (HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18-related disease or persistent infection). RESULTS:For HPV types 6, 11, and 16, 89% to 96% of subjects remained seropositive through 10-years postvaccination. The preadolescents had 38% to 65% higher geometric mean titers at month 7, which remained 16% to 42% higher at 10 years compared with adolescents. No cases of HPV type 6, 11, 16, and 18-related diseases were observed. Ten subjects had a persistent infection of >= 6 months duration with vaccine-type HPV and 2 subjects had persistent infection for >= 12 months. No new serious adverse events were reported through 10 years. CONCLUSIONS:A 3-dose regimen of the 4vHPV vaccine was immunogenic, clinically effective, and generally well tolerated in preadolescents and adolescents during 10 years of follow-up. These long-term findings support efforts to vaccinate this population against HPV before exposure.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Fortier, S., J. R. Aguilar-Calderon, Bess Vlaisavljevich, A. J. Metta-Magana, A. G. Goos, & C. E. Botez. (2017). “An N-Tethered Uranium(III) Arene Complex and the Synthesis of an Unsupported U-Fe Bond.” Organometallics, 36(23), 4591-4599.

Amination of 2,2 ”-dibromo-p-terphenyl with 2,6-diisopropylaniline, through Pd mediated cross coupling, yields the p-terphenyl bis(aniline) ligand H2LAr. Deprotonation of H2LAr with excess KH generates the dianion [K(DME)(2)](2)L-Ar as a dark red solid. Treatment of [K-(DME)(2)](2)L-Ar with UI3(dioxane)(1.5) produces the mononuclear U(III) complex (LU)-U-Ar(I)(DME) (1). Subsequent addition of the nucleophilic metal anion [CpFe(CO)(2)](-) (Fp(-)) gives the bimetallic U(III) compound (LU)-U-Ar(Fp) (2) in modest yield which features a rare instance of an unsupported U-M bond. Inspection of the metrical parameters of the solid-state structures of 1.DME and 2.0.5DME from X-ray crystallographic analyses show a seemingly eta(6)-interaction between the uranium and the terphenyl ligand (1: U1-C-centroid = 2.56 angstrom; 2: U1-C-centroid = 2.45 angstrom), spatially imposed as a consequence of the anilide N-donor atom coordination. Furthermore, the U-Fe bond length in 2 (U1-Fe1 = 2.9462(3) angstrom) is consistent with a metal-metal single bond. Notably, electronic structure analyses by CASPT2 calculations instead suggest that electrostatic, and not covalent, interactions dominate between the U-arene systems in 1 and 2 and between the U-Fe bond in the latter.

Chemistry Department.

 

Gabor, Caitlin R., Drew R. Davis, Diana S. Kim, Kristina C. Zabierek, & Nathan F. Bendik. (2018). “Urbanization is associated with elevated corticosterone in Jollyville Plateau salamanders.” Ecological Indicators, 85, 229-235.

Urbanization has the potential to induce major changes in freshwater systems. Expected increases in human populations will likely amplify these changes and lead to the overall degradation of habitat quality within these systems. Such habitat alterations may function as stressors that can affect glucocorticoid stress hormones in freshwater vertebrates. Examining changes in physiological stress may provide early warning indicators of environmental threats and provide insights into the sub-lethal effects of habitat degradation. The threatened, obligate aquatic, Jollyville Plateau salamander ( Eurycea tonkawae ) is found in urbanized and rural catchments within central Texas and has experienced population declines in heavily urbanized areas. We tested the prediction that salamanders from urbanized sites would have different levels of baseline corticosterone (CORT) and muted or no stress responsiveness (to an external stressor, agitation) compared to salamanders from rural sites. We collected water-borne hormones to measure baseline CORT release rates ( n = 3 years) and stress responsiveness ( n = 2 years) in salamanders inhabiting urbanized and rural sites. We also measured “background” CORT from stream water alone at each visit. For the first two years we found that baseline CORT was higher in urbanized sites but not in the third year. Across years and populations, salamanders showed stress responsiveness, suggesting that, even if physiological stress is higher in urbanized areas, it has not resulted in the impairment of the hypothalamic–pituitary–interrenal axis. Background CORT was higher in urban than in rural streams and was positively correlated with mean baseline CORT of salamanders across populations and years. Our results contribute to the goal of finding early warning indicators of environmental threats by demonstrating a relationship between urbanization and the physiological status of E. tonkawae , using a rapid, non-invasive measure of stress.

Biology Department.

 

Hou, N., Y. Wen, X. Yuan, H. D. Xu, Xuejun Wang, F. Q. Li, & B. Ye. (2017). “Activation of Yap1/Taz signaling in ischemic heart disease and dilated cardiomyopathy.” Experimental and Molecular Pathology, 103(3), 267-275.

Genetic manipulation of key components of the evolutionally conserved Hippo pathway has shown that the precise control of these signaling molecules is critical to cardiac development and response to stresses. However, how this pathway is involved in the progression of cardiac dysfunction in different heart diseases remains unclear. We investigated the expressional levels and subcellular localization of Yap1, Taz, and Tead1 and determined Hippo target gene expression in failing human hearts with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) and mouse desmin-related cardiomyopathy (DES). Our results demonstrated that Yap1, Taz, and Tead1 were significantly increased in failing human and DES hearts compared with the non failing controls (NM) or wild type (WI’) mouse hearts at both mRNA and protein levels. Interestingly, adult human and mouse hearts had more Taz than Yap1 by mRNA and protein expression and their increases in diseased hearts were proportional and did not change Yap1/Taz ratio. Yap1, Taz, and Tead1 were accumulated in the nuclear fraction and cardiomyocyte nuclei of diseased hearts. The ratio of Yap1 phosphorylated at serine 127 (human) or serine 112 (mouse) to the total Yap1 (pYap1/Yap1) was significantly lower in the nuclear fraction of diseased hearts than that in normal controls. More importantly, Hippo downstream targets Ankrd1, Ctgf, and Cyr61 were transcriptionally elevated in the diseased hearts. These results suggest that Yap1/Taz signaling is activated in human and mouse dysfunctional hearts. Further investigation with relevant animal models will determine whether this pathway is a potential target for preventing and reversing abnormal remodeling during the progression of different cardiac disorders.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Jain, Amit, P. Kratimenos, I. Koutroulis, A. Jain, A. Buddhavarapu, & J. Ara. (2017). “Effect of Intranasally Delivered rh-VEGF165 on Angiogenesis Following Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia in the Cerebral Cortex of Newborn Piglets.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 18(11), 10.

Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates vascular genesis and angiogenesis. Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia (HI) leads to the reduction of vasculature in the cerebral cortex of newborn piglets. Objective: The present study tests the hypothesis that post-hypoxia intranasal administration of recombinant human VEGF(165) (rh-VEGF165) for 3 days increases the vascular density in the cerebral cortex of newborn piglets without promoting neovascularization. Design/Methods: Ventilated newborn piglets were divided into three groups (n = 5/group): normoxic (Nx), hypoxic-ischemic (HI), and HI treated with intranasal rh-VEGF165rh-VEGF165 (HI-VEGF). HI piglets were exposed to HI (0.05 FiO2) for 30 min. Recombinant h-VEGF165 (100 ng/kg) was administered 15 min after HI and then once daily for 3 days. The animals were perfused transcardially and coronal brains sections were processed for Isolectin, Hoechst, and ki-67 cell proliferation marker staining. To assess the vascular density, 30-35 fields per animal section were manually counted using image J software. Results: The vascular density (vessels/mm(2)) was 42.0 +/- 8.0 in the Nx group, 26.4 +/- 4.8 (p < 0.05 vs. Nx) in the HI group, and 46.0 +/- 11.9 (p < 0.05 vs. HI) in the HI-VEGF group. When stained for newly formed vessels, via Ki-67 staining, the vascular density was 5.4 +/- 3.6 in the Nx group (p < 0.05 vs. HI), 10.2 +/- 2.1 in the HI group, and 10.9 +/- 2.9 in the HI-VEGF group (p = 0.72 vs. HI). HI resulted in a decrease in vascular density. Intranasal rh-VEGF165rh-VEGF165 resulted in the attenuation of the HI-induced decrease in vascular density. However, rh-VEGF165 did not result in the formation of new vascularity, as evident by ki-67 staining. Conclusions: Intranasal rh-VEGF165 may prevent the HI-induced decrease in the vascular density of the brain and could serve as a promising adjuvant therapy for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Kaplan, D. E., M. K. Chapko, R. Mehta, …., Christine Pocha, A. Valderrama, T. H. Taddei, & Vocal Study Grp. (2018). “Healthcare Costs Related to Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Among Veterans With Cirrhosis in the United States.” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 16(1), 106-+.

BACKGROUND & AIMS: It is important to quantify medical costs associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the incidence of which is rapidly increasing in the United States, for development of rational healthcare policies related to liver cancer surveillance and treatment of chronic liver disease. We aimed to comprehensively quantify healthcare costs for HCC among patients with cirrhosis in an integrated health system and develop a model for predicting costs that is based on clinically relevant variables. METHODS: Three years subsequent to liver cancer diagnosis, costs accrued by patients included in the Veteran’s Outcome and Cost Associated with Liver disease cohort were compiled by using the Department of Veterans Affairs Corporate Data Warehouse. The cohort includes all patients with HCC diagnosed in 2008-2010 within the VA with 100% chart confirmation as well as chart abstraction of tumor and clinical characteristics. Cancer cases were matched 1: 4 with non-cancer cirrhosis controls on the basis of severity of liver disease, age, and comorbidities to estimate background cirrhosis-related costs. Univariable and multivariable generalized linear models were developed and used to predict cancer-related overall cost. RESULTS: Our analysis included 3188 cases of HCC and 12,722 controls. The mean 3-year total cost of care in HCC patients was $154,688 (standard error, $150,953-$158,422) compared with $69,010 (standard error, $67,344-$70,675) in matched cirrhotic controls, yielding an incremental cost of $85,679; 64.9% of this value reflected increased inpatient costs. In univariable analyses, receipt of transplantation, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage, liver disease etiology, hospital academic affiliation, use of multidisciplinary tumor board, and identification through surveillance were associated with cancer-related costs. Multivariable generalized linear models incorporating transplantation status, BCLC stage, and multidisciplinary tumor board presentation accurately predicted liver cancer-related costs (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit; P value congruent to 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: In a model developed to comprehensively quantify healthcare costs for HCC among patients with cirrhosis in an integrated health system, we associated receipt of liver transplantation, BCLC stage, and multidisciplinary tumor board with higher costs. Models that predict total costs on the basis of receipt of liver transplantation were constructed and can be used to model costeffectiveness of therapies focused on HCC prevention.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Kariyawasam, Udeshika Lakmini, Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu, Rai, Keshav, Wani, Tasaduq Hussain, Ahuja, Kavita, Beg, Mizra Adil, Premathilake, Hasitha Upendra, Bhattarai, Narayan Raj, Siriwardena, Yamuna Deepani, Zhong, Daibin, Zhou, Guofa, Rijal, Suman, Nakhasi, Hira, & Karunaweera, Nadira D. (2017). “Genetic diversity of Leishmania donovani that causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka: a cross sectional study with regional comparisons.” BMC Infectious Diseases, 17, 1-11.

Leishmania donovani is the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent. However, it is also known to cause cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka. Sri Lankan L. donovani differs from other L. donovani strains, both at the molecular and biochemical level. To investigate the different species or strain-specific differences of L. donovani in Sri Lanka we evaluated sequence variation of the kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA).<bold>Methods: </bold>Parasites isolated from skin lesions of 34 CL patients and bone marrow aspirates from 4 VL patients were genotyped using the kDNA minicircle PCR analysis. A total of 301 minicircle sequences that included sequences from Sri Lanka, India, Nepal and six reference species of Leishmania were analyzed.<bold>Results: </bold>Haplotype diversity of Sri Lankan isolates were high (H d  = 0.757) with strong inter-geographical genetic differentiation (F ST  > 0.25). In this study, L. donovani isolates clustered according to their geographic origin, while Sri Lankan isolates formed a separate cluster and were clearly distinct from other Leishmania species. Within the Sri Lankan group, there were three distinct sub-clusters formed, from CL patients who responded to standard antimony therapy, CL patients who responded poorly to antimony therapy and from VL patients. There was no specific clustering of sequences based on geographical origin within Sri Lanka.<bold>Conclusion: </bold>This study reveals high levels of haplotype diversity of L. donovani in Sri Lanka with a distinct genetic association with clinically relevant phenotypic characteristics. The use of genetic tools to identify clinically relevant features of Leishmania parasites has important therapeutic implications for leishmaniasis.

Biology Department.

 

Leggio, L. E., M. S. Ryan, C. B. Peltier, J. Belkowitz, M. A. Barone, J. S. Byerley, Archana Chatterjee, K. T. Nakamura, J. M. Stirling, & G. P. Rabalais. (2017). “Recruitment and Retention: Recommendations from the Association of Medical School Pediatric Department Chairs Education Committee and the Council on Medical Student Education in Pediatrics Task Force on Community Preceptors.” Journal of Pediatrics, 191(x), 4-+.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Lio, Y. L., Tzong-Ru Tsai, Nan Jiang, & Narayanaswamy Balakrishnan. (2018). “A dynamic system for Gompertz model.” Journal of Statistical Computation & Simulation, 88(4), 752-768.

Two-parameter Gompertz distribution has been introduced as a lifetime model for reliability inference recently. In this paper, the Gompertz distribution is proposed for the baseline lifetimes of components in a composite system. In this composite system, failure of a component induces increased load on the surviving components and thus increases component hazard rate via a power-trend process. Point estimates of the composite system parameters are obtained by the method of maximum likelihood. Interval estimates of the baseline survival function are obtained by using the maximum-likelihood estimator via a bootstrap percentile method. Two parametric bootstrap procedures are proposed to test whether the hazard rate function changes with the number of failed components. Intensive simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed estimation procedure.

Mathematics Department.

 

Mechels, Keegan B., M. D. Greenwood, Ramu G. Sudhagoni, & J. P. Berdahl. (2017). “Influences on rebubble rate in Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty.” Clinical Ophthalmology, 11(x), 6.

Purpose: Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) is a minimally invasive partial corneal transplant procedure used in patients with failing endothelial membranes. This study aims to identify those factors which influence the need for a rebubble of the corneal graft. Methods: A total of 94 eyes that received DMEK between March 2014 and January 2016 at Vance Thompson Vision were used in the study. Demographic and graft data were collected from the patients and donors, and perioperative statistics of the procedures. A logistical regression was used to compare eyes that did and did not require a rebubble. Results: Among those characteristics that were included (patient age/sex, donor age/sex, death to processing time, donation to surgery time, death to procurement time, specular cell count density, burping procedure, postoperative day 1 intraocular pressure [IOP], and postoperative week 1 IOP, concurrent phacoemulsification, and how well the Descemet graft was centered), only a lower specular cell count density of the corneal graft, and a graft that was not well-centered correlated with needing a rebubble due to partial graft detachment (p=0.021) and (p=0.023), respectively. Conclusion: An increased specular cell count density may allow for better placement of the corneal graft by allowing for better unfolding in DMEK procedures. A well-centered graft may decrease postoperative complications by increasing adherence. Additionally, postoperative management of IOP may not affect the rebubble rate, and therefore should be left to the discretion of the provider to determine whether it is necessary.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Messerli, Shanta M., Mariah M. Hoffman, Etienne Z. Gnimpieba, H. Kohlhof, & Ratan D. Bhardwaj. (2017). “4SC-202 as a Potential Treatment for the Pediatric Brain Tumor Medulloblastoma.” Brain Sciences, 7(11), 6.

This project involves an examination of the effect of the small molecule inhibitor 4SC-202 on the growth of the pediatric brain cancer medulloblastoma. The small molecule inhibitor 4SC-202 significantly inhibits the viability of the pediatric desmoplastic cerebellar human medulloblastoma cell line DAOY, with an IC50 = 58.1 nM, but does not affect the viability of noncancerous neural stem cells (NSC). 4SC-202 exposure inhibits hedgehog expression in the DAOY cell line. Furthermore, microarray analysis of human medulloblastoma patient tumors indicate significant upregulation of key targets in the Hedgehog signaling pathway and Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK7).

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Mosher, Brittany A., Kathryn P. Huyvaert, Tara Chestnut, Jacob L. Kerby, Joseph D. Madison, & Larissa L. Bailey. (2017). “Design- and model-based recommendations for detecting and quantifying an amphibian pathogen in environmental samples.” Ecology & Evolution (20457758), 7(24), 10952-10962.

Accurate pathogen detection is essential for developing management strategies to address emerging infectious diseases, an increasingly prominent threat to wildlife. Sampling for free-living pathogens outside of their hosts has benefits for inference and study efficiency, but is still uncommon. We used a laboratory experiment to evaluate the influences of pathogen concentration, water type, and qPCR inhibitors on the detection and quantification of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ( Bd) using water filtration. We compared results pre- and post-inhibitor removal, and assessed inferential differences when single versus multiple samples were collected across space or time. We found that qPCR inhibition influenced both Bd detection and quantification in natural water samples, resulting in biased inferences about Bd occurrence and abundance. Biases in occurrence could be mitigated by collecting multiple samples in space or time, but biases in Bd quantification were persistent. Differences in Bd concentration resulted in variation in detection probability, indicating that occupancy modeling could be used to explore factors influencing heterogeneity in Bd abundance among samples, sites, or over time. Our work will influence the design of studies involving amphibian disease dynamics and studies utilizing environmental DNA (eDNA) to understand species distributions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Biology Department.

 

Otterpohl, K. L., R. G. Hart, C. Evans, Kameswaran Surendran, & Indra Chandrasekar. (2017). “Nonmuscle myosin 2 proteins encoded by Myh9, Myh10, and Myh14 are uniquely distributed in the tubular segments of murine kidney.” Physiological Reports, 5(23), 13.

The diverse epithelial cell types of the kidneys are segregated into nephron segments and the collecting ducts in order to endow each tubular segment with unique functions. The rich diversity of the epithelial cell types is highlighted by the unique membrane channels and receptors expressed within each nephron segment. Our previous work identified a critical role for Myh9 and Myh10 in mammalian endocytosis. Here, we examined the expression patterns of Nonmuscle myosin 2 (NM2) heavy chains encoded by Myh9, Myh10, and Myh14 in mouse kidneys as these genes may confer unique nephron segmentspecific membrane transport properties. Interestingly, we found that each segment of the renal tubules predominately expressed only two of the three NM2 isoforms, with isoform-specific subcellular localization, and different levels of expression within a nephron segment. Additionally, we identify Myh14 to be restricted to the intercalated cells and Myh10 to be restricted to the principal cells within the collecting ducts and connecting segments. We speculate that the distinct expression pattern of the NM2 proteins likely reflects the diversity of the intracellular trafficking machinery present within the different renal tubular epithelial segments.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Sayre, Matthew, T. Stenner, & A. Argumedo. (2017). “You Can’t Grow Potatoes in the Sky: Building Resilience in the Face of Climate Change in the Potato Park of Cuzco, Peru.” Culture Agriculture Food and Environment, 39(2), 100-108.

Although Quechua farmers contribute little to climate change, they are disproportionately experiencing the impacts of rapid changes in the high-altitude environment of the Andes. We describe how Quechua farmers and Association ANDES, a local non-profit organization, are rising to the challenge in Peru, using traditional knowledge and science in community-led research to mitigate and adapt to the impacts of climate change. A globally important food crop, the potato (Solanum sp.) originated in the central Andean Mountains. Indigenous farmers collectively manage the Potato Park as a Biocultural Heritage Territory, and together with ANDES, are implementing the Pluriversity for Biocultural Landscapes and Resilient Food Systems to facilitate knowledge exchange and creative solution seeking for complex global problems such as climate change. We describe programs that support community resilience, local biocultural heritage, biocultural products and services, and global policy processes strengthening the rights of Pacha Mama (Mother Earth) and world indigenous peoples.

Social Behavior.

 

Schoenleber, Michelle, Christopher R. Berghoff, Kim L. Gratz, & Matthew T. Tull. (2018). “Emotional lability and affective synchrony in posttraumatic stress disorder pathology.” Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 53, 68-75.

This study examined the relations of PTSD pathology to both the lability of three specific emotions (anxiety, anger, self-conscious emotions [SCE]) and the extent to which changes in one emotional state co-occur with changes in another emotional state (i.e. affective synchrony). Moreover, given evidence that emotional responding in PTSD may be heightened in response to trauma-related cues, these relations were explored in the context of a trauma cue versus neutral cue. Trauma-exposed patients in residential substance use disorder treatment ( N = 157) completed a diagnostic interview and two laboratory sessions involving presentation of neutral and individualized trauma scripts. State anxiety, anger, and SCE were assessed at five points throughout each laboratory session. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that participants (regardless of PTSD status) exhibited greater lability of all emotions following the trauma script versus neutral script. Only anger lability was elevated among those with (versus without) a current PTSD diagnosis following the neutral script. Results also revealed synchrony (i.e., positive covariation) between each possible pair of emotions, regardless of PTSD status. Findings suggest that concurrent changes in anxiety and anger may be especially relevant to PTSD symptom severity.

Psychology Department.

 

Selvaratnam, Balaranjan, & Ranjit T. Koodali. (2018). “TiO2-MgO mixed oxide nanomaterials for solar energy conversion.” Catalysis Today, 300, 39-49.

Mixed oxide materials have been intensely investigated in catalysis. In recent years, photoactive species have been deposited on high surface area supports and investigated for a variety of applications that include Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC), photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical splitting of water, and photocatalytic degradation of organics. Basic materials like MgO are attractive as supports for the above mentioned applications, since they can be synthesized conveniently with relatively large surface areas and porosities. The wide band gap (>7 eV) and hence the insulating nature of MgO also lends itself to interesting uses in several applications involving solar energy conversion. The presence of low amounts of MgO has been found to be beneficial for DSSC, photo-electrochemical splitting of water, and photocatalytic degradation of dye molecules and will be discussed in-depth in this review. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

 

Strouse, Gabrielle A., G. L. Troseth, K. D. O’Doherty, & M. M. Saylor. (2018). “Co-viewing supports toddlers’ word learning from contingent and noncontingent video.” Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 166, 310-326.

Social cues are one way young children determine that a situation is pedagogical in nature containing information to be learned and generalized. However, some social cues (e.g., contingent gaze and responsiveness) are missing from prerecorded video, a potential reason why toddlers’ language learning from video can be inefficient compared with their learning directly from a person. This study explored two methods for supporting children’s word learning from video by adding social-communicative cues. A sample of 88 30-month-olds began their participation with a video training phase. In one manipulation, an on-screen actress responded contingently to children through a live video feed (similar to Skype or FaceTime “video chat”) or appeared in a prerecorded demonstration. In the other manipulation, parents either modeled responsiveness to the actress’s on-screen bids for participation or sat out of their children’s view. Children then viewed a labeling demonstration on video, and their knowledge of the label was tested with three-dimensional objects. Results indicated that both on-screen contingency and parent modeling increased children’s engagement with the actress during training. However, only parent modeling increased children’s subsequent word learning, perhaps by revealing the symbolic (representational) intentions underlying this video. This study highlights the importance of adult co-viewing in helping toddlers to interpret communicative cues from video. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

School of Education.

 

Tjarks, Brian J., Brandy R. Pownell, C. Evans, Paul A. Thompson, Amy M. Kerkvliet, Michael R. D. Koch, & Ali D. Jassim. (2018). “Evaluation and comparison of staining patterns of factor XIIIa (AC-1A1), adipophilin and GATA3 in sebaceous neoplasia.” Journal of Cutaneous Pathology, 45(1), 1-7.

Background: Reliable nuclear immunohistochemical stains for sebaceous neoplasms have not been readily available. Positive nuclear staining has been reported for GATA3 and factor XIIIa (AC-1A1). We sought to determine the diagnostic utility of these nuclear stains by comparing their staining pattern to adipophilin, a consistently positive cytoplasmic stain. Methods: Cases with the diagnosis of sebaceous hyperplasia, sebaceous adenoma, sebaceous epithelioma/sebaceoma, sebaceous carcinoma, and nonsebaceous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma) were examined. Intensity and extent of staining of the basal cells and mature sebocytes were evaluated for each stain. Results: Factor XIIIa (AC-1A1) was 87.3% sensitive and 95.1% specific for all sebaceous neoplasms and showed high inter-observer reliability. Adipophilin was 83.2% sensitive and 87.8% specific. GATA3 was the least sensitive (80.9%) and specific (75.6%) marker. When factor XIIIa was compared against composite staining of all three markers its staining was still uniquely significant (P =.0210). Conclusion: Factor XIIIa (AC-1A1) is a sensitive and specific nuclear marker for sebaceous differentiation. Its diagnostic utility exceeds that of adipophilin. Factor XIIIa should be included in the expanding group of immunohistochemical and special stains which can be utilized to aid in the diagnosis of sebaceous neoplasms.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Walters, David M., Jeff S. Wesner, Robert E. Zuellig, Dan A. Kowalski, & Matt C. Kondratieff. (2018). “Holy flux: spatial and temporal variation in massive pulses of emerging insect biomass from western U.S. rivers.” Ecology, 99(1), 238-240.

The article analyzes massive synoptic emergence of salmonflies from some western rivers and discuss how large and temporally variable these fluxes might be. It states that the variation is likely to singnificantly alter the press-pulse phenology of subsidies within and among river-riparian ecosystems. It also anlyzes concern for rapid decline of salmonfly populations.

Biology Department.

 

Wang, X. T., Ryan N. Reed, Lee A. Baugh, & Kelene A. Fercho. (2018). “Resource forecasting: Differential effects of glucose taste and ingestion on delay discounting and self-control.” Appetite, 121, 101-110.

We tested a novel hypothesis that glucose taste acts as a signal for resource acquisition, motivating preference for immediate rewards while actual glucose ingestion prompts resource conservation, promoting future-orientated self-regulation. In Study 1, participants were engaged in a delay-discounting task and a grip-control task before and after a beverage intervention (glucose drink, water drink, or glucose mouth-rinse). Glucose ingestion decreased delay discounting, making larger-and-later rewards more attractive. In contrast, glucose rinse increased delay discounting. Water ingestion had none of the effects. In the grip-control task, only glucose ingestion improved the performance. Study 2 using fMRI revealed that glucose rinse and glucose ingestion resulted in distinct brain activational patterns. Compared to glucose rinse, glucose ingestion deactivated a few brain regions (e.g., the anterior cingulate gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus) that are previously shown to be more active when making more difficult intertemporal choices, suggesting that glucose ingestion eases the process of making intertemporal choice. In sum, our behavioral and neuroimaging findings together suggest a dual signaling role of glucose sensation and ingestion in regulating delay discounting and self-control.

Psychology Department.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Weichman, M. L., Bess Vlaisavljevich, J. A. DeVine, N. S. Shuman, S. G. Ard, T. Shiozaki, D. M. Neumark, & A. A. Viggiano. (2017). “Electronic structure of SmO and SmO- via slow photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy and spin-orbit CASPT2 calculations.” Journal of Chemical Physics, 147(23), 8.

The chemi-ionization reaction of atomic samarium, Sm + O -> SmO++ e(-), has been investigated by the Air Force Research Laboratory as a means to modify local electron density in the ionosphere for reduction of scintillation of high-frequency radio waves. Neutral SmO is a likely unwanted byproduct. The spectroscopy of SmO is of great interest to aid in interpretation of optical emission spectra recorded following atmospheric releases of Sm as part of the Metal Oxide Space Cloud (MOSC) observations. Here, we report a joint experimental and theoretical study of SmO using slow photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy of cryogenically cooled SmO- anions (cryo-SEVI) and high-level spin-orbit complete active space calculations with corrections from second order perturbation theory (CASPT2). With cryo-SEVI, we measure the electron affinity of SmO to be 1.0581(11) eV and report electronic and vibrational structure of low-lying electronic states of SmO in good agreement with theory and prior experimental work. We also obtain spectra of higher-lying excited states of SmO for direct comparison to the MOSC results. Published by AIP Publishing.

Chemistry Department.

 

Xiao, L. H., A. Yobi, Karen L. Koster, Y. K. He, & M. J. Oliver. (2018). “Desiccation tolerance in Physcomitrella patens: Rate of dehydration and the involvement of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA).” Plant Cell and Environment, 41(1), 275-284.

The moss Physcomitrella patens, a model system for basal land plants, tolerates several abiotic stresses, including dehydration. We previously reported that Physcomitrella patens survives equilibrium dehydration to -13MPa in a closed system at 91% RH. Tolerance of desiccation to water potentials below -100MPa was only achieved by pretreatment with exogenous abscisic acid (ABA). We report here that gametophores, but not protonemata, can survive desiccation below -100MPa after a gradual drying regime in an open system, without exogenous ABA. In contrast, faster equilibrium drying at 90% RH for 3-5days did not induce desiccation tolerance in either tissue. Endogenous ABA accumulated in protonemata and gametophores under both drying regimes, so did not correlate directly with desiccation tolerance. Gametophores of a Ppabi3a/b/c triple knock out transgenic line also survived the gradual dehydration regime, despite impaired ABA signaling. Our results suggest that the initial drying rate, and not the amount of endogenous ABA, may be critical in the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. Results from this work will provide insight into ongoing studies to uncover the role of ABA in the dehydration response and the underlying mechanisms of desiccation tolerance in this bryophyte. The moss Physcomitrella patens, as a model system for basal land plants, has an important role in efforts aimed at understanding the evolutionary dynamics of genes that constitute cellular signaling pathways involved in abiotic stress responses. We report that both gametophores and protonemata are sensitive to slow dehydration under equilibrium drying regimes but desiccation tolerance can be induced in gametophores during gradual drying in an open system. Endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation did not correlate directly with desiccation tolerance, and impairment of ABA signaling pathways did not render the gametophores sensitive to desiccation. It appears that the initial drying rate, and not endogenous ABA amounts, is critical for the acquisition of desiccation tolerance.

Biology Department.

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December 2017

Assam, Jed H., Ashlie Bernhisel, & Amy Lin. (2018). “Intraoperative and postoperative pain in cataract surgery.” Survey of Ophthalmology, 63(1), 75-85.

Technologic improvements in cataract surgery have not only improved visual outcomes, but also have minimized intraoperative and postoperative pain. We review the mechanisms, risk factors, and management of intraoperative and postoperative pain. Summaries of less common sources of physiologic pain have been included to reinforce recognition of when pain represents an expected physiologic reaction to surgery as opposed to signaling a more serious complication. We also discuss various current and emerging anesthetic and analgesic modalities.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Beraldi, Rosanna, Meyerholz, David K., Savinov, Alexei, Kovács, Attila D., Weimer, Jill M., Dykstra, Jordan A., Geraets, Ryan D., & Pearce, David A. (2017). “Genetic ataxia telangiectasia porcine model phenocopies the multisystemic features of the human disease.” BBA – Molecular Basis of Disease, 1863(11), 2862-2870.

Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a progressive multisystem autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the AT-mutated ( ATM ) gene. Early onset AT in children is characterized by cerebellar degeneration, leading to motor impairment. Lung disease and cancer are the two most common causes of death in AT patients. Accelerated thymic involution may contribute to the cancer, and recurrent and/or chronic respiratory infections may be a contributing factor to lung disease in AT. AT patients have fertility issues, are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation and they present oculocutaneous telangiectasia. Current treatments only slightly ameliorate disease symptoms; therapy that alters or reverses the course of the disease has not yet been discovered. Previously, we have shown that ATM −/− pigs, a novel model of AT, present with a loss of Purkinje cells, altered cerebellar cytoarchitecture and motor coordination deficits. ATM −/− porcine model not only recapitulates the neurological phenotype, but also other multifaceted clinical features of the human disease. Our current study shows that ATM −/− female pigs are infertile, with anatomical and functional signs of an immature reproductive system. Both male and female ATM −/− pigs show abnormal thymus structure with decreased cell cycle and apoptosis markers in the gland. Moreover, ATM −/− pigs have an altered immune system with decreased CD8 + and increased natural killer and CD4 + CD8 + double-positive cells. Nevertheless, ATM −/− pigs manifest a deficient IgG response after a viral infection. Based on the neurological and peripheral phenotypes, the ATM −/− pig is a novel genetic model that may be used for therapeutic assessments and to identify pathomechanisms of this disease.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Caplan, M. A., G. Purser, & Peter A. Kindle. (2017). “Personal Accounts of Poverty: A Thematic Analysis of Social Media.” Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work, 14(6), 433-456.

The field of social work seeks to enhance human well-being by addressing the needs of people living in poverty. Three billion people around the world use the internet daily, and 65% of them use social media. This article qualitatively identifies emergent themes about the lived experiences of poverty from people who reported either being poor or having have been poor, using selected social media posts (N = 1,495) on the website Reddit. We found that the experiences of poverty bring arduousness and hardship, which necessitates an arsenal of survival strategies and skills. It was also found that some people who were poor experienced the saving grace of unexpected charitable acts, which eased their burden. Moreover, these experiences manifest in vestigial feelings and behaviors even when one is no longer poor. An understanding of the lived experiences by poor people themselves is a foundational task for social work educators, practitioners, and researchers.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Chen, X., Zhang, X. L., Chen, J. H., Yang, Q. Q., Yang, L., Xu, D. C., Zhang, P. Q., Wang, Xuejun, & Liu, J. B. (2017). “Hinokitiol copper complex inhibits proteasomal deubiquitination and induces paraptosis-like cell death in human cancer cells.”European Journal of Pharmacology, 815, 147-155.

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a central role in the regulation of proteins that control cell growth and apoptosis and has therefore become an important target for anticancer therapy. Several constitutive subunits of the 19S proteasome display deubiquitinase (DUB) activity, suggesting that ubiquitin modification of proteins is dynamically regulated. Our study and others have shown that metal complexes, such as copper complexes, can induce cancer cell apoptosis through inhibiting 19S proteasome-associated DUBs and/or 20S proteasome activity. In this study, we found that (1) Hinokitiol copper complex (HK-Cu) induces striking accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in A549 and K562 cells (2) HK-Cu potently inhibits the activity of the 19S proteasomal DUBs much more effectively than it does to the chymotrypsin-like activity of the 20S proteasome (3) HK-Cu effectively induces caspase-independent and paraptosis-like cell death in A549 and K562 cells, and (4) HK-Cuinduced cell death depends on ATF4-assosiated ER stress but is apparently not related to ROS generation. Altogether, these data indicate that HK-Cu can inhibit the activity of the 19S proteasomal DUBs and induce paraptosis-like cell death, representing a new drug candidate for cancer treatment.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Cheviron, Z. A., & Swanson, David L. (2017). “Comparative Transcriptomics of Seasonal Phenotypic Flexibility in Two North American Songbirds.”Integrative & Comparative Biology, 57(5), 1040-1054.

Phenotypic flexibility allows organisms to reversibly alter their phenotypes to match the changing demands of seasonal environments. Because phenotypic flexibility is mediated, at least in part, by changes in gene regulation, comparative transcriptomic studies can provide insights into the mechanistic underpinnings of seasonal phenotypic flexibility, and the extent to which regulatory responses to changing seasons are conserved across species. To begin to address these questions, we sampled individuals of two resident North American songbird species, American goldfinch (Spinus tristis) and black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) in summer and winter to measure seasonal variation in pectoralis transcriptomic profiles and to identify conserved and species-specific elements of these seasonal profiles. We found that very few genes exhibited divergent responses to changes in season between species, and instead, a core set of over 1200 genes responded to season concordantly in both species. Moreover, several key metabolic pathways, regulatory networks, and gene functional classes were commonly recruited to induce seasonal phenotypic shifts in these species. The seasonal transcriptomic responses mirror winter increases in pectoralis mass and cellular metabolic intensity documented in previous studies of both species, suggesting that these seasonal phenotypic responses are due in part to changes in gene expression. Despite growing evidence of muscle nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) in young precocial birds, we did not find strong evidence of upregulation of genes putatively involved in NST during winter in either species, suggesting that seasonal modification of muscular NST is not a prominent contributor to winter increases in thermogenic capacity for adult passerine birds. Together, these results provide the first comprehensive overview of potential common regulatory mechanisms underlying seasonally flexible phenotypes in wild, free-ranging birds.

Biology Department.

 

Coloma, Pilar, Pedro A. N. Machado, Ivan Martinez-Soler, & Ian M. Shoemaker. (2017). “Double-Cascade Events from New Physics in Icecube.” Physical Review Letters, 119(20), 1-1.

A variety of new physics models allows for neutrinos to up-scatter into heavier states. If the incident neutrino is energetic enough, the heavy neutrino may travel some distance before decaying. In this work, we consider the atmospheric neutrino flux as a source of such events. At IceCube, this would lead to a “double-bang” (DB) event topology, similar to what is predicted to occur for tau neutrinos at ultrahigh energies. The DB event topology has an extremely low background rate from coincident atmospheric cascades, making this a distinctive signature of new physics. Our results indicate that IceCube should already be able to derive new competitive constraints on models with GeV-scale sterile neutrinos using existing data.

Physics Department.

 

Ferris, Daron G., Rudiwilai Samakoses, Stanley L. Block, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce, Amita Jaime Alberto Restrepo, Jesper Mehlsen, Archana Chatterjee, Ole-Erik Iversen, Amita Joshi, Chu Jian-Li, Andrea Likos Krick, Alfred Saah, & Rituparna Das. (2017). “4-Valent Human Papillomavirus (4vHPV) Vaccine in Preadolescents and Adolescents After 10 Years.” Pediatrics, 140(6), 1-9.

OBJECTIVES: We describe the final 10-year data for the long-term follow-up study of the 4-valent human papillomavirus (4vHPV) vaccine in preadolescents and adolescents. METHODS: In the base study (V501-018), 1661 sexually inactive boys and girls received the 4vHPV vaccine (early vaccination group [EVG], managed for 9.9 years) or a placebo at day 1, month 2, and month 6. Thereafter, at month 30, the placebo group (catch-up vaccination group [CVG], managed for 7.4 years) received the 4vHPV vaccine by using the same dosing schedule. Long-term anti-HPV type 6, 11, 16, and 18 immune responses were assessed. Effectiveness was estimated by calculating the incidence rate of the primary endpoints (HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18-related disease or persistent infection). RESULTS: For HPV types 6, 11, and 16, 89% to 96% of subjects remained seropositive through 10-years postvaccination. The preadolescents had 38% to 65% higher geometric mean titers at month 7, which remained 16% to 42% higher at 10 years compared with adolescents. No cases of HPV type 6, 11, 16, and 18–related diseases were observed. Ten subjects had a persistent infection of ≥6 months duration with vaccine-type HPV and 2 subjects had persistent infection for ≥12 months. No new serious adverse events were reported through 10 years. CONCLUSIONS: A 3-dose regimen of the 4vHPV vaccine was immunogenic, clinically effective, and generally well tolerated in preadolescents and adolescents during 10 years of follow-up. These long-term findings support efforts to vaccinate this population against HPV before exposure.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Fox, Matthew, & Wade-Benzoni, Kimberly. (2017). “The creation of opportunity is an opportunity to create: Entrepreneurship as an outlet for the legacy motive.” Research in Organizational Behavior, 37, 167-184.

As evidence has accumulated that entrepreneurs may pay a financial penalty for their career choice, researchers have struggled to explain the motivation that might lead individuals to pursue the creation of new firms, technologies, and opportunities. We introduce the desire to leave a legacy as both a common source of motivation for many entrepreneurs, and a source of variation, as entrepreneurs who wish to leave a legacy must decide what they would like to leave behind, and whom they wish to benefit from that act. We discuss the implications of the different kinds of legacies for entrepreneurs and their organizations, particularly at founding and exit, when the legacy motive is likely to be particularly salient.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Gao, HongboHartnett, Sigrud, & Li, Yifan. (2017). “Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase L1 regulates myoblast proliferation and differentiation.” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 492(1), 96-102.

Skeletal muscles are dynamic tissues that possess regenerative abilities, which require multiple processes and regulatory factors. Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase L1 (UCHL1), which is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues, was upregulated in skeletal muscles in disease conditions but its functional role in skeletal muscles is unknown. Using mouse myoblast cells C2C12 as an in vitro model, this study reported that UCHL1 elicits different regulation in myoblast cell proliferation and differentiation. We first observed that UCHL1 protein level was continuously declined during cell differentiation. Gene knock-down of UCHL1 by siRNA resulted in a significant decrease in cell proliferation but marked acceleration of cell differentiation and myotube formation. Meanwhile, UCHL1 gene knockdown upregulated myogenic factors myoD and Myogenin (MyoG). In mice, UCHL1 was significantly upregulated in denervated skeletal muscle. Overall, these novel data suggest that UCHL1 may play a role in myogenesis by promoting myoblast proliferation and inhibiting differentiation. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Hanson, Elizabeth K., & Fager, Susan K. (2017). “Communication Supports for People With Motor Speech Disorders.” Topics in Language Disorders, 37(4), 375-388.

Communication supports for people with motor speech disorders can include strategies and technologies to supplement natural speech efforts, resolve communication breakdowns, and replace natural speech when necessary to enhance participation in all communicative contexts. This article emphasizes communication supports that can enhance participation, as described in the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. The article begins with a discussion of partner and patient-reported assessments to evaluate participation levels and barriers to participation. Then, it provides an overview of communication supports for speakers with motor speech disorders, organized by the status of the disorder as stable, improving, or degenerative. The article includes nine case examples to illustrate principles and provide examples of how to address stable and changing needs.

Communication Disorders Department.

 

Herrera, Andrea L.Suso, KutaAllison, StephanieSimon, AbbySchlenker, Evelyn,Huber, Victor C., & Chaussee, Michael S. (2017). “Binding host proteins to the M protein contributes to the mortality associated with influenza-Streptococcus pyogenes superinfections.” Microbiology-Sgm, 163(10), 1445-1456.

The mortality associated with influenza A virus (IAV) is often due to the development of secondary bacterial infections known as superinfections. The group A streptococcus (GAS) is a relatively uncommon cause of IAV superinfections, but the mortality of these infections is high. We used a murine model to determine whether the surface-localized GAS M protein contributes to the outcome of IAV-GAS superinfections. A comparison between wild-type GAS and an M protein mutant strain (emm3) showed that the M3 protein was essential to virulence. To determine whether the binding, or recruitment, of host proteins to the bacterial surface contributed to virulence, GAS was suspended with BALF collected from mice that had recovered from a sub-lethal infection with IAV. Following intranasal inoculation of naive mice, the mortality associated with the wild-type strain, but not the emm3 mutant strain, was greater compared to mice inoculated with GAS suspended with either BALF from uninfected mice or PBS. Further analyses showed that both albumin and fibrinogen (Fg) were more abundant in the respiratory tract 8 days after IAV infection, that M3 bound both proteins to the bacterial surface, and that suspension of GAS with either protein increased GAS virulence in the absence of antecedent IAV infection. Overall, the results showed that M3 is essential to the virulence of GAS in an IAV superinfection and suggested that increased abundance of albumin and Fg in the respiratory tract following IAV infection enhanced host susceptibility to secondary GAS infection.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Hou, Ning, Ying Wen, Xun Yuan, Haodong Xu, Xuejun Wang, Faqian Li, & Bo Ye. (2017). “Activation of Yap1/Taz signaling in ischemic heart disease and dilated cardiomyopathy.” Experimental & Molecular Pathology, 103(3), 267-275.

Genetic manipulation of key components of the evolutionally conserved Hippo pathway has shown that the precise control of these signaling molecules is critical to cardiac development and response to stresses. However, how this pathway is involved in the progression of cardiac dysfunction in different heart diseases remains unclear. We investigated the expressional levels and subcellular localization of Yap1, Taz, and Tead1 and determined Hippo target gene expression in failing human hearts with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) and mouse desmin-related cardiomyopathy (DES). Our results demonstrated that Yap1, Taz, and Tead1 were significantly increased in failing human and DES hearts compared with the non-failing controls (NFH) or wild type (WT) mouse hearts at both mRNA and protein levels. Interestingly, adult human and mouse hearts had more Taz than Yap1 by mRNA and protein expression and their increases in diseased hearts were proportional and did not change Yap1/Taz ratio. Yap1, Taz, and Tead1 were accumulated in the nuclear fraction and cardiomyocyte nuclei of diseased hearts. The ratio of Yap1 phosphorylated at serine 127 (human) or serine 112 (mouse) to the total Yap1 (pYap1/Yap1) was significantly lower in the nuclear fraction of diseased hearts than that in normal controls. More importantly, Hippo downstream targets Ankrd1, Ctgf, and Cyr61 were transcriptionally elevated in the diseased hearts. These results suggest that Yap1/Taz signaling is activated in human and mouse dysfunctional hearts. Further investigation with relevant animal models will determine whether this pathway is a potential target for preventing and reversing abnormal remodeling during the progression of different cardiac disorders.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

James, C. Roger, Lee T. Atkins, Hyung Suk Yang, Janet S. Dufek, & Barry T. Bates. (2017). “Prediction of calcaneal bone competence from biomechanical accommodation variables measured during weighted walking.” Human Movement Science, 56, 37-45.

Carrying weight while walking is a common activity associated with increased musculoskeletal loading, but not all individuals accommodate to the weight in the same way. Different accommodation strategies could lead to different skeletal forces, stimuli for bone adaptation and ultimately bone competence. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationships between calcaneal bone competence and biomechanical accommodation variables measured during weighted walking. Twenty healthy men and women (10 each; age 27.8 ± 6.8 years) walked on a treadmill at 1.34 m/s while carrying 0, 44.5 and 89 N weights with two hands in front of the body. Peak vertical ground reaction force and sagittal plane angular displacements of the trunk and left lower extremity during weight acceptance were measured and used to quantify accommodation. Calcaneal bone stiffness index T-score (BST) was measured using quantitative ultrasound. Correlation and stepwise multiple regression were used to predict calcaneal BST from the accommodation variables. Accommodations of the foot and ankle explained 29 and 54% (p ≤ .015) of the variance in calcaneal BST in different regression models. Statistical resampling using 1000 replications confirmed the strength and consistency of relationships, with the best model explaining 94% of the variance in calcaneal BST. Individuals who change foot and ankle function when carrying heavier weight likely alter the control of gravitational and muscular forces, thereby affecting calcaneal loading, bone adaptation and bone competence. These novel findings illustrate the importance of gait accommodation strategies and highlight a potential clinical consequence that requires further investigation.

School of Education.

 

Keifer, Joyce, & Zheng Zhaoqing. (2017). “Cold block of in vitro eyeblink reflexes: evidence supporting the use of hypothermia as an anesthetic in pond turtles.” Journal of Experimental Biology, 220(23), 4370-4373.

Use of hypothermia as a means of anesthesia for amphibians and reptiles is prohibited by agencies that establish veterinary guidelines. This has recently been called into question by members of the scientific community based on reviews of published literature. Using pond turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans), hypothermia as a method for anesthesia to precede euthanasia by decapitation was assessed. Turtles were subjected to hypothermia using a cooling followed by freezing protocol. Body temperature measurements ranged between -1 and -2°C while core body temperature was -1°C. Ice crystal formation was never observed. A protective reflex to noxious stimuli, the eyeblink response, was recorded from in vitro brainstem preparations subjected to cold. At 5-6°C, reflex responses were suppressed, demonstrating minimal synaptic transmission in brain circuits above temperatures used for hypothermia induction. These and previous data indicate that a re-evaluation of the use of hypothermia as an anesthetic in amphibians and reptiles is warranted.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Lee, Kyoung Hag, Jun, Jung Sim, Kim, Yi Jin, Roh, Soonhee, Moon, Sung Seek, Bukonda, Ngoyi, & Hines, Lisa. (2017). “Mental health, substance abuse, and suicide among homeless adults.” Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work, 14(4), 229-242.

This study explored the role of mental health and substance abuse problems on the suicidal ideation and suicide attempts of 156 homeless adults. The logistic regression results indicated that homeless adults with anxiety were significantly more likely than those without anxiety to have both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Also, homeless adults with drug abuse were significantly more likely than those without drug abuse to have suicidal ideation. The study suggests that to reduce the suicide of the homeless, case managers need to screen mental health and substance abuse issues and to provide appropriate treatment services at homeless shelters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

School of Health Sciences.

 

Liu, YangingQiao, Fangfang, Leiferman, P. C., Ross, A., Schlenker, Evelyn H., & Wang, Hongmin. (2017). “FOXOs modulate proteasome activity in human-induced pluripotent stem cells of Huntington’s disease and their derived neural cells.”Human Molecular Genetics, 26(22), 4416-4428.

Although it has been speculated that proteasome dysfunction may contribute to the pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease (HD), a devastating neurodegenerative disorder, how proteasome activity is regulated in HD affected stem cells and somatic cells remains largely unclear. To better understand the pathogenesis of HD, we analyzed proteasome activity and the expression of FOXO transcription factors in three wild-type (WT) and three HD induced-pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines. HD iPSCs exhibited elevated proteasome activity and higher levels of FOXO1 and FOXO4 proteins. Knockdown of FOXO4 but not FOXO1 expression decreased proteasome activity. Following neural differentiation, the HD-iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) demonstrated lower levels of proteasome activity and FOXO expressions than their WT counterparts. More importantly, overexpression of FOXO4 but not FOXO1 in HD NPCs dramatically enhanced proteasome activity. When HD NPCs were further differentiated into DARPP32-positive neurons, these HD neurons were more susceptible to death than WT neurons and formed Htt aggregates under the condition of oxidative stress. Similar to HD NPCs, HD-iPSC-derived neurons showed reduced proteasome activity and diminished FOXO4 expression compared to WT-iPSC-derived neurons. Furthermore, HD iPSCs had lower AKT activities than WT iPSCs, whereas the neurons derived from HD iPSC had higher AKT activities than their WT counterparts. Inhibiting AKT activity increased both FOXO4 level and proteasome activity, indicating a potential role of AKT in regulating FOXO levels. These data suggest that FOXOs modulate proteasome activity, and thus represents a potentially valuable therapeutic target for HD.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Louw, A., E. J. Puentedura, Kory Zimney, T. Cox, & D. Rico. (2017). “The clinical implementation of pain neuroscience education: A survey study.”Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 33(11), 869-879.

Pain neuroscience education (PNE) has gained considerable attention in research. Three systematic reviews have shown increasing efficacy of PNE decreasing pain, disability, pain catastrophization, movement restrictions, and healthcare utilization. In the development of any new therapeutic approach, it is proposed that there are three stages: development, validation, and implementation. To date, the development and validation of PNE have been well-established. The third stage, implementation, however, lacks when it comes to PNE. The purpose of this study was to survey physical therapists (PT) on their experience and implementation of PNE, following a 15-hour PNE class. Upon development and validation of a PT-PNE survey, a random sample of PTs was invited to take the online survey. Two hundred and eighty-six PTs (female 56%) completed the PNE questionnaire. Ninety-one percent of PTs reported not being taught PNE in PT school. PT’s are applying PNE into clinical practice to a variety of patients, experience outcomes in line with the current best-evidence, but struggle establishing which patients are ideal for PNE. The same five patient characteristics associated with success were also associated with failure, albeit in a different ranking order. This finding highlight the need to further investigate the factors associated with success and failure of PNE.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Louw, A., Zimney, Kory, Johnson, E. A., Kraemer, C., Fesler, J., & Burcham, T. (2017). “De-educate to re-educate: aging and low back pain.” Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 29(6), 1261-1269.

Patients’ beliefs about their condition have been shown to play a significant role in their pain experience and response to treatment, especially when a patient sees their tissue health as vulnerable or aged. Educational can alter these beliefs. Prior to new information, patients often have to be de-educated regarding common misbeliefs to undergo re-education. To determine if a brief de-education session regarding aging and low back pain (LBP) can shift pain ratings, fear-avoidance beliefs, beliefs regarding aging and LBP, and limited active trunk flexion. Fifty adults ranging from 50 to 93 years of age (SD = 10.73) with a 15.1 years of LBP were education on the poor correlation between aging and LBP. Prior to and immediately after the education pain ratings for LBP and leg pain (numeric pain rating scale-NPRS), fear-avoidance (fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire-FABQ), beliefs regarding aging and LBP (Likert scale) and active trunk flexion were measured. Significant changes were found in positive shifts with LBP (p = 0.002), leg pain (p = 0.042), FABQ-physical activity subscale (p = 0.004) and active trunk forward flexion (p < 0.001). The results show that education aimed at altering beliefs regarding LBP and aging result in a positive shift in pain, fear avoidance related to physical activity and active trunk flexion. Prior to providing patients with new healthcare information, de-educating them regarding poor beliefs may be helpful in shifting them towards new, healthier paradigms associated with their condition.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Massarczyk, R., P. Chu, C. Dugger, S. R. Elliott, K. Rielage, & W. Xu. (2017). “Paschen’s law studies in cold gases.” Journal of Instrumentation, 12, 13.

The break-through voltage behavior over small gaps has been investigated for differing gap distances, gas pressures, and gas temperatures in nitrogen, neon, argon and xenon gases. A deviation from Paschen’s law at micro gap distances has been found. At lower temperatures, a significant shift of the curve relative to the results at room temperature was observed. This behavior can be explained by combining Paschen’s law and the ideal gas law.

Physics Department.

 

Myers, Angela, Du Souich, C., Yang, C. L., Borovik, L., Mwenifumbo, J., Rupps, R., Lehman, A., & Boerkoel, C. F. (2017). “FOXP1 haploinsufficiency: Phenotypes beyond behavior and intellectual disability?” American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 173(12), 3172-3181.

The forkhead box (FOX) transcription factors have roles in development, carcinogenesis, metabolism, and immunity. In humans FOXP1 mutations have been associated with language and speech defects, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, facial dysmorphisms, and congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. In mice, Foxp1 plays critical roles in development of the spinal motor neurons, lymphocytes, cardiomyocytes, foregut, and skeleton. We hypothesized therefore that mutations of FOXP1 affect additional tissues in some humans. Supporting this hypothesis, we describe two individuals with novel variants of FOXP1 (NM_032682.5:c.975-2A>C and NM_032682.5:c.1574G>A) and additional features. One had a lung disease resembling neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI), and the second had a skeletal disorder with undertubulation of the long bones and relapsing-remitting fevers associated with flushing and edema. Although attribution of these traits to mutation of FOXP1 requires ascertainment of additional patients, we hypothesize that the variable expression of these additional features might arise by means of stochastic developmental variation.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Nilsen, D. W. T., Aarsetoey, H., Ponitz, V., Brugger-Andersen, T., Staines, H., Harris, William S., & Grundt, H. (2017). “The prognostic utility of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) in patients with acute coronary heart disease.”International Journal of Cardiology, 249, 12-17.

Background: We previously investigated the prognostic utility of red blood cell (RBC) n-3 fatty acids (FAs) in survivors of an acute myocardial syndrome (ACS) but found no relationship with all-cause mortality and cardiac death or MI after two years. Here we extend our follow-up to 7 years, focusing on the potential predictive power of RBC n-6 FAs. Methods: We included 398 ACS patients presenting with increased troponin-T (TnT) levels for whom baseline RBC FA data were available. Cox regression analysis was used to relate the risk of future events to RBC n-6 FA levels, both continuously and by quartile. Results: At 7-year follow-up, 183 (46.0%) had died, 128 (32.2%) had experienced another MI and 24 (6.0%) had had a stroke. Death or MI occurred in 227 patients (57.0%); and death, MI or stroke in 235 patients (59.0%). In a multivariable Cox regression model for total death, the hazard ratio (HR) in the highest as compared to the lowest quartile of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) was 0.55 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.35-0.88, p = 0.012, for death or MI [HR 0.62 (95% CI, 0.41-0.94), p = 0.025], and for the fully combined endpoint [HR 0.57 (95% CI, 0.38-0.86), p = 0.006]. Similar results were found in the per 1-SD analysis. No other RBC n-6 FAs significantly predicted these outcomes in multivariable models. Conclusion: RBC DGLA levels had significant independent prognostic value in post-ACS patients. These findings need confirmation, and the possible biochemical pathways by which higher DGLA membrane levels may be cardioprotective should be explored. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Ness, Brandon M.Zimney, Kory, & Schweinle, William E. (2017). “Analysis of Gauntlet Test Performance and Injury Risk in Intercollegiate Division I Female Soccer (Football) Players: A Retrospective Study.” Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 26(6), 536-543.

Context: Injury risk factors and relevant assessments have been identified in women’s soccer athletes. Other tests assess fitness (eg, the Gauntlet Test [GT]). However, little empirical support exists for the utility of the GT to predict time loss injury. Objectives: To examine the GT as a predictor of injury in intercollegiate Division I female soccer athletes. Design: Retrospective, nonexperimental descriptive cohort study. Setting: College athletic facilities. Participants: 71 female Division I soccer athletes (age 19.6 ± 1.24 y, BMI 23.0 ± 2.19). Main Outcome Measures: GT, demographic, and injury data were collected over 3 consecutive seasons. GT trials were administered by coaching staff each preseason. Participation in team-based activities (practices, matches) was restricted until a successful GT trial. Soccer-related injuries that resulted in time loss from participation were recorded. Results: 71 subjects met the inclusion criteria, with 12 lower body time loss injuries sustained. Logistic regression models indicated that with each unsuccessful GT attempt, the odds of sustaining an injury increased by a factor of 3.5 (P < .02). The Youden index was 2 GT trials for success, at which sensitivity = .92 and specificity = .46. For successive GT trials before success (1, 2, or 3), the predicted probabilities for injury were .063, .194, and .463, respectively. Conclusions: The GT appears to be a convenient and predictive screen for potential lower-body injuries among female soccer athletes in this cohort. Further investigation into the appropriate application of the GT for injury prediction is warranted given the scope of this study.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Olson, SethKathleen A. Brown-RiceAmy SchweinleKami PearsonJamie L. SchollKelene A. FerchoLee A. BaughGina L. Forster, Noah A. Kallsen, Gareth E. Davies, & Erik A. Ehli. (2018). “Neural and psychological characteristics of college students with alcoholic parents differ depending on current alcohol use.” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 81, 284-296.

A significant proportion of college students are adult children of an alcoholic parent (ACoA), which can confer greater risk of depression, poor self-esteem, alcohol and drug problems, and greater levels of college attrition. However, some ACoA are resilient to these negative outcomes. The goal of this study was to better understand the psychobiological factors that distinguish resilient and vulnerable college-aged ACoAs. To do so, scholastic performance and psychological health were measured in ACoA college students not engaged in hazardous alcohol use (resilient) and those currently engaged in hazardous alcohol use (vulnerable). Neural activity (as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging) in response to performing working memory and emotion-based tasks were assessed. Furthermore, the frequency of polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with substance use, risk taking and stress reactivity were compared between the two ACoA groups. College ACoAs currently engaged in hazardous alcohol use reported more anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms, and increased risky nicotine and marijuana use as compared to ACoAs resistant to problem alcohol use. ACoA college students with current problem alcohol showed greater activity of the middle frontal gyrus and reduced activation of the posterior cingulate in response to visual working memory and emotional processing tasks, which may relate to increased anxiety and problem alcohol and drug behaviors. Furthermore, polymorphisms of cholinergic receptor and the serotonin transporter genes also appear to contribute a role in problem alcohol use in ACoAs. Overall, findings point to several important psychobiological variables that distinguish ACoAs based on their current alcohol use that may be used in the future for early intervention.

School of Education

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Pan, BoZhang, Hanming, Cui, Taixing, & Wang, Xuejun. (2017). “TFEB activation protects against cardiac proteotoxicity via increasing autophagic flux.” Journal of Molecular & Cellular Cardiology, 113, 51-62.

Insufficient lysosomal removal of autophagic cargoes in cardiomyocytes has been suggested as a main cause for the impairment of the autophagic-lysosomal pathway (ALP) in many forms of heart disease including cardiac proteinopathy and may play an important pathogenic role; however, the molecular basis and the correcting strategy for the cardiac ALP insufficiency require further investigation. The present study was sought to determine whether myocardial expression and activity of TFEB, the recently identified ALP master regulator, are impaired in a cardiac proteinopathy mouse model and to determine the effect of genetic manipulation of TFEB expression on autophagy and proteotoxicity in a cardiomyocyte model of proteinopathy. We found that increased myocardial TFEB mRNA levels and a TFEB protein isoform switch were associated with marked decreases in the mRNA levels of representative TFEB target genes and increased mTORC1 activation, in mice with cardiac transgenic expression of a missense (R120G) mutant αB-crystallin (CryAB R120G ), a well-established model of cardiac proteinopathy. Using neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocyte cultures, we demonstrated that downregulation of TFEB decreased autophagic flux in cardiomyocytes both at baseline and during CryAB R120G overexpression and increased CryAB R120G protein aggregates. Conversely, forced TFEB overexpression increased autophagic flux and remarkably attenuated the CryABR 120G overexpression-induced accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, caspase 3 cleavage, LDH leakage, and decreases in cell viability. Moreover, these protective effects of TFEB were dramatically diminished by inhibiting autophagy. We conclude that myocardial TFEB signaling is impaired in cardiac proteinopathy and forced TFEB overexpression protects against proteotoxicity in cardiomyocytes through improving ALP activity.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Pyles, Timothy. (2017). “DIONYSUS IN THE MIRROR: HAMLET AS NIETZSCHE’S DIONYSIAN MAN.” Philosophy and Literature, 41(1A), A128-A141.

This Nietzschean reading of Hamlet will provide clarification of what Nietzsche meant in The Birth of Tragedy by such concepts as the Dionysian man and metaphysical comfort, and why and how the performance of tragedy, and the presence of music in and around such a performance, is central-in fact, is necessary-to the transition from Dionysian despair to metaphysical comfort. My application of Nietzsche to Hamlet, then, will illuminate both Hamlet and The Birth of Tragedy.

Theatre Department.

 

Rood, Brian A., Reisner, Sari L., Puckett, Jae A., Surace, Francisco I., Berman, Ariel K., & Pantalone, David W. (2017). “Internalized transphobia: Exploring perceptions of social messages in transgender and gender-nonconforming adults.” International Journal of Transgenderism, 18(4), 411-426.

Background: Transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) individuals encounter a variety of minority stressors that have yet to be fully articulated or explored within the research literature. The purpose of this study is to better understand internalized stigma—the experience of accepting and internalizing negative social messages and experiences about one’s identity—an underexplored minority stressor for TGNC people. Method: We conducted in-depth interviews with 30 diverse TGNC participants using consensual qualitative research (CQR) methodology. Results: Following data saturation and analysis, six distinct themes emerged across participants: (1) TGNC identities are regarded negatively by society; (2) social messages are perceived as originating from the media and religious ideology; (3) TGNC individuals report emotional distress; (4) negative self-perceptions in response to social messages; (5) TGNC individuals report resilience processes in response to negative social messages; and (6) social messages are perceived generally to differentially impact TGNC people of color. Conclusion: Findings highlight the common experience of encountering social marginalization for TGNC individuals. Structural interventions that target pervasive sociocultural messages regarding TGNC identities are warranted.

Psychology Department.

 

Rood, B. A., Maroney, M. R., Puckett, Jae A., Berman, A. K., Reisner, S. L., & Pantalone, D. W. (2017). “Identity Concealment in Transgender Adults: A Qualitative Assessment of Minority Stress and Gender Affirmation.” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 87(6), 704-713.

Minority individuals might conceal their identity in social contexts in an effort to avoid stigma and victimization. Unfortunately, identity concealment is thought to impact psychological distress in transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) individuals. Thus, through 30 in-depth interviews, we sought to understand if and how identity concealment was experienced by TGNC individuals. Findings indicated that (a) TGNC identity concealment is a source of stress, (b) individuals might conceal their TGNC identity based on social context, (c) concealment of assigned sex and gender history can function to affirm one’s true gender identity, and (d) concealment of gender history is a rejection of one’s assigned sex. In addition, (a) passing/blending is an important interpersonal and intrapersonal process, (b) the importance of passing/blending can change over time, and (c) not passing/blending may result in worrying about personal safety. The authors discuss how concealment can both inhibit and promote psychological health for TGNC individuals, and they offer clinical applications for health providers. Public Policy Relevance Statement Concealing one’s transgender identity appears to be associated with psychological distress; however, concealing one’s assigned physical body and gender history might function to affirm one’s true gender. Thus, policymakers in different social contexts-schools, employment, health care-should work to promote transgender inclusivity and create supportive settings where transgender individuals can affirm their true gender without fear of retribution.

Psychology Department.

 

Schlenker, Evelyn H. (2017). “Sexual dimorphism of cardiopulmonary regulation in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.” Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 245, 37-44.

The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ANH) interacts with other hypothalamic nuclei, forebrain regions, and downstream brain sites to affect autonomic nervous system outflow, energy balance, temperature regulation, sleep, arousal, neuroendocrine function, reproduction, and cardiopulmonary regulation. Compared to studies of other ANH functions, how the ANH regulates cardiopulmonary function is less understood. Importantly, the ANH exhibits structural and functional sexually dimorphic characteristics and contains numerous neuroactive substances and receptors including leptin, neuropeptide Y, glutamate, acetylcholine, endorphins, orexin, kisspeptin, insulin, Agouti-related protein, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript, dopamine, somatostatin, components of renin-angiotensin system and gamma amino butyric acid that modulate physiological functions. Moreover, several clinically relevant disorders are associated with ANH ventilatory control dysfunction. This review highlights how ANH neurotransmitter systems and receptors modulate breathing differently in male and female rodents. Results highlight the significance of the ANH in cardiopulmonary regulation. The paucity of studies in this area that will hopefully spark investigations of sexually dimorphic ANH-modulation of breathing. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Schroeder, Michael J., & Lloyd, M. S. (2017). “Tissue Engineering Strategies for Auricular Reconstruction.” Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 28(8), 2007-2011.

Simulating natural characteristics and aesthetics in reconstructed ears has provided a complex 3-dimensional puzzle for those treating patients with microtia. Costochondral grafts remain the gold standard for autologous reconstruction. However, other options such as Medpor and prosthetics are indicated depending on patient circumstances and personal choice. Research into tissue engineering offers an alternative method to a traditional surgical approach that may reduce donor-site morbidity. However, tissue engineering for microtia reconstruction brings new challenges such as cell sourcing, promotion of chondrogenesis, scaffold vascularization, and prevention of scaffold contraction. Advancements in 3D printing, nanofiber utilization, stem cell technologies, and decellularization techniques have played significant roles in overcoming these challenges. These recent advancements and reports of a successful clinical-scale study in an immunocompetent animal suggest a promising outlook for future clinical application of tissue engineering for auricular reconstruction.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Simmons, Thomas E. (2017). “PREQUEL TO HOMESTEAD.” South Dakota Law Review, 62(2), 332-396.

Homestead laws reflect value judgments which balance the free functioning of commercial enterprise and business transactions against a family’s interests in shelter and a home. In South Dakota’s history, this tension has been displayed in legislative enactments, judicial reasoning, and even statewide referendums. An examination of the significant events at two ends of this chronology reveals the expression of societal values in law and the dynamics of the pre-statehood origins of homestead laws in the context of competing policies and interests. This article proceeds by outlining the general purposes and sources for homestead laws, followed by a sketch of existing homestead laws under the contemporary statutory framework. Next, the history leading up to the enactment of constitutional homestead protections in South Dakota’s 1889 Constitution is considered. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

School of Law.

 

Simons, Jeffrey S.Emery, Noah N.Simons, Raluca M., Wills, Thomas A., & Webb, Michael K. (2017). “Effects of alcohol, rumination, and gender on the time course of negative affect.” Cognition & Emotion, 31(7), 1405-1418.

This study modelled associations between gender, ruminative cognitive style, alcohol use, and the time course of negative affect over the course of 43,111 random assessments in the natural environment. Participants (N = 263) completed 49 days of experience sampling over 1.3 years. The data indicated that rumination at baseline was positively associated with alcohol dependence symptoms at baseline as well as higher negative affect over the course of the study. Consistent with negative reinforcement models, drinking served to decrease the persistence of negative affect from moment to moment. However, this ameliorative effect of drinking was evident only among women, suggesting an increased risk for negative reinforcement driven drinking behaviour. In addition, rumination appeared to counteract the desired effects of alcohol on mood among women. This suggests that women who ruminate more may be motivated to consume larger amounts of alcohol to achieve the desired effects. Overall, the results indicate that ruminative cognitive style and the persistence of negative affect from moment to moment may reflect an individual vulnerability for the development of alcohol use disorder especially among women.

Psychology Department.

 

Struckman-Johnson, CindyNalan-Sheffield, KaylaGaster, Samuel, & Struckman-Johnson, Dave. (2017). “Sexual behavior in parked cars reported by Midwestern college men and women.” Journal of Sex Research, 54(8), 1064-1076.

In an anonymous survey of 195 men and 511 women (Mage = 19.8) at a small Midwestern university, 119 men (61%) and 303 women (59.5%) reported that they had engaged in sex while parked. Of these 422, 14% lost their virginity in a parked car. Having sex in parked cars was more likely to involve relational dating partners than hookups. In most recent incidents, the majority of respondents were with a serious but noncohabiting romantic partner (56.9%) in the back seat (63.4%) of a standard car (56.4%) parked out in the country (56.0%). The most common sexual acts were penile-vaginal sex and genital touching, reported by 84.6% and 57.5% of respondents, respectively. Condoms were used by 58.2% of respondents. Less than 1% of respondents reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or pregnancy outcomes. These data, including personal stories of memorable incidents, revealed that despite discomfort, body bumps, and risk of being caught, sex while parked was primarily a positive sexual and romantic experience for both men and women. A dark side of parked-car sex existed in that 2.5% of men and 4.3% of women reported being sexually coerced. The future study of sex in parked cars in urban environments is recommended. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Psychology Department.

 

Swanson, David, Andrew McKechnie, & François Vézina. (2017). “How low can you go? An adaptive energetic framework for interpreting basal metabolic rate variation in endotherms.” Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic & Environmental Physiology, 187(8), 1039-1056.

Adaptive explanations for both high and low body mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR) in endotherms are pervasive in evolutionary physiology, but arguments implying a direct adaptive benefit of high BMR are troublesome from an energetic standpoint. Here, we argue that conclusions about the adaptive benefit of BMR need to be interpreted, first and foremost, in terms of energetics, with particular attention to physiological traits on which natural selection is directly acting. We further argue from an energetic perspective that selection should always act to reduce BMR (i.e., maintenance costs) to the lowest level possible under prevailing environmental or ecological demands, so that high BMR per se is not directly adaptive. We emphasize the argument that high BMR arises as a correlated response to direct selection on other physiological traits associated with high ecological or environmental costs, such as daily energy expenditure (DEE) or capacities for activity or thermogenesis. High BMR thus represents elevated maintenance costs required to support energetically demanding lifestyles, including living in harsh environments. BMR is generally low under conditions of relaxed selection on energy demands for high metabolic capacities (e.g., thermoregulation, activity) or conditions promoting energy conservation. Under these conditions, we argue that selection can act directly to reduce BMR. We contend that, as a general rule, BMR should always be as low as environmental or ecological conditions permit, allowing energy to be allocated for other functions. Studies addressing relative reaction norms and response times to fluctuating environmental or ecological demands for BMR, DEE, and metabolic capacities and the fitness consequences of variation in BMR and other metabolic traits are needed to better delineate organismal metabolic responses to environmental or ecological selective forces.

Biology Department.

 

Thornburg, Danielle A.Paulson, Wade E.Thompson, Paul. A., & Bjordahl, Paul M.(2017). “Pretransfer CT scans are frequently performed, but rarely helpful in rural trauma systems.” American Journal of Surgery, 214(6), 1061-1064.

Background: Rural trauma patients often undergo workup prior to transfer to a trauma center. Repeat and redundant imaging at the trauma center is common. Methods: Two hundred consecutive adult trauma patients transferred to a regional trauma center were retrospectively evaluated. Results: 197 patients met criteria. 152 underwent CT scan prior to transfer and CT was the indication for transfer in 88 patients (44.7%). One intervention was performed as a result of CT imaging. 84 patients (55.3%) received repeat CT imaging. There were no statistically significant differences in rates of CT imaging at the outside facility based on injury severity, mechanism of injury, or age. The most common reason for repeat CT scans was incomplete initial imaging. The ability to obtain initial imaging was not a significant factor. Conclusions: Repeat CT imaging in transferred trauma patients is very common. The majority of reimaging is done for incomplete initial imaging. Rural trauma systems may benefit from improved protocols for more efficient care. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Tirabassi, Christine K.Caraway, S. Jean, & Simons, Raluca M. (2017). “Women’s Behavioral Responses to Sexual Aggression: The Role of Secondary Cognitive Appraisals and Self-Regulation.” Violence against Women, 23(14), 1689-1709.

Sexual assault history, secondary cognitive appraisals, and a dual-process model of self-regulation were examined as predictors of women’s intended behavioral responses to hypothetical sexual aggression. College women (N = 435) read a sexually aggressive scenario and rated their intentions to engage in assertive, polite, and passive behavioral responses. Results indicated secondary cognitive appraisals predicted less assertive, more polite, and more passive responses. Good self-control predicted assertive and polite responses, while sexual assault history and poor regulation predicted passive responses. Poor regulation significantly moderated the relationship between secondary cognitive appraisals and passive behavioral responses. Implications for the prevention of sexual assault are discussed.

Psychology Department.

 

Tiwari, AshokC. ZhangD. M. Mei, & P. Cushman. (2017). “Observation of annual modulation induced by gamma rays from (alpha, gamma) reactions at the Soudan Underground Laboratory.” Physical Review C, 96(4), 7.

Annual modulation of gamma rays from (alpha, gamma) reactions in the Soudan Underground Laboratory was observed using a 12-liter scintillation detector. This significant annual modulation, measured over 4 years, can mimic the signature for dark matter and can also generate potential background events for neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. The measured annual modulation of the event rate from (alpha, gamma) reactions is strongly correlated with the time-varying radon concentration observed independently in the laboratory. The alpha flux from radon decay is simulated starting from the measured radon concentration, and the gamma-ray flux is determined using the convolution of the alpha flux and the cross sections for (alpha, gamma) reactions. The calculated gamma-ray flux is sufficient to generate the measured event rate that exhibits an annual modulation.

Physics Department.

 

Valentine, Matthew, Dustin C. J. Bihm, Lior Wolf, H. Eugene Hoyme, Philip A. May, David Buckley, Wendy Kalberg, & Omar A. Abdul-Rahman. (2017). “Computer-Aided Recognition of Facial Attributes for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.” Pediatrics, 140(6), 1-8.

OBJECTIVES: To compare the detection of facial attributes by computer-based facial recognition software of 2-D images against standard, manual examination in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). METHODS: Participants were gathered from the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Epidemiology Research database. Standard frontal and oblique photographs of children were obtained during a manual, in-person dysmorphology assessment. Images were submitted for facial analysis conducted by the facial dysmorphology novel analysis technology (an automated system), which assesses ratios of measurements between various facial landmarks to determine the presence of dysmorphic features. Manual blinded dysmorphology assessments were compared with those obtained via the computer-aided system. RESULTS: Areas under the curve values for individual receiver-operating characteristic curves revealed the computer-aided system (0.88 ± 0.02) to be comparable to the manual method (0.86 ± 0.03) in detecting patients with FASD. Interestingly, cases of alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) were identified more efficiently by the computer- aided system (0.84 ± 0.07) in comparison to the manual method (0.74 ± 0.04). A facial gestalt analysis of patients with ARND also identified more generalized facial findings compared to the cardinal facial features seen in more severe forms of FASD. CONCLUSIONS: We found there was an increased diagnostic accuracy for ARND via our computer-aided method. As this category has been historically difficult to diagnose, we believe our experiment demonstrates that facial dysmorphology novel analysis technology can potentially improve ARND diagnosis by introducing a standardized metric for recognizing FASD-associated facial anomalies. Earlier recognition of these patients will lead to earlier intervention with improved patient outcomes.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Vinzant, NathanScholl, Jamie L.Wu, Chia-MingKindle, TrevorKoodali, Ranjit, &Forster, Gina L. (2017). “Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Delivery of Peptides to the Brain: Reversal of Anxiety during Drug Withdrawal.” Frontiers in Neuroscience, 11.

Targeting neuropeptide systems is important for future advancements in treatment of neurological and psychiatric illnesses. However, many of the peptides and their analogs do not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) efficiently. Nanoparticles such as iron oxide can cross the BBB, and here we describe a novel method for the conjugation of a peptide antisauvagine-30 (ASV-30) to iron oxide nanoparticles. Previous research has shown that direct infusion of ASV-30 into the brain reduces anxiety-like behavior in animal models via actions on corticotropin releasing factor type 2 (CRF2) receptors. Therefore, we tested whether iron oxide+ASV-30 complexes cross the BBB of rats and then determined whether iron oxide+ASV-30 nanoparticles are localized with CRF2-expressing neurons. Finally we tested the hypothesis that systemic infusion of iron oxide+ASV-30 can reduce anxiety-like behavior. First we describe the synthesis and demonstrate the stability of iron oxide-peptide nanoparticle complexes. Next, nanoparticles (87.7 mu g/kg Fe2O3) with or without ASV-30 (200 it mu g/kg, ip) were injected into male rats 30 min prior to transcardial perfusion and brain fixation for immunohistochemical analysis, or before testing on the elevated plus maze (EPM) in an amphetamine withdrawal model of anxiety. Systemically administered iron oxide+ASV-30 particles were present in the brain and associated with neurons, including those that express CRF2 receptors, but did not localize with the iron storage protein ferritin. Furthermore, systemic administration of ironoxide+ASV-30 reduced amphetamine withdrawal-induced anxiety without affecting locomotion, suggesting that the anxiolytic effects of ASV-30 were preserved and the bioavailability of ASV-30 was sufficient. The findings demonstrate a novel approach to peptide delivery across the BBB and provide insight as to the neural distribution and efficacy of this nanotechnology.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Chemistry Department.

 

Wang, GuojianMei, HaoMeng, XianghuaMei, Dongming, & Yang, Gang. (2018). “The electrical properties and distribution of indium in germanium crystals.” Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 74, 342-346.

Indium doped germanium crystals were grown in a hydrogen atmosphere using the Czochralski method. The electrical properties of indium doped germanium crystals were measured by Hall effect at 77 K. The axial and radial distributions of indium in the germanium crystals were investigated. The effective segregation coefficient of indium in germanium is determined to be 0.0009 with the concentration of indium from 3 × 10 12 ~1 × 10 19 cm −3 . The interface shape between melt and crystal determined the radial distribution of indium in germanium crystals.

Physics Department.

 

Watt, Michael J.Weber, Matthew A.Davies, Shaydel R., & Forster, Gina L. (2017). “Impact of juvenile chronic stress on adult cortico-accumbal function: Implications for cognition and addiction.” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 79(Part B), 136-154.

Repeated exposure to stress during childhood is associated with increased risk for neuropsychiatric illness, substance use disorders and other behavioral problems in adulthood. However, it is not clear how chronic childhood stress can lead to emergence of such a wide range of symptoms and disorders in later life. One possible explanation lies in stress-induced disruption to the development of specific brain regions associated with executive function and reward processing, deficits in which are common to the disorders promoted by childhood stress. Evidence of aberrations in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens function following repeated exposure of juvenile (pre- and adolescent) organisms to a variety of different stressors would account not only for the similarity in symptoms across the wide range of childhood stress-associated mental illnesses, but also their persistence into adulthood in the absence of further stress. Therefore, the goal of this review is to evaluate the current knowledge regarding disruption to executive function and reward processing in adult animals or humans exposed to chronic stress over the juvenile period, and the underlying neurobiology, with particular emphasis on the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. First, the role of these brain regions in mediating executive function and reward processing is highlighted. Second, the neurobehavioral development of these systems is discussed to illustrate how juvenile stress may exert long-lasting effects on prefrontal cortex-accumbal activity and related behavioral functions. Finally, a critical review of current animal and human findings is presented, which strongly supports the supposition that exposure to chronic stress (particularly social aggression and isolation in animal studies) in the juvenile period produces impairments in executive function in adulthood, especially in working memory and inhibitory control. Chronic juvenile stress also results in aberrations to reward processing and seeking, with increased sensitivity to drugs of abuse particularly noted in animal models, which is in line with greater incidence of substance use disorders seen in clinical studies. These consequences are potentially mediated by monoamine and glutamatergic dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, providing translatable therapeutic targets. However, the predominant use of male subjects and social-based stressors in preclinical studies points to a clear need for determining how both sex differences and stressor heterogeneity may differentially contribute to stress-induced changes to substrates mediating executive function and reward processing, before the impact of chronic juvenile stress in promoting adult psychopathology can be fully understood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Wei, W. Z.D. M. Mei, & C. Zhang. (2017). “Cosmogenic activation of germanium used for tonne-scale rare event search experiments.” Astroparticle Physics, 96, 24-31.

We report a comprehensive study of cosmogenic activation of germanium used for tonne-scale rare event Search experiments. The germanium exposure to cosmic rays on the Earth’s surface are simulated with and without a shielding container using Geant4 for a given cosmic muon, neutron, and proton energy spectrum. The production rates of various radioactive isotopes are obtained for different sources separately. We find that fast neutron induced interactions dominate the production rate of cosmogenic activation. Geant4-based simulation results are compared with the calculation of ACTIVIA and the available experimental data. A reasonable agreement between Geant4 simulations and several experimental data sets is presented. We predict that cosmogenic activation of germanium can set limits to the sensitivity of the next generation of tonne-scale experiments. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Physics Department.

Posted by: tadeterman | October 19, 2017

August 2017

Abgrall, N., E. Aguayo, F. T. Iiiavignone, …., D. Byram, A. S. Caldwell, Y. D. Chan, C. D. Christofferson, P. H. Chu, C. Cuesta, J. A. Detwiler, C. Dunagan, Yu Efremenko, H. Ejiri, & S. R. Elliott. (2017). Muon flux measurements at the davis campus of the sanford underground research facility with the majorana demonstrator veto system. Astroparticle Physics, 93, 70-75.

We report the first measurement of the total muon flux underground at the Davis Campus of the Sanford Underground Research Facility at the 4850 ft level. Measurements were performed using the Majorana Demonstrator muon veto system arranged in two different configurations. The measured total flux is ( 5.31 ± 0.17 ) × 10 − 9 μ /s/cm 2 .

Physics Department.

 

Adegoke, OludotunFangfang QiaoYanying LiuKristy LongleyShelley Feng, & Hongmin Wang. (2017). Overexpression of Ubiquilin-1 Alleviates Alzheimer’s Disease-Caused Cognitive and Motor Deficits and Reduces Amyloid-beta Accumulation in Mice.Journal of Alzheimers Disease, 59(2), 575-590.

Ubiquilin-1 (Ubqln1) is a ubiquitin-like protein that has been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, whether Ubqln1 modulates learning and memory and alters AD-like behavior and/or pathology has not been determined in animal models. To understand the function of Ubqln1 in vivo, we previously generated Ubqln1 transgenic (TG) mice that overexpress mouse Ubqln1. With the model, we here characterized the TG mouse cognitive behaviors and found that Ubqln1 TG mice showed better spatial learning and memory capabilities than their wild-type littermates in both radial arm water maze and Y-maze tests. Additionally, we crossed the Ubqln1 TG mice with the A beta PPswe/PSEN1dE9 double transgenic AD mouse to generate the AD/Ubqln1 triple TG (AD/TG) mice. Our results suggest that at 12 months of age following the onset of AD, AD/TG mice showed better spatial learning and memory than AD mice. AD/TG mice also exhibited better motor function than AD mice at the same age. Furthermore, compared to AD mice, AD/TG mice showed significant reduction in amyloid-beta 40 (A beta(40)) and A beta(42) levels in the cerebral cortex and in the hippocampus at the post-onset stage. The number of A beta plaques was significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex of AD/TG mice at this post-onset stage. Moreover, mature A beta PP level in AD/TG hippocampus was lower than that in AD hippocampus. These data not only provide a direct link between overexpression of Ubqln1 and altered learning and memory, but also raise the possibility that Ubqln1 is a potential therapeutic target for treating AD and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Allaire, J., William S. Harris, C. Vors, A. Charest, J. Marin, K. H. Jackson, A. Tchernof, P. Couture, & B. Lamarche. (2017). Supplementation with high-dose docosahexaenoic acid increases the Omega-3 Index more than high-dose eicosapentaenoic acid. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 120, 8-14.

Background: Recent studies suggest that eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids have distinct effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. The Omega-3 Index (030, which is calculated as the proportion of EPA and DHA in red blood cell (RBC) membranes, has been inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart diseases and coronary mortality. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of EPA and DHA supplementation on the 031 in men and women with abdominal obesity and subclinical inflammation. Methods: In a double-blind controlled crossover study, 48 men and 106 women with abdominal obesity and subclinical inflammation were randomized to a sequence of three-treatment phases: 1-2.7 g/d of EPA, 2-2.7 g/d of DHA, and 3-3 g/d of corn oil (0 g of EPA +DHA). All supplements were provided as 3 x 1 g capsules for a total of 3 g/d. The 10-week treatment phases were separated by nine-week washouts. RBC membrane fatty acid composition and 031 were assessed at baseline and the end of each phase. Differences in 031 between treatments were assessed using mixed models for repeated measures. Results: The increase in the 031 after supplementation with DHA (+ 5.6% compared with control, P < 0.0001) was significantly greater than after EPA (+ 3.3% compared with control, P < 0.0001; DHA vs. EPA, P < 0.0001). Compared to control, DHA supplementation decreased (-0.8%, P < 0.0001) while EPA increased (+ 2.5%, P < 0.0001) proportion of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in RBCs (DHA vs. EPA, P < 0.0001). The baseline 031 was higher in women than in men (6.3% vs. 5.8%, P = 0.011). The difference between DHA and EPA in increasing the 031 tended to be higher in men than in women (+ 2.6% vs. + 2.2% respectively, P for the treatment by sex interaction = 0.0537). Conclusions: The increase in the 031 is greater with high dose DHA supplementation than with high dose EPA, which is consistent with the greater potency of DHA to modulate cardiometabolic risk factors. The extent to which such differences between EPA and DHA in increasing the 031 relates to long-term cardiovascular risk needs to be investigated in the future.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Ammann, E. M., James V. Pottala, J. G. Robinson, M. A. Espeland, & William S. Harris. (2017). Erythrocyte omega-3 fatty acids are inversely associated with incident dementia: Secondary analyses of longitudinal data from the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS). Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 121, 68-75.

Objective: To assess whether red blood cell (RBC) docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid (DHA + EPA) levels have a protective association with the risk of dementia in older women. Methods: RBC DHA + EPA levels were assessed at baseline, and cognitive status was evaluated annually in a cohort of 6706 women aged >= 65 years who participated in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS). Cox regression was used to quantify the association between RBC DHA + EPA and the risk of probable dementia, independent of major dementia risk factors. Results: During a median follow-up period of 9.8 years, 587 incident cases of probable dementia were identified. After adjusting for demographic, clinical, and behavioral risk factors, a one standard deviation increase in DHA + EPA levels was associated with a significantly lower risk of dementia (HR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.00; p < 0.05). This effect estimate did not meaningfully change after further adjustment for baseline cognitive function and APOE genotype. For women with high DHA + EPA exposure (1 SD above mean) compared to low exposure (1 SD below mean), the adjusted 15-year absolute risk difference for dementia was 2.1% (95% CI: 0.2%, 4.0%). In secondary analyses, we also observed a protective association with longitudinal change in Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) Exam scores, but no significant association with incident MCI, PD/MCI, or baseline 3MS scores. Discussion: Higher levels of DHA + EPA may help protect against the development of dementia. Results from prospective randomized controlled trials of DHA + EPA supplementation are needed to help clarify whether this association is causal.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Borja, Mark S., Bradley Hammerson, Chongren Tang, Olga V. SavinovaGregory C. Shearer, & Michael N. Oda. (2017). Apolipoprotein A-I exchange is impaired in metabolic syndrome patients asymptomatic for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PLoS ONE, 12(8), 1-16.

Objective: We tested the hypothesis that HDL-apolipoprotein A-I exchange (HAE), a measure of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function and a key step in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), is impaired in metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) patients who are asymptomatic for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We also compared HAE with cell-based cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) to address previous reports that CEC is enhanced in MetSyn populations. Methods: HAE and ABCA1-specific CEC were measured as tests of HDL function in 60 MetSyn patients and 14 normolipidemic control subjects. Predictors of HAE and CEC were evaluated with multiple linear regression modeling using clinical markers of MetSyn and CVD risk. Results: HAE was significantly reduced in MetSyn patients (49.0 ± 10.9% vs. 61.2 ± 6.1%, P < 0.0001), as was ABCA1-specific CEC (10.1 ± 1.6% vs. 12.3 ± 2.0%, P < 0.002). Multiple linear regression analysis identified apoA-I concentration as a significant positive predictor of HAE, and MetSyn patients had significantly lower HAE per mg/dL of apoA-I (P = 0.004). MetSyn status was a negative predictor of CEC, but triglyceride (TG) was a positive predictor of CEC, with MetSyn patients having higher CEC per mg/dL of TG, but lower overall CEC compared to controls. Conclusions: MetSyn patients have impaired HAE that contributes to reduced capacity for ABCA1-mediated CEC. MetSyn status is inversely correlated with CEC but positively correlated with TG, which explains the contradictory results from earlier MetSyn studies focused on CEC. HAE and CEC are inhibited in MetSyn patients over a broad range of absolute apoA-I and HDL particle levels, supporting the observation that this patient population bears significant residual cardiovascular disease risk.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Bula, Fernando, & M. H. Rathore. (2016). Is the Birth PCR Still Necessary for HIV Exposed Newborns? Annals of King Edward Medical University Lahore Pakistan, 22(4), 333-334.

In 2009 the Unites States Public Health Service (USPHS) changed its recommendations for diagnostic testing of HIV exposed infants. However, barriers for compliance to testing remain. We evaluated the compliance with the 2009 USPHS recommendation at our center. A total of 244 HIV exposed infants were identified from 2009 to 2012. HIV DNA PCR was done in less than 48 hours of life in 216 (90.7%) infants, between 14-21 days in 143 (60.1%). We believe it remains important to perform HIV testing at birth especially when testing at 14 to 21 days of life cannot be assured.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Burrell, Brian D. (2017). Comparative biology of pain: What invertebrates can tell us about how nociception works. Journal of Neurophysiology, 117(4), 1461-1473.

The inability to adequately treat chronic pain is a worldwide health care crisis. Pain has both an emotional and a sensory component, and this latter component, nociception, refers specifically to the detection of damaging or potentially damaging stimuli. Nociception represents a critical interaction between an animal and its environment and exhibits considerable evolutionary conservation across species. Using comparative approaches to understand the basic biology of nociception could promote the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat pain, and studies of nociception in invertebrates can provide especially useful insights toward this goal. Both vertebrates and invertebrates exhibit segregated sensory pathways for nociceptive and nonnociceptive information, injury-induced sensitization to nociceptive and nonnociceptive stimuli, and even similar antinociceptive modulatory processes. In a number of invertebrate species, the central nervous system is understood in considerable detail, and it is often possible to record from and/or manipulate single identifiable neurons through either molecular genetic or physiological approaches. Invertebrates also provide an opportunity to study nociception in an ethologically relevant context that can provide novel insights into the nature of how injury-inducing stimuli produce persistent changes in behavior. Despite these advantages, invertebrates have been underutilized in nociception research. In this review, findings from invertebrate nociception studies are summarized, and proposals for how research using invertebrates can address questions about the fundamental mechanisms of nociception are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Chen, Hui-Hua, Yi-Ching Liang, Susan C. GappLisa A. Newland, Jarod T. Giger, & Chunn-Ying Lin. (2017). Direct and Indirect Links Between the Couple Relationship and Child School Outcomes. Journal of Experimental Education, 85(4), 658-673.

This study measured aspects of the couple relationship to examine direct and indirect relations with parental involvement in education and children’s school outcomes. The sample (n= 100) consisted of families that have at least one child between the ages of 8 and 11 in urban central Taiwan. Findings indicated that couple relationship quality is related to parent involvement and parent involvement is related to child school outcomes. Aspects of the couple relationship were also related to children’s negative attitudes toward school. Path analyses showed a direct path from dyadic consensus to school success and an indirect path from coparenting strategy use to child school success through parental involvement in education. Bootstrap analyses confirmed the reliability of the models.

School of Education.

 

Chiang, J. Y., Y. L. Lio, & T. R. Tsai. (2017). MEWMA Control Chart and Process Capability Indices for Simple Linear Profiles with Within-profile Autocorrelation. Quality and Reliability Engineering International, 33(5), 1083-1094.

A multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) control chart is proposed for detecting process shifts during the phase II monitoring of simple linear profiles (SLPs) in the presence of within-profile autocorrelation. The proposed control chart is called MEWMA-SLP. Furthermore, two process capability indices are proposed for evaluating the capability of in-control SLP processes, and their utilization is demonstrated through examples. Intensive simulations reveal that the MEWMA-SLP chart is more sensitive than existing control charts in detecting profile shifts. Copyright (c) 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Mathematics Department.

 

Chiang, J. Y., J. P. Zhu, T. R. Tsai, Y. L. Lio, & Nan Jiang. (2017). An innovative sampling scheme for resubmitted lots by attributes. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 91(9-12), 4019-4031.

Govindaraju and Ganesalingam (Govindaraju and Ganesalingam in Commun Stat-Simul Comput 26(3)1163-1176, 1997) proposed a single-sampling plan for resubmitted lots, referred as resubmitted single-sampling plan (RSSP). This study introduces an innovative sampling scheme for refining the performance of RSSP, and we denote the new resubmitted single-sampling plan by NRSSP. The NRSSP incorporates all information in the sequence of the numbers of defective products from testing all resubmitted lots to make lot acceptance decision. Moreover, a sufficient condition such that three competitive optimisation procedures reach identical resampling plan is determined. Compared with the RSSP, the NRSSP is more powerful to reach a lot acceptance decision. The NRSSPs are established for three real examples to minimise the average sampling number function and a total cost function and to meet the specific risks of producer and consumer, respectively. Moreover, the performance of the NRSSP is compared with the repetitive-sampling plan and double-sampling plan.

Mathematics Department.

 

De Jong, David, Trent Grundmeyer, & Julie Yankey. (2017). Identifying and addressing themes of job dissatisfaction for secondary principals. School Leadership & Management, 37(4), 354-371.

Secondary principals serve in important roles that are complex, high-stress, and include demanding job responsibilities. Key stakeholders such as superintendents, school board members, and legislators must understand the challenges facing secondary principals in order to address the current themes of job dissatisfaction. Using new survey data compiled from 176 secondary principals across a state in the Midwest United States, this study shows four themes of job dissatisfaction are plaguing secondary principals: high job demands with unreasonable expectations, managing difficult stakeholders, problematic work/life balance, and lack of support. This study concludes with practical suggestions to address each theme of job dissatisfaction.

School of Education.

 

Emery, Noah N., & Jeffrey S. Simons. (2017). A Reinforcement Sensitivity Model of Affective and Behavioral Dysregulation in Marijuana Use and Associated Problems.Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 25(4), 281-294.

This study tested a model linking sensitivity to punishment (SP) and reward (SR) to marijuana use and problems via affect lability and poor control. A 6-month prospective design was used in a sample of 2,270 young-adults (64% female). The hypothesized SP x SR interaction did not predict affect lability or poor control, but did predict use likelihood at baseline. At low levels of SR, SP was associated with an increased likelihood of abstaining, which was attenuated as SR increased. SP and SR displayed positive main effects on both affect lability and poor control. Affect lability and poor control, in turn, mediated effects on the marijuana outcomes. Poor control predicted both increased marijuana use and, controlling for use level, greater intensity of problems. Affect lability predicted greater intensity of problems, but was not associated with use level. There were few prospective effects. SR consistently predicted greater marijuana use and problems. SP however, exhibited both risk and protective pathways. Results indicate that SP is associated with a decreased likelihood of marijuana use. However, once use is initiated SP is associated with increased risk of problems, in part, due to its effects on both affect and behavioral dysregulation.

Psychology Department.

 

Emken, T., C. Kouvaris, & Ian M. Shoemaker. (2017). Terrestrial effects on dark matter-electron scattering experiments. Physical Review D, 96(1), 7.

A well-studied possibility is that dark matter may reside in a sector secluded from the Standard Model, except for the so-called photon portal: kinetic mixing between the ordinary and dark photons. Such interactions can be probed in dark matter direct detection experiments, and new experimental techniques involving detection of dark matter-electron scattering offer new sensitivity to sub-GeV dark matter. Typically however it is implicitly assumed that the dark matter is not altered as it traverses the Earth to arrive at the detector. In this paper we study in detail the effects of terrestrial stopping on dark photon models of dark matter, and find that they significantly reduce the sensitivity of XENON10 and DAMIC. In particular we find that XENON10 only excludes masses in the range (5-3000) MeV while DAMIC only probes (20-50) MeV. Their corresponding cross section sensitivity is reduced to a window of cross sections between (5x 10(- 38)-10(- 30)) cm(2) for XENON10 and a small window around similar to 10(- 31) cm(2) for DAMIC. We also examine implications for a future DAMIC run.

Physics Department.

 

Fleischman, G. M., Teresa Stephenson, K. B. Walker, & K. A. Cook. (2017). Factors That Influence Accounting Faculty Career Satisfaction: Comparisons by Program Prestige and Tenure Status. Accounting Horizons, 31(3), 1-20.

We report results of 266 surveys from untenured and tenured accounting faculty employed by both elite and non-elite accounting programs concerning factors that influence career satisfaction. We find that accounting academics are somewhat satisfied with their jobs, although factors that enhance or impair career satisfaction differ for faculty at elite versus non-elite programs and for untenured versus tenured faculty. Our findings suggest noteworthy implications for the accounting academy and provide insights about cultural differences between elite versus non-elite accounting programs.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Goodman, Barbara E. (2017). How do the Institutes on Teaching and Learning (ITLs) nurture the members of the Physiology Educators Community of Practice (PECOP)?Advances in Physiology Education, 41(3), 354-356.

Do you teach physiology? Do you use best practices when you teach physiology? Have you ever thought about conducting educational research? Do you need collaborators to help with ideas for educational research or to expand your research populations? The American Physiological Society (APS) Teaching Section has developed a biennial Institute on Teaching and Learning (ITL) through the APS Conference Program to address these issues. The first institute was held in June 2014, and the second institute was held in June 2016. A Physiology Education Community of Practice (PECOP) was created to help connect the institute participants and other physiology educators and to share evidence-based teaching in physiology at all education levels. The 2018 APS ITL will be the next meeting to learn best practices, to share ideas with colleagues, and to find collaborators in improving the teaching of physiology for students. The meeting will include workshops modeling best practices, plenary talks about hot new issues in physiology and science education, and poster sessions and informal meals to discuss interests with colleagues. Even if one’s primary responsibility is bench research or administration, the training from the institute will improve efficiency and effectiveness when teaching. The two prior ITLs (2014 and 2016) were highly evaluated by educators of both undergraduate and professional students who spent a week together emphasizing improvement in their teaching.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Grausam, Katie B., S. D. R. Dooyema, L. Bihannic, Hasitha Premathilake, A. S. Morrissy, A. Forget, A. M. Schaefer, J. H. Gundelach, S. Macura, D. M. Maher, X. Wang, Alex H. Heglin, X. J. Ge, E. L. Zeng, S. Puget, Indra ChandrasekarKameswaran Surendran, R. J. Bram, U. Schuller, M. D. Talyor, O. Ayrault, & Haotian Zhao. (2017). ATOH1 Promotes Leptomeningeal Dissemination and Metastasis of Sonic Hedgehog Subgroup Medulloblastomas. Cancer Research, 77(14), 3766-3777.

Medulloblastoma arising from the cerebellum is the most common pediatric brain malignancy, with leptomeningeal metas-tases often present at diagnosis and recurrence associated with poor clinical outcome. In this study, we used mouse medulloblastoma models to explore the relationship of tumor pathophysiology and dysregulated expression of the NOTCH pathway transcription factor ATOH1, which is present in aggressive medulloblastoma subtypes driven by aberrant Sonic Hedgehog/Patched (SHH/PTCH) signaling. In experiments with conditional ATOH1 mouse mutants crossed to Ptch1(-/-) mice, which develop SHH-driven medulloblastoma, animals with Atoh1 transgene expression developed highly penetrant medulloblastoma at a young age with extensive leptomeningeal disease and metastasis to the spinal cord and brain, resembling xenografts of human SHH medulloblastoma. Metastatic tumors retained abnormal SHH signaling like tumor xenografts. Conversely, ATOH1 expression was detected consistently in recurrent and metastatic SHH medulloblastoma. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and gene expression profiling identified candidate ATOH1 targets in tumor cells involved in development and tumorigenesis. Among these targets specific to metastatic tumors, there was an enrichment in those implicated in extracellular matrix remodeling activity, cytoskeletal network and interaction with microenvironment, indicating a shift in transcriptomic and epigenomic landscapes during metastasis. Treatment with bone morphogenetic protein or SHH pathway inhibitors decreased tumor cell proliferation and suppressed metastatic tumor growth, respectively. Our work reveals a dynamic ATOH1-driven molecular cascade underlying medullo-blastomametastasis that offers possible therapeutic opportunities.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Hagen, Benjamin D. (2017). Feeling Shadows: Virginia Woolf’s Sensuous Pedagogy. Pmla-Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, 132(2), 266-+.

Virginia Woolf’s “A Sketch of the Past” (1939-40) develops her most radical ontological and pedagogical insights, which are inseparably connected by her concept “moments of being” redefined in this essay as pedagogical accidents. This redefinition opens readers to an unexplored dimension of Woolf’s late thought: namely, the reorientation of learning and teaching around the creative function of accidents, the unhinged temporality of “sudden violent shock[s]” that repeat their difference across one’s lifespan, and the prioritization of feeling. The nonlinear, nonrealist, and nonsequential temporality of these events serves Woolf as a model not only for the memoir but for the double task of learning how to write her life otherwise and of teaching her potential readers the shapes and intensities of their own selves and lives. My reading of Woolf’s memoir as a work of “sensuous pedagogy” attempts to account for the importance of feeling to this task.

English Department.

 

Han, Yulun, B. Rasulev, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2017). Photofragmentation of Tetranitromethane: Spin-Unrestricted Time-Dependent Excited-State Molecular Dynamics. Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 8(14), 3185-3192.

In this study, the photofragmentation dynamics of tetranitromethane (TNM) is explored by a spin-unrestricted time-dependent excited-state molecular dynamics (u-TDESMD) algorithm based on Rabi oscillations and principles similar to trajectory surface hopping, with a midintensity field approximation. The leading order process is represented by the molecule undergoing cyclic excitations and de excitations. During excitation cycles, the nuclear kinetic energy is accumulated to overcome the dissociation barriers in the reactant and a sequence of intermediates. The dissociation pathway includes the ejection of NO2 groups followed by the formation of NO and CO. The simulated mass spectra at the ab initio level, based on the bond length in possible fragments, are extracted from simulation trajectories. The recently developed methodology has the potential to model and monitor photoreactions with open-shell intermediates and radicals.

Chemistry Department.

 

Hong, Q. I. N., Kittipong Boonme, Benjamin George, & Victor Prybutok. (2017). The Moderating Effect of Gender in Urgent Care Service Satisfaction. Quality Management Journal, 24(3), 20-30.

The objective of this study is to investigate the extent to which gender serves as a moderator in the relationships between healthcare service quality, patient satisfaction, and behavioral intention in the urgent care industry. Using the data collected from 253 male and 209 female urgent care patients, the moderating effect of gender was examined through partial least square structural equation modeling. Gender was found significant in the relationship between urgent care quality and patient satisfaction. To improve patient satisfaction among males, urgent care providers should focus on reducing negative emotions among male patients. This can be done by reducing the gap between their expectations and their perceptions, creating a warm environment in the urgent care facility, and alleviating patients’ emotional vulnerability. The female community is more willing to pay a premium price and recommend the urgent care providers if they are satisfied. The practical implication is that urgent care providers should employ different strategies across gender to improve their perceptions of care quality and satisfaction level.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Hsu, Benson S.Benjamin D. Meyer, & Saquib A. Lakhani. (2017). Financial, Resource Utilization and Mortality Impacts of Teaching Hospital Status on Pediatric Patients Admitted for Sepsis. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 36(8), 712-719.

Background: With the changing healthcare landscape in the United States, teaching hospitals face increasing pressure to provide medical education as well as cost-effective care. Our study investigated the financial, resource utilization and mortality impact of teaching hospital status on pediatric patients admitted with sepsis. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, weighted statistical analysis of hospitalized children with the diagnosis of sepsis. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 2009 Kids’ Inpatient Database provided the data for analysis. Diagnosis of sepsis and severity of illness levels were based on All Patient Refined Diagnosis-Related Groups of 720: Septicemia and Disseminated Infections. Teaching hospital status was based on presence of training programs. Statistical analysis was conducted using STATA 12.1 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX). Results: Weighted analysis revealed 17,461 patients with sepsis-9982 in teaching and 7479 in nonteaching hospitals. When comparing all patients, length of stay (8.2 vs. 4.8, P < 0.001), number of procedures received (2.03 vs. 0.87, P < 0.001), mortality (4.7% vs. 1.6%, P < 0.001), costs per day ($ 2326 vs. $ 1736, P < 0.001) and total costs ($ 20,428 vs. $ 7960, P < 0.001) were higher in teaching hospitals. Even when stratified by severity classes, length of stay, number of procedures received and total costs were higher in teaching hospitals with no difference in mortality. Conclusions: Our study suggested that teaching hospitals provide pediatric inpatient care for sepsis at greater costs and resource utilization without a clear improvement in overall mortality rates in comparison with nonteaching hospitals.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Huang, H. B., M. X. Guo, N. N. Liu, C. Zhao, …., Xuejun Wang, C. E. Zhang, & J. B. Liu. (2017). Bilirubin neurotoxicity is associated with proteasome inhibition. Cell Death & Disease, 8, 12.

The molecular mechanism underlying bilirubin neurotoxicity remains obscure. Ubiquitin-proteasome system-mediated proteolysis is pivotal to virtually all cellular processes and cell survival. Here we report for the first time that bilirubin at a clinically relevant elevated level impairs proteasomal function via inhibiting both the 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (USP14 and UCHL5) and the chymotrypsin-like (CT-like) peptidase activity of 20S proteasomes, thereby contributing to bilirubin neurotoxicity. This is supported by multiple lines of evidence. First, sera from patients with hyperbilirubinemia were able to inhibit the peptidase activity of purified 20S proteasome in vitro in a bilirubin concentration-dependent manner; meanwhile, the blood cells of these patients showed significantly increased levels of ubiquitinated proteins (Ub-prs), consistent with proteasome inhibition. Second, intracerebroventricular injection to adult rats or intraperitoneal injections to neonatal rats of bilirubin-induced neural accumulation of Ub-prs, concurrent with other neural pathology; and brain malfunction and pathology induced by neonatal exposure to hyperbilirubinemia were detectable in the rats during their adulthood. Third, in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons, bilirubin strikingly induced Ub-pr accumulation before the activation of cell death pathway becomes discernible. Finally, bilirubin in vitro directly inhibited both the deubiquitination activity of proteasome-associated USP14 and UCHL5 and the CT-like peptidase activity of purified 20S proteasomes, in a dose-dependent manner. Hence, this study has discovered that increased bilirubin at a clinically achievable level can act as a proteasome inhibitor via targeting the 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (DUBs) and, perhaps to a less extent, the 20S proteasome, identifying a novel mechanism for bilirubin neurotoxicity.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Jenks, Christopher J. (2017). The semiotics of learning Korean at home: an ecological autoethnographic perspective. International Journal of Bilingual Education & Bilingualism, 20(6), 688-703.

This autoethnographic study examines how I re-learn Korean in, and through, interactions with family members at home. The analysis, which is informed by language ecology and sociocultural concepts of development, shows how semiotic and human resources, including material objects and more proficient speakers, play a mediating role in how I deal with the social and linguistic challenges of re-learning Korean. My findings uncover how temporally displaced events are interconnected and demonstrate that language learning can follow a non-linear trajectory. The paper ends with a number of methodological observations regarding the benefits of investigating language learning from an ecological, autoethnographic perspective.

English Department.

 

Kyoung Hag, Lee, Jun Jung Sim, Kim Yi Jin, Roh Soonhee, Moon Sung Seek, Bukonda Ngoyi, & Hines Lisa. (2017). Mental Health, Substance Abuse, and Suicide Among Homeless Adults. Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work, 14(4), 229-242.

This study explored the role of mental health and substance abuse problems on the suicidal ideation and suicide attempts of 156 homeless adults. The logistic regression results indicated that homeless adults with anxiety were significantly more likely than those without anxiety to have both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Also, homeless adults with drug abuse were significantly more likely than those without drug abuse to have suicidal ideation. The study suggests that to reduce the suicide of the homeless, case managers need to screen mental health and substance abuse issues and to provide appropriate treatment services at homeless shelters.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Lamichhane, SujanJordan A. Anderson, T. Vierhout, T. Remund, Hongli Sun, & P. Kelly. (2017). Polytetrafluoroethylene topographies determine the adhesion, activation, and foreign body giant cell formation of macrophages. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 105(9), 2441-2450.

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is one of the commonly used materials in making various cardiovascular implants. However, the success rates of these implants in several occasions are hindered by unwanted immune responses from immune cells, such as macrophages. In this study, we investigated the response of macrophages with different structures (flat, expanded, and electrospun) of PTFE having varied surface topographies: smooth planar surface (flat PTFE), node-fibrils (ePTFE), and randomly oriented microfibers (electrospun PTFE). The electrospun PTFE showed the least adhesion of macrophages. Also, the morphology of macrophages adhered on electrospun PTFE exhibited minimal activation. The macrophage pro-inflammatory cytokine secretions showed that the lowest level of TNF- was produced on electrospun PTFE whereas IP-10 was produced in lowest levels on expanded PTFE (ePTFE). The production of IL-6 and MCP-1 cytokines was also dependent on the structure of PTFE that the macrophages interacted with, but in a time-dependent manner. Confocal microscopy images taken at 7, 14, and 21 days showed that the electrospun PTFE resulted in the lowest percentage of macrophage fusion, thus indicating the least possible chance of foreign body giant cell (FBGC) formation. Therefore, this study showed that electrospun PTFE with randomly oriented microfibers can provide reduced adhesion, activation, and FBGC formation of macrophages compared to the smooth and planar surface of flat PTFE and node-fibril structured surface of ePTFE. (C) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Biomedical Engineering Department, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Lan, X. Y., C. Zhao, X. Chen, …., Xuejun Wang, X. P. Shi, & J. B. Liu. (2017). Platinum pyrithione induces apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia cells resistant to imatinib via DUB inhibition-dependent caspase activation and Bcr-Abl downregulation. Cell Death & Disease, 8, 12.

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is characterized by the chimeric tyrosine kinase Bcr-Abl. T315I Bcr-Abl is the most notorious point mutation to elicit acquired resistance to imatinib (IM), leading to poor prognosis. Therefore, it is urgent to search for additional approaches and targeting strategies to overcome IM resistance. We recently reported that platinum pyrithione (PtPT) potently inhibits the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) via targeting the 26 S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (DUBs), without effecting on the 20 S proteasome. Here we further report that (i) PtPT induces apoptosis in Bcr-Abl wild-type and Bcr-Abl-T315I mutation cells including the primary mononuclear cells from CML patients clinically resistant to IM, as well as inhibits the growth of IM-resistant Bcr-Abl-T315I xenografts in vivo; (ii) PtPT downregulates Bcr-Abl level through restraining Bcr-Abl transcription, and decreasing Bcr-Abl protein mediated by DUBs inhibition-induced caspase activation; (iii) UPS inhibition is required for PtPT-induced caspase activation and cell apoptosis. These findings support that PtPT overcomes IM resistance through both Bcr-Abl-dependent and -independent mechanisms. We conclude that PtPT can be a lead compound for further drug development to overcome imatinib resistance in CML patients.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Lane, David C. (2017). Understanding body modification: A process-based framework.Sociology Compass, 11(7), 15.

This manuscript evaluates existing literature on body modification. Prior research has focused on the modification itself, either the motivation for attaining it or the meanings behind it from the perspective of the wearer. Considering these prior findings, scholars have neglected to examine how body modifications are the outcome of a complex social process. This manuscript rectifies these weaknesses by addressing the field of body modification through the framework of cultural production. This shifts the focus from the outcome of a social process, the modification, to an analysis of the processes by which modifications are produced. By examining these processes, a more coherent theoretical understanding can be developed.

Social Behavior Department.

 

Lee, K. H., J. S. Jun, Y. J. Kim, Soonhee Roh, S. S. Moon, N. Bukonda, & L. Hines. (2017). Mental Health, Substance Abuse, and Suicide Among Homeless Adults. Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work, 14(4), 229-242.

This study explored the role of mental health and substance abuse problems on the suicidal ideation and suicide attempts of 156 homeless adults. The logistic regression results indicated that homeless adults with anxiety were significantly more likely than those without anxiety to have both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Also, homeless adults with drug abuse were significantly more likely than those without drug abuse to have suicidal ideation. The study suggests that to reduce the suicide of the homeless, case managers need to screen mental health and substance abuse issues and to provide appropriate treatment services at homeless shelters.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Louw, A., K. Zimney, M. R. Landers, M. Luttrell, Bob Clair, & J. Mills. (2016). A randomised controlled trial of ‘clockwise’ ultrasound for low back pain. South African Journal of Physiotherapy, 72(1), 7.

To examine how the choice of words explaining ultrasound (US) may influence the outcome of physiotherapy treatment for low back pain (LBP). Methods: Sixty-seven patients with LBP < 3 months were randomly allocated to one of three groups – traditional education about US (control group [CG]), inflated education about US (experimental group [EG]) or extra-inflated education about US (extra-experimental group [EEG]). Each patient received the exact same application of US that has shown clinical efficacy for LBP (1.5 Watts/cm(2) for 10 minutes at 1 Megahertz, pulsed 20% over a 20 cm(2) area), but received different explanations (CG, EG or EEG). Before and immediately after US, measurements of LBP and leg pain (numeric rating scale), lumbar flexion (distance to floor) and straight leg raise (SLR) (inclinometer) were taken. Statistical analysis consisted of mixedfactorial analyses of variance and chi-square analyses to measure differences between the three groups, as well as meeting or exceeding minimal detectable changes (MDCs) for pain, lumbar flexion and SLR. Results: Both EG and EEG groups showed a statistically significant improvement for SLR (p < 0.0001), while the CG did not. The EEG group participants were 4.4 times (95% confidence interval: 1.1 to 17.5) more likely to improve beyond the MDC than the CG. No significant differences were found between the groups for LBP, leg pain or lumbar flexion. Conclusion: The choice of words when applying a treatment in physiotherapy can alter the efficacy of the treatment.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Mackenzie, Lynette, Susan Coppola, Liliana Alvarez, …., Moses N. Ikiugu, Zdenka Pihlar, Sarinya Sriphetcharawut, Sue Baptiste, & Richard Ledgerd. (2017). International occupational therapy research priorities: A Delphi study. OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health, 37(2), 72-81.

Occupational therapy is a global profession represented by the World Federation of Occupational Therapists (WFOT). International research priorities are needed for strategic guidance on global occupational therapy practice. The objective of this study was to develop international research priorities to reflect global occupational therapy practice. A Delphi study using three rounds of electronic surveys, distributed to WFOT member organizations and WFOT accredited universities, was conducted. Data were analyzed after each round, and priorities were presented for rating and ranking in order of importance. Forty-six (53%) out of 87 WFOT member countries participated in the Delphi process. Eight research priorities were confirmed by the final electronic survey round. Differences were observed in rankings given by member organizations and university respondents. Despite attrition at Round 3, the final research priorities will help to focus research efforts in occupational therapy globally. Follow-up research is needed to determine how the research priorities are being adopted internationally. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

School of Health Sciences.

 

May, Philip A., Barbara Tabachnick, Julie M. Hasken, Anna-Susan Marais, …., & H. Eugene Hoyme. (2017). Who is most affected by prenatal alcohol exposure: Boys or girls?Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 177, 258-267.

To examine outcomes among boys and girls that are associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. Methods: Boys and girls with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and randomly-selected controls were compared on a variety of physical and neurobehavioral traits. Results: Sex ratios indicated that heavy maternal binge drinking may have significantly diminished viability to birth and survival of boys postpartum more than girls by age seven. Case control comparisons of a variety of physical and neurobehavioral traits at age seven indicate that both sexes were affected similarly for a majority of variables. However, alcohol-exposed girls had significantly more dysmorphology overall than boys and performed significantly worse on non-verbal IQ tests than males. A three-step sequential regression analysis, controlling for multiple covariates, further indicated that dysmorphology among girls was significantly more associated with five maternal drinking variables and three distal maternal risk factors. However, the overall model, which included five associated neurobehavioral measures at step three, was not significant (p=0.09, two-tailed test). A separate sequential logistic regression analysis of predictors of a FASD diagnosis, however, indicated significantly more negative outcomes overall for girls than boys (Nagelkerke R2=0.42 for boys and 0.54 for girls, z=-2.9, p=0.004).<bold>Conclusion: </bold>Boys and girls had mostly similar outcomes when prenatal alcohol exposure was linked to poor physical and neurocognitive development. Nevertheless, sex ratios implicate lower viability and survival of males by first grade, and girls have more dysmorphology and neurocognitive impairment than boys resulting in a higher probability of a FASD diagnosis.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Mayer, Aaron J.Matthew P. Sayre, & J. Jennings. (2017). Coming Together to Toast and Feed the Dead in the Cotahuasi Valley of Peru. Ethnobiology Letters, 8(1), 46-53.

There has been little discussion on the macrobotanical remains from Andean Middle Horizon sites. In this article, we present macrobotanical data from archaeological excavations at Tenahaha, a small mortuary center in the Cotahuasi Valley of Peru. While the people who attended Tenahaha may not have definitively been Wari, evidence suggests that they were likely influenced by the Wari. Our analysis revealed new insights into site use and the distribution of botanical staples during the Andean past. People used plants differently across time and how people chose to utilize plant resources from their environment provides insights into cultural practices. The local plant staples of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) and maize (Zea mays) were found in high densities in concentrated areas of the site. In addition, local plants such as Echinocactus (Echinocactus sp.), tubers (e.g., Solanum sp.), and the Peruvian peppertree (Schinus molle) were recovered in abundance. These remains provide insights into past public ceremonies and how the inhabitants used different areas of the site. The occurrence of sprouted maize and the fruit of peppertree in certain areas of the site seems to indicate ritual and/or ceremonial use of chicha during the Middle Horizon (AD 600-1050). The analysis of these macrobotanical remains provides a glimpse into the importance placed on bringing people together to commemorate the dead within the ancient Andes.

Social Behavior Department.

 

Mei, H.G. J. WangG. Yang, & D. M. Mei. (2017). The impact of neutral impurity concentration on charge drift mobility in n-type germanium. Journal of Instrumentation, 12, 14.

The impact of neutral impurity scattering of electrons on the charge drift mobility in high purity n-type germanium crystals at 77Kelvin is investigated. We calculated the contributions from ionized impurity scattering, lattice scattering, and neutral impurity scattering to the total charge drift mobility using theoretical models. The experimental data such as charge carrier concentration, mobility and resistivity are measured by Hall Effect system at 77Kelvin. The neutral impurity concentration is derived from the Matthiessen’s rule using the measured Hall mobility and ionized impurity concentration. The radial distribution of the neutral impurity concentration in the self-grown crystals is determined. Consequently, we demonstrated that neutral impurity scattering is a significant contribution to the charge drift mobility, which has a dependence on the concentration of neutral impurities in high purity n-type germanium crystal.

Physics Department.

 

Messerli, Shanta M.Mariah M. HoffmanEttienne Z. Gnimpieba, & Ratan D. Bhardwaj. (2017). Therapeutic Targeting of PTK7 is Cytotoxic in Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumors. Molecular Cancer Research, 15(8), 973-983.

Novel discoveries involving the evaluation of potential therapeutics are based on newly identified molecular targets for atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT), which are the most common form of infantile brain tumors. Central nervous system ATRTs are rare, aggressive, and fast growing tumors of the brain and spinal cord and carry a very poor prognosis. Currently, the standard of care for ATRT patients is based on surgical resection followed by systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which result in severe side effects. As protein tyrosine kinases have proven to be actionable targets that reduce tumor growth in a number of cancers, we examined how inhibiting tyrosine kinases affected ATRT tumor growth. Here, we examine the therapeutic efficacy of the broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor vatalanib in the treatment of ATRT. Vatalanib significantly reduced the w growth of ATRT tumor cell lines, both in two-dimensional cell culture and in three-dimensional cell culture using a spheroid model. As vatalanib had a remarkable effect on the growth of ATRT, we decided to use a transcriptomic approach to therapy by examining new actionable targets, such as tyrosine kinases. Next-generation RNA-sequencing and NanoString data analysis showed a significant increase in PTK7 RNA expression levels in ATRT tumors. Inhibition of PTK7 by siRNA treatment significantly decreases the viability of ATRT patient-derived tumor cell lines.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Myers, Michael M., Amy J. Elliott, Hein J. Odendaal, Larry Burd, Jyoti Angal, Coen Groenewald, James David Nugent, Joel S. Yang, Joseph R. Isler, Kim A. Dukes, Fay Robinson, William P. Fifer, & Pass Network. (2017). Cardiorespiratory physiology in the safe passage study: protocol, methods and normative values in unexposed infants. Acta Paediatrica, 106(8), 1260-1272.

The Safe Passage Study, conducted by the Prenatal Alcohol in SIDS and Stillbirth Network, is investigating contributions of prenatal alcohol exposure to foetal and infant demise. This current report presents physiological data from full-term infants with no prenatal exposure to alcohol or maternal smoking.<bold>Methods: </bold>Data are from 666 infants from the Northern Plains (North and South Dakota) and South Africa. A standardised protocol assessed cardiorespiratory function during baseline and head-up tilts shortly after birth and at one month of age.<bold>Results: </bold>Analyses revealed significant increases in heart rate and decreases in BP from the newborn to one-month time period as well as diminished heart rate responses to head-up tilt in one-month-old infants.<bold>Conclusion: </bold>The Safe Passage Study was successful in characterising physiology in a large number of infants at sites known to have elevated risks for SIDS. Results demonstrate that even with low prenatal adverse exposures, there are significant changes in cardiorespiratory function as infants enter the window of increased risk for SIDS.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Pickett, Andrew C., & George B. Cunningham. (2017). Creating Inclusive Physical Activity Spaces: The Case of Body-Positive Yoga. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 88(3), 329-338.

Within the modern cultural climate, those in larger bodies face high levels of weight stigma, particularly in sport and physical activity spaces, which serves as a strong barrier to their participation. However, given the strong link between physical activity and general health and well-being for participants, it is important to explore strategies that encourage participation of these individuals. Thus, the current research examined strategies that physical activity instructors use to develop inclusive exercise spaces for all body sizes.<bold>Method: </bold>This study employed a series of semistructured qualitative interviews (n = 9) with instructors of body-inclusive yoga classes to explore the ways in which they encourage participation for those in larger bodies.<bold>Results: </bold>Emergent themes from the current study suggested support for 6 factors for creating body-inclusive physical activity spaces: authentic leadership, a culture of inclusion, a focus on health, inclusive language, leader social activism, and a sense of community.<bold>Conclusion: </bold>This study revealed that leaders must intentionally cultivate inclusion in their spaces to encourage those in nonconforming bodies to participate. These findings have important health and management implications for the sport and physical activity context and provide a basic outline of practical strategies that practitioners can use to foster inclusion in their spaces.

School of Education.

 

Puckett, Jae A., Peter Cleary, Kinton Rossman, Brian Mustanski, & Michael E. Newcomb. (2017). Barriers to gender-affirming care for transgender and gender nonconforming individuals. Sexuality Research & Social Policy: A Journal of the NSRC.

Gender-affirming care, including hormone therapy, ‘top’ (e.g., chest reconstruction surgery) and ‘bottom’ (e.g., vaginoplasty, phalloplasty, metoidioplasty, etc.) surgeries, and puberty blockers, is an efficacious treatment of gender dysphoria for transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) individuals. However, many TGNC people encounter significant barriers in accessing gender-affirming care, which we detail via results from on online study. Participants included 256 TGNC individuals (78.9% White, ages 16–73, M age = 28.4). Among participants, 61.3% were receiving hormone therapy, 22.7% had undergone top surgery, and 5.5% had undergone bottom surgery. Open-ended responses (n = 201) were thematically analyzed and common barriers included finances and insurance issues, a lack of service availability, and fears or worries. Participants reported various systemic issues and incidents of bias within medical and mental health fields, as well as a lack of medical provider awareness and education. Other themes were interpersonal barriers (e.g., fears of rejection); age and need of parental consent for minors; other medical issues; and a lack of information about how to acquire care. These findings can be utilized to educate professionals in medical and mental health fields about barriers their TGNC patients may encounter in receiving affirming care and suggest a number of ways to improve access to these services. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Psychology Department.

 

Sandin, B., Jeffrey S. Simons, R. M. Valiente, Raluca M. Simons, & P. Chorot. (2017). Psychometric properties of the spanish version of The Distress Tolerance Scale and its relationship with personality and psychopathological symptoms. Psicothema, 29(3), 421-428.

Distress tolerance is defined as the individual’s capacity to experience and withstand negative psychological states. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and the factor structure of the Spanish version of the Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS) and to test its relationship with psychopathological symptoms and personality. Method: A sample of 650 participants completed the DTS, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised Abbreviated) (EPQR-A), and the Symptom Assessment-45 Questionnaire (SA-45). Results: The DTS showed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) and adequate temporal stability (7-month test-retest). Results of a confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized 4-factor structure (tolerance, appraisal, absorption, and regulation) that load onto a higher-order general factor. A structural equation model (SEM) was tested to provide evidence of construct validity. Neuroticism was inversely associated with distress tolerance, and distress tolerance partially mediated the effects of neuroticism on current symptoms. Results indicated that the Spanish DTS mediated associations between personality traits and current psychiatric symptoms. Conclusions: Results support the use of this version as a useful tool for assessing distress tolerance in clinical and research settings in Spanish-speaking countries. In addition, we found that distress tolerance may form a link between neuroticism and psychopathology.

Psychology Department.

 

Simons, Raluca M.Austin M. HahnJeffrey S. Simons, & Hanako Murase. (2017). Emotion dysregulation and peer drinking norms uniquely predict alcohol-related problems via motives. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 177, 54-58.

This study examined the relationships between emotion dysregulation, peer drinking norms, drinking motives, and alcohol-related outcomes among 435 college students. We examined the mediating roles of drinking motives when predicting alcohol consumption and related problems from the subscales of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz and Roemer, 2004) via negative and positive reinforcement models. First, we hypothesized that individuals who lack in emotion regulation strategies or have difficulties in accepting negative emotions are more likely to drink to cope. Additionally, we hypothesized that individuals who act impulsively or become distracted when upset as well as those with higher peer drinking norms are more likely to drink for social and enhancement motives. The results of the path model indicated that limited access to emotion regulation strategies significantly predicted alcohol-related problems via both depression and anxiety coping motives, but did not predict alcohol consumption. Nonacceptance of emotional responses was not significantly associated with coping motives. Impulsivity had a significant direct relationship with alcohol problems. Difficulty in engaging in goal-directed behaviors predicted both enhancement and social motives, but only enhancement motives in turn predicted consumption. Norms indirectly predicted problems via enhancement motives and consumption. The results indicated that using alcohol to reduce negative or to increase positive emotions increases alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Overall, results advance our understanding of the mechanisms of increased alcohol use and problems among college students.

Psychology Department.

 

Summers, TorrieBrandon HantenWarren Peterson, & Brian Burrell. (2017). Endocannabinoids Have Opposing Effects On Behavioral Responses To Nociceptive And Non-nociceptive Stimuli. Scientific Reports, 7, 9.

The endocannabinoid system is thought to modulate nociceptive signaling making it a potential therapeutic target for treating pain. However, there is evidence that endocannabinoids have both pro- and anti-nociceptive effects. In previous studies using Hirudo verbana (the medicinal leech), endocannabinoids were found to depress nociceptive synapses, but enhance non-nociceptive synapses. Here we examined whether endocannabinoids have similar bidirectional effects on behavioral responses to nociceptive vs. non-nociceptive stimuli in vivo. Hirudo were injected with either the 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) or anandamide and tested for changes in response to nociceptive and non-nociceptive stimuli. Both endocannabinoids enhanced responses to non-nociceptive stimuli and reduced responses to nociceptive stimuli. These pro- and anti-nociceptive effects were blocked by co-injection of a TRPV channel inhibitor, which are thought to function as an endocannabinoid receptor. In experiments to determine the effects of endocannabinoids on animals that had undergone injury-induced sensitization, 2-AG and anandamide diminished sensitization to nociceptive stimuli although the effects of 2-AG were longer lasting. Sensitized responses to non-nociceptive stimuli were unaffected 2-AG or anandamide. These results provide evidence that endocannabinoids can have opposing effects on nociceptive vs. non-nociceptive pathways and suggest that cannabinoid-based therapies may be more appropriate for treating pain disorders in which hyperalgesia and not allodynia is the primary symptom.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Suttie, M., L. Wetherill, S. W. Jacobson, J. L. Jacobson, H. Eugene Hoyme, E. R. Sowell, C. Coles, J. R. Wozniak, E. P. Riley, K. L. Jones, T. Foroud, P. Hammond, & Cifasd. (2017). Facial Curvature Detects and Explicates Ethnic Differences in Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure. Alcoholism-Clinical and Experimental Research, 41(8), 1471-1483.

Our objective is to help clinicians detect the facial effects of prenatal alcohol exposure by developing computer-based tools for screening facial form. MethodsAll 415 individuals considered were evaluated by expert dysmorphologists and categorized as (i) healthy control (HC), (ii) fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), or (iii) heavily prenatally alcohol exposed (HE) but not clinically diagnosable as FAS; 3D facial photographs were used to build models of facial form to support discrimination studies. Surface curvature-based delineations of facial form were introduced. Results(i) Facial growth in FAS, HE, and control subgroups is similar in both cohorts. (ii) Cohort consistency of agreement between clinical diagnosis and HC-FAS facial form classification is lower for midline facial regions and higher for nonmidline regions. (iii) Specific HC-FAS differences within and between the cohorts include: for HC, a smoother philtrum in Cape Coloured individuals; for FAS, a smoother philtrum in Caucasians; for control-FAS philtrum difference, greater homogeneity in Caucasians; for control-FAS face difference, greater homogeneity in Cape Coloured individuals. (iv) Curvature changes in facial profile induced by prenatal alcohol exposure are more homogeneous and greater in Cape Coloureds than in Caucasians. (v) The Caucasian HE subset divides into clusters with control-like and FAS-like facial dysmorphism. The Cape Coloured HE subset is similarly divided for nonmidline facial regions but not clearly for midline structures. (vi) The Cape Coloured HE subset with control-like facial dysmorphism shows orbital hypertelorism. ConclusionsFacial curvature assists the recognition of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and helps explain why different facial regions result in inconsistent control-FAS discrimination rates in disparate ethnic groups. Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure can give rise to orbital hypertelorism, supporting a long-standing suggestion that prenatal alcohol exposure at a particular time causes increased separation of the brain hemispheres with a concomitant increase in orbital separation.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Upadhyay, N., H. Chen, O. Mgbere, Vinod S. Bhatara, & R. R. Aparasu. (2017). The Impact of Pharmacotherapy on Substance Use in Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Variations Across Subtypes. Substance Use & Misuse, 52(10), 1266-1274.

The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) pharmacotherapy on the risk of substance use within each ADHD subtype. Methods: The study used data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent supplement, a nationally representative sample of US adolescents (ages 13-18) collected from 6,483 adolescent-parent interviews conducted between 2001 and 2004. ADHD was categorized into three subtypes: ADHD-predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (ADHD-H); ADHD-predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I); and ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria. Substance use information was obtained from the adolescents’ interview. The impact of ADHD-pharmacotherapy on substance use was examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results: Among the adolescents with ADHD, ADHD pharmacotherapy significantly associated with reduced risk of substance use (OR = 0.53, 95% CI [0.31-0.90]); with regards to ADHD subtypes, ADHD pharmacotherapy is negatively associated with substance use in adolescents with ADHD-C (OR = 0.53, 95% CI [0.24-0.97]) and those with ADHD-H (OR = 0.23, 95% CI [0.07-0.78]), but it did not have statistically significant effect on risk of substance use in those with ADHD-I subtype (OR = 0.49, 95% CI [0.17-1.39]). Among the group who never received ADHD-pharmacotherapy before the interview, individuals with ADHD-H and ADHD-C had a similar risk of substance use compared to adolescents with ADHD-I (ADHD-C: OR= 1.5, 95% CI [0.77-2.95] and ADHD-H: OR= 2.10, 95% CI [0.87-4.95]). Conclusions: Adolescents with ADHD were equally susceptible to future substance use disregard their ADHD subtypes. Receipt of pharmacotherapy could decrease risk of substance use in adolescentswith ADHD-H and ADHD-C, but it may not affect risk of substance use among individuals with ADHD-I.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Wei, W. Z., & D. M. Mei. (2017). Average energy expended per e-h pair for germanium-based dark matter experiments. Journal of Instrumentation, 12, 12.

We report a new method, which allows us to derive the temperature dependence of the average energy expended per electron-hole (e-h) pair, epsilon, for germanium detectors. Applying energy partition mechanism in ionization for a given energy deposition, the Fano factor and the value of epsilon can be determined separately. Subsequently, we illustrate the variation of epsilon as a function of temperature. The impact of epsilon on the energy threshold for germanium detectors at a given temperature is evaluated.

Physics Department.

 

Wu, Penglong, X. Yuan, F. Q. Li, J. H. Zhang, W. Zhu, M. Wei, J. B. Li, & Xuejun Wang. (2017). Myocardial Upregulation of Cathepsin D by Ischemic Heart Disease Promotes Autophagic Flux and Protects Against Cardiac Remodeling and Heart Failure.Circulation-Heart Failure, 10(7), 28.

Lysosomal dysfunction is implicated in human heart failure for which ischemic heart disease is the leading cause. Altered myocardial expression of CTSD (cathepsin D), a major lysosomal protease, was observed in human heart failure, but its pathophysiological significance has not been determined. METHODS AND RESULTS: Western blot analyses revealed an increase in the precursor but not the mature form of CTSD in myocardial samples from explanted human failing hearts with ischemic heart disease, which is recapitulated in chronic myocardial infarction produced via coronary artery ligation in Ctsd(+/+) but not Ctsd(+/-) mice. Mice deficient of Ctsd displayed impaired myocardial autophagosome removal, reduced autophagic flux, and restrictive cardiomyopathy. After induction of myocardial infarction, weekly serial echocardiography detected earlier occurrence of left ventricle chamber dilatation, greater decreases in ejection fraction and fractional shortening, and lesser wall thickening throughout the first 4 weeks; pressure-volume relationship analyses at 4 weeks revealed greater decreases in systolic and diastolic functions, stroke work, stroke volume, and cardiac output; greater increases in the ventricular weight to body weight and the lung weight to body weight ratios and larger scar size were also detected in Ctsd(+/-) mice compared with Ctsd(+/+) mice. Significant increases of myocardial autophagic flux detected at 1 and 4 weeks after induction of myocardial infarction in the Ctsd(+/+) mice were diminished in the Ctsd(+/-) mice. CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial CTSD upregulation induced by myocardial infarction protects against cardiac remodeling and malfunction, which is at least in part through promoting myocardial autophagic flux.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Yang, BoWei Lv, & Ying Deng. (2017). Drug loaded poly(glycerol sebacate) as a local drug delivery system for the treatment of periodontal disease. Rsc Advances, 7(59), 37426-37435.

Periodontal disease is a widely distributed disease worldwide. It affects life quality and causes many health problems. The cause of periodontal disease is bacterial infection. The key to treating periodontal disease is killing bacteria and thus using a local antibiotic agent is a good way of treating periodontal disease. In our work, we loaded berberine and chlorhexidine into biodegradable elastomer poly(glycerol-sebacate) (PGS) using a swell drug loading method. Drug(s) showed sustained release properties in vitro. Mechanical testing showed that neither drug loading method nor loaded drug(s) changed the Young’s modulus and maximum strain of PGS. Loaded drugs changed the surface wettability and cell compatibility. The general antimicrobial test showed that chlorhexidine loaded PGS groups were good against typical Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Berberine loaded PGS groups showed good antibacterial ability against periodontal disease pathogens. These results indicate that our drug loaded PGS can be used in the treatment of periodontal disease.

Biomedical Engineering Department, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Posted by: tadeterman | April 19, 2017

April 2017

Boullata, J. I., A. L. Carrera, …., Carol McGinnis, J. J. Wessel, S. Bajpai, M. L. Beebe, T. J. Kinn, M. G. Klang, L. Lord, K. Martin, C. Pompeii-Wolfe, J. Sullivan, A. Wood, A. Malone, P. Guenter, & Nutr Amer Soc Parenteral Enteral. (2017). ASPEN Safe Practices for Enteral Nutrition Therapy. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 41(1), 15-103.

Enteral nutrition (EN) is a valuable clinical intervention for patients of all ages in a variety of care settings. Along with its many outcome benefits come the potential for adverse effects. These safety issues are the result of clinical complications and of process-related errors. The latter can occur at any step from patient assessment, prescribing, and order review, to product selection, labeling, and administration. To maximize the benefits of EN while minimizing adverse events requires that a systematic approach of care be in place. This includes open communication, standardization, and incorporation of best practices into the EN process. This document provides recommendations based on the available evidence and expert consensus for safe practices, across each step of the process, for all those involved in caring for patients receiving EN.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Boyd, T. K., C. A. Wright, H. J. Odendaal, Amy J. Elliott, M. A. Sens, R. D. Folkerth, D. J. Roberts, H. C. Kinney, & Pass Network. (2017). The Stillbirth Classification System for the Safe Passage Study: Incorporating Mechanism, Etiology, and Recurrence.Pediatric and Developmental Pathology, 20(2), 120-132.

Objective: Describe the classification system for assigning the cause of stillbirth in the Safe Passage Study, an international, multi-institutional, prospective analysis conducted by the NIAAA/NICHD-funded Prenatal Alcohol in SIDS and Stillbirth (PASS) Research Network. The study mission is to determine the role of prenatal alcohol and/or cigarette smoke exposure in adverse pregnancy outcomes, including stillbirth, in a high-risk cohort of 12,000 maternal/fetal dyads. Methods: The PASS Network classification system is based upon 5 “sites of origin” for cause of stillbirth, further subdivided into mechanism subcategories; both are employed to assign an ultimate cause of death. Each PASS stillbirth was assigned a cause of death and status of sporadic versus recurrent. Adjudication involved review of maternal and obstetrical records; fetal autopsy and placental findings; and required complete consensus in each case. Two published classification systems, ie, INCODE and ReCoDe, were used for comparison. Results: Causes of stillbirth classified were fetal (26%), placental (53%), external (5%), and undetermined (16%). Nine cases (47%) had placental causes of death due to maternal disorders that carry recurrence risks. There was full agreement for cause of death across the 3 classification systems in 26% of cases and partial agreement among them in 42% of cases. Conclusions: The proposed PASS schema employs a user-friendly classification that provides comparable information to previously published systems. Advantages include its simplicity, mechanistic formulations, tight clinicopathologic integration, provision for an undetermined category, and its wide applicability to perinatal mortality review boards with access to information routinely collected during clinicopathologic evaluations.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Cheng, Li-Ji, Xin-Xia Fan, Yi-Peng Li, Qiao-Hua Wei, Feng-Rong Dai, Zhong-Ning Chen, & Zhenqiang Wang. (2017). Engineering solid-state porosity of synthetic supercontainers via modification of exo-cavities. Inorganic Chemistry Communications, 78, 61-64.

Two new coordination supercontainers have been successfully isolated from the self-assembly reactions of the container precursor p -phenylsulfonylcalix [4]arene, Ni(II) or Co(II) ion, and diphenylmethane-4,4′-dicarboxylic acid. Crystal structure analysis revealed that these two coordination supercontainers possess a similar endo cavity and two deeper exo cavities compared to the related supercontainers based on p – tert -butylsulfonylcalix [4]arene. Gas and vapor adsorption studies indicated that the new compounds are permanently porous and show much better CO 2 /O 2 and CO 2 /N 2 selectivity and higher vapor adsorption than the tert -butyl analogues.

Chemistry Department.

 

Cross, Suzanne L., Drywater-Whitekiller, Virginia, Holder, Lea Ann, Norris, Debra, Caringi, James, & Trautman, Ashley. (2015). NCWWI Tribal Traineeship Programs: Promoting Diversity in the Child Welfare Workforce. Journal of Social Work Education, 51(/), S225-S238.

Twelve universities and one American Indian (AI) tribal college were selected for the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute’s 5-year stipend traineeship program. These tribal traineeships were designed to provide social work child welfare education for tribal and nontribal students. Twenty-two AI students and 58 nontribal students completed a bachelor or master’s of social work degree. The students’ field placements were in tribal agencies or public agencies that served a segment of the AI population. These programs were enhanced through the use of valuable relationships (i.e., partnerships, mentorships, allies), and cultural competence was a key aspect of the students’ education. The students’ education was enriched with a specific child welfare curriculum, cultural teachings, tribal traineeship collaborations, and tribal community events.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Disrud, B., Yulun Han, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2017). Molecular dynamics of laser-assisted decomposition of unstable molecules at the surface of carbon nanotubes: case study of CH2(NO2)(2) on CNT(4,0). Molecular Physics, 115(5), 674-682.

In this study, photoreactions of the dinitromethane molecule noncovalently adsorbed on the (4, 0) carbon nanotube (CNT) have been investigated by time-dependent, excited-state molecular dynamics, which takes into account simultaneous evolution of electronic excitation and nuclear positions under periodic optical excitations. It is found that desorption of molecular adsorbate from CNT surface can be controlled by UV-vis photoexcitations. In addition, it is shown that the presence of CNT substrate facilitates photodecomposition of the adsorbate molecule, related to optically controlled explosion. This model demonstrates potential of photoinduced charge transfer between the adsorbate and substrate, which can affect efficiency of desorption and decomposition reactions. This process has a potential use as a remote trigger for larger scale detonations, or as a mechanism for cleaning’ CNTs of unwanted functionalisation.

Chemistry Department.

 

Ferguson, Tanner J., Swan, Russell, Sudhagoni, Ramu, & Berdahl, John P. (2017). Microbypass stent implantation with cataract extraction and endocyclophotocoagulation versus microbypass stent with cataract extraction for glaucoma. Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery, 43(3), 377-382.

Purpose To compare the outcomes of combined microbypass stent implantation, cataract extraction, and endocyclophotocoagulation (ECP) with those of implantation of the same microbypass stent with concomitant cataract surgery in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Setting Private Practice, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA. Design Retrospective consecutive case series. Methods Patients from January 2015 to August 2016 were included. The study group comprised eyes that had implantation of a microbypass stent in combination with cataract extraction and ECP. To compare outcomes, a control group of eyes with similar baseline characteristics that had implantation of a stent in combination with cataract surgery was established. Data were collected preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 day, 1 week, and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Data included intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of glaucoma medications. Results The mean preoperative IOP was 21.49 mm Hg ± 9.56 (SD) in the study group (51 eyes) and 20.66 ± 3.23 mm Hg in the control group (50 eyes). Twelve months postoperatively, the mean IOP reduction was 7.14 mm Hg in the study group and 4.48 mm Hg in the control group and the medication reduction was 38% (0.68) and 63% (1.06), respectively. Conclusions Patients who had implantation of the microbypass stent in combination with cataract surgery and ECP had significantly better IOP reduction than those who did not have ECP. The combination procedure was also effective in patients with severe OAG.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Gallivan, J. P., B. M. Stewart, Lee A. Baugh, D. M. Wolpert, & J. R. Flanagan. (2017). Rapid Automatic Motor Encoding of Competing Reach Options. Cell Reports, 18(7), 1619-1626.

Mounting neural evidence suggests that, in situations in which there are multiple potential targets for action, the brain prepares, in parallel, competing movements associated with these targets, prior to implementing one of them. Central to this interpretation is the idea that competing viewed targets, prior to selection, are rapidly and automatically transformed into corresponding motor representations. Here, by applying target-specific, gradual visuomotor rotations and dissociating, unbeknownst to participants, the visual direction of potential targets from the direction of the movements required to reach the same targets, we provide direct evidence for this provocative idea. Our results offer strong empirical support for theories suggesting that competing action options are automatically represented in terms of the movements required to attain them. The rapid motor encoding of potential targets may support the fast optimization of motor costs under conditions of target uncertainty and allow the motor system to inform decisions about target selection.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Gerrish, Ed. (2017). The Effect of the Child Support Performance and Incentive Act of 1998 on Rewarded and Unrewarded Performance Goals. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 36(1), 65-+.

This paper examines the impact of the Child Support Performance and Incentive Act (CSPIA) of 1998 on child support performance measures that are rewarded financially as well as outcomes that are not rewarded. Three of the five performance measures explicitly rewarded by CSPIA are reconstructed in this analysis, as are two child support outcomes that were considered for financial rewards but were ultimately rejected. Using a panel interrupted time series model with state fixed effects and state-specific trends, this analysis finds that CSPIA had a statistically positive impact on just one rewarded performance goal, cost-effectiveness, and negatively impacted an unrewarded child support outcome-collections sent to other states. Effect sizes suggest that CSPIA had little impact on child support performance, on balance. These results provide more evidence to the ongoing debate about the ability of performance incentives to improve public sector performance. It also suggests that reforming performance systems in response to perceived problems may create new gaming responses. (C) 2016 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.

Political Science Department

 

Gnimpieba, Etienne Z.Menno S. VanDiermenShayla M. GustafsonBill Conn, & Carol M. Lushbough. (2017). Bio-TDS: bioscience query tool discovery system. Nucleic Acids Research, 45(D1), D1117-D1122.

Bioinformatics and computational biology play a critical role in bioscience and biomedical research. As researchers design their experimental projects, one major challenge is to find the most relevant bioinformatics toolkits that will lead to new knowledge discovery from their data. The Bio-TDS (Bioscience Query Tool Discovery Systems, http://biotds.org/) has been developed to assist researchers in retrieving the most applicable analytic tools by allowing them to formulate their questions as free text. The Bio-TDS is a flexible retrieval system that affords users from multiple bioscience domains (e.g. genomic, proteomic, bio-imaging) the ability to query over 12 000 analytic tool descriptions integrated from well-established, community repositories. One of the primary components of the Bio-TDS is the ontology and natural language processing workflow for annotation, curation, query processing, and evaluation. The Bio-TDS’s scientific impact was evaluated using sample questions posed by researchers retrieved from Biostars, a site focusing on biological data analysis. The Bio-TDS was compared to five similar bioscience analytic tool retrieval systems with the Bio-TDS outperforming the others in terms of relevance and completeness. The Bio-TDS offers researchers the capacity to associate their bioscience question with the most relevant computational toolsets required for the data analysis in their knowledge discovery process.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Hiller, K. M., D. Franzen, L. Lawson, …., Arleigh Trainor, D. Wald, & J. Jung. (2017). Clinical Assessment of Medical Students in the Emergency Department, a National Consensus Conference (http://westjem. com/articles/clinical-assessment-of-medical-students-in-theemergency-dep artment-a-nationalconsensus-conference.html). Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 18(1), 8.

Baisc Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Hsu, Benson S., & Sarah A. Jones-Sapienza. (2017). Air in All the Wrong Places. Pediatric Emergency Care, 33(2), 107-108.

Extraluminal air can occur through a wide variety of mechanisms. Often, the free air resides in isolated regions including the thorax, the peritoneum, or the mediastinum. We present a pediatric case where there was extensive extraluminal air simultaneously within several regions, one of which has never been reported in the literature.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Huyser, Kimberly R., Jillian Medeiros Pérez, Vickie D. Ybarra, Julia Marin Hellwege, & Lisa Sanchez. (2017). Differential influence of the great recession on political participation among race and ethnic groups. Social Science Quarterly, x(x), x-x.

Objective Our study seeks to understand the role of perceived economic stress of the Great Recession on political participation among blacks, whites, and Latinos. Methods We use the 2012 Collaborative Multi‐Racial Political Study and negative binomial regression to examine the impact of financial hardship on black, Hispanic, and white political participation. Results We find that political participation among whites is unaffected by the Great Recession and is largely motivated by political interest. Blacks are mobilized by financial hardship even after controlling for political enthusiasm and linked fate. Hispanics have the lowest level of political participation. Conclusion Overall, we conclude that the Great Recession did affect political behavior but differently across race and ethnic groups; specifically, Hispanics were least likely to politically engage if they experienced negative consequences of the Great Recession. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Political Science Department.

 

Jiang, Nan. (2017). ON THE CONVERGENCE OF beta-SCHEMES. International Journal of Numerical Analysis and Modeling, 14(1), 103-125.

Yang’s wavewise entropy inequality [19] is verified for beta-schemes which, when m = 2 and under a mild technique condition, guarantees the convergence of the schemes to the entropy solutions of convex conservation laws in one-dimensional scalar case. These schemes, constructed by S. Osher and S. Chakravarthy [13], are based on unwinding principle and use E-schemes as building blocks with simple flux limiters, without which all of them are even linearly unstable. The total variation diminishing property of these methods was established in the original work of S. Osher and S. Chakravarthy.

Mathematics Department.

 

Kaldenberg, J., & Stacy Smallfield. (2017). Training older adults with low vision to use a computer tablet: A feasibility study. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 80(2), 117-122.

Introduction: The purpose of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential use of a computer tablet as a low vision device to facilitate performance of and satisfaction with daily activities for older adults with low vision. Method: A repeated measures design was used to measure outcomes. Four older adult women with low vision completed 10 weekly sessions of group training in tablet use. The feasibility of this research method and intervention was examined by evaluating recruitment capability, data collection procedures, outcome measures, intervention procedures, resources, and preliminary responses to intervention. Results: The four participants were all women, with a mean age of 74.25 years (68-81). Visual acuity ranged from 20/160 to 20/4000. Mean change in performance and satisfaction on the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure were 3.45 and 3.65, respectively. Daily tablet use increased from 15 minutes at pretest to 3 hours at posttest to 4.5 hours at follow-up. Conclusion: Group training in computer tablet use for older adults with low vision shows promise to improve performance and satisfaction in a variety of daily activities. With appropriate resources, the research method is feasible for a larger study examining this community-based intervention for older adults with low vision.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Keifer, JoyceNeeraj K. TiwariLeah Buse, & Zhaoqing Zheng. (2017). Subunit-specific synaptic delivery of AMPA receptors by auxiliary chaperone proteins TARPγ8 and GSG1L in classical conditioning. Neuroscience Letters, 645, 53-59.

AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking has emerged as a fundamental concept for understanding mechanisms of learning and memory as well as many neurological disorders. Classical conditioning is a simple and highly conserved form of associative learning. Our studies use an ex vivo brainstem preparation in which to study cellular mechanisms underlying learning during a neural correlate of eyeblink conditioning. Two stages of AMPAR synaptic delivery underlie conditioning utilizing sequential trafficking of GluA1-containing AMPARs early in conditioning followed by replacement with GluA4 subunits later. Subunit-selective trafficking of AMPARs is poorly understood. Here, we focused on identification of auxiliary chaperone proteins that traffic AMPARs. The results show that auxiliary proteins TARPγ8 and GSG1L are colocalized with AMPARs on abducens motor neurons that generate the conditioning. Significantly, TARPγ8 was observed to chaperone GluA1-containing AMPARs during synaptic delivery early in conditioning while GSG1L chaperones GluA4 subunits later in conditioning. Interestingly, TARPγ8 remains at the membrane surface as GluA1 subunits are withdrawn and associates with GluA4 when they are delivered to synapses. These data indicate that GluA1- and GluA4-containing AMPARs are selectively chaperoned by TARPγ8 and GSG1L, respectively. Therefore, sequential subunit-selective trafficking of AMPARs during conditioning is achieved through the timing of their interactions with specific auxiliary proteins.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Lakhssassi, N., S. M. Liu, S. Bekal, …., Abdelali Barakat, & K. Meksem. (2017). Characterization of the Soluble NSF Attachment Protein gene family identifies two members involved in additive resistance to a plant pathogen. Scientific Reports, 7, 1-11.

Proteins with Tetratricopeptide-repeat (TPR) domains are encoded by large gene families and distributed in all plant lineages. In this study, the Soluble NSF-Attachment Protein (SNAP) subfamily of TPR containing proteins is characterized. In soybean, five members constitute the SNAP gene family: GmSNAP18, GmSNAP11, GmSNAP14, GmSNAP02, and GmSNAP09. Recently, GmSNAP18 has been reported to mediate resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN). Using a population of recombinant inbred lines from resistant and susceptible parents, the divergence of the SNAP gene family is analysed over time. Phylogenetic analysis of SNAP genes from 22 diverse plant species showed that SNAPs were distributed in six monophyletic clades corresponding to the major plant lineages. Conservation of the four TPR motifs in all species, including ancestral lineages, supports the hypothesis that SNAPs were duplicated and derived from a common ancestor and unique gene still present in chlorophytic algae. Syntenic analysis of regions harbouring GmSNAP genes in soybean reveals that this family expanded from segmental and tandem duplications following a tetraploidization event. qRT-PCR analysis of GmSNAPs indicates a co-regulation following SCN infection. Finally, genetic analysis demonstrates that GmSNAP11 contributes to an additive resistance to SCN. Thus, GmSNAP11 is identified as a novel minor gene conferring resistance to SCN.

Biology Department.

 

Lane, David C., & W. DeCamp. (2017). ‘SPORTS WILL KEEP ‘EM OUT OF TROUBLE.: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SUBSTANCE USE AMONG ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS. Journal of Sport and Health Research, 9(1), 41-52.

Objective: The purpose of this research is to examine cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, steroids, and other drug use among high school and college students in the state of Delaware. This builds on previous research examining the dynamics of substance use and sports participation. Methods: The data come from the Delaware High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS-HS) and the College Risk Behaviors Study (CRBS), which are used to compare athletes and non-athletes. There were 7,781 high school students from the YRBS-HS and 4,019 college students from the CRBS in the sample. Results: Findings indicate that participants in team sports at the college level are significantly more likely to use alcohol and engage in binge drinking when compared to those who do not participate in team sports, but this effect is not found in most pre-college grades and other substances use rates are similar. High school athletes are significantly less likely to use cigarettes when compared to their non-athlete peers. Conclusion: These results suggest that those who participate in team sports are more likely to drink alcohol and engage in binge drinking at the high school and university level, especially males who participate in team sports at the university level. Second, efforts to construct meaningful comparison groups, a practice that has been underemployed when examining the relationship between sports participation and substance use, reveal a more complex picture about the relationship between substance use and participation in team sports.

Social Behavior Department.

 

Lawler, Michael J.Lisa A. NewlandJarod T. GigerSoonhee Roh, & Barbara L. Brockevelt. (2017). Ecological, Relationship-Based Model of Children’s Subjective Well-Being: Perspectives of 10-Year-Old Children in the United States and 10 Other Countries. Child Indicators Research, 10(1), 1-18.

The purpose of this study is to further assess the international relevance of an ecological, relationship-based model of children’s subjective well-being with samples of 10-year-old children from the United States (n = 502, M (age) = 10.66, SD = .55) and 10 other countries: Algeria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Israel, Nepal, Romania, Rwanda, South Korea, and Uganda (n = 502, M (age) = 10.12, SD = .48). All children completed the Children’s Worlds survey, which includes individual factors, contextual factors of home and family, life and neighborhood, school, and peers, and subjective well-being measures for life satisfaction, mental health, and self-image. The strongest predictors of children’s subjective well-being were family and peer relationships, school, and neighborhood quality. Findings support the international relevance of an ecological, relationship-based model of children’s subjective well-being.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Love, Heather A. (2017). Newsreels, Novels, and Cybernetics: Reading the Random Patterns of John Dos Passos’s U.S.A. Journal of Modern Literature, 40(2), 112-131.

The novels of Dos Passos’s U.S.A.trilogy (1930/1932/1936) are part of a cultural dialogue about the status of communication and information-processing in the early twentieth century. This dialogue includes cybernetics theories, which align information with both pattern and randomness. In Dos Passos’s trilogy, recognizable and predictable patterns jostle with random chance as key catalysts for change and progress in American culture. The novels’ ‘Newsreel’ sections (like the technology for which they are named) epitomize the perplexing, interconnected logic of cybernetic information, in which pattern meets randomness and fiction bleeds into history.

English Department.

 

Madison, Joseph D.Elizabeth A. Berg, J. G. Abarca, S. M. Whitfield, O. Gorbatenko, A. Pinto, & Jacob L. Kerby. (2017). Characterization of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Inhibiting Bacteria from Amphibian Populations in Costa Rica.Frontiers in Microbiology, 8, 13.

Global amphibian declines and extinction events are occurring at an unprecedented rate. While several factors are responsible for declines and extinction, the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been cited as a major constituent in these events. While the effects of this chytrid fungus have been shown to cause broad scale population declines and extinctions, certain individuals and relict populations have shown resistance. This resistance has been attributed in part to the cutaneous bacterial microbiome. Here, we present the first study characterizing anti-Bd bacterial isolates from amphibian populations in Costa Rica, including the characterization of two strains of Serratiamarcescens presenting strong anti-Bd activity. Transcriptome sequencing was utilized for delineation of shifts in gene expression of the two previously uncharacterized strains of S. marcescens grown in three different treatments comprising Bd, heat-killed Bd, and a no Bd control. These results revealed up- and down-regulation of key genes associated with different metabolic and regulatory pathways. This information will be valuable in continued efforts to develop a bacterial-based approach for amphibian protection as well as providing direction for continued mechanistic inquiries of the bacterial anti-Bd response.

Biology Department.

 

Maki, Kevin C., Johns, Colleen, Harris, William S., Puder, Mark, Freedman, Steven D., Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn, . . . Sancilio, Frederick D. (2017). Bioequivalence Demonstration for Ω-3 Acid Ethyl Ester Formulations: Rationale for Modification of Current Guidance. Clinical Therapeutics, 39(3), 652-658.

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance for establishing bioequivalence (BE) of ω-3 acid ethyl esters (containing both eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] as ethyl esters), used to treat severe hypertriglyceridemia, recommends the conduct of 2 studies: one with participants in the fasting state and one with participants in the fed state. For the fasting study, the primary measures of BE are baseline-adjusted EPA and DHA levels in total plasma lipids. For the fed study, the primary measures of BE are EPA and DHA ethyl esters in plasma. This guidance differs from that established for icosapent ethyl (EPA ethyl esters) in which the primary measure of BE is baseline-adjusted total EPA in plasma lipids for both the fasting and fed states. The FDA guidance for ω-3 acid ethyl esters is not supported by their physiologic characteristics and triglyceride-lowering mechanisms because EPA and DHA ethyl esters are best characterized as pro-drugs. This article presents an argument for amending the FDA draft guidance for ω-3 acid ethyl esters to use baseline-adjusted EPA and DHA in total plasma lipids as the primary measures of BE for both fasting and fed conditions. This change would harmonize the approaches for demonstration of BE for ω-3 acid ethyl esters and icosapent ethyl (EPA ethyl esters) products for future development programs and is the most physiologically rational approach to BE testing.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Malo, J., E. Holbrook, T. Zangeneh, C. Strawter, E. Oren, I. Robey, H. Erickson, R. Chahal, M. Durkin, C. Thompson, Susan E. Hoover, N. M. Ampel, L. J. Wheat, & K. S. Knox. (2017). Enhanced Antibody Detection and Diagnosis of Coccidioidomycosis with the MiraVista IgG and IgM Detection Enzyme Immunoassay. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 55(3), 893-901.

Coccidioidomycosis is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in areas of the southwestern United States in which the disease is endemic. Clinical presentations range from self-limited disease to severe disseminated disease. Therefore, early and accurate diagnosis is essential to ensure appropriate treatment and monitoring. Currently available diagnostic tests have variable accuracy, particularly in certain patient populations, and new tests may offer improved accuracy for the diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis. Serum samples from 103 cases of coccidioidomycosis and 373 controls were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies using the MVista anti-Coccidioides antibody enzyme immunoassay. Serum specimens from 170 controls from areas in which the disease is endemic and 44 cases were tested by immunodiffusion at MiraVista Diagnostics. The sensitivity of the MVista antibody assay was 88.3%, and the specificity was 90%. The sensitivity was maintained in the presence of immunocompromising conditions or immunosuppressive therapies. The sensitivity of immunodiffusion was 60.2%, and the specificity was 98.8%. The sensitivity of complement fixation ( 62 cases) was 66.1%, but the specificity could not be determined. The MVista anti-Coccidioides antibody enzyme immunoassay offers improved sensitivity, compared with immunodiffusion and complement fixation, is not impaired in immunocompromised patients, and permits highly reproducible semiquantification.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Melvin, S. A., N. H. Brito, Luke J. Mack, L. E. Engelhardt, W. P. Fifer, Amy J. Elliott, & K. G. Noble. (2017). Home Environment, But Not Socioeconomic Status, is Linked to Differences in Early Phonetic Perception Ability. Infancy, 22(1), 42-55.

Infants perceptually tune to the phonemes of their native languages in the first year of life, thereby losing the ability to discriminate non-native phonemes. Infants who perceptually tune earlier have been shown to develop stronger language skills later in childhood. We hypothesized that socioeconomic disparities, which have been associated with differences in the quality and quantity of language in the home, would contribute to individual differences in phonetic discrimination. Seventy-five infants were assessed on measures of phonetic discrimination at 9 months, on the quality of the home environment at 15 months, and on language abilities at both ages. Phonetic discrimination did not vary according to socioeconomic status (SES), but was significantly associated with the quality of the home environment. This association persisted when controlling for 9-month expressive language abilities, rendering it less likely that infants with better expressive language skills were simply engendering higher quality home interactions. This suggests that infants from linguistically richer home environments may be more tuned to their native language and therefore less able to discriminate non-native contrasts at 9 months relative to infants whose home environments are less responsive. These findings indicate that home language environments may be more critical than SES in contributing to early language perception, with possible implications for language development more broadly.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Min, Jia Wei, L. H. Lu, Jessica L. FreelingDoug S. Martin, & Hongmin Wang. (2017). USP14 inhibitor attenuates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury in mice. Journal of Neurochemistry, 140(5), 826-833.

Stroke is associated with over-production of misfolded and aggregating proteins. However, it remains largely unclear whether enhanced removal of protein aggregates following ischemic stroke is neuroprotective. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) are a large group of proteases that regulate protein degradation. The ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (USP14) is a DUB that is associated with the proteasome and negatively regulates proteasome activity. In this study, we examined the effect of 1-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2,5-dimethylpyrrol-3-yl]-2-pyrrolidin-1-ylethanone (IU1), a specific small molecule inhibitor of USP14, on mouse focal cerebral ischemic stroke-induced neuronal injury in mice. We found that IU1 treatment attenuated ischemic stroke-caused neuronal injury, which was reflected by increased survival rate, reduced infarct volume, as well as decreased neuronal loss in the IU1-treated mice compared to the control-treated mice. Additionally, IU1 treatment is associated with reduced protein aggregates and enhanced proteasome functionality. These data not only highlight the significance of protein homeostasis in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury but also extend the therapeutic role of DUB inhibitors.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Newswander, Chad B.Matson, Aaron, & Newswander, Lynita K. (2017). The Recovery of Self-Interest Well Understood as a Regime Value: What Is at Stake/Why This Is Important? Administration & Society, 49(4), 552-574.

Understood in economic terms, interest elevates baser human impulses and degrades higher human potential as it motivates individuals to value material gains over moral ones. Because of this influence, it is difficult to consider interest as a regime value. But just because it is beleaguered does not mean it ought to be abandoned, especially because interest is placed front and center in the constitutional order. Providing a perspective of the merits of interest, Alexis de Tocqueville offers a conceptualization that allows this regime value to be relevant even for contemporary administrators operating in spaces of diffused public responsibility.

Political Science Department.

 

Obaidullah, S. M., C. Goswami, K. C. Santosh, N. Das, C. Halder, & K. Roy. (2017). Separating Indic Scripts with matra for Effective Handwritten Script Identification in Multi-Script Documents. International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence, 31(5), 17.

We present a novel approach for separating Indic scripts with ‘matra’, which is used as a precursor to advance and/or ease subsequent handwritten script identification in multi-script documents. In our study, among state-of-the-art features and classifiers, an optimized fractal geometry analysis and random forest are found to be the best performer to distinguish scripts with ‘matra’ from their counterparts. For validation, a total of 1204 document images are used, where two different scripts with ‘matra’: Bangla and Devanagari are considered as positive samples and the other two di r erent scripts: Roman and Urdu are considered as negative samples. With this precursor, an overall script identification performance can be advanced by more than 5.13% in accuracy and 1.17 times faster in processing time as compared to conventional system.

Computer Science Department.

 

Peters, H. J., Haley N. Schwenk, Z. R. Ahlstrom, & L. N. McIalwain. (2017). Microaggressions: The experience of individuals with mental illness. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 30(1), 86-112.

The main objective of the study was to investigate the types of microaggressions experienced by individuals with mental illness (MI) based on this marginalized group status. This study included 4 focus groups, comprised of 18 individuals diagnosed with MI(es). The researchers qualitatively identified four themes (a) conveying stereotypes against individuals with MI (i.e. assumptions of inferiority, seeking attention or being dramatic, assumptions of coldness, bringing MI upon themselves, and using MI as an excuse), (b) invalidating the experience of having a MI (i.e. doubting existence, doubting severity, and avoiding acknowledgment of the MI), (c) defining a person by their disorder, and (d) misuse of terminology. Participants revealed the main perpetrators (i.e. family, friends, and professionals) of the microaggressions. The researchers discuss: how the identified themes compare to the three categories of microaggressions (i.e. microinsults, microinvalidations, and microassaults); similarities and differences between the current results and previously identified racial, gender, and sexual orientation microaggressions perpetrated in daily interactions and in therapeutic settings; and the perpetrators of microaggressions as they relate to prejudicial attitudes and social distance. Finally, the authors make recommendations for practitioners and researchers.

Psychology Department.

 

Puckett, Jae A., Sharon G. Horne, Francisco Surace, Alice Carter, Nicole Noffsinger-Frazier, Julie Shulman, Pam Detrie, Audrey Ervin, & Chad Mosher. (2017). Predictors of Sexual Minority Youth’s Reported Suicide Attempts and Mental Health. Journal of Homosexuality, 64(6), 697-715.

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth (LGBY) report higher rates of mental health concerns compared to heterosexual youth due to minority stressors. This study examined the interpersonal and intrapersonal variables that predict psychological distress and self-reported suicide attempts in a sample of 61 LGBY in the Mid-South, which is a highly overlooked regional area for LGBY research. Youth who lost friends when coming out were 29 times more likely to report suicide attempts, and those who experienced psychological maltreatment from caregivers were 9.5 times more likely to report a suicide attempt. Internalized heterosexism, feelings of guilt or shame, and psychological maltreatment from caregivers were significant predictors of depression and anxiety symptoms. This study highlights the importance of creating affirming spaces for LGBY, particularly in areas of the country that experience greater political oppression of sexual minorities, such as the Mid-South.

Psychology Department.

 

Riebschleger, Joanne, Norris, Debra, Pierce, Barbara, Pond, Debora L., & Cummings, Cristy. (2015). Preparing Social Work Students for Rural Child Welfare Practice: Emerging Curriculum Competencies. Journal of Social Work Education, 51, S209-S224.

Multiple issues that are unique to child welfare social work practice in rural areas markedly affect workforce recruitment and retention, yet little attention is given to the proficiencies needed to equip emerging social workers for this growing area of the field. Curriculum content is needed that provides students with the opportunity to master the skills needed to thrive as child welfare social workers in rural areas. Using an evidence-based practice critical thinking model as a guide, a systematic review of literature and documents addresses many of the competencies needed to prepare social work students for child welfare practice in rural areas. These competencies are identified. Suggestions for integration into the social work curriculum are offered.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Rivers, J. W., Gretchen N. Newberry, C. J. Schwarz, & D. R. Ardia. (2017). Success despite the stress: violet-green swallows increase glucocorticoids and maintain reproductive output despite experimental increases in flight costs. Functional Ecology, 31(1), 235-244.

Glucocorticoid steroid hormones play a central role in regulating the metabolic state of animals, especially when they cope with unanticipated stressors in their environment. The cort-adaptation hypothesis predicts that baseline concentrations of glucocorticoids are adjusted upward to match energetic needs and promote fitness when individuals are faced with physiological challenges, including those associated with reproduction. 2. We tested the cort-adaptation hypothesis in the violet-green swallow (Tachycineta thalassina) by experimentally increasing flight costs during the offspring rearing period. Individual females were assigned to one of three treatments: light feather clipping (removal of four wing feathers), heavy feather clipping (removal of eight wing feathers) or a sham-clip control. 3. We measured baseline corticosterone and body mass immediately prior to implementing treatments during the offspring rearing period and then 10 days after initial manipulations took place. We also quantified risk-taking behaviour, offspring feeding rate and the number of offspring fledged. Finally, we examined how treatments influenced offspring phenotype via measurements of nestling body mass and baseline corticosterone, as both measures have been associated with post-fledging survival. 4. We found that handicapped females significantly increased baseline corticosterone between the two sampling periods, with the magnitude of change in the light clipping and heavy clipping treatments 2.59 and 6.19 greater than controls, respectively. All individuals lost mass between the two sampling periods, but the degree of loss was greater for females in both clipping treatments relative to unmanipulated controls. 5. In contrast, we found no evidence of treatment differences in female risk-taking, offspring provisioning or in the number of offspring fledged. Offspring raised by females in both handicapped treatments did have significantly elevated baseline corticosterone relative to those in control broods, but we detected no treatment differences in offspring body mass. 6. Our study found that handicapped females increased circulating glucocorticoids and were able to maintain critical parental care behaviours and raise a similar number of offspring as unmanipulated controls. Thus, increases in baseline cort of handicapped females appeared to have allowed them to maintain fitness despite increased physiological challenges, providing support for the cort-adaptation hypothesis.

Biology Department.

 

Roat, R., M. M. Hossain, J. Christopherson, C. Free, S. Jain, C. Guay, R. Regazzi, & Z. Guo. (2017). Identification and Characterization of micro RNAs Associated With Human β-Cell Loss in a Mouse Model. American Journal of Transplantation, 17(4), 992-1007.

Currently there is no effective approach for monitoring early β-cell loss during islet graft rejection following human islet transplantation (HIT). Due to ethical and technical constraints, it is difficult to directly study biomarkers of islet destruction in humans. Here, we established a humanized mouse model with induced human β-cell death using adoptive lymphocyte transfer (ALT). Human islet grafts of ALT-treated mice had perigraft lymphocyte infiltration, fewer insulin+ β cells, and increased β-cell apoptosis. Islet-specific miR-375 was used to validate our model, and expression of miR-375 was significantly decreased in the grafts and increased in the circulation of ALT-treated mice before hyperglycemia. A NanoString expression assay was further used to profile 800 human miRNAs in the human islet grafts, and the results were validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We found that miR-4454 and miR-199a-5p were decreased in the human islet grafts following ALT and increased in the circulation prior to hyperglycemia. These data demonstrate that our in vivo model of induced human β-cell destruction is a robust method for identifying and characterizing circulating biomarkers, and suggest that miR-4454 and miR-199a-5p can serve as novel biomarkers associated with early human β-cell loss following HIT.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Rucks, Elizabeth A.Macy G. OlsonLisa M. JorgensonRekha R. Srinivasan, & Scot P. Ouellette. (2017). Development of a Proximity Labeling System to Map the Chlamydia trachomatis Inclusion Membrane. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 7, 17.

Chlamydia grows within a membrane-bound vacuole termed an inclusion. The cellular processes that support the biogenesis and integrity of this pathogen-specified parasitic organelle are not understood. Chlamydia secretes integral membrane proteins called Incs that insert into the chlamydial inclusion membrane (IM). Incs contain at least two hydrophobic transmembrane domains flanked by termini, which vary in size and are exposed to the host cytosol. In addition, Incs are temporally expressed during the chlamydial developmental cycle. Data examining Inc function are limited because of (i) the difficulty in working with hydrophobic proteins and (ii) the inherent fragility of the IM. We hypothesize that Incs function collaboratively to maintain the integrity of the chlamydial inclusion with small Incs organizing the IM and larger Incs interfacing with host cell machinery. To study this hypothesis, we have adapted a proximity-labeling strategy using APEX2, a mutant soybean ascorbate peroxidase that biotinylates interacting and proximal proteins within minutes in the presence of H2O2 and its exogenous substrate, biotin-phenol. We successfully expressed, from an inducible background, APEX2 alone, or fusion proteins of IncA(TM) (TM = transmembrane domain only), IncA, and IncF with APEX2 in Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2. IncF-APEX2, IncA(TM)-APEX2, and IncA-APEX2 localized to the IM whereas APEX2, lacking a secretion signal, remained associated with the bacteria. We determined the impact of overexpression on inclusion diameter, plasmid stability, and Golgi-derived sphingomyelin acquisition. While there was an overall impact of inducing construct expression. IncF-APEX2 overexpression most negatively impacted these measurements. Importantly. Inc-APEX2 expression in the presence of biotin-phenol resulted in biotinylation of the IM. These data suggest that Inc expression is regulated to control optimal IM biogenesis. We subsequently defined lysis conditions that solubilized known Incs and were compatible with pulldown conditions. Importantly, we have created powerful tools to allow direct examination of the dynamic composition of the IM, which will provide novel insights into key interactions that promote chlamydial growth and development within the inclusion.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Sapp, Wendi, B. Gifford, Zhenqiang Wang, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2017). Mathematical modeling of gas desorption from a metal-organic supercontainer cavity filled with stored N-2 gas at critical limits. Rsc Advances, 7(18), 11180-11190.

Metal-organic supercontainer (MOSC) molecules are ideal candidates for gas storage applications due to their construction with customizable ligands and tunable cavity and window sizes, which are found to be elastic in nature. Force field molecular dynamics (MD) are used to evaluate the utilization of MOSCs as nanoporous structures for gas storage. A MOSC, with nitrogen gas molecules filling the cavity, progresses through MD and releases gas molecules by applying temperature to the MOSC. It is the MOSC’s elasticity which is responsible for the desorption of guests at elevated temperatures. Data obtained from MD serves as a guide for the derivation of analytical equations that can be used to describe and explain the mechanism of gas desorption from within the cavity. Mathematical modeling of gas desorption from the center cavity can provide a method of predicting MOSC behavior for a broader range of pressures and temperatures, which is challenging for direct atomistic modeling. The utilization of MD can provide data for a wide variety of properties and processes in various materials under different conditions for a broad range of technology-related applications.

Chemistry Department.

 

Sathyanesan, MonicaHaiar, Jacob M.Watt, Michael J., & Newton, Samuel S. (2017). Restraint stress differentially regulates inflammation and glutamate receptor gene expression in the hippocampus of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Stress: The International Journal on the Biology of Stress, 20(2), 197-204.

The inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6 and BALB/c have been used widely in preclinical psychiatric research. The differences in stress susceptibility of available strains has provided a useful platform to test pharmacological agents and behavioral responses. Previous brain gene profiling efforts have indicated that the inflammation and immune response gene pathway is the predominant gene network in the differential stress response of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. The implication is that a composite stress paradigm that includes a sequence of extended, varied and unpredictable stressors induces inflammation-related genes in the hippocampus. We hypothesized that the regulation of inflammation genes in the brain could constitute a primary stress response and tested this by employing a simple stress protocol, repeated exposure to the same stressor for 10 days, 2 h of restraint per day. We examined stress-induced regulation of 13 proinflammatory cytokine genes in male BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice using quantitative PCR. Elevated cytokine genes included tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL6), interleukin 10 (IL10), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) super family members and interleukin 1 receptor 1 (IL1R1). In addition, we examined restraint stress-induced regulation of 12 glutamate receptor genes in both strains. Our results show that restraint stress is sufficient to elevate the expression of inflammation-related genes in the hippocampus of both BABLB/c and C57BL/6 mice, but they differ in the genes that are induced and the magnitude of change. Cell types that are involved in this response include endothelial cells and astrocytes.Lay summaryRepeated exposure to a simple restraint stress altered the activities of genes involved in inflammation and the functions of the excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate. These changes in the hippocampus of the mouse brain showed differences that were dependent on the strain of mice and the length of the stress exposure. The effects of stress on activity of these genes may lead to alterations in behavior.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Sazama, Eric J.Michael J. BoschCarmelita S. ShouldisScot P. Ouellette, & Jeff S. Wesner. (2017). Incidence of Wolbachia in aquatic insects. Ecology and Evolution, 7(4), 1165-1169.

Wolbachia is a genus of intracellular bacteria typically found within the reproductive systems of insects that manipulates those systems of their hosts. While current estimates of Wolbachia incidence suggest that it infects approximately half of all arthropod species, these estimates are based almost entirely on terrestrial insects. No systematic survey of Wolbachia in aquatic insects has been performed. To estimate Wolbachia incidence among aquatic insect species, we combined field-collected samples from the Missouri River (251 samples from 58 species) with a global database from previously published surveys. The final database contained 5,598 samples of 2,687 total species (228 aquatic and 2,459 terrestrial). We estimate that 52% (95% CrIs: 44%-60%) of aquatic insect species carry Wolbachia, compared to 60% (58%-63%) of terrestrial insects. Among aquatic insects, infected orders included Odonata, Coleoptera, Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, and Plecoptera. Incidence was highest within aquatic Diptera and Hemiptera (69%), Odonata (50%), and Coleoptera (53%), and was lowest within Ephemeroptera (13%). These results indicate that Wolbachia is common among aquatic insects, but incidence varies widely across orders and is especially uncertain in those orders with low sample sizes such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera.

Biology Department.

 

Stamper, Christopher E., Hassell, James E., Kapitz, Adam J., Renner, Kenneth J., Orchinik, Miles, & Lowry, Christopher A. (2017). Activation of 5-HT 1A receptors in the rat dorsomedial hypothalamus inhibits stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. Stress: The International Journal on the Biology of Stress, 20(2), 223-230.

Acute activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, leading to the release of corticosteroid hormones into the circulation, is an adaptive response to perceived threats. Persistent activation of the HPA axis can lead to impaired physiological or behavioral function with maladaptive consequences. Thus, efficient control and termination of stress responses is essential for well-being. However, inhibitory control mechanisms governing the HPA axis are poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that serotonergic systems, acting within the medial hypothalamus, play an important role in inhibitory control of stress-induced HPA axis activity. To test this hypothesis, we surgically implanted chronic jugular cannulae in adult male rats and conducted bilateral microinjection of vehicle or the 5-HT1Areceptor agonist, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT; 8 nmol, 0.2 μL, 0.1 μL/min, per side) into the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) immediately prior to a 40 min period of restraint stress. Repeated blood sampling was conducted using an automated blood sampling system and plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bilateral intra-DMH microinjections of 8-OH-DPAT suppressed stress-induced increases in plasma corticosterone within 10 min of the onset of handling prior to restraint and, as measured by area-under-the-curve analysis of plasma corticosterone concentrations, during the 40 min period of restraint. These data support an inhibitory role for serotonergic systems, acting within the DMH, on stress-induced activation of the HPA axis. Lay summary:Inhibitory control of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) stress hormone response is important for well-being. One neurochemical implicated in inhibitory control of the HPA axis is serotonin. In this study we show that activation of serotonin receptors, specifically inhibitory 5-HT1Areceptors in the dorsomedial hypothalamus, is sufficient to inhibit stress-induced HPA axis activity in rats.

Biology Department.

 

Terrell, T. R., R. Bostick, J. Barth, …., Verle Valentine, & G. Nichols. (2017). Multicenter cohort study on association of genotypes with prospective sports concussion: methods, lessons learned, and recommendations. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 57(1-2), 77-89.

BACKGROUND: Approximately 3.8 million sports related TBIs occur per year. Genetic variation may affect both TBI risk and post-TBI clinical outcome. Limited research has focused on genetic risk for concussion among athletes. We describe the design, methods, and baseline characteristics of this prospective cohort study designed to investigate a potential association between genetic polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E gene, APOE promoter G-219T, and Tau gene exon 6 polymorphisms (Ser(53) Pro and (Hist)47(yr)) with: 1) the risk of prospective concussion; 2) concussion severity; and 3) postconcussion neurocognitive recovery. METHODS: The prospective cohort study included a final population of 2947 college, high school, and professional athletes. Baseline data collection included a concussion/medical history questionnaire, neuropsychological (NP) testing, and genetic sampling for the genetic polymorphisms. Data collection on new concussions experienced utilized post-concussion history/mental status form, Lovell post-concussion symptom score, Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) and/or the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT)-1/SCAT-2, and post-concussion NP testing. RESULTS: This paper is focused on discussing the important methodological considerations, organizational challenges and lessons learned in the completion of a multi-center prospective cohort study. A total of 3740 subjects enrolled, with a total of 335 concussions experienced. CONCLUSIONS: Of critical importance to the success of a study of this type is to successfully recruit committed institutions with qualified local study personnel, obtain “buy-in” from study sites, and cultivate strong working relationships with study sites. The use of approved incentives may improve study site recruitment, enhance retention, and enhance compliance with study protocols. Future publications will detail the specific findings of this study. Collaborative research is very likely needed given the nature of this study population.

Sanford SChool of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Wang, L., & Dongming Mei. (2017). A comprehensive study of low-energy response for xenon-based dark matter experiments. Journal of Physics: G Nuclear & Particle Physics, 44(5), 1-1.

We report a comprehensive study of the energy response to low-energy recoils in dual-phase xenon-based dark matter experiments. A recombination model is developed to explain the recombination probability as a function of recoil energy at zero field and non-zero field. The role of e-ion recombination is discussed for both parent recombination and volume recombination. We find that the volume recombination under a non-zero field is constrained by a plasma effect, which is caused by a high density of charge carriers along the ionization track forming a plasma-like cloud of charge that shields the interior from the influence of the external electric field. Subsequently, the plasma time that determines the volume recombination probability at non-zero field is demonstrated to be different between electronic recoils (ERs) and nuclear recoils (NRs) due to the difference of ionization density between two processes. We show a weak field dependence of the plasma time for NRs and a stronger field dependence of the plasma time for ERs. As a result, the time-dependent recombination is implemented in the determination of charge and light yield with a generic model. Our model agrees well with the available experimental data from xenon-based dark matter experiments.

Physics Department.

 

Wang, X. T., Li-Lin Rao, & Hongming Zheng. (2017). Neural substrates of framing effects in social contexts: A meta-analytical approach. Social Neuroscience, 12(3), 268-279.

We hypothesize that framing effects (risk-averse in the positive frame and risk-seeking in the negative frame) are likely to occur when ambiguous social contexts result in ambiguous or ambivalent risk preferences, leading the decision-maker to search for more subtle cues, such as verbal framing. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we examined framing effects in both unambiguous homogeneous group and more ambiguous heterogeneous group contexts. We began by conducting a meta-analysis and identified three regions of interest: the right inferior frontal gyrus, the left anterior cingulate (ACC)/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and the left amygdala. Our own fMRI data were collected while the participants made choices between a sure option and a gamble framed in terms of the number of lives to either save or die. The framing effect was evident in a heterogeneous context with a mixture of kin and strangers, but disappeared in a homogeneous group of either all kin-members or all strangers. The fMRI results revealed a greater activation in theright middle/inferior frontal gyrusunder the negative than the positive framing, and lessACC/vmPFCdeactivation under positive framing in the heterogamous/ambiguous context. The activation of theamygdalawas correlated with greater risk-seeking preference in homogeneous kinship contexts.

Psychology Department.

 

Wesner, Jeff S., D. M. Walters, T. S. Schmidt, J. M. Kraus, C. A. Stricker, W. H. Clements, & R. E. Wolf. (2017). Metamorphosis Affects Metal Concentrations and Isotopic Signatures in a Mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus): Implications for the Aquatic-Terrestrial Transfer of Metals. Environmental Science & Technology, 51(4), 2438-2446.

Insect metamorphosis often results in substantial chemical changes that can alter contaminant concentrations and fractionate isotopes. We exposed larval mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus) and their food (periphyton) to an aqueous zinc gradient (3-340 mu g Zn/l) and measured zinc concentrations at different stages of metamorphosis: larval, subimago, and imago. We also measured changes in stable isotopes (delta N-15 and delta C-13) in unexpoSed mayflies. Larval zinc concentrations were positively related to aqueous zinc, increasing 9-fold across the exposure gradient. Adult zinc concentrations were also positively related to aqueous zinc, but were 7-fold lower than larvae. This relationship varied according to adult substage and sex Tissue concentrations in female imagoes were not related to exposure concentrations, but the converse was true for all other stage-by-sex combinations. Metamorphosis also increased delta N-15 by similar to 0.8 parts per thousand, but not delta C-13. Thus, the main effects of metamorphosis on insect chemistry were large declines in zinc concentrations coupled with increased delta N-15 signatures. For zinc, this change was largely consistent across the aqueous exposure gradient. However, differences among sexes and stages suggest that caution is warranted when using nitrogen isotopes or metal concentrations measured in one insect stage (e.g., larvae) to assess risk to wildlife that feed on subsequent life stages (e.g., adults).

Biology Department.

 

Yao, B., P. Kolla, Ranjit Koodali, Y. C. Ding, Selvaratnam BalaranjanSunav Shrestha, & A. Smirnova. (2017). Enzymatic decomposition and electrochemical study of alkali lignin by laccase (Trametes versicolor) in the presence of a natural mediator (methyl syringate). New Journal of Chemistry, 41(3), 958-964.

The aerobic-enzymatic decomposition of alkali lignin in the presence of laccase from Trametes versicolor (LTV) and the natural mediator methyl syringate in acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer solution (pH = 4.5) at 40 degrees C in an oxygen-rich (aerobic) environment is studied. SEM and BET analyses are used to characterize the changes in the surface area and morphology of lignin that occurred during the exposure to the laccase-mediator system (LMS) for 72 h. The LMS interaction causes a 2-fold improvement in the surface area from 4.9 to 9.8 m(2) g(-1), due to significant changes in the mesoporous structure of lignin within a pore size of 2-120 nm. This could be due to an efficient interaction of the surface phenolic groups and internal mesoporous beta-O-4 network of lignin with the LMS in an aerobic environment. To further understand the enzymatic degradation of lignin, electrochemical oxidation of a thin film of lignin on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) is performed under aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions in the presence of the LMS. A synergistic lignin electrooxidation in the aerobic environment is observed due to the promotion of LMS activity by a parallel oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Based on the electrochemical studies, a mechanism for understanding the role of oxygen in the enzymatic oxidation of lignin in an aerobic environment and the stability of the mediator radical (MS center dot) is proposed.

Chemistry Department.

 

Yobi, A., K. A. Schlauch, R. L. Tillett, W. C. Yim, C. Espinoza, Bernard W. M. Wone, J. C. Cushman, & M. J. Oliver. (2017). Sporobolus stapfianus: Insights into desiccation tolerance in the resurrection grasses from linking transcriptomics to metabolomics. Bmc Plant Biology, 17, 30.

Background: Understanding the response of resurrection angiosperms to dehydration and rehydration is critical for deciphering the mechanisms of how plants cope with the rigors of water loss from their vegetative tissues. We have focused our studies on the C-4 resurrection grass, Sporobolus stapfianus Gandoger, as a member of a group of important forage grasses. Methods: We have combined non-targeted metabolomics with transcriptomics, via a NimbleGen array platform, to develop an understanding of how gene expression and metabolite profiles can be linked to generate a more detailed mechanistic appreciation of the cellular response to both desiccation and rehydration. Results: The rehydration transcriptome and metabolome are primarily geared towards the rapid return of photosynthesis, energy metabolism, protein turnover, and protein synthesis during the rehydration phase. However, there are some metabolites associated with ROS protection that remain elevated during rehydration, most notably the tocopherols. The analysis of the dehydration transcriptome reveals a strong concordance between transcript abundance and the associated metabolite abundance reported earlier, but only in responses that are directly related to cellular protection during dehydration: carbohydrate metabolism and redox homeostasis. The transcriptome response also provides strong support for the involvement of cellular protection processes as exemplified by the increases in the abundance of transcripts encoding late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, anti-oxidant enzymes, early light-induced proteins (ELIP) proteins, and cell-wall modification enzymes. There is little concordance between transcript and metabolite abundance for processes such as amino acid metabolism that do not appear to contribute directly to cellular protection, but are nonetheless important for the desiccation tolerant phenotype of S. stapfianus. Conclusions: The transcriptomes of both dehydration and rehydration offer insight into the complexity of the regulation of responses to these processes that involve complex signaling pathways and associated transcription factors. ABA appears to be important in the control of gene expression in both the latter stages of the dehydration and the early stages of rehydration. These findings add to the growing body of information detailing how plants tolerate and survive the severe cellular perturbations of dehydration, desiccation, and rehydration.

Biology Department.

 

Zhao, C., X. Chen, C. S. Yang, …., Xuejun Wang, & J. B. Liu. (2017). Repurposing an antidandruff agent to treating cancer: zinc pyrithione inhibits tumor growth via targeting proteasome-associated deubiquitinases. Oncotarget, 8(8), 13942-13956.

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a central role in various cellular processes through selectively degrading proteins involved in critical cellular functions. Targeting UPS has been validated as a novel strategy for treating human cancer, as inhibitors of the 20S proteasome catalytic activity are currently in clinical use for treatment of multiple myeloma and other cancers, and the deubiquitinase activity associated with the proteasome is also a valid target for anticancer agents. Recent studies suggested that zinc pyrithione, an FDA-approved antidandruff agent, may have antitumor activity, but the detailed molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) targets the proteasome-associated DUBs (USP14 and UCHL5) and inhibits their activities, resulting in a rapid accumulation of protein-ubiquitin conjugates, but without inhibiting the proteolytic activities of 20S proteasomes. Furthermore, ZnPT exhibits cytotoxic effects against various cancer cell lines in vitro, selectively kills bone marrow cells from leukemia patients ex vivo, and efficiently inhibits the growth of lung adenocarcinoma cancer cell xenografts in nude mice. This study has identified zinc pyrithione, an FDA-approved pharmacological agent with potential antitumor properties as a proteasomal DUB inhibitor.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus

 

 

Posted by: tadeterman | March 31, 2017

March 2017

Dag, Ali, Oztekin, A., Yucel, A., Bulur, S., & Megahed, F. M. (2017). Predicting heart transplantation outcomes through data analytics. Decision Support Systems, 94, 42-52.

Predicting the survival of heart transplant patients is an important, yet challenging problem since it plays a crucial role in understanding the matching procedure between a donor and a recipient. Data mining models can be used to effectively analyze and extract novel information from large/complex transplantation datasets. The objective of this study is to predict the 1-, 5-, and 9-year patient’s graft survival following a heart transplant surgery via the deployment of analytical models that are based on four powerful classification algorithms (i.e. decision trees, artificial neural networks, support vector machines, and logistic regression). Since the datasets used in this study has a much larger number of survival cases than deaths for 1- and 5-year survival analysis and vice versa for 9-year survival analysis, random under sampling (RUS) and synthetic minority over-sampling (SMOTE) are employed to overcome the data-imbalance problems. The results indicate that logistic regression combined with SMOTE achieves the best classification for the 1-, 5-, and 9-year outcome prediction, with area-under-the-curve (AUC) values of 0.624, 0.676, and 0.838, respectively. By applying sensitivity analysis to the data analytical models, the most important predictors and their associated contribution for the 1-, 5-, and 9-year graft survival of heart transplant patients are identified. By doing so, variables, whose importance changes over time, are differentiated. Not only this proposed hybrid approach gives superior results over the literature but also the models and identification of the variables present important retrospective findings, which can be the basis for a prospective medical study. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Freeling, Jessica L., & Rezvani, Khosrow. (2016). Assessment of murine colorectal cancer by micro-ultrasound using three dimensional reconstruction and non-linear contrast imaging. Molecular Therapy-Methods & Clinical Development, 3, 11.

The relatively low success rates of current colorectal cancer (CRC) therapies have led investigators to search for more specific treatments. Vertebrate models of colorectal cancer are essential tools for the verification of new therapeutic avenues such as gene therapy. The evaluation of colorectal cancer in mouse models has been limited due to the lack of an accurate quantitative and longitudinal noninvasive method. This work introduces a method of three-dimensional micro-ultrasound reconstruction and – microbubble administration for the comprehensive and longitudinal evaluation of CRC progression. This approach enabled quantification of both tumor volume and relative vascularity using a well-established inducible murine model of colon carcinogenesis. This inducible model recapitulated the adenocarcinoma sequence that occurs in human CRC allowing systematic in situ evaluation of the ultrasound technique. The administration of intravenous microbubbles facilitated enhancement of colon vascular contrast and quantification of relative vascularity of the mid and distal colon of the mouse in three dimensions. In addition, two-dimensional imaging in the sagittal orientation of the colon using Non-Linear Contrast Mode enabled calculation of relative blood volume and perfusion as the microbubbles entered the colon microvasculature. Quantitative results provided by the outlined protocol represent a noninvasive tool that can more accurately define CRC development and progression. This ultrasound technique will allow the practical and economical longitudinal study of murine CRC in both basic and preclinical studies.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Grassmeyer, Justin, Mukherjee, Malini, …., Zhao, Haotian,Fogarty, Eric, & Surendran, Kameswaran. (2017). Elf5 is a principal cell lineage specific transcription factor in the kidney that contributes to Aqp2 and Avpr2 gene expression. Developmental Biology, 424(1), 77-89.

The mammalian kidney collecting ducts are critical for water, electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis and develop as a branched network of tubular structures composed of principal cells intermingled with intercalated cells. The intermingled nature of the different collecting duct cell types has made it challenging to identify unique and critical factors that mark and/or regulate the development of the different collecting duct cell lineages. Here we report that the canonical Notch signaling pathway components, RBPJ and Presinilin1 and 2, are involved in patterning the mouse collecting duct cell fates by maintaining a balance between principal cell and intercalated cell fates. The relatively reduced number of principal cells in Notch-signaling-deficient kidneys offered a unique genetic leverage to identify critical principal cell-enriched factors by transcriptional profiling. Elf5 , which codes for an ETS transcription factor, is one such gene that is down-regulated in kidneys with Notch-signaling-deficient collecting ducts. Additionally, Elf5 is among the earliest genes up regulated by ectopic expression of activated Notch1 in the developing collecting ducts. In the kidney, Elf5 is first expressed early within developing collecting ducts and remains on in mature principal cells. Lineage tracing of Elf5 -expressing cells revealed that they are committed to the principal cell lineage by as early as E16.5. Over-expression of ETS Class IIa transcription factors, including Elf5, Elf3 and Ehf, increase the transcriptional activity of the proximal promoters of Aqp2 and Avpr2 in cultured ureteric duct cell lines. Conditional inactivation of Elf5 in the developing collecting ducts results in a small but significant reduction in the expression levels of Aqp2 and Avpr2 genes. We have identified Elf5 as an early maker of the principal cell lineage that contributes to the expression of principal cell specific genes.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Jacobs, Gerard A.Gray, Brandon L.Erickson, Sara E.,Gonzalez, Elvira D., & Quevillon, Randal P. (2016). Disaster Mental Health and Community-Based Psychological First Aid: Concepts and Education/Training. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 72(12), 1307-1317.

Any community can experience a disaster, and many traumatic events occur without warning. Psychologists can be an important resource assisting in psychological support for individuals and communities, in preparation for and in response to traumatic events. Disaster mental health and the community-based model of psychological first aid are described. The National Preparedness and Response Science Board has recommended that all mental health professionals be trained in disaster mental health, and that first responders, civic officials, emergency managers, and the general public be trained in community-based psychological first aid. Education and training resources in these two fields are described to assist psychologists and others in preparing themselves to assist their communities in difficult times and to help their communities learn to support one another. (C) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Psychology Department.

 

Liao, Y. N., Liu, N. N., Hua, X. L., Cai, J. Y., Xia, X. H., Wang, Xuejun, . . . Liu, J. B. (2017). Proteasome-associated deubiquitinase ubiquitin-specific protease 14 regulates prostate cancer proliferation by deubiquitinating and stabilizing androgen receptor. Cell Death & Disease, 8, 9.

Androgen receptor (AR) is frequently over-expressed and plays a critical role in the growth and progression of human prostate cancer. The therapy attempting to target AR signalling was established in decades ago but the treatment of prostate cancer is far from being satisfactory. The assignable cause is that our understanding of the mechanism of AR regulation and re-activation remains incomplete. Increasing evidence suggests that deubiquitinases are involved in the regulation of cancer development and progression but the specific underlying mechanism often is not elucidated. In the current study, we have identified ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (USP14) as a novel regulator of AR, inhibiting the degradation of AR via deubiquitinating this oncoprotein in the androgen-responsive prostate cancer cells. We found that (i) USP14 could bind to AR, and additionally, both genetic and pharmacological inhibition of USP14 accelerated the ubiquitination and degradation of AR; (ii) downregulation or inhibition of USP14 suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation of LNcap cells and, conversely, overexpression of USP14 promoted the proliferation; and (iii) reduction or inhibition of USP14 induced G0/G1 phase arrest in LNcap prostate cancer cells. Hence, we conclude that USP14 promotes prostate cancer progression likely through stabilization of AR, suggesting that USP14 could be a promising therapeutic target for prostate cancer.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Li, Jie, Ma, Wenxia, Yue, Guihua, …., Wang, Xuejun, & Su, Huabo. (2017). Cardiac proteasome functional insufficiency plays a pathogenic role in diabetic cardiomyopathy.Journal of Molecular & Cellular Cardiology, 102, 53-60.

Background Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a major risk factor in diabetic patients but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) facilitates protein quality control by degrading unnecessary and damaged proteins in eukaryotic cells, and dysfunction of UPS is implicated in various cardiac diseases. However, the overall functional status of the UPS and its pathophysiological role in diabetic cardiomyopathy have not been determined. Methods and results Type I diabetes was induced in wild-type and transgenic mice expressing a UPS functional reporter (GFPdgn) by injections of streptozotocin (STZ). STZ-induced diabetes progressively impaired cardiac UPS function as evidenced by the accumulation of GFPdgn proteins beginning two weeks after diabetes induction, and by a buildup of total and lysine (K) 48-linked polyubiquitinated proteins in the heart. To examine the functional role of the UPS in diabetic cardiomyopathy, cardiac overexpression of PA28α (PA28αOE) was used to enhance proteasome function in diabetic mouse hearts. PA28αOE diabetic mice displayed exhibited restoration of cardiac UPS function, as demonstrated by the diminished accumulation of GFPdgn and polyubiquitinated proteins. Moreover, PA28αOE diabetic mice exhibited reduced myocardial collagen deposition, decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and improved cardiac systolic and diastolic function. Conclusion Impairment of cardiac UPS function is an early event in STZ-induced diabetes. Overexpression of PA28α attenuates diabetes-induced proteotoxic stress and cardiomyopathy, suggesting a potential therapeutic role for enhancement of cardiac proteasome function in this disorder.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Puckett, Jae A., Horne, Sharon G., Maroney, Meredith R., Herbitter, Cara, & Levitt, Heidi M. (2017). Differences Across Contexts. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 41(1), 8-19.

Minority stressors encountered by lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) women are inherently connected to contextual experiences. Although there is a growing body of research on the benefits of gaining political rights and the costs of their denial, little research has focused on the effects of access to LGB-affirmative resources. In the current study with 1,017 women in same-sex relationships, we created profiles using latent class analysis to characterize the contexts in which participants were raised and the contexts in which they lived at the time of the study. We examined differences in interpersonal relationships, internalized heterosexism (IH), and outness across these profiles. Class 1 (28%) included participants who always lived in affirmative contexts with LGB-supportive resources. Class 2 participants (28%) always lived in more heterosexist contexts with few resources. Class 3 participants (44%) originally lived in more heterosexist contexts with few resources but shifted to more affirmative contexts. Class 3 individuals had greater social support and lower IH than Class 2 participants. Classes 1 and 3 had greater outness than Class 2. This study provides evidence linking IH to the lack of contextual supports. Our data also suggest that the quality of relationships for LGB women may remain strong even in heterosexist contexts. Actions that increase affirming resources will provide avenues for more positive identity development and interpersonal relationships for LGB individuals.

Psychology Department.

 

Quevillon, Randal P.Gray, Brandon L.Erickson, Sara E.,Gonzalez, Elvira D., & Jacobs, Gerard A. (2016). Helping the Helpers: Assisting Staff and Volunteer Workers Before, During, and After Disaster Relief Operations. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 72(12), 1348-1363.

Self-care strategies and system supports employed in preparation for, during, and after disaster relief operations (DROs) are crucial to relief worker well-being and the overall effectiveness of relief efforts. Relief organizations and management must structure DROs in a manner that promotes self-care and workers must implement proper self-care strategies. Proper self-care before, during, and after a DRO can reduce negative reactions to stressful emergency work and promote growth, mastery, and self-efficacy after the experience. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to discuss the importance of organizational supports and self-care strategies in disaster relief settings. This article emphasizes the role of both individual and management participation and commitment to relief worker support and positive experience in DROs and provides suggestions for doing so. These suggestions are derived from the empirical and experiential literature and extensions from the theoretical background, and from our experience as managers in DROs. (C) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Psychology Department.

 

Roh, Soonhee, Burnette, Catherine E., Lee, Kyoung Hag, Lee, Yeon-Shim, & Easton, Scott D. (2016). Risk and protective factors for depressive symptoms among indigenous older adults: Intimate partner violence (IPV) and social support. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 59(4), 316-331.

Research on depression and intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by Indigenous older adults is virtually nonexistent. Given the associations between IPV and depression and their disproportionately high rates among Indigenous peoples in a context of historical oppression, the purpose of this inquiry is to examine how IPV and social support are associated with depressive symptoms for Indigenous older adults. We expand the knowledge base on IPV in later life, which primarily focuses on female samples, by including older men. We predicted: (a) IPV will be positively associated with depressive symptoms and (b) levels of social support will be negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses of data from a sample of Indigenous older adults (N = 233) in the Upper Midwest indicated that physical aggression (but not psychological aggression, sexual coercion, injury, or negotiation) was positively associated with depressive symptoms, whereas social support was negatively associated with depressive symptoms.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Son, Jung-HoTamang, Sem RajFostvedt, Jade, &Hoefelmeyer, James D. (2017). Dehydrodechlorination of Methylene Chloride, Chloroform, and Chlorodiphenylmethane in the Presence of Ga/N Lewis Pairs. Organometallics, 36(2), 474-479.

Transmetalation occurs upon addition of GaCl3 to (quinolin-8-yl)trimethylstannane. The compound dissolves immediately in pyridine, and recrystallization gives dichloropyridinyl(quinolin-8-yl)gallium(III). In chloroform, the compound bis-mu-(quinolin-8-y1)-mu-chloro-dichlorodigallium(III) tetrachloro-gallate could be isolated in small quantities; however, the major product was trichloro(quinolinium-8-yl)gallate(III) zwitterion. The zwitterion also formed upon addition of methylene chloride or chlorodiphenylmethane. We hypothesize that the highly electrophilic digallyl cation abstracts chloride to form a carbocation and that proton transfer from the carbocation to the quinoline nitrogen affords transient carbenes. In particular, diphenyl carbene forms from dehydrodechlorination of chlorodiphenylmethane in toluene/cyclohexene to give a well-defined mixture of products due to cyclopropanation and C-H insertion reactions. Dichloropyridinyl(quinolin-8-yl)gallium(III) undergoes reaction with chloroform only at elevated temperature to yield quinolinium tetrachlorogallate salt as the product. This salt also forms in the reaction of chloroform with GaCl3 and quinoline at elevated temperature. The zwitterion could be converted to quinolinium tetrachlorogallate upon heating, which supports the idea that it was formed initially as an intermediate. Thus, the Ga/N Lewis pairs appear capable of dehydrodechlorination of chloroalkanes.

Chemistry Department.

 

Swanson, David L.King, Marisa O.Culver Iii, William, & Yufeng, Zhang. (2017). Within-Winter Flexibility in Muscle Masses, Myostatin, and Cellular Aerobic Metabolic Intensity in Passerine Birds. Physiological & Biochemical Zoology, 90(2), 210-222.

Metabolic rates of passerine birds are flexible traits that vary both seasonally and among and within winters. Seasonal variation in summit metabolic rates (Msum = maximum thermoregulatory metabolism) in birds is consistently correlated with changes in pectoralis muscle and heart masses and sometimes with variation in cellular aerobicmetabolic intensity, so these traits might also be associated with shorter-term, within-winter variation in metabolic rates. To determine whether these mechanisms are associated with within-winter variation in Msum, we examined the effects of short-term (ST; 0-7 d), medium-term (MT; 14-30 d), and long-term (LT; 30-yr means) temperature variables on pectoralis muscle and heart masses, pectoralis expression of the muscle-growth inhibitor myostatin and its metalloproteinase activators TLL-1 and TLL-2, and pectoralis and heart citrate synthase (CS; an indicator of cellular aerobic metabolic intensity) activities for two temperate-zone resident passerines, house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). For both species, pectoralis mass residuals were positively correlated with ST temperature variables, suggesting that cold temperatures resulted in increased turnover of pectoralis muscle, but heart mass showed little within-winter variation for either species. Pectoralis mRNA and protein expression of myostatin and the TLLs were only weakly correlated withSTandMTtemperature variables, which is largely consistent with trends in muscle masses for both species. Pectoralis and heart CS activities showed weak and variable trends with ST temperature variables in both species, suggesting only minor effects of temperature variation on cellular aerobic metabolic intensity. Thus, neither muscle or heart masses, regulation by the myostatin system, nor cellular aerobicmetabolic intensity varied consistently with winter temperature, suggesting that other factors regulate within-winter metabolic variation in these birds.

Biology Department.

 

Tjarks, B. Joel, Somani, N., Piliang, M., & Bergfeld, W. F. (2017). A proposed classification for follicular involvement by melanoma. Journal of Cutaneous Pathology, 44(1), 45-52.

Background: Folliculotropism in melanoma is poorly characterized and standard categorization for follicular involvement by melanoma is unavailable. We propose a logical categorization system. Methods: We conducted a search of our archives over a 24-year period for cases mentioning the terms follicle, follicular, folliculotropic, folliculocentric and melanoma. Results: We identified 90 cases of melanoma with involvement of the hair follicle. Distinct patterns were identified. The invasive patterns were primary follicular, folliculotropic and invasive arising from melanoma in situ (MIS) with extensive follicular involvement. Follicular involvement by MIS was either lentiginous, nested or a combination of both. A total of 29 invasive melanomas were identified. Of these 12 had invasive melanoma around the hair follicle, 2 were primary follicular melanomas, 7 showed folliculotropism and 3 were invasive melanomas arising from MIS around the follicle. Seventeen invasive melanomas had follicles only involved by MIS (9 nested, 6 nested and lentiginous and 2 lentiginous). A total of 61 cases of MIS with follicular involvement were identified; of these 33 were lentiginous, 10 nested and 18 both lentiginous and nested. Conclusion: We propose that the three distinct patterns of follicular involvement by invasive melanoma and the three distinct patterns of MIS will be valuable for logically categorizing involvement of the hair follicle by melanoma.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Wang, X. T., & Gang, H. F. (2017). Glucose-specific signaling effects on delay discounting in intertemporal choice.Physiology & Behavior, 169, 195-201.

We propose that decisions related to resource management (e.g., intertemporal choice between a smaller-and-sooner reward and a larger-and-later reward) are sensitive to and regulated by fluctuating blood glucose levels. Circulating glucose affects intertemporal choice by means of signaling body energy condition instead of serving as a replenishing resource for effortful cognitive processing. We intend to dissociate calorie-supplying functions from glucose-unique anticipatory effects on behavioral resource management, measured by delay discounting in making intertemporal choices. Regarding the anticipatory functions of the glucose-insulin system in regulating the degree of delay discounting, we tested three predictions: First, we predict that the signaling effects of circulating glucose on delay discounting do not need to be dose-dependent as long as glucose fluctuation indicates a directional trend in body energy budget. Second, such effects of glucose fluctuation on delay discounting are phagic (appetite related) instead of dipsian (thirst related). Third, this glucose-insulin signaling system requires glucose as the specific input, thus is insensitive to other forms of sugar that are not insulin regulated. In Study 1, fasting participants were randomly assigned to one of five groups: water consumption, zero-consumption, and three glucose consumption (18 g, 36 g, and 72 g cane sugar/250 ml water) groups. The participants competed two sets of intertemporal choice questions with varying delay discounting rates before and after a beverage intervention. The results showed that the rate of delay discounting was negatively correlated to blood glucose levels. The effects of circulating glucose on delay discounting closely followed the changes in blood glucose levels showing a plateau on both dose-response curies (i.e., the sugar dose-blood glucose level curve and the sugar does-delay discounting curve). Secondly, the effects of circulating glucose on delay discounting were significant only in the glucose ingestion group, but not in the Zero consumption and the water consumption groups, suggesting that the behavioral effects were in fact related to hunger-reduction instead of thirst-reduction. Study 2 revealed that glucose ingestion, but not Water or another form of sugar (xylitol matched to glucose either for sweetness or for calories), reduced delay discounting, making future options more attractive. This result suggests that signaling of body energy budget is indeed glucose -unique. Our results suggest a forecasting mechanism of the glucose-insulin system for both metabolic and behavioral regulations of resource acquisition and allocation. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Psychology Department.

 

Xu, Wenqin, & Elliott, Steven R. (2017). Solar axion search technique with correlated signals from multiple detectors.Astroparticle Physics, 89, 39-50.

The coherent Bragg scattering of photons converted from solar axions inside crystals would boost the signal for axion-photon coupling enhancing experimental sensitivity for these hypothetical particles. Knowledge of the scattering angle of solar axions with respect to the crystal lattice is required to make theoretical predications of signal strength. Hence, both the lattice axis angle within a crystal and the absolute angle between the crystal and the Sun must be known. In this paper, we examine how the experimental sensitivity changes with respect to various experimental parameters. We also demonstrate that, in a multiple-crystal setup, knowledge of the relative axis orientation between multiple crystals can improve the experimental sensitivity, or equivalently, relax the precision on the absolute solar angle measurement. However, if absolute angles of all crystal axes are measured, we find that a precision of 2 ∘ − 4 ∘ will suffice for an energy resolution of σ E = 0.04 E and a flat background. Finally, we also show that, given a minimum number of detectors, a signal model averaged over angles can substitute for precise crystal angular measurements, with some loss of sensitivity.

Physics Department.

Posted by: tadeterman | March 31, 2017

February 2017

Anderson, Jordan A., Remund, T., Pohlson, K., Lamichhane, Sujan, Evans, C., Evans, R., . . . Mani, Gopinath. (2017). In vitro and in vivo evaluation of effect of excipients in local delivery of paclitaxel using microporous infusion balloon catheters.Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B-Applied Biomaterials, 105(2), 376-390.

Drug-infusion balloons are one of the currently used local drug delivery devices for preventing restenosis after endovascular treatments. An antiproliferative drug (paclitaxel, PAT) is infused through the balloon using a cremophor-based formulation to control restenosis. However, the major limitations of this approach are poor in vivo drug uptake and a limit in the amount of PAT delivered because of cremophor toxicity. In this study, we have investigated the use of different excipients for effectively infusing PAT out of the balloon for improved drug uptake in the tissue. The excipients include nanoparticle albumin-bound PAT (nab-PAT, a nanobiomaterial used in cancer therapy), urea (a hydrophilic agent used for faster drug transfer), iodixanol (a contrast agent used for coronary angiography), and cremophor-PAT (the most commonly used PAT formulation). An in vitro drug release, smooth muscle cell (SMC) response, endothelial cell (EC) response, and in vivo drug uptake were investigated for all the different excipients of PAT infused through the balloon. The nab-PAT was as effective as cremophor in infusing out of the balloon and inhibiting SMC growth. Also, nab-PAT showed a significantly greater amount of in vivo PAT uptake than that of cremophor-PAT. Urea and iodixanol were not effective in delivering a clinically relevant dose of PAT due to the poor solubility of PAT in these excipients. Urea eradicated all the SMCs and ECs, suggesting a toxic effect, which impedes its use in balloon-based therapy. Thus, this study demonstrated that nab-PAT is an effective formulation to locally deliver PAT through infusion balloons. (C) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Burnette, Catherine Elizabeth,Soonhee, Roh, Kyoung Hag, Lee, Yeon-Shim, Lee, Newland, Lisa A., & Jung Sim, Jun. (2017). A Comparison of Risk and Protective Factors Related to Depressive Symptoms among American Indian and Caucasian Older Adults. Health & Social Work, 42(1), e15-e23.

Despite efforts to reduce health disparities, many American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations, including older adults, experience elevated levels of depression and associated suicide. Although adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and social support are well-documented risk and protective factors for depression in the general population, little is known about AI/AN populations, especially older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to depression among a sample of AI older adults in the Midwest. Data were collected using a self-administered survey completed by 479 AI and Caucasian respondents over the age of 50. The survey included standardized measures such as the Geriatric Depression Scale–Short Form, ACE Questionnaire, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the main hypotheses of the study. Results indicate that two dimensions of ACEs (childhood neglect and household dysfunction) were positively associated with depressive symptoms; social support was negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Perceived health and living alone were also significant predictors of depressive symptoms. ACEs may play a significant role in depression among AI/AN populations across the life course and into old age. Social support offers a promising mechanism to bolster resilience among AI/AN older adults.

School of Education.

 

De, P., Carlson, J. H., Jepperson, T., Willis, S., Leyland-Jones, B., &Dey, Nandini. (2017). RAC1 GTP-ase signals wnt-beta-catenin pathway mediated integrin-directed metastasis-associated tumor cell phenotypes in triple negative breast cancers. Oncotarget, 8(2), 3072-3103.

The acquisition of integrin-directed metastasis-associated (ID-MA) phenotypes by Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) cells is caused by an upregulation of the Wnt-beta-catenin pathway (WP). We reported that WP is one of the salient genetic features of TNBC. RAC-GTPases, small G-proteins which transduce signals from cell surface proteins including integrins, have been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis by their role in essential cellular functions like motility. The collective percentage of alteration(s) in RAC1 in ER+ve BC was lower as compared to ER-ve BC (35% vs 57%) (brca/tcga/pub2015). High expression of RAC1 was associated with poor outcome for RFS with HR= 1.48 [ CI: 1.15-1.9] p=0.0019 in the Hungarian ER-veBC cohort. Here we examined how WP signals are transduced via RAC1 in the context of ID-MA phenotypes in TNBC. Using pharmacological agents (sulindac sulfide), genetic tools (beta-catenin siRNA), WP modulators (Wnt-C59, XAV939), RAC1 inhibitors (NSC23766, W56) and WP stimulations (LWnt3ACM, Wnt3A recombinant) in a panel of 6-7 TNBC cell lines, we studied fibronectin-directed (1) migration, (2) matrigel invasion, (3) RAC1 and Cdc42 activation, (4) actin dynamics (confocal microscopy) and (5) podia-parameters. An attenuation of WP, which (a) decreased cellular levels of beta-catenin, as well as its nuclear active-form, (b) decreased fibronectin-induced migration, (c) decreased invasion, (d) altered actin dynamics and (e) decreased podia-parameters was successful in blocking fibronectin-mediated RAC1/Cdc42 activity. Both Wnt-antagonists and RAC1 inhibitors blocked fibronectin-induced RAC1 activation and inhibited the fibronectin-induced ID-MA phenotypes following specific WP stimulation by LWnt3ACM as well as Wnt3A recombinant protein. To test a direct involvement of RAC1-activation in WP-mediated ID-MA phenotypes, we stimulated brain-metastasis specific MDA-MB231BR cells with LWnt3ACM. LWnt3ACM-stimulated fibronectin-directed migration was blocked by RAC1 inhibition in MDA-MB231BR cells. In the light of our previous report that WP upregulation causes ID-MA phenotypes in TNBC tumor cells, here we provide the first mechanism based evidence to demonstrate that WP upregulation signals ID-MA tumor cell phenotypes in a RAC1-GTPase dependent manner involving exchange-factors like TIAM1 and VAV2. Our study demonstrates for the first time that betacatenin-RAC1 cascade signals integrin-directed metastasis-associated tumor cell phenotypes in TNBC.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Forred, B. J., Daugaard, D. R., Titus, B. K., …., & Vitiello, Peter F.(2017). Detoxification of Mitochondrial Oxidants and Apoptotic Signaling Are Facilitated by Thioredoxin-2 and Peroxiredoxin-3 during Hyperoxic Injury. Plos One, 12(1), 20.

Mitochondria play a fundamental role in the regulation of cell death during accumulation of oxidants. High concentrations of atmospheric oxygen (hyperoxia), used clinically to treat tissue hypoxia in premature newborns, is known to elicit oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury to pulmonary epithelial cells. A consequence of oxidative stress in mitochondria is the accumulation of peroxides which are detoxified by the dedicated mitochondrial thioredoxin system. This system is comprised of the oxidoreductase activities of peroxiredoxin-3 (Prx3), thioredoxin-2 (Trx2), and thioredoxin reductase-2 (TrxR2). The goal of this study was to understand the role of the mitochondrial thioredoxin system and mitochondrial injuries during hyperoxic exposure. Flow analysis of the redox-sensitive, mitochondrial-specific fluorophore, MitoSOX, indicated increased levels of mitochondrial oxidant formation in human adenocarcinoma cells cultured in 95% oxygen. Increased expression of Trx2 and TrxR2 in response to hyperoxia were not attributable to changes in mitochondrial mass, suggesting that hyperoxic upregulation of mitochondrial thioredoxins prevents accumulation of oxidized Prx3. Mitochondrial oxidoreductase activities were modulated through pharmacological inhibition of TrxR2 with auranofin and genetically through shRNA knockdown of Trx2 and Prx3. Diminished Trx2 and Prx3 expression was associated with accumulation of mitochondrial superoxide; however, only shRNA knockdown of Trx2 increased susceptibility to hyperoxic cell death and increased phosphorylation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1). In conclusion, the mitochondrial thioredoxin system regulates hyperoxic-mediated death of pulmonary epithelial cells through detoxification of oxidants and regulation of redox-dependent apoptotic signaling.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Hansen, John. (2017). Opiates for Chronic Pain. Pain Practice, 17(1), 147-148.

The article presents ten problems that would help improve patient-centered, multidisciplinary care for chronic pain, including structured opiate prescribing when indicated, in the U.S. Topics discussed include the poor outcomes of self-care, either individually or collectively, the challenge opiate prescribing risk reduction, and the problem of substance abuse and addiction.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Juber, Brian A., Harris Jackson, Kristina,Johnson, Kristopher B.Harris, William S., & Baack, Michelle L. (2017). Breast milk DHA levels may increase after informing women: a community-based cohort study from South Dakota USA. International Breastfeeding Journal, 12, 1-9.

Background: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid found in breast milk, has many health benefits for both mother and baby. A 2007 meta-analysis found U.S. women had breast milk DHA levels (0.20% of total fatty acids) below the worldwide mean (0.32%). In 2008, international dietary recommendations were made for pregnant and lactating women to consume 200 mg of DHA per day. This community-based study aimed to define current milk DHA levels from upper Midwest USA lactating mothers and to determine if providing information about their own level along with dietary recommendations would incite changes to increase breast milk DHA content. Methods: New mothers attending lactation classes or using hospital pumping rooms in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA participated by providing one drop of breast milk on a card for fatty acid analysis at baseline and 1 month after initial reporting. DHA levels were analyzed by gas chromatography. Mothers received a report of their own breast milk level along with dietary recommendations on DHA intake for lactating women. Median baseline and follow-up DHA levels were determined and differences were compared by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: At baseline, breast milk DHA content (n = 84) was highly variable (range 0.05 to 0.73%) with a median of 0.18% (IQR, 0.13, 0.28; mean ± SD, 0.22 ± 0.13%), well below the worldwide average (0.32%). Women who reported taking DHA supplements (n = 43) had higher levels than those who did not (0.23% vs. 0.15%, P < 0.0001). In a subset of 60 mothers who submitted a second sample, median breast milk DHA content increased from 0.19 to 0.22% (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Findings suggest that providing nursing mothers with their breast milk DHA level and education about DHA intake while breastfeeding motivates change to increase DHA levels.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Jung-Ho, SonTamang, Sem Raj,Fostvedt, Jade I., &Hoefelmeyer, James D. (2017). Dehydrodechlorination of Methylene Chloride, Chloroform, and Chlorodiphenylmethane in the Presence of Ga/N Lewis Pairs.Organometallics, 36(2), 474-479.

Transmetalation occurs upon addition of GaCl3 to (quinolin-8-yl)trimethylstannane. The compound dissolves immediately in pyridine, and recrystallization gives dichloropyridinyl(quinolin-8-yl)gallium(III). In chloroform, the compound bis-μ-(quinolin-8-yl)-μ-chloro-dichlorodigallium(III) tetrachlorogallate could be isolated in small quantities; however, the major product was trichloro(quinolinium-8-yl)gallate(III) zwitterion. The zwitterion also formed upon addition of methylene chloride or chlorodiphenylmethane. We hypothesize that the highly electrophilic digallyl cation abstracts chloride to form a carbocation and that proton transfer from the carbocation to the quinoline nitrogen affords transient carbenes. In particular, diphenyl carbene forms from dehydrodechlorination of chlorodiphenylmethane in toluene/cyclohexene to give a well-defined mixture of products due to cyclopropanation and C-H insertion reactions. Dichloropyridinyl(quinolin-8-yl)gallium(III) undergoes reaction with chloroform only at elevated temperature to yield quinolinium tetrachlorogallate salt as the product. This salt also forms in the reaction of chloroform with GaCl3 and quinoline at elevated temperature. The zwitterion could be converted to quinolinium tetrachlorogallate upon heating, which supports the idea that it was formed initially as an intermediate. Thus, the Ga/N Lewis pairs appear capable of dehydrodechlorination of chloroalkanes.

Chemistry Department.

 

Mayhan, William G., & Arrick, Denise M. (2017). Tetrahydrobiopterin rescues impaired responses of cerebral resistance arterioles during type 1 diabetes.Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research, 14(1), 33-39.

Our goal was to test the hypothesis that administration of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) would improve impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase-dependent dilation of cerebral arterioles during type 1 diabetes. In addition, we examined the influence of BH4 on levels of superoxide in brain tissue. In vivo diameter of cerebral arterioles in nondiabetic and diabetic rats was measured in response to endothelial nitric oxide synthase-dependent agonists (acetylcholine and adenosine 5-diphosphate) and an endothelial nitric oxide synthase-independent agonist (nitroglycerine) before and during application of BH4 (1.0 mu M). We also measured levels of superoxide from cortex tissue in nondiabetic and diabetic rats under basal states and during BH4. Acetylcholine and adenosine 5-diphosphate dilated cerebral arterioles in nondiabetic rats, but this vasodilation was significantly impaired in diabetic rats. In contrast, nitroglycerine produced similar vasodilation in nondiabetic and diabetic rats. Application of BH4 did not enhance vasodilation in nondiabetic rats but improved impaired cerebral vasodilation in diabetic rats. Basal superoxide levels were increased in cortex tissue from diabetic rats, and BH4 reduced these levels to that found in nondiabetic rats. Thus, BH4 is an important mediator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase-dependent responses of cerebral arterioles in diabetes and may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of cerebral vascular disease.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

McDougall, Matthew A.Walsh, MichaelWater, Kristina,Knigge, RyanMiller, Lindsey,Steverrner, Michalene, & Fogas, Bruce S. (2016). The effect of social networking sites on the relationship between perceived social support and depression.Psychiatry Research, 246, 223-229.

This study examined whether Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have a negative moderator effect on the established relationship between perceived social support and depression in psychiatric inpatients. Survey instruments assessing for depression, perceived social support, and SNS use, were filled out by 301 psychiatric inpatients. Additional data on age, gender, and primary psychiatric diagnosis were collected. A step-wise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine significant interactions. There was no significant interaction of SNS use on the relationship between perceived social support and depression when measured by Social Media Use Integration Scale or by hours of SNS use per day. There was a significant negative relationship between perceived social support and depression, and a significant positive relationship between hours of SNS use per day and depression, measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Limitations include a gender discrepancy among participants, generalizability, recall bias, and SNS measurement. This is the first study to look at SNS use and depression in psychiatric inpatients. SNS use did not affect perceived social support or the protective relationship between perceived social support and depression. Hours of SNS use per day were correlated with depression scores. Future studies between SNS use and depression should quantify daily SNS use. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

McDougall, Matthew A.Walsh, MichaelWattier, Kristina,Knigge, RyanMiller, Lindsey,Stevermer, Michalene, & Fogas, Bruce S. (2016). The effect of social networking sites on the relationship between perceived social support and depression.Psychiatry Research, 246, 223-229.

This study examined whether Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have a negative moderator effect on the established relationship between perceived social support and depression in psychiatric inpatients. Survey instruments assessing for depression, perceived social support, and SNS use, were filled out by 301 psychiatric inpatients. Additional data on age, gender, and primary psychiatric diagnosis were collected. A step-wise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine significant interactions. There was no significant interaction of SNS use on the relationship between perceived social support and depression when measured by Social Media Use Integration Scale or by hours of SNS use per day. There was a significant negative relationship between perceived social support and depression, and a significant positive relationship between hours of SNS use per day and depression, measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Limitations include a gender discrepancy among participants, generalizability, recall bias, and SNS measurement. This is the first study to look at SNS use and depression in psychiatric inpatients. SNS use did not affect perceived social support or the protective relationship between perceived social support and depression. Hours of SNS use per day were correlated with depression scores. Future studies between SNS use and depression should quantify daily SNS use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Meyer, M., Kovacs, Attila D., & Pearce, David A. (2017). Decreased sensitivity of palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1-deficient neurons to chemical anoxia.Metabolic Brain Disease, 32(1), 275-279.

Infantile CLN1 disease, also known as infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, is a fatal childhood neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the CLN1 gene. CLN1 encodes a soluble lysosomal enzyme, palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1), and it is still unclear why neurons are selectively vulnerable to the loss of PPT1 enzyme activity in infantile CLN1 disease. To examine the effects of PPT1 deficiency on several well-defined neuronal signaling and cell death pathways, different toxic insults were applied in cerebellar granule neuron cultures prepared from wild type (WT) and palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1-deficient (Ppt1 (-/-) ) mice, a model of infantile CLN1 disease. Glutamate uptake inhibition by t-PDC (L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid) or Zn2+-induced general mitochondrial dysfunction caused similar toxicity in WT and Ppt1 (-/-) cultures. Ppt1 (-/-) neurons, however, were more sensitive to mitochondrial complex I inhibition by MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium), and had significantly decreased sensitivity to chemical anoxia induced by the mitochondrial complex IV inhibitor, sodium azide. Our results indicate that PPT1 deficiency causes alterations in the mitochondrial respiratory chain.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Min, Jia-Wei, Lü, Lanhai, Freeling, Jessica L.Martin, Doug S., &Wang, Hongmin. (2017). USP14 inhibitor attenuates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury in mice. Journal of Neurochemistry, 140(5), 826-833.

Stroke is associated with over-production of misfolded and aggregating proteins. However, it remains largely unclear whether enhanced removal of protein aggregates following ischemic stroke is neuroprotective. Deubiquitinating enzymes ( DUBs) are a large group of proteases that regulate protein degradation. The ubiquitin-specific protease 14 ( USP14) is a DUB that is associated with the proteasome and negatively regulates proteasome activity. In this study, we examined the effect of 1-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2,5-dimethylpyrrol-3-yl]-2-pyrrolidin-1-ylethanone ( IU1), a specific small molecule inhibitor of USP14, on mouse focal cerebral ischemic stroke-induced neuronal injury in mice. We found that IU1 treatment attenuated ischemic stroke-caused neuronal injury, which was reflected by increased survival rate, reduced infarct volume, as well as decreased neuronal loss in the IU1-treated mice compared to the control-treated mice. Additionally, IU1 treatment is associated with reduced protein aggregates and enhanced proteasome functionality. These data not only highlight the significance of protein homeostasis in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury but also extend the therapeutic role of DUB inhibitors.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Pingree, M. J., Sole, Joshua S., O’ Brien, T. G., Eldrige, J. S., & Moeschler, S. M. (2017). Clinical Efficacy of an Ultrasound-Guided Greater Occipital Nerve Block at the Level of C2. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 42(1), 99-104.

Background and Objectives: The purpose of this prospective open-label study was to investigate the analgesic effects of an ultrasound-guided greater occipital nerve (GON) block at the level of C2, as the nerve courses superficially to the obliquus capitis inferior muscle. Methods: Patients with a diagnosis of occipital neuralgia or cervicogenic headache were recruited for the study. Ultrasound-guided GON blocks at the level of C2 were performed by experienced clinicians according to a standardized protocol. Numeric rating scale pain scores were recorded preinjection and at 30 minutes, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks after injection. Results: A total of 14 injections were performed with a mean procedure time of 3.75 minutes. Anesthesia in the GON distribution was achieved for 86% of patients at 30 minutes postinjection. Compared with baseline, numeric rating scale scores decreased by a mean of 3.78 at 30 minutes (P < 0.001), 2.64 at 2 weeks (P = 0.006), and 2.21 at 4 weeks (P = 0.01). There were no significant adverse events reported during the study period. Conclusions: This prospective open-label study demonstrated successful blockade of the GONat the level of C2 using a novel ultrasound-guided technique. Significant reductions in pain scores were observed over the 4-week study period, and no adverse events were reported. The observations from this study provide important preliminary data for future randomized trials involving patients with occipital neuralgia and cervicogenic headache.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Pitcher, Kristopher A., & Soluk, Daniel A. (2016). Inter-patch connectivity and intra-patch structure differentially alter prey consumption by multiple predators. Ecosphere, 7(11), 14.

Structural habitat complexity (SHC) and functional habitat connectivity (FHC) have important effects on predator-prey interactions and exert a strong influence on community structure/dynamics in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Although these factors vary simultaneously in most systems, their interactive effects are poorly understood. Using artificial pond mesocosms and multiple prey types, we manipulated plant density (SHC: low, high) and inter-patch distance (FHC: short, long) in a full factorial design to test for potential interactive effects of these factors on competition and predation by a dragonfly larva (Anax junius) and fish predator (Lepomis cyanallus). When inter-patch distances (FHC) were short, A. junius consumed more amphipods (36% +/- 4.6%) compared with long treatments (19% +/- 4.8%). We detected no significant effects of plant density (SHC) on prey consumption by A. junius. There were significant interactive effects of FHC and SHC on Lepomis cyanellus consumption of amphipods and damselflies. The most counterintuitive of these effects was that sunfish consumed more larval damselflies at high plant density (64% +/- 6.0%) than at low plant density (38% +/- 8.6%) but only in short connection treatments. This interactive effect of SHC and FHC on damselfly predation by L. cyanellus was likely because damselflies exhibited riskier behavior at higher SHC. Prey consumption with both predators present was additive, but no significant effect of either SHC or FHC on interspecific predation was detected, suggesting compensatory foraging responses. Structural habitat complexity and FHC interactively influence predator foraging behavior in complex, non-intuitive ways that are highly dependent on the predator/prey combination in question. Structural habitat complexity and FHC are currently being influenced by anthropogenic factors in multiple ways (e.g., habitat loss, global climate change), and being able to predict the responses of biotic communities to these changes should be an important consideration in restoration and conservation efforts.

Biology Department.

 

Posthumus, David C. (2016). Hereditary enemies? An examination of Sioux–Arikara relations prior to 1830. Plains Anthropologist, 61(240), 361-382.

Sociology and Anthropology Department.

 

Puckett, Jae A., Newcomb, M. E., Ryan, D. T., Swann, G., Garofalo, R., & Mustanski, B. (2017). Internalized Homophobia and Perceived Stigma: a Validation Study of Stigma Measures in a Sample of Young Men who Have Sex with Men. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 14(1), 1-16.

Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) experience minority stressors that impact their mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Internalized homophobia (IH) and perceived stigma represent two of these minority stressors, and there has been limited research empirically validating measures of these constructs. We validated measures of IH and perceived stigma with a sample of 450 YMSM (mean age = 18.9) and a sample of 370 YMSM (mean age = 22.9). Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported modifications to the IH and perceived stigma scales, ultimately revealing a three factor and one factor structure, respectively. Convergent and discriminant validity were examined utilizing correlations between IH, perceived stigma, and other variables related to minority stress (e.g., victimization). We evaluated predictive validity by examining relations with mental health, substance use, and risky sexual behaviors measured 12-months from baseline. There were mixed findings for IH, with subscales varying in their relations to mental health, drinking, and sexual risk variables. Perceived stigma was not related to mental health or substance use, but was associated with greater prevalence of STIs. Findings supported the use of these modified scales with YMSM and highlight the need for further measurement studies.

Psychology Department.

 

Puckett, Jae A., Newcomb, Michael E., Garofalo, Robert, & Mustanski, Brian. (2017). Examining the conditions under which internalized homophobia is associated with substance use and condomless sex in young msm: The moderating role of impulsivity. Annals of Behavioral Medicine.

Background: Internalized homophobia (IH) is the internalization of homophobic attitudes by sexual minorities due to social bias. IH has been inconsistently related to substance use and condomless sex for young men who have sex with men (YMSM).Purpose: We examined negative urgency (the tendency to act impulsively in response to negative emotional experiences), positive urgency (the tendency to act impulsively in response to positive emotional experiences), and sensation seeking as independent moderators of the association of IH with binge drinking, drug use, and condomless anal sex.Methods: Data were collected from 450 YMSM (mean age = 18.9) over the course of 18 months (baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up).Results: Hierarchical generalized linear modeling revealed that there was a significant moderation for binge drinking and receptive condomless anal sex, with the association between IH and these risk behaviors increased for those with higher levels of negative urgency and positive urgency.Conclusions: IH is important to the negative health outcomes of binge drinking and condomless anal sex for individuals high in negative and/or positive urgency, who may act impulsively to avoid subjective negative experiences or in the face of positive emotional experiences. Future research is needed to further establish additional conditions under which IH may be important to understanding risk behaviors in YMSM, which is essential to developing targeted prevention and intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Psychology Department.

 

Sariol, Ana M., & Abebe, Michael A. (2017). The influence of CEO power on explorative and exploitative organizational innovation. Journal of Business Research, 73, 38-45.

Despite the growing research evidence on the effect of powerful CEOs on organizational outcomes, their role in shaping the firm’s innovation agenda has received little scholarly attention. This study examines the effect of CEO power on exploratory and exploitative innovation. Drawing from core arguments of Behavioral Agency Theory, this study proposes that firms led by powerful CEOs are likely to pursue more exploratory and less exploitative innovations. Furthermore, these relationships are significantly strengthened by CEO Outsider Status. Using data from 150 U.S. firms, the results reveal a significant positive relationship between CEO power and explorative innovation. Contrary to predictions, firms led by powerful CEOs engage in more not less exploitative innovation when the CEO is appointed from outside the firm. Overall, the findings provide a more nuanced explanation of the link between CEO power and organizational innovation. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Sazama, Eric J., Bosch, Michael J.,Shouldis, Carmelita S.,Ouellette, Scot P., & Wesner, Jeff S. (2017). Incidence of Wolbachia in aquatic insects.Ecology & Evolution (20457758), 7(4), 1165-1169.

Wolbachia is a genus of intracellular bacteria typically found within the reproductive systems of insects that manipulates those systems of their hosts. While current estimates of Wolbachia incidence suggest that it infects approximately half of all arthropod species, these estimates are based almost entirely on terrestrial insects. No systematic survey of Wolbachia in aquatic insects has been performed. To estimate Wolbachia incidence among aquatic insect species, we combined field-collected samples from the Missouri River (251 samples from 58 species) with a global database from previously published surveys. The final database contained 5,598 samples of 2,687 total species (228 aquatic and 2,459 terrestrial). We estimate that 52% (95% CrIs: 44%-60%) of aquatic insect species carry Wolbachia, compared to 60% (58%-63%) of terrestrial insects. Among aquatic insects, infected orders included Odonata, Coleoptera, Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, and Plecoptera. Incidence was highest within aquatic Diptera and Hemiptera (69%), Odonata (50%), and Coleoptera (53%), and was lowest within Ephemeroptera (13%). These results indicate that Wolbachia is common among aquatic insects, but incidence varies widely across orders and is especially uncertain in those orders with low sample sizes such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Sheets, Jordan N., Iwanicki, M., Liu, J. F., Howitt, B. E., Hirsch, M. S., Gubbels, J. A. A., . . . Egland, Kristi A. (2016). SUSD2 expression in high-grade serous ovarian cancer correlates with increased patient survival and defective mesothelial clearance. Oncogenesis, 5, 12.

The cause of death among the majority of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients involves passive dissemination of cancer cells within the peritoneal cavity and subsequent implantation of cancer spheroids into adjacent organs. Thus, it is important to identify the factors that mediate EOC metastasis and implantation, including clearance of the mesothelium. Sushi domain containing 2 (SUSD2) encodes a type I transmembrane protein containing several functional domains inherent to adhesion molecules. Immunohistochemical analysis determined the presence of SUSD2 in several subtypes of EOC, with the strongest staining observed in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOCs). A high-density, clinically annotated HGSOC tissue microarray was stained with an anti-SUSD2 antibody. Patients with tumors that had a low percentage of SUSD2 staining cells had a shorter median survival (31.7 months) compared with patients who had tumors with extensive SUSD2 staining (49.1 months; P-value = 0.0083). To investigate the role of SUSD2 in HGSOCs, stable OVCAR3, OVSAHO and KURAMOCHI cell lines were established with knockdown (KD) or non-targeting (NT) of SUSD2. Boyden chamber and wound-healing assays demonstrated that OVCAR3, OVSAHO and KURAMOCHI SUSD2-KD cells migrated at significantly higher rates compared with their SUSD2 NT counterpart cell lines. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and western immunoblot analysis indicated an inverse relationship between SUSD2 and well-characterized mesenchymal proteins, including Twist-1, Zeb-1, N-cadherin, STEAP1, AHNAK, Snail-1, COL5A2 and Snail-3 in OVCAR3, OVSAHO and KURAMOCHI cell line models. In addition, OVCAR3 and KURAMOCHI SUSD2-KD spheroids displayed increased mesothelial clearance ability compared with cells that express endogenous levels of SUSD2. These data suggest that SUSD2 has a role in the inhibition of mesothelial clearance, which is required for metastasis. Altogether, our findings indicate that SUSD2 impedes migration, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitional and mesothelial clearance of HGSOC cells, consistent with prolonged survival of patients with SUSD2-expressing tumors.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Strouse, Gabrielle A., & Ganea, P. A. (2016). Are Prompts Provided by Electronic Books as Effective for Teaching Preschoolers a Biological Concept as Those Provided by Adults? Early Education and Development, 27(8), 1190-1204.

Research Findings: Prior research indicates that shared book reading is an effective method for teaching biological concepts to young children. Adult questioning during reading enhances children’s comprehension. We investigated whether adult prompting during the reading of an electronic book enhanced children’s understanding of a biological concept. Ninety-one 4-year- olds read about camouflage in 3 conditions. We varied how prompts were provided: (a) read by the book, (b) read by a researcher, or (c) given face to face by the researcher. There was an interaction between children’s initial vocabulary level and condition. Children with low vocabulary scores gave fewer camouflage responses than their high-vocabulary peers, and this effect was particularly pronounced in the book-read condition. Children’s executive function was also measured and discussed. Practice or Policy: Our findings indicate that under some circumstances electronic prompts built into touchscreen books can be as effective at supporting conceptual development as the same prompts provided by a coreading adult. However, children with low vocabulary skills may be particularly supported by adult-led prompting. We suggest that adult prompting be used to motivate children to test and revise their own biological theories. Once children have learned strategies for updating their concepts, electronic prompting may be useful for scaffolding children’s transition to using the strategies when reading alone.

School of Education.

 

Strouse, Gabrielle A., & Ganea, Patricia A. (2017). Toddlers’ word learning and transfer from electronic and print books.Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 156, 129-142.

Transfer from symbolic media to the real world can be difficult for young children. A sample of 73 toddlers aged 17 to 23 months were read either an electronic book displayed on a touchscreen device or a traditional print book in which a novel object was paired with a novel label. Toddlers in both conditions learned the label within the context of the book. However, only those who read the traditional format book generalized and transferred the label to other contexts. An older group of 28 toddlers aged 24 to 30 months did generalize and transfer from the electronic book. Across ages, those children who primarily used screens to watch prerecorded video at home transferred less from the electronic book than those with more diverse home media experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

School of Education.

 

Tamang, Sem Raj, & Hoefelmeyer, James D. (2016). Direct arylation catalysis with chloro 8-(dimesitylboryl)quinoline-kappa N copper(I). Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry, 12, 2757-2762.

We report direct arylation of arylhalides with unactivated sp(2) C-H bonds in benzene and naphthalene using a copper(I) catalyst featuring an ambiphilic ligand, (quinolin-8-yl) dimesitylborane. Direct arylation could be achieved with 0.2 mol % catalyst and 3 equivalents of base (KO(t-Bu)) at 80 degrees C to afford TON approximate to 160-190 over 40 hours.

Chemistry Department.

 

Villano, Ines, Messina, Antonietta, Valenzano, Anna, …., Summers, Cliff H., & Mallick, Birendra N. (2017). Basal Forebrain Cholinergic System and Orexin Neurons: Effects on Attention.Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 11, 1-11.

The basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic system has an important role in attentive functions. The cholinergic system can be activated by different inputs, and in particular, by orexin neurons, whose cell bodies are located within the postero-lateral hypothalamus. Recently the orexin-producing neurons have been proved to promote arousal and attention through their projections to the BF. The aim of this review article is to summarize the evidence showing that the orexin system contributes to attentional processing by an increase in cortical acetylcholine release and in cortical neurons activity.

Biology Department.

 

Wang, X. T., & Huangfu, Gang. (2017). Glucose-specific signaling effects on delay discounting in intertemporal choice.Physiology & Behavior, 169, 195-201.

We propose that decisions related to resource management (e.g., intertemporal choice between a smaller-and-sooner reward and a larger-and-later reward) are sensitive to and regulated by fluctuating blood glucose levels. Circulating glucose affects intertemporal choice by means of signaling body energy condition instead of serving as a replenishing resource for effortful cognitive processing. We intend to dissociate calorie-supplying functions from glucose-unique anticipatory effects on behavioral resource management, measured by delay discounting in making intertemporal choices. Regarding the anticipatory functions of the glucose–insulin system in regulating the degree of delay discounting, we tested three predictions: First, we predict that the signaling effects of circulating glucose on delay discounting do not need to be dose-dependent as long as glucose fluctuation indicates a directional trend in body energy budget. Second, such effects of glucose fluctuation on delay discounting are phagic (appetite related) instead of dipsian (thirst related). Third, this glucose–insulin signaling system requires glucose as the specific input, thus is insensitive to other forms of sugar that are not insulin regulated. In Study 1, fasting participants were randomly assigned to one of five groups: water consumption, zero-consumption, and three glucose consumption (18 g, 36 g, and 72 g cane sugar/250 ml water) groups. The participants competed two sets of intertemporal choice questions with varying delay discounting rates before and after a beverage intervention. The results showed that the rate of delay discounting was negatively correlated to blood glucose levels. The effects of circulating glucose on delay discounting closely followed the changes in blood glucose levels showing a plateau on both dose-response curves (i.e., the sugar dose-blood glucose level curve and the sugar does-delay discounting curve). Secondly, the effects of circulating glucose on delay discounting were significant only in the glucose ingestion group, but not in the zero consumption and the water consumption groups, suggesting that the behavioral effects were in fact related to hunger-reduction instead of thirst-reduction. Study 2 revealed that glucose ingestion, but not water or another form of sugar (xylitol matched to glucose either for sweetness or for calories), reduced delay discounting, making future options more attractive. This result suggests that signaling of body energy budget is indeed glucose-unique. Our results suggest a forecasting mechanism of the glucose-insulin system for both metabolic and behavioral regulations of resource acquisition and allocation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Psychology Department.

 

Wang, Z. F., Kedzierski, L., Nuessing, S., …., Huber, Victor C., Jackson, D. C., . . . Kedzierska, K. (2016). Establishment of memory CD8(+) T cells with live attenuated influenza virus across different vaccination doses. Journal of General Virology, 97, 3205-3214.

FluMist has been used in children and adults for more than 10 years. As pre-existing CD8(+) T cell memory pools can provide heterologous immunity against distinct influenza viruses, it is important to understand influenza-specific CD8(+) T cell responses elicited by different live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) regimens. In this study, we immunized mice intranasally with two different doses of live-attenuated PR8 virus (PR8 ts, H1N1), low and high, and then assessed protective efficacy by challenging animals with heterosubtypic X31-H3N2 virus at 6 weeks post-vaccination. Different LAIV doses elicited influenza-specific CD8(+) T cell responses in lungs and spleen, but unexpectedly not in bronchoalveolar lavage. Interestingly, the immunodominance hierarchy at the acute phase after immunization varied depending on the LAIV dose; however, these differences disappeared at 6 weeks post-vaccination, resulting in generation of comparable CD8(+) T cell memory pools. After vaccination with either dose, sufficient numbers of specific CD8(+) T cells were generated for recall and protection of mice against heterosubtypic H1N1 -> H3N2 challenge. As a result, immunized mice displayed reduced weight loss, diminished inflammatory responses and lower viral titres in lungs, when compared to unvaccinated animals. Interestingly, the higher dose led to enhanced viral clearance on day 5 post-challenge, though this was not associated with increased CD8(+) T cell responses, but with higher levels of non-neutralizing antibodies against the priming virus. Our study suggests that, while different LAIV doses result in distinct immune profiles, even a low dose produces sufficient protective CD8(+) T cell memory against challenge infection, though the high dose results in more rapid viral clearance and reduced inflammation.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Yao, Bin, Kolla, Praveen, Koodali, Ranjit, Ding, Yichun, Balaranjan, SelvaratnamShrestha, Sunav, & Smirnova, Alevtina. (2017). Enzymatic decomposition and electrochemical study of alkali lignin by laccase (Trametes versicolor) in the presence of a natural mediator (methyl syringate). New Journal of Chemistry, 41(3), 958-964.

The aerobic-enzymatic decomposition of alkali lignin in the presence of laccase from Trametes versicolor (LTV) and the natural mediator methyl syringate in acetic acid–sodium acetate buffer solution (pH = 4.5) at 40 °C in an oxygen-rich (aerobic) environment is studied. SEM and BET analyses are used to characterize the changes in the surface area and morphology of lignin that occurred during the exposure to the laccase–mediator system (LMS) for 72 h. The LMS interaction causes a 2-fold improvement in the surface area from 4.9 to 9.8 m2 g−1, due to significant changes in the mesoporous structure of lignin within a pore size of 2–120 nm. This could be due to an efficient interaction of the surface phenolic groups and internal mesoporous β-O-4 network of lignin with the LMS in an aerobic environment. To further understand the enzymatic degradation of lignin, electrochemical oxidation of a thin film of lignin on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) is performed under aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions in the presence of the LMS. A synergistic lignin electrooxidation in the aerobic environment is observed due to the promotion of LMS activity by a parallel oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Based on the electrochemical studies, a mechanism for understanding the role of oxygen in the enzymatic oxidation of lignin in an aerobic environment and the stability of the mediator radical (MSṖ) is proposed.

Chemistry Department.

 

Yao, Qingqing, Cosme, J. G. L., Xu, T.,Miszuk, Jacob M., Picciani, P. H. S., Fong, H., & Sun, Hongli. (2017). Three dimensional electrospun PCL/PLA blend nanofibrous scaffolds with significantly improved stem cells osteogenic differentiation and cranial bone formation.Biomaterials, 115, 115-127.

Nanofibrous scaffolds that are morphologically/structurally similar to natural ECM are highly interested for tissue engineering; however, the electrospinning technique has the difficulty in directly producing clinically relevant 3D nanofibrous scaffolds with desired structural properties. To address this challenge, we have developed an innovative technique of thermally induced nanofiber self-agglomeration (TISA) recently. The aim of this work was to prepare (via the TISA technique) and evaluate 3D electrospun PCL/PLA blend (mass ratio: 4/1) nanofibrous scaffolds having high porosity of similar to 95.8% as well as interconnected and hierarchically structured pores with sizes from sub-micrometers to similar to 300 mu m for bone tissue engineering. The hypothesis was that the incorporation of PLA (with higher mechanical stiffness/modulus and bioactivity) into PCL nanofibers would significantly improve human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) osteogenic differentiation in vitro and bone formation in vivo. Compared to neat PCL-3D scaffolds, PCL/PLA-3D blend scaffolds had higher mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity; as a result, they not only enhanced the cell viability of hMSCs but also promoted the osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, our in vivo studies revealed that PCL/PLA-3D scaffolds considerably facilitated new bone formation in a critical-sized cranial bone defect mouse model. In summary, both in vitro and in vivo results indicated that novel 3D electrospun PCL/PLA blend nanofibrous scaffolds would be strongly favorable/desired for hMSCs osteogenic differentiation and cranial bone formation. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

Posted by: tadeterman | March 31, 2017

January 2017

Aloreidi, KhalilBhavesh Patel, & Muslim Atiq. (2016). Intraductal cholangioscopy-guided electrohydraulic lithotripsy as a rescue therapy for impacted common bile duct stones within a Dormia basket. Endoscopy, 48, E357-E358.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Anuwatworn, AmornpolMaheedhar GedelaEdgard BendalyJulia A. Prescott-FochtJimmy YeeRichard Clark, et al. (2016). Sinus Venosus Atrial Septal Defect Complicated by Eisenmenger Syndrome and the Role of Vasodilator Therapy. Case Reports in Cardiology, 5.

Sinus venosus atrial septal defect is a rare congenital, interatrial communication defect at the junction of the right atrium and the vena cava. It accounts for 5-10% of cases of all atrial septal defects. Due to the rare prevalence and anatomical complexity, diagnosing sinus venous atrial septal defects poses clinical challenges which may delay diagnosis and treatment. Advanced cardiac imaging studies are useful tools to diagnose this clinical entity and to delineate the anatomy and any associated communications. Surgical correction of the anomaly is the primary treatment. We discuss a 43-year-old Hispanic female patient who presented with dyspnea and hypoxia following a laparoscopic myomectomy. She had been diagnosed with peripartum cardiomyopathy nine years ago at another hospital. Transesophageal echocardiography and computed tomographic angiography of the chest confirmed a diagnosis of sinus venosus atrial septal defect. She was also found to have pulmonary arterial hypertension and Eisenmenger syndrome. During a hemodynamic study, she responded to vasodilator and she was treated with Ambrisentan and Tadalafil. After six months, her symptoms improved and her pulmonary arterial hypertension decreased. We also observed progressive reversal of the right-to-left shunt. This case illustrates the potential benefit of vasodilator therapy in reversing Eisenmenger physiology, which may lead to surgical repair of the atrial septal defect as the primary treatment.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Bubak, A. N., J. D. W. Yaeger, Kenneth J. Renner, J. G. Swallow, & M. J. Greene. (2016). Neuromodulation of Nestmate Recognition Decisions by Pavement Ants. Plos One, 11(11), 15.

Ant colonies are distributed systems that are regulated in a non-hierarchical manner. Without a central authority, individuals inform their decisions by comparing information in local cues to a set of inherent behavioral rules. Individual behavioral decisions collectively change colony behavior and lead to self-organization capable of solving complex problems such as the decision to engage in aggressive societal conflicts with neighbors. Despite the relevance to colony fitness, the mechanisms that drive individual decisions leading to cooperative behavior are not well understood. Here we show how sensory information, both tactile and chemical, and social context-isolation, nestmate interaction, or fighting non-nestmates-affects brain monoamine levels in pavement ants (Tetramorium caespitum). Our results provide evidence that changes in octopamine and serotonin in the brains of individuals are sufficient to alter the decision by pavement ants to be aggressive towards non-nestmate ants whereas increased brain levels of dopamine correlate to physical fighting. We propose a model in which the changes in brain states of many workers collectively lead to the self-organization of societal aggression between neighboring colonies of pavement ants.

Biology Department.

 

Cerny, Shana. (2016). The Role of Occupational Therapy within the Federal Strategic Action Plan on Services for Victims of Human Trafficking in the United States. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 32(4), 317-328.

The occupational injustices experienced by human trafficking survivors lead to immediate occupational performance deficits and promote long-term instability. Experience and previous patterns of behavior contribute to the deficits and instability. The occupational manifestations of complex trauma are reflected in the inability to participate in meaningful and necessary occupations. Occupational therapy intervention can be a means of empowering victims of human trafficking by using the occupational therapy process, occupational therapy theories, and models of practice. Occupational therapy practitioners can enable survivors to address the intrinsic and extrinsic barriers to achieving increased overall well-being and occupational performance.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Dag, Ali, Asil Oztekin, Ahmet Yucel, Serkan Bulur, & Fadel M. Megahed. (2017). Predicting heart transplantation outcomes through data analytics. Decision Support Systems, 94, 42-52.

Predicting the survival of heart transplant patients is an important, yet challenging problem since it plays a crucial role in understanding the matching procedure between a donor and a recipient. Data mining models can be used to effectively analyze and extract novel information from large/complex transplantation datasets. The objective of this study is to predict the 1-, 5-, and 9-year patient’s graft survival following a heart transplant surgery via the deployment of analytical models that are based on four powerful classification algorithms (i.e. decision trees, artificial neural networks, support vector machines, and logistic regression). Since the datasets used in this study has a much larger number of survival cases than deaths for 1- and 5-year survival analysis and vice versa for 9-year survival analysis, random under sampling (RUS) and synthetic minority over-sampling (SMOTE) are employed to overcome the data-imbalance problems. The results indicate that logistic regression combined with SMOTE achieves the best classification for the 1-, 5-, and 9-year outcome prediction, with area-under-the-curve (AUC) values of 0.624, 0.676, and 0.838, respectively. By applying sensitivity analysis to the data analytical models, the most important predictors and their associated contribution for the 1-, 5-, and 9-year graft survival of heart transplant patients are identified. By doing so, variables, whose importance changes over time, are differentiated. Not only this proposed hybrid approach gives superior results over the literature but also the models and identification of the variables present important retrospective findings, which can be the basis for a prospective medical study.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Fang, J. M., Benjamin George, Y. F. Shao, & C. Wen. (2016). Affective and cognitive factors influencing repeat buying in e-commerce. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 19, 44-55.

Drawing on means-end chain theory and feelings-as-information theory, we propose a moderation model, and offer a detailed analysis of how the affective factor perceived enjoyment influences perceived value and repeat buying in e-tailing contexts. Based upon survey data from 651 online shoppers, we observe the complex moderation effects of e-shopping enjoyment on the relations between perceived benefits, sacrifice and perceived value. However, the moderation effect of enjoyment only appears in shoppers with a task-focused motivation. Furthermore, this study applies fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) and uncovers several equifinal configurations associated with the perceived value and repeat buying intention. The results reveal that none of the above-mentioned factors provide sufficient or necessary conditions for the presence of high perceived value and repeat buying intention. The findings suggest complex substitutive and complementary relationships between the factors and demonstrate the complexities of consumers’ online repurchase decision. This study thus helps to gain a better understanding of the conditions leading to e-shopping value and repeat buying behavior.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Ferguson, Tanner J., J. P. Berdahl, J. A. Schweitzer, & Ramu Sudhagoni. (2016). Evaluation of a Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stent in Pseudophakic Patients With Open-Angle Glaucoma. Journal of Glaucoma, 25(11), 896-900.

Purpose of the Study:The purpose of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the iStent Trabecular Micro-Bypass stent in pseudophakic patients with open-angle glaucoma.Methods:Retrospective, consecutive case series from October 2012 to May 2015 with no exclusion criteria. The series comprised 42 pseudophakic eyes with open-angle glaucoma that were implanted with 1 iStent. Data were collected preoperatively, and postoperative data were collected at 1 day, 1 week, 1, 3 and 6 months, 1 year, 18 months and 2 years. Data included intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications, the incidence of postoperative IOP pressure spikes 15 mm Hg at any timepoint, and the need for additional surgery.Results:The mean preoperative IOP was 20.266.00 mm Hg. At 1 year postoperatively, the mean IOP was 16.34 +/- 3.78 mm Hg (P<0.01). At 2 years postoperatively, the mean IOP was 13.62 +/- 4.55 (P<0.01). The mean number of glaucoma medications was 1.95 +/- 1.01 preoperative and 1.69 +/- 1.28 (P>0.05) at 1 year postoperatively. Postoperatively, 3 eyes (7%) experienced an IOP increase of 15 mm Hg above their baseline IOP that responded to topical therapy. In total, 96% of patients with an IOP19 mm Hg achieved a reduction in IOP at their last collected follow-up.Conclusions:The insertion of the iStent Trabecular Micro-Bypass stent effectively lowers IOP in pseudophakic patients with open-angle glaucoma. Although medication use was not significantly reduced postoperatively at 1 year, 80% of patients either experienced a reduction or no change in medication use. The safety profile appears favorable with a low rate of IOP spikes and only 1 patient requiring additional surgery.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Gaher, Raluca M., Carol O’brien, Paul Smiley, & Austin M. Hahn. (2016). Alexithymia, coping styles and traumatic stress symptoms in a sample of veterans who experienced military sexual trauma. Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 32(1), 55-62.

The current study examined the association between alexithymia and coping styles (planning, positive reinterpretation and growth, social‐emotion coping, and denial), and trauma symptoms in a clinical sample of 170 male and female veterans who experienced sexual trauma during military service. Denial was the only coping style positively associated with trauma symptoms, and it mediated the relationship between alexithymia and trauma symptoms. Alexithymia was negatively associated with planning. Likewise, alexithymia was negatively associated with social‐emotional coping and with positive reinterpretation and growth. The results speak to the significant role that alexithymia has in predicting individual coping styles.

Psychology Department.

 

Goh, P. K., L. R. Doyle, …., H. Eugene Hoyme, J. A. Kable, P. A. May, et al. (2016). A Decision Tree to Identify Children Affected by Prenatal Alcohol Exposure. Journal of Pediatrics, 177, 121-+.

Objective To develop and validate a hierarchical decision tree model that combines neurobehavioral and physical measures to identify children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure even when facial dysmorphology is not present. Study design Data were collected as part of a multisite study across the US. The model was developed after we evaluated more than 1000 neurobehavioral and dysmorphology variables collected from 434 children (8-16 years of age) with prenatal alcohol exposure, with and without fetal alcohol syndrome, and nonexposed control subjects, with and without other clinically-relevant behavioral or cognitive concerns. The model subsequently was validated in an independent sample of 454 children in 2 age ranges (5-7 years or 10-16 years). In all analyses, the discriminatory ability of each model step was tested with logistic regression. Classification accuracies and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Results The model consisted of variables from 4 measures (2 parent questionnaires, an IQ score, and a physical examination). Overall accuracy rates for both the development and validation samples met or exceeded our goal of 80% overall accuracy. Conclusions The decision tree model distinguished children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure from nonexposed control subjects, including those with other behavioral concerns or conditions. Improving identification of this population will streamline access to clinical services, including multidisciplinary evaluation and treatment.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Hackemer, Kurt. (2017). Wartime Trauma and the Lure of the Frontier: Civil War Veterans in Dakota Territory. Journal of Military History, 81(1), 75-103.

This paper quantitatively analyzes an 1885 Dakota Territory census to draw larger conclusions about Civil War veterans who migrated to the frontier. A sample of almost 6,000 veterans suggests that a significant percentage experienced some degree of wartime trauma, needed to reestablish themselves socially and economically, and took advantage of what financial security they had when homesteading newly opened territory. They were more likely to move to newly opened counties by themselves rather than with comrades from the war, relying on prior relationships only when moving to more established regions of the frontier where those associations might prove useful.

History Department.

 

Hocking, Elise C.Raluca M. Simons, & Renata J. Surette. (2016). Attachment style as a mediator between childhood maltreatment and the experience of betrayal trauma as an adult. Child Abuse & Neglect, 52, 94-101.

Previous research has demonstrated a positive association between child maltreatment and adult interpersonal trauma (Arata, 2000; Crawford & Wright, 2007). From a betrayal trauma theory perspective, evidence suggests that the experience of trauma high in betrayal (e.g., child maltreatment by parents or guardians) increases ones risk of betrayal trauma as an adult (Gobin & Freyd, 2009). However, the mechanisms explaining these associations are not well understood; attachment theory could provide further insight. Child maltreatment is associated with insecure attachment (Baer & Martinez, 2006; Muller et al., 2000). Insecure attachment is also associated with deficits in interpersonal functioning and risk for intimate partner violence, suggesting insecure attachment may mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and the experience of betrayal trauma as an adult. The current study tested this hypothesis in a sample of 601 college students. Participants completed online questionnaires including the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS), the Experiences in Close Relationships—Revised (ECR-R) and the Brief Betrayal Trauma Survey (BBTS). Results indicated that child maltreatment is associated with adult betrayal trauma and anxious attachment partially mediates this relationship.

Psychology Department.

 

Hong, K., G. L. Zhao, Zhongkui Hong, Z. Sun, Y. Yang, P. S. Clifford, et al. (2016). Mechanical activation of angiotensin II type 1 receptors causes actin remodelling and myogenic responsiveness in skeletal muscle arterioles. Journal of Physiology-London, 594(23), 7027-7047.

The G(q/11) protein-coupled angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) has been shown to be activated by mechanical stimuli. In the vascular system, evidence supports the AT(1)R being a mechanosensor that contributes to arteriolar myogenic constriction. The aim of this study was to determine if AT(1)R mechanoactivation affects myogenic constriction in skeletal muscle arterioles and to determine underlying cellular mechanisms. Using pressure myography to study rat isolated first-order cremaster muscle arterioles the AT(1)R inhibitor candesartan (10(-7)-10(-5) M) showed partial but concentration-dependent inhibition of myogenic reactivity. Inhibition was demonstrated by a rightward shift in the pressure-diameter relationship over the intraluminal pressure range, 30-110 mmHg. Pressure-induced changes in global vascular smooth muscle intracellularCa(2+) (using Fura-2) were similar in the absence or presence of candesartan, indicating that AT(1)R-mediated myogenic constriction relies on Ca2+-independent downstream signalling. The diacylglycerol analogue 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG) reversed the inhibitory effect of candesartan, while this rescue effect was prevented by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF 109203X. Both candesartan and PKC inhibition caused increased G-actin levels, as determined by Western blotting of vessel lysates, supporting involvement of cytoskeletal remodelling. At the single vascular smooth muscle cell level, atomic force microscopy showed that cell swelling (stretch) with hypotonic buffer also caused thickening of cortical actin fibres and this was blocked by candesartan. Collectively, the present studies support growing evidence for novel modes of activation of the AT(1)R in arterioles and suggest that mechanically activated AT(1)R generates diacylglycerol, which in turn activates PKC which induces the actin cytoskeleton reorganization that is required for pressure-induced vasoconstriction.

Biomedical Engineering Department, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Huang, ShupingChoumini Balasanthiran, S. Tretiak, James D. Hoefelmeyer, S. V. Kilina, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2016). Dynamics of charge at water-to-semiconductor interface: Case study of wet 001 anatase TiO2 nanowire. Chemical Physics, 481, 184-190.

The behavior of water molecules on the surfaces of the TiO2 nanowire grown in [001] direction has been investigated by combining theoretical calculations and experiments. Calculated UV-visible absorption spectra reproduce the main features of the experimental spectra. Computations predict that a photoexcitation followed by a sequence of relaxation events results in photoluminescence across the gap. TiO2 nanowires in vacuum and aqueous environment exhibit different dynamics of photo-excited charge carriers. In water, computed relaxation of electrons (holes) is approximately 2 (4) times faster compared with vacuum environment. Faster relaxation of holes vs. electrons and specific spatial localization of holes result to formation of long lived charge transfer excitation with positive charge at the surface of the nanowire. Comparison of relaxation process in TiO2/water interfaces focusing on different surfaces and nanostructures has potential in identifying structural characteristics of TiO2 materials important for efficient photo-electrochemical water splitting. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

 

Jumbe, T., S. S. Comstock, William S. Harris, J. Kinabo, M. B. Pontifex, & J. I. Fenton. (2016). Whole-blood fatty acids are associated with executive function in Tanzanian children aged 4-6 years: a cross-sectional study. British Journal of Nutrition, 116(9), 1537-1545.

Essential fatty acids (EFA) are PUFA that are metabolised to long-chain PUFA and are important for brain development and cognitive function. The objective of this study was to determine the association between whole-blood EFA and cognitive function in Tanzanian children. A total of 325 2-6-year-old children attempted the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) tasks to assess executive function. Blood samples were collected for fatty acid (FA) analysis by GC. Associations between executive function and FA levels were assessed by regression. Among the 130 4-6-year-old children who attempted the DCCS tasks, whole-blood levels of linoleic acid were positively associated with executive function, whereas whole-blood levels of a-linolenic acid and nervonic acid were inversely associated with executive function. A full model including all twenty-five FA explained 38% of the variation in executive function, whereas a reduced model including only the EFA (a-linolenic acid and linoleic acid), DHA and EPA explained 25% of the variation in executive function. Children who had sufficient whole-blood levels of EFA were 3.8 times more likely to successfully complete all DCCS tasks compared with children with insufficient EFA. These results suggest that whole-blood FA levels are associated with cognitive abilities. Intervention trials that include assessment of whole-blood FA levels are required to determine the relationships between intake, blood levels and executive function in Tanzanian children.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Keifer, Joyce, & Cliff H. Summers. (2016). Putting the ‘biology’ back into ‘neurobiology’: The strength of diversity in animal model systems for neuroscience research. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 10(x), x-x.

Current trends in neuroscience research have moved toward a reliance on rodent animal models to study most aspects of brain function. Such laboratory-reared animals are highly inbred, have been disengaged from their natural environments for generations and appear to be of limited predictive value for successful clinical outcomes. In this Perspective article, we argue that research on a rich diversity of animal model systems is fundamental to new discoveries in evolutionarily conserved core physiological and molecular mechanisms that are the foundation of human brain function. Analysis of neural circuits across phyla will reveal general computational solutions that form the basis for adaptive behavioral responses. Further, we stress that development of ethoexperimental approaches to improve our understanding of behavioral nuance will help to realign our research strategies with therapeutic goals and improve the translational validity of specific animal models. Finally, we suggest that neuroscience has a role in environmental conservation of habitat and fauna that will preserve and protect the ecological settings that drive species-specific behavioral adaptations. A rich biodiversity will enhance our understanding of human brain function and lead in unpredicted directions for development of therapeutic treatments for neurological disorders.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Kelly, Shawn C.Shenjing LiTomasz StysPaul A. Thompson, & A.Dam T. Stys. (2016). Reduction in Contrast Nephropathy From Coronary Angiography and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Ultra-Low Contrast Delivery Using an Automated Contrast Injector System. Journal of Invasive Cardiology, 28(11), 446-450.

Objective. To evaluate the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) following coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) utilizing a novel ultra-low contrast delivery (ULCD) technique. Background. Current techniques for reducing contrast volumes during angiographic and PCI procedures require the use of advanced coronary imaging methods, such as intravascular ultrasound and coronary flow wires. We propose the use of the ACIST CVi automated contrast injector system (Bracco Diagnostics) with a novel programming technique that significantly reduces contrast volumes and CIN development. Methods. From 2013 to 2014, a total of 123 patients with stage III or higher chronic kidney disease (CKD) underwent coronary angiography, PCI, or a combined procedure using the ULCD technique. A retrospective analysis was conducted to evaluate contrast volumes and rate of CIN development. Patients developing CIN were compared using tests of proportions. Results. The median contrast volume was 17.9 mL (n = 123). The study cohorts comprised diagnostic (15.2 mL; n = 72), PCI (17.1 mL; n = 30), and PCI + diagnostic groups (27.9 mL; n = 21). The incidence of CIN observed in the entire cohort through day 7 was 3.3% (4/123). Seventy-five percent of the CIN cases occurred following diagnostic angiography alone. Longitudinal follow-up at 21 days identified an additional 5 cases of CIN. Compared to literature data, the ULCD technique delivers less contrast per case. Conclusion. The adaptation of the ULCD technique for coronary procedures significantly reduces contrast volume delivery when compared with conventional practice or previously described low-contrast techniques. The ULCD appears to be an efficacious method of limiting CIN development in a susceptible population with CKD.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Lan, X. Y., C. Zhao, X. Chen, …., X. J. Wang, X. P. Shi, et al. (2016). Nickel pyrithione induces apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia cells resistant to imatinib via both Bcr/Abl-dependent and Bcr/Abl-independent mechanisms. Journal of Hematology & Oncology, 9, 16.

Background: Acquired imatinib (IM) resistance is frequently characterized by Bcr-Abl mutations that affect IM binding and kinase inhibition in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Bcr-Abl-T315I mutation is the predominant mechanism of the acquired resistance to IM. Therefore, it is urgent to search for additional approaches and targeting strategies to overcome IM resistance. We recently reported that nickel pyrithione (NiPT) potently inhibits the ubiquitin proteasome system via targeting the 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (UCHL5 and USP14), without effecting on the 20S proteasome. In this present study, we investigated the effect of NiPT, a novel proteasomal deubiquitinase inhibitor, on cell survival or apoptosis in CML cells bearing Bcr-Abl-T315I or wild-type Bcr-Abl. Methods: Cell viability was examined by MTS assay and trypan blue exclusion staining assay in KBM5, KBM5R, K562, BaF3-p210-WT, BaF3-p210-T315I cells, and CML patients’ bone marrow samples treated with NiPT. Cell apoptosis in CML cells was detected with Annexin V-FITC/PI and rhodamine-123 staining followed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry and with western blot analyses for apoptosis-associated proteins. Expression levels of Bcr-Abl in CML cells were analyzed by using western blotting and real-time PCR. The 20S proteasome peptidase activity was measured using specific fluorogenic substrate. Active-site-directed labeling of proteasomal DUBs, as well as the phosphorylation of USP14 was used for evaluating the inhibition of the DUBs activity by NiPT. Mouse xenograft models of KBM5 and KBM5R cells were analyzed, and Bcr-Abl-related proteins and protein biomarkers related to proliferation, differentiation, and adhesion in tumor tissues were detected by western blots and/or immunohistological analyses. Results: NiPT induced apoptosis in CML cells and inhibited the growth of IM-resistant Bcr-Abl-T315I xenografts in nude mice. Mechanistically, NiPT induced decreases in Bcr-Abl proteins, which were associated with downregulation of Bcr-Abl transcription and with the cleavage of Bcr-Abl protein by activated caspases. NiPT-induced ubiquitin proteasome system inhibition induced caspase activation in both IM-resistant and IM-sensitive CML cells, and the caspase activation was required for NiPT-induced Bcr-Abl downregulation and apoptotic cell death. Conclusions: These findings support that NiPT can overcome IM resistance through both Bcr-Abl-dependent and Bcr-Abl-independent mechanisms, providing potentially a new option for CML treatment.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Landeen, Laurie B.Elizabeth M. HultgrenTaylor M. Kapsch, & Paul W. Mallory. (2016). Vaginal cuff dehiscence: a randomized trial comparing robotic vaginal cuff closure methods. Journal of Robotic Surgery, 10(4), 337-341.

The purpose of this study is to compare the rate of vaginal cuff dehiscence between two different methods of closure in patients undergoing robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy and explore variables related to postoperative breakdown. This was a prospective, randomized controlled study with two arms. The control group (Arm 1) underwent single-layer continuous closure while the study group (Arm 2) had three additional imbricating figure-of-X sutures placed in addition to the standard protocol. Of the 263 patients who completed the study, 4 patients (1.49 %) experienced dehiscence of the vaginal cuff. Three of the four patients with dehiscence received the standard single vaginal cuff closure (Arm 1) and the one remaining case of dehiscence underwent the protocol with additional sutures (Arm 2). All patients who experienced dehiscence were current smokers. Our study suggests that there may be benefit in adding additional sutures to the standard single-layer vaginal cuff closure procedure. Physicians should evaluate smoking status before deciding on a vaginal cuff closure method.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Lonsdale, Damian J. (2017). Intentions to Cheat: Ajzen’s Planned Behavior and Goal-Related Personality Facets. Journal of Psychology, 151(2), 113-129.

This study sought to test antecedents to college students’ intentions to cheat by utilizing Ajzen’s (1991) theory of planned behavior (TPB), and four goal-related personality facets. Those facets were behavioral approach, behavioral inhibition, need for achievement-hope of success, and need for achievement-fear of failure. As hypothesized, perceived friends’ and parents’ attitudes toward academic dishonesty (two subjective norms) and perceived ease of cheating (perceived behavioral control) all positively predicted overall intentions to cheat. Perceived friends’ attitudes seemed to play a more influential role than perceived parents’ attitudes. Interestingly, male students reported greater parental acceptance of academic misconduct than female students reported. Among the personality facets, behavioral approach and need for achievement-hope of success were positive and negative predictors of cheating intentions, respectively. A more finegrained examination of take-home assignments revealed that students considered them easier to cheat on and reported greater intentions to cheat on them in comparison to other forms of academic work (e.g., exams and papers). Also, need for achievement-fear of failure positively predicted intentions to cheat on take-home assignments, but not other cheating intentions. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Nan, Jiang. (2017). ON THE CONVERGENCE OF β-SCHEMES. International Journal of Numerical Analysis & Modeling, 14(1), 103-125.

Yang’s wavewise entropy inequality [19] is verified for β-schemes which, when m = 2 and under a mild technique condition, guarantees the convergence of the schemes to the entropy solutions of convex conservation laws in one-dimensional scalar case. These schemes, constructed by S. Osher and S. Chakravarthy [13], are based on unwinding principle and use E-schemes as building blocks with simple flux limiters, without which all of them are even linearly unstable. The total variation diminishing property of these methods was established in the original work of S. Osher and S. Chakravarthy.

Mathematics Department.

 

Rosenfeld, Silvana A., & Matthew P. Sayre. (2016). LLAMAS ON THE LAND: PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF MEAT AT CHAVIN DE HUANTAR, PERU. Latin American Antiquity, 27(4), 497-511.

Chavin de Huantar is a Formative-period site (broadly 1500-200 B.C.) in the Peruvian Andes known for its highly complex art and monumental architecture. Recent excavations in the La Banda sector uncovered domestic settlements. The zooarchaeological analysis demonstrates that meat was locally produced and many bone tools were manufactured in this sector. These results contrast with previous faunal analysis from other parts of the site in which it was argued that dry camelid meat on the bone (ch’arki) was traded in exchange for local crops. The local economy of Chavin de Huantar was complex, showing different economic strategies across the site. While there is abundant evidence for the trade of lightweight exotic goods at the site (seashells, marine bone, obsidian, and cinnabar), the subsistence economy was locally focused.

Social Behavior Department.

 

Rudolph, M. C., B. E. Young, K. H. Jackson, N. F. Krebs, William S. Harris, & P. S. Maclean. (2016). Human Milk Fatty Acid Composition: Comparison of Novel Dried Milk Spot Versus Standard Liquid Extraction Methods. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, 21(3-4), 131-138.

Accurate assessment of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) content of human milk (HM) provides a powerful means to evaluate the FA nutrient status of breastfed infants. The conventional standard for FA composition analysis of HM is liquid extraction, trans-methylation, and analyte detection resolved by gas chromatography. This standard approach requires fresh or frozen samples, storage in deep freeze, organic solvents, and specialized equipment in processing and analysis. Further, HM collection is often impractical for many studies in the free living environment, particularly for studies in developing countries. In the present study, we compare a novel and more practical approach to sample collection and processing that involves the spotting and drying similar to 50 mu L of HM on a specialized paper stored and transported at ambient temperatures until analysis. Deming regression indicated the two methods aligned very well for all LC-PUFA and the abundant HM FA. Additionally, strong correlations (r > 0.85) were observed for DHA, ARA, EPA, linoleic (LA), and alpha-linolenic acids (ALA), which are of particular interest to the health of the developing infant. Taken together, our data suggest this more practical and inexpensive method of collection, storage, and transport of HM milk samples could dramatically facilitate studies of HM, as well as understanding its lipid composition influences on human health and development.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Schwebach, A., & Jennifer Ball. (2016). Urine Drug Screening Minimizing False-Positives and False-Negatives to Optimize Patient Care. Us Pharmacist, 41(8), 26-30.

Urine drug screening is a common way to test for compliance with medications having high abuse potential. False-negatives and false-positives from immunoassays can lead to adverse consequences for patients and providers. By identifying medications that contribute to false-negatives and false-positives, pharmacists decrease misinterpretations from urine drug screens. Unexpected results from urine immunoassays should have a confirmatory gas chromatography-mass spectrometry or a high-performance liquid chromatography test performed. Pharmacists can provide guidance in selecting appropriate drug therapies that are less likely to cause false readings, thus decreasing the need for additional testing.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Shaikh, K.S. KellyM. GedelaV. KumarA. Stys, & T. Stys. (2016). Novel Use of an Orbital Atherectomy Device for In-Stent Restenosis: Lessons Learned. Case Reports in Cardiology, 4.

We present a case of a 67-year-old man with stage III chronic kidney disease, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and high surgical risk who presented with two episodes of acute coronary syndrome attributed to in-stent restenosis (ISR) associated with heavily calcified lesions. In this case, we were able to improve luminal patency with orbital atherectomy system (OAS); however, withdrawal of the device resulted in a device/stent interaction, causing failure of the device. Given limitations in current evidence and therapies, managing ISR can be a technical and cognitive challenge. Balloon expansion of the affected region often provides unsatisfactory results, possibly related to significant calcium burden. OAS could be an efficacious way of reestablishing luminal patency in ISR lesions, as these lesions are often heavily calcified.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Tjarks, B. Joel, Najwa Somani, Melissa Piliang, & Wilma F. Bergfeld. (2017). A proposed classification for follicular involvement by melanoma. Journal of Cutaneous Pathology, 44(1), 45-52.

Background Folliculotropism in melanoma is poorly characterized and standard categorization for follicular involvement by melanoma is unavailable. We propose a logical categorization system. Methods We conducted a search of our archives over a 24-year period for cases mentioning the terms follicle, follicular, folliculotropic, folliculocentric and melanoma. Results We identified 90 cases of melanoma with involvement of the hair follicle. Distinct patterns were identified. The invasive patterns were primary follicular, folliculotropic and invasive arising from melanoma in situ ( MIS) with extensive follicular involvement. Follicular involvement by MIS was either lentiginous, nested or a combination of both. A total of 29 invasive melanomas were identified. Of these 12 had invasive melanoma around the hair follicle, 2 were primary follicular melanomas, 7 showed folliculotropism and 3 were invasive melanomas arising from MIS around the follicle. Seventeen invasive melanomas had follicles only involved by MIS (9 nested, 6 nested and lentiginous and 2 lentiginous). A total of 61 cases of MIS with follicular involvement were identified; of these 33 were lentiginous, 10 nested and 18 both lentiginous and nested. Conclusion We propose that the three distinct patterns of follicular involvement by invasive melanoma and the three distinct patterns of MIS will be valuable for logically categorizing involvement of the hair follicle by melanoma.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Venkatesan, S., J. Y. Sun, L. J. Zhang, A. Dubey, Andrew Sykes, T. Y. Lin, et al. (2016). An oligothiophene chromophore with a macrocyclic side chain: synthesis, morphology, charge transport, and photovoltaic performance. Rsc Advances, 6(104), 102043-102056.

An oligothiophene chromophore RingBDT(T(3)A)(2) has been synthesized, where BDT is benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene, Ring is a 1,12-dodecylenedioxy cyclic side chain on the benzene of BDT, T-3 is 2,2′:5′,2 ”-terthiophene, and A is an electron acceptor. In single crystals, the immediate precursor of RingBDT(T(3)A)(2) formed pi-dimers and the ring prevented further p-stacking of the dimers. A differential scanning calorimetry study showed that BDT(T(3)A)(2), the ringless analog with two 2-ethylhexyloxy side chains on BDT, crystallized quickly from its melt upon cooling, while crystallization of RingBDT(T(3)A)(2) melt upon cooling was slow and incomplete. Interestingly, RingBDT(T(3)A)(2) solid crystallized fast at similar to 110 degrees C upon heating, but its thin films (200 nm) remained amorphous after annealing at 80 degrees C. Despite the amorphous nature, the hole mobility of RingBDT(T(3)A)(2) films (1.52 x 10(-3) cm(2) V-1 s(-1)) was 144% higher than that of the highly crystalline BDT(T(3)A)(2) films (200-80 nm). Solar cells were fabricated from blends of the chromophores and phenyl-C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM). Thermal annealing at 100 degrees C for 10 minutes enhanced chromophore p-p interaction, and improved device fill factor and efficiency for the RingBDT(T(3)A)(2) blend solar cells, while retaining the amorphous nature of blend. In stark contrast, thermal annealing under the same conditions caused the efficiency of BDT(T(3)A)(2) cell efficiency to drop by 82%. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of using a macrocyclic side chain as a strategy for developing amorphous molecular semiconducting materials with improved mobility and morphological stability.

Chemistry Department.

 

Yao, QingqingYangxi Liu, J. N. Tao, K. M. Baumgarten, & Hongli Sun. (2016). Hypoxia-Mimicking Nanofibrous Scaffolds Promote Endogenous Bone Regeneration. Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces, 8(47), 32450-32459.

Utilizing biomimetic materials to potentiate endogenous cell growth or signaling is superior to relying on exogenous cells or signals for bone formation. Desferoxamine (DFO), which is a hypoxia-mimetic agent that chelates iron (Fe3+), mimics hypoxia to encourage bone healing. However, high cytotoxicity, off-target effects, and the short half-life of DFO have significantly impeded its further applications. We mitigated these side effects by locally immobilizing DFO onto a gelatin nanofibrous (GF) scaffold that retained DFO’s ability to chelate Fe3+. Moreover, DFO-functionalized GF (GF-DFO) scaffolds, which have similar micro/macrostructures to GF scaffolds, not only demonstrated decreased cytotoxicity on both human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human mesenchymal stem cells but also significantly increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in vitro. Most importantly, in our in vivo experiments on a critical-sized cranial bone defect mouse model, a significant amount of bone was formed in most of the GF-DFO scaffolds after six weeks, while very little new bone was observed in the GF scaffolds. These data suggest that use of a hypoxia-mimicking nanofibrous scaffold is a promising strategy for promoting endogenous bone formation.

Biomedical Engineering Department, Sioux Falls Campus.

Posted by: tadeterman | January 17, 2017

December 2016

Bonilla, J. O., Eduardo A. Callegari, C. D. Delfini, M. C. Estevez, & L. B. Villegas. (2016). Simultaneous chromate and sulfate removal by Streptomyces sp MC1. Changes in intracellular protein profile induced by Cr(VI). Journal of Basic Microbiology, 56(11), 1212-1221.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of increasing sulfate concentrations on chromium removal, to evaluate the effect of the presence of Cr(VI) on sulfate removal by Streptomyces sp. MC1 and to analyze the differential protein expression profile in the presence of this metal for the identification of proteins repressed or overexpressed. In the presence of Cr(VI) but in the absence of sulfate ions, bacterial growth was negligible, showing the Cr(VI) toxicity for this bacterium. However, the sulfate presence stimulated bacterium growth and Cr(VI) removal, regardless of its concentrations. Streptomyces sp. MC1 showed ability to remove chromium and sulfate simultaneously. Also, the sulfate presence favored the decrease of total chromium concentration from supernatants reaching a decrease of 50% at 48h. In presence of chromium, seven proteins were down-expressed and showed homology to proteins involved in protein biosynthesis, energy production and free radicals detoxification while two proteins involved in oxidation-reduction processes identified as dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase and S-adenosyl-l-methionine synthase were overexpressed.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Chaudhary, R., K. Saadin, K. P. Bliden, William S. Harris, B. Dinh, T. Sharma, U. S. Tantry, & P. A. Gurbel. (2016). Risk factors associated with plasma omega-3 fatty acid levels in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 113, 40-45.

Introduction: We sought to determine the associations between plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and various cardiovascular risk factors and with the use of fish oil supplements (FOS). Patients and methods: Patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing cardiac catheterization (n = 433) were studied. Serum fatty acid (FA) composition, the concentrations of lipids and biomarkers of oxidative stress, and dietary/lifestyle factors were measured. Results: FOS use was associated with a higher plasma EPA+DHA levels (3.7 +/- 1.5 vs. 2.6 +/- 1.1%, p < 0.0001). However, there was no relationship between FOS dose (mg/day) and EPA+DHA levels in 76 patients reporting FOS use (r = -0.21, p = 0.07). Lower levels were inversely associated with risk factor profiles including lower ApoB100/ApoA1 ratios (p < 0.001). Discussion and conclusions: Higher EPA+DHA levels characterized patients with lower CAD risk. The lack of relations between FOS dose and plasma EPA+DHA levels likely reflects uncaptured variability in EPA+DHA content of supplements. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Chiang, J. Y., Y. L. Lio, & T. R. Tsai. (2016). Empirical Bayesian Strategy for Sampling Plans with Warranty Under Truncated Censoring. International Journal of Reliability QChiauality & Safety Engineering, 23(5), 15.

To reach an optimal acceptance sampling decision for products, whose lifetimes are Burr type XII distribution, sampling plans are developed with a rebate warranty policy based on truncated censored data. The smallest sample size and acceptance number are determined to minimize the expected total cost, which consists of the test cost, experimental time cost, the cost of lot acceptance or rejection, and the warranty cost. A new method, which combines a simple empirical Bayesian method and the genetic algorithm (GA) method, named the EB-GA method, is proposed to estimate the unknown distribution parameter and hyper-parameters. The parameters of the GA are determined through using an optimal Taguchi design procedure to reduce the subjectivity of parameter determination. An algorithm is presented to implement the EB-GA method. The application of the proposed method is illustrated by an example. Monte Carlo simulation results show that the EB-GA method works well for parameter estimation in terms of small bias and mean square error.

Mathematics Department.

 

Collins, B., J. Z. Williams, Heather Karu, J. P. Hodde, V. A. Martin, & G. C. Gurtner. (2016). Nipple Reconstruction with the Biodesign Nipple Reconstruction Cylinder: A Prospective Clinical Study. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery-Global Open, 4(8), 6.

Background: Nipple reconstruction is the last stage in cosmetic reconstruction of the breast after mastectomy, but no method produces reliable and consistent aesthetic results. This study examined the use of the Biodesign Nipple Reconstruction Cylinder (NRC) during reconstruction of the nipple after mastectomy. Methods: Patients with a history of breast cancer and mastectomy desiring nipple reconstruction were invited to participate. After obtaining consent, unilateral or bilateral nipple reconstruction was performed. Skin flaps were raised, the NRC was placed beneath the flaps as a stent, and the site was protected for up to 4 weeks with a nipple shield. Nipple projection was measured for 12 months after surgery. Patient satisfaction was measured and adverse events were recorded. Follow-up examinations were performed at 1 week, and then at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Results: Eighty-two nipple reconstructions were performed in 50 patients. Related postoperative adverse events were minor, but reported in 8 reconstructions (9.8%) representing 7 patients (14.0%). Average projection at 6 and 12 months was 4.1 +/- 1.6 mm and 3.8 +/- 1.5 mm, respectively, compared with 10.5 +/- 2.2 mm 1 week after surgery. Of patients completing the satisfaction questionnaire at 12 months, 70/75 (93.3%) of reconstructions were rated “pleased” or “very pleased” with the overall outcome. Overall, 45/46 (97.8%) patients would recommend nipple reconstruction to other women. Conclusions: The Biodesign NRC offers a safe alternative to nipple reconstruction, resulting in stable projection and a high level of patient satisfaction for 12 months after placement.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Dellinger, Mayanna. (2016). An “Act of God”? Rethinking Contractual Impracticability in an Era of Anthropogenic Climate Change. Hastings Law Journal, 67(6), 1551-1619.

“Extreme” weather has become the new normal. Previously considered to be inexplicable and unpredictable “acts of God,” such weather can no longer reasonably be said to be so. They are acts of man. The current doctrine of contractual impracticability rests on the notion that a party may be exculpated from contractual liability if supervening events render a performance impracticable, unless they have implicitly or explicitly assumed the risk. To a large extent, courts still consider the foreseeability of the event and an a party’s ability to control it. However, it makes little logical or legal sense to continue to allow parties to escape liability for weather events that are in fact highly foreseeable given today’s knowledge about the causes and effects of severe weather. Some parties may even be found to have had some “control” of the development of the weather event and thus not be able to avoid liability. This Article proposes taking a new, hard look at the doctrine of impracticability and the closely related doctrine of frustration of purpose. By modernizing these doctrines to reflect current on-the-ground reality, the judiciary may further help instigate a broader awareness of the underlying problem and need for corrective action against climate change at both the private and governance scales. Meanwhile, a more equitable risk-sharing framework should be implemented where contracting parties have failed to reach a sufficiently detailed antecedent agreement on the issue. The law is never static. It must reflect real world phenomena. Climate change is a highly complex problem requiring attention and legal solutions for many problems including contractual performance liability. The general public is often said to have lost faith in the judiciary. Given this perception, courts could regain some of that faith in the context of events for which no “God,” other supernatural power, or even nature can be blamed.

School of Law.

 

Dempers, J. J., J. Coldrey, E. H. Burger, …., Brad B. Randall, R. D. Folkerth, H. C. Kinney, & Pass Network. (2016). The Institution of a Standardized Investigation Protocol for Sudden Infant Death in the Eastern Metropole, Cape Town, South Africa. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 61(6), 1508-1514.

The rate for the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in Cape Town, South Africa, is estimated to be among the highest in the world (3.41/1000 live births). In several of these areas, including those of extreme poverty, only sporadic, nonstandardized infant autopsy, and death scene investigation (DSI) occurred. In this report, we detail a feasibility project comprising 18 autopsied infants with sudden and unexpected death whose causes of death were adjudicated according to the 1991 NICHD definitions (SIDS, n = 7; known cause of death, n = 7; and unclassified, n = 4). We instituted a standardized autopsy and infant DSI through a collaborative effort of local forensic pathology officers and clinical providers. The high standard of forensic investigation met international standards, identified preventable disease, and allowed for incorporation of research. We conclude that an effective infant autopsy and DSI protocol can be established in areas with both high sudden unexpected infant death, and elsewhere. (SUID)/SIDS risk and infrastructure challenges.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Haynes, R. L., R. D. Folkerth, D. S. Paterson, K. G. Broadbelt, S. D. Zaharie, R. H. Hewlett, J. J. Dempers, E. Burger, S. Wadee, P. Schubert, C. Wright, M. A. Sens, Laura NelsenBradley B. Randall, H. Tran, E. Geldenhuys, A. J. Elliott, H. J. Odendaal, H. C. Kinney, & Pass Network. (2016). Serotonin Receptors in the Medulla Oblongata of the Human Fetus and Infant: The Analytic Approach of the International Safe Passage Study. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, 75(11), 1048-1057.

The Safe Passage Study is an international, prospective study of approximately 12 000 pregnancies to determine the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) upon stillbirth and the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). A key objective of the study is to elucidate adverse effects of PAE upon binding to serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptors in brainstem homeostatic networks postulated to be abnormal in unexplained stillbirth and/or SIDS. We undertook a feasibility assessment of 5-HT1A receptor binding using autoradiography in the medulla oblongata (6 nuclei in 27 cases). 5-HT1A binding was compared to a reference dataset from the San Diego medical examiner’s system. There was no adverse effect of postmortem interval <= 100 h. The distribution and quantitated values of 5-HT1A binding in Safe Passage Study cases were essentially identical to those in the reference dataset, and virtually identical between stillbirths and live born fetal cases in grossly non-macerated tissues. The pattern of binding was present at mid-gestation with dramatic changes in binding levels in the medullary 5-HT nuclei over the second half of gestation; there was a plateau at lower levels in the neonatal period and into infancy. This study demonstrates feasibility of 5-HT1A binding analysis in the medulla in the Safe Passage Study.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Ikiugu, Moses N., Ashley K. Hoyme, Brittany Mueller, & Rochelle R. Reinke. (2016). Difference between meaningful and psychologically rewarding occupations: Findings from two pilot studies. Journal of Occupational Science, 23(2), 266-277.

Introduction: Meaningful occupations are hypothesized to be healing because they activate the dopaminergic neural pathways in the brain. We investigated whether: 1) self-selected meaningful occupations activated the dopaminergic neural pathways; and 2) there were differences in the categories of occupations that were perceived by study participants to be; a) meaningful, b) psychologically rewarding (likely to activate the dopaminergic or reward neural pathways), and/or c) both meaningful and psychologically rewarding. Method: In study number one, participants’ brains were scanned on fMRI while they watched themselves engaging in various types of occupations. In study number two we used the Experience sampling method and Repeated Measures designs. Findings: Self-selected meaningful occupations did not activate the reward neural pathways as hypothesized. Occupational category had an effect on mood and meaningfulness. Fun occupations elicited the most positive mood, especially when they were mentally stimulating and were performed with other people. Conclusion: Occupations that were both meaningful and psychologically rewarding were mentally stimulating and fostered connection with other people. Psychologically rewarding occupations tended to be perceived as fun, while physically stimulating occupations were perceived as meaningful. A larger study with a more representative sample will be conducted in an attempt to verify these findings.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Lamichhane, Sujan, Jordan Anderson, T. Remund, P. Kelly, & Gopinath Mani. (2016). Dextran sulfate as a drug delivery platform for drug-coated balloons: Preparation, characterization, in vitro drug elution, and smooth muscle cell response. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B-Applied Biomaterials, 104(7), 1416-1430.

Drug-coated balloons (DCBs) have now emerged as a promising approach to treat peripheral artery disease. However, a significant amount of drug from the balloon surface is lost during balloon tracking and results in delivering only a subtherapeutic dose of drug at the diseased site. Hence, in this study, the use of dextran sulfate (DS) polymer was investigated as a platform to control the drug release from balloons. An antiproliferative drug, paclitaxel (PAT), was incorporated into DS films (PAT-DS). The characterizations using SEM, FT-IR, and DSC showed that the films prepared were smooth and homogenous with PAT molecularly dispersed in the bulk of DS matrix in amorphous form. An investigation on the interaction of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with control-DS and PAT-DS films showed that both films inhibited SMC growth, with a superior inhibitory effect observed for PAT-DS films. PAT-DS coatings were then produced on balloon catheters. The integrity of coatings was well-maintained when the balloons were either deflated or inflated. In this study, up to 2.2 mu g/mm(2) of PAT was loaded on the balloons using the DS platform. Drug elution studies showed that only 10 to 20% of the total PAT loaded was released from the PAT-DS coated balloons during the typical time period of balloon tracking (1 min) and then approximate to 80% of the total PAT loaded was released during the typical time period of balloon inflation and treatment (from 1 min to 4 min). Thus, this study demonstrated the use of DS as a platform to control drug delivery from balloons. (c) 2015 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1416-1430, 2016.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Liu, J., M. Yamashita, & A. K. Soma. (2016). Light yield of an undoped CsI crystal coupled directly to a photomultiplier tube at 77 Kelvin. Journal of Instrumentation, 11, 18.

A light yield of 20.4 +/- 0.8 photoelectrons/keV was achieved with an undoped CsI crystal coupled directly to a photomultiplier tube at 77 Kelvin. This is by far the largest yield in the world achieved with CsI crystals. An energy threshold that is several times lower than the current dark matter experiments utilizing CsI(Tl) crystals may be achievable using this technique. Together with novel CsI crystal purification methods, the technique may be used to improve the sensitivities of dark matter and coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments. Also measured were the scintillation light decay constants of the undoped CsI crystal at both room temperature and 77 Kelvin. The results are consistent with those in the literature.

Physics Department.

 

Ragsdale, A. K., B. M. Frederick, D. W. Dukes, Andrea L. Liebl, K. G. Ashton, E. D. McCoy, H. R. Mushinsky, & A. W. Schrey. (2016). Fire Increases Genetic Diversity of Populations of Six-Lined Racerunner. Journal of Heredity, 107(7), 654-659.

Wildfires are highly variable and can disturb habitats, leading to direct and indirect effects on the genetic characteristics of local populations. Florida scrub is a fire-dependent, highly fragmented, and severely threatened habitat. Understanding the effect of fire on genetic characteristics of the species that use this habitat is critically important. We investigated one such lizard, the Six-lined Racerunner (Aspidoscelis sexlineata), which has a strong preference for open areas. We collected Six-lined Racerunners (n = 154) from 11 sites in Highlands County, FL, and defined 2 time-since-last-fire (TSF) categories: recently burned and long unburned. We screened genetic variation at 6 microsatellites to estimate genetic differentiation and compare genetic diversity among sites to determine the relationship with TSF. A clear pattern exists between genetic diversity and TSF in the absence of strong genetic differentiation. Genetic diversity was greater and inbreeding was lower in sites with more recent TSF, and genetic characteristics had significantly larger variance in long unburned sites compared with more recently burned sites. Our results suggest that fire suppression increases variance in genetic characteristics of the Six-lined Racerunner. More generally, fire may benefit genetic characteristics of some species that use fire-dependent habitats and management efforts for such severely fragmented habitat will be challenged by the presence of multiple species with incompatible fire preferences.

Biology Department.

 

Solanki, Rajeshwan R., Jamie L. Scholl, Michael J. Watt, Kenneth J. Renner, & Gina L. Forster. (2016). Amphetamine Withdrawal Differentially Increases the Expression of Organic Cation Transporter 3 and Serotonin Transporter in Limbic Brain Regions. Journal of Experimental Neuroscience, 10, 93-100.

Amphetamine withdrawal increases anxiety and stress sensitivity related to blunted ventral hippocampus (vHipp) and enhances the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) serotonin responses. Extracellular serotonin levels are regulated by the serotonin transporter (SERT) and organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3), and vHipp OCT3 expression is enhanced during 24 hours of amphetamine withdrawal, while SERT expression is unaltered. Here, we tested whether OCT3 and SERT expression in the CeA is also affected during acute withdrawal to explain opposing regional alterations in limbic serotonergic neurotransmission and if respective changes continued with two weeks of withdrawal. We also determined whether changes in transporter expression were confined to these regions. Male rats received amphetamine or saline for two weeks followed by 24 hours or two weeks of withdrawal, with transporter expression measured using Western immunoblot. OCT3 and SERT expression increased in the CeA at both withdrawal timepoints. In the vHipp, OCT3 expression increased only at 24 hours of withdrawal, with an equivalent pattern seen in the dorsomedial hypothalamus. No changes were evident in any other regions sampled. These regionally specific changes in limbic OCT3 and SERT expression may partially contribute to the serotonergic imbalance and negative affect during amphetamine withdrawal.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Wang, Xiao-Tian, Rui Zheng, Yan-Han Xuan, Jie Chen, & Shu Li. (2016). Not All Risks Are Created Equal: A Twin Study and Meta-Analyses of Risk Taking Across Seven Domains. Journal of Experimental Psychology-General, 145(11), 1548-1560.

Humans routinely deal with both traditional and novel risks. Different kinds of risks have been a driving force for both evolutionary adaptations and personal development. This study explored the genetic and environmental influences on human risk taking in different task domains. Our approach was threefold. First, we integrated several scales of domain-specific risk-taking propensity and developed a synthetic scale, including both evolutionarily typical and modern risks in the following 7 domains: cooperation/competition, safety, reproduction, natural/physical risk, moral risk, financial risk, and gambling. Second, we conducted a twin study using the scale to estimate the contributions of genes and environment to risk taking in each of these 7 domains. Third, we conducted a series of meta-analyses of extant twin studies across the 7 risk domains. The results showed that individual differences in risk-taking propensity and its consistency across domains were mainly regulated by additive genetic influences and individually unique environmental experiences. The heritability estimates from the meta-analyses ranged from 29% in financial risk taking to 55% in safety. Supporting the notion of risk-domain specificity, both the behavioral and genetic correlations among the 7 domains were generally low. Among the relatively few correlations between pairs of risk domains, our analysis revealed a common genetic factor that regulates moral, financial, and natural/physical risk taking. This is the first effort to separate genetic and environmental influences on risk taking across multiple domains in a single study and integrate the findings of extant twin studies via a series of meta-analyses conducted in different task domains.

Psychology Department.

 

Wei, W. Z., J. Liu, & D. M. Mei. (2016). Discrimination of nuclear and electronic recoil events using plasma effect in germanium detectors. Journal of Instrumentation, 11, 17.

We report a new method of using the plasma time difference, which results from the plasma effect, between the nuclear and electronic recoil events in high-purity germanium detectors to distinguish these two types of events in the search for rare physics processes. The physics mechanism of the plasma effect is discussed in detail. A numerical model is developed to calculate the plasma time for nuclear and electronic recoils at various energies in germanium detectors. It can be shown that under certain conditions the plasma time difference is large enough to be observable. The experimental aspects in realizing such a discrimination in germanium detectors is discussed.

Physics Department.

 

Zhao, C., X. Chen, D. Zang, …., X. Wang, & J. Liu. (2016). A novel nickel complex works as a proteasomal deubiquitinase inhibitor for cancer therapy. Oncogene, 35(45), 5916-5927.

Based on the central role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in the degradation of cellular proteins, proteasome inhibition has been considered an attractive approach for anticancer therapy. Deubiquitinases (DUBs) remove ubiquitin conjugates from diverse substrates; therefore, they are essential regulators of the UPS. DUB inhibitors, especially the inhibitors of proteasomal DUBs are becoming a research hotspot in targeted cancer therapy. Previous studies have shown that metal complexes, such as copper and zinc complexes, can induce cancer cell apoptosis through inhibiting UPS function. Moreover, we have found that copper pyrithione inhibits both 19S proteasome-associated DUBs and 20S proteasome activity with a mechanism distinct from that of the classical 20S proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. In the present study, we reveal that (i) nickel pyrithione complex (NiPT) potently inhibits the UPS via targeting the 19S proteasome-associated DUBs (UCHL5 and USP14), without effecting on the 20S proteasome; (ii) NiPT selectively induces proteasome inhibition and apoptosis in cultured tumor cells and cancer cells from acute myeloid leukemia human patients; and (iii) NiPT inhibits proteasome function and tumor growth in nude mice. This study, for the first time, uncovers a nickel complex as an effective inhibitor of the 19S proteasomal DUBs and suggests a potentially new strategy for cancer treatment.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Hahn, Christine K.Jill M. Morris, & Gerard A. Jacobs. (2016). Predictors of bystander behaviors and sexual assertiveness among college women attending a sexual assault prevention program. Journal of Community Psychology.

Identifying predictors of bystander behaviors and sexual assertiveness can help to inform sexual assault prevention programs on college campuses. College sorority members (N = 141) completed measures of sexual assault history, rape myth acceptance, bystander self‐efficacy, sexual assertiveness, and bystander behaviors before attending The Women’s Program, which is a bystander‐based sexual assault prevention program. Regression analyses were conducted. Lower rape myth acceptance and greater bystander self‐efficacy predicted more engagement in bystander behaviors and higher sexual assertiveness. A total of 28 participants completed a 2‐week follow‐up survey that included measures of rape myth acceptance, bystander self‐efficacy, and sexual assertiveness. T‐test analyses were conducted. Rape myth acceptance was significantly lower among participants at 2‐week follow‐up compared to baseline. Implications for sexual assault prevention on college campuses are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Psychology Department.

 

Hong, Kwangseok, Guiling Zhao, Zhongkui Hong, Zhe Sun, Yan Yang, Philip S. Clifford, Michael J. Davis, Gerald A. Meininger, & Michael A. Hill. (2016). Mechanical activation of angiotensin II type 1 receptors causes actin remodelling and myogenic responsiveness in skeletal muscle arterioles. Journal of Physiology, 594(23), 7027-7047.

The Gq/11 protein-coupled angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) has been shown to be activated by mechanical stimuli. In the vascular system, evidence supports the AT1R being a mechanosensor that contributes to arteriolar myogenic constriction. The aim of this study was to determine if AT1R mechanoactivation affects myogenic constriction in skeletal muscle arterioles and to determine underlying cellular mechanisms. Using pressure myography to study rat isolated first-order cremaster muscle arterioles the AT1R inhibitor candesartan (10−7-10−5 m) showed partial but concentration-dependent inhibition of myogenic reactivity. Inhibition was demonstrated by a rightward shift in the pressure-diameter relationship over the intraluminal pressure range, 30-110 mmHg. Pressure-induced changes in global vascular smooth muscle intracellular Ca2+ (using Fura-2) were similar in the absence or presence of candesartan, indicating that AT1R-mediated myogenic constriction relies on Ca2+-independent downstream signalling. The diacylglycerol analogue 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG) reversed the inhibitory effect of candesartan, while this rescue effect was prevented by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF 109203X. Both candesartan and PKC inhibition caused increased G-actin levels, as determined by Western blotting of vessel lysates, supporting involvement of cytoskeletal remodelling. At the single vascular smooth muscle cell level, atomic force microscopy showed that cell swelling (stretch) with hypotonic buffer also caused thickening of cortical actin fibres and this was blocked by candesartan. Collectively, the present studies support growing evidence for novel modes of activation of the AT1R in arterioles and suggest that mechanically activated AT1R generates diacylglycerol, which in turn activates PKC which induces the actin cytoskeleton reorganization that is required for pressure-induced vasoconstriction.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Huang, ShupingChoumini Balasanthiran, Sergei Tretiak, James D. Hoefelmeyer, Svetlana V. Kilina, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2016). Dynamics of charge at water-to-semiconductor interface: Case study of wet [0 0 1] anatase TiO2 nanowire. Chemical Physics, 481, 184-190.

The behavior of water molecules on the surfaces of the TiO 2 nanowire grown in [0 0 1] direction has been investigated by combining theoretical calculations and experiments. Calculated UV–visible absorption spectra reproduce the main features of the experimental spectra. Computations predict that a photoexcitation followed by a sequence of relaxation events results in photoluminescence across the gap. TiO 2 nanowires in vacuum and aqueous environment exhibit different dynamics of photo-excited charge carriers. In water, computed relaxation of electrons (holes) is approximately 2 (4) times faster compared with vacuum environment. Faster relaxation of holes vs. electrons and specific spatial localization of holes result to formation of long lived charge transfer excitation with positive charge at the surface of the nanowire. Comparison of relaxation process in TiO 2 /water interfaces focusing on different surfaces and nanostructures has potential in identifying structural characteristics of TiO 2 materials important for efficient photo-electrochemical water splitting.

Chemistry Department.

 

McDougall, Matthew A.Michael WalshKristina WattierRyan KniggeLindsey Miller,Michalene Stevermer, & Bruce S. Fogas. (2016). The effect of social networking sites on the relationship between perceived social support and depression.Psychiatry Research, 246, 223-229.

This study examined whether Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have a negative moderator effect on the established relationship between perceived social support and depression in psychiatric inpatients. Survey instruments assessing for depression, perceived social support, and SNS use, were filled out by 301 psychiatric inpatients. Additional data on age, gender, and primary psychiatric diagnosis were collected. A step-wise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine significant interactions. There was no significant interaction of SNS use on the relationship between perceived social support and depression when measured by Social Media Use Integration Scale or by hours of SNS use per day. There was a significant negative relationship between perceived social support and depression, and a significant positive relationship between hours of SNS use per day and depression, measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Limitations include a gender discrepancy among participants, generalizability, recall bias, and SNS measurement. This is the first study to look at SNS use and depression in psychiatric inpatients. SNS use did not affect perceived social support or the protective relationship between perceived social support and depression. Hours of SNS use per day were correlated with depression scores. Future studies between SNS use and depression should quantify daily SNS use.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Rezvani, Khosrow. (2016). UBXD Proteins: A Family of Proteins with Diverse Functions in Cancer. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 17(10), 18.

The UBXD family is a diverse group of UBX (ubiquitin-regulatory X) domain-containing proteins in mammalian cells. Members of this family contain a UBX domain typically located at the carboxyl-terminal of the protein. In contrast to the UBX domain shared by all members of UBXD family, the amino-terminal domains are diverse and appear to carry out different roles in a subcellular localization-dependent manner. UBXD proteins are principally associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they positively or negatively regulate the ER-associated degradation machinery (ERAD). The distinct protein interaction networks of UBXD proteins allow them to have specific functions independent of the ERAD pathway in a cell type- and tissue context-dependent manner. Recent reports have illustrated that a number of mammalian members of the UBXD family play critical roles in several proliferation and apoptosis pathways dysregulated in selected types of cancer. This review covers recent advances that elucidate the therapeutic potential of selected members of the UBXD family that can contribute to tumor growth.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Roh, Soonhee, Catherine E. Burnette, Kyoung Hag Lee, Yeon-Shim Lee, James I. Martin, &Michael J. Lawler. (2017). Predicting Help-Seeking Attitudes Toward Mental Health Services Among American Indian Older Adults. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 36(1), 94-115.

American Indian (AI) older adults are vulnerable to mental health disparities, yet very little is known about the factors associated with help-seeking for mental health services among them. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of Andersen’s Behavioral Model in explaining AI older adults’ help-seeking attitudes toward professional mental health services. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine predisposing, enabling, and need variables as predictors of help-seeking attitudes toward mental health services in a sample of 233 AI older adults from the Midwest. The model was found to have limited utility in the context of older AI help-seeking attitudes, as the proportion of explained variance was low. Gender, perceived stigma, social support, and physical health were significant predictors, whereas age, perceived mental health, and health insurance were not.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Simons, Raluca M.Jeffrey S. SimonsDawne OlsonLee Baugh, Vincent Magnotta, & Gina Forster. (2016). Posttraumatic stress and alcohol use among veterans: Amygdala and anterior cingulate activation to emotional cues. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 30(7), 720-732.

This fMRI study tested a model of combat trauma, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), alcohol use, and behavioral and neural responses to emotional cues in 100 OIF/OEF/OND veterans. Multilevel structural equation models were tested for left and right dorsal ACC (dACC), rostral ACC (rACC), and amygdala blood-oxygen- level dependent responses during the emotional counting Stroop test and masked faces task. In the Stroop task, combat exposure moderated the effect of combat stimuli resulting in hyperactivation in the rACC and dACC. Activation in the left amygdala also increased in response to combat stimuli, but effects did not vary as a function of combat severity. In the masked faces task, activation patterns did not vary as a function of stimulus. However, at the between-person level, amygdala activation during the masked faces task was inversely associated with PTSS. In respect to behavioral outcomes, higher PTSS were associated with a stronger Stroop effect, suggesting greater interference associated with combat words. Results are consistent with the premise that combat trauma results in hyperactivation in the ACC in response to combat stimuli, and, via its effect on PTSS, is associated with deficits in cognitive performance in the presence of combat stimuli. Across tasks, predeployment drinking was inversely associated with activation in the dACC but not the rACC or amygdala. Drinking may be a buffering factor, or negatively reinforcing in part because of its effects on normalizing brain response following trauma exposure. Alternatively, drinking may undermine adaptive functioning of the dACC when responding to traumatic stress cues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Psychology Department.

 

Williams, Suzanne Ellen, Leon Greene, Sonya Satinsky, & John Neuberger. (2016). Content Analysis of Conceptually Based Physical Education in Southeastern United States Universities and Colleges. Physical Educator, 73(4), 671-688.

The purposes of this study were to explore PE in higher education through the offering of traditional activity- and skills-based physical education (ASPE) and conceptually based physical education (CPE) courses and to conduct an exploratory content analysis on the CPE available to students in randomized colleges and universities in the Southeastern United States. Method: A randomized sample of 56 institutions was screened to determine if PE and CPE courses were offered and/or required, followed by a closer examination of the CPE courses. Results: Preliminary research indicated that 73% of the institutions required PE as a general education requirement, 77% offered CPE, and 46% included CPE in the general education requirements. Further research suggested that upon comparison to national healthand PE-related standards and recommendations, many course content analysis criteria dependent variables including course components, description and objectives, curriculum, and evaluation scored 50% or higher, which indicated shared characteristics among all of the CPE courses. Conclusions: PE and CPE are important components of high-er education, with the majority of the institutions in this sample including PE in their general education requirements. In addition, most of these institutions offered CPE, with nearly half stipulating a CPE requirement. More specifically, this sample of CPE courses shared many commonalities. Programming combining health education concepts in the classroom and regular PA and exercise in a laboratory setting may encourage students to have active, healthy lifestyles during the semester of enrollment that can be continued later in life.

School of Education.

 

Xiaoying, Lan, Zhao Chong, Chen Xin, Zhang Peiquan, …., Wang Xuejun, Shi Xianping, & Liu Jinbao. (2016). Nickel pyrithione induces apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia cells resistant to imatinib via both Bcr/Abl-dependent and Bcr/Abl-independent mechanisms. Journal of Hematology & Oncology, 9, 1-16.

Background: Acquired imatinib (IM) resistance is frequently characterized by Bcr-Abl mutations that affect IM binding and kinase inhibition in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Bcr-Abl-T315I mutation is the predominant mechanism of the acquired resistance to IM. Therefore, it is urgent to search for additional approaches and targeting strategies to overcome IM resistance. We recently reported that nickel pyrithione (NiPT) potently inhibits the ubiquitin proteasome system via targeting the 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (UCHL5 and USP14), without effecting on the 20S proteasome. In this present study, we investigated the effect of NiPT, a novel proteasomal deubiquitinase inhibitor, on cell survival or apoptosis in CML cells bearing Bcr-Abl-T315I or wild-type Bcr-Abl. Methods: Cell viability was examined by MTS assay and trypan blue exclusion staining assay in KBM5, KBM5R, K562, BaF3-p210-WT, BaF3-p210-T315I cells, and CML patients’ bone marrow samples treated with NiPT. Cell apoptosis in CML cells was detected with Annexin V-FITC/PI and rhodamine-123 staining followed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry and with western blot analyses for apoptosis-associated proteins. Expression levels of Bcr-Abl in CML cells were analyzed by using western blotting and real-time PCR. The 20S proteasome peptidase activity was measured using specific fluorogenic substrate. Active-site-directed labeling of proteasomal DUBs, as well as the phosphorylation of USP14 was used for evaluating the inhibition of the DUBs activity by NiPT. Mouse xenograft models of KBM5 and KBM5R cells were analyzed, and Bcr-Abl-related proteins and protein biomarkers related to proliferation, differentiation, and adhesion in tumor tissues were detected by western blots and/or immunohistological analyses. Results: NiPT induced apoptosis in CML cells and inhibited the growth of IM-resistant Bcr-Abl-T315I xenografts in nude mice. Mechanistically, NiPT induced decreases in Bcr-Abl proteins, which were associated with downregulation of Bcr-Abl transcription and with the cleavage of Bcr-Abl protein by activated caspases. NiPT-induced ubiquitin proteasome system inhibition induced caspase activation in both IM-resistant and IM-sensitive CML cells, and the caspase activation was required for NiPT-induced Bcr-Abl downregulation and apoptotic cell death. Conclusions: These findings support that NiPT can overcome IM resistance through both Bcr-Abl-dependent and Bcr-Abl-independent mechanisms, providing potentially a new option for CML treatment.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Yao, Qingqing, Jaqueline G. L. Cosme, Tao Xu, Jacob M. Miszuk, Paulo H. S. Picciani, Hao Fong, & Hongli Sun. (2017). Three dimensional electrospun PCL/PLA blend nanofibrous scaffolds with significantly improved stem cells osteogenic differentiation and cranial bone formation. Biomaterials, 115, 115-127.

Nanofibrous scaffolds that are morphologically/structurally similar to natural ECM are highly interested for tissue engineering; however, the electrospinning technique has the difficulty in directly producing clinically relevant 3D nanofibrous scaffolds with desired structural properties. To address this challenge, we have developed an innovative technique of thermally induced nanofiber self-agglomeration (TISA) recently. The aim of this work was to prepare ( via the TISA technique) and evaluate 3D electrospun PCL/PLA blend (mass ratio: 4/1) nanofibrous scaffolds having high porosity of ∼95.8% as well as interconnected and hierarchically structured pores with sizes from sub-micrometers to∼300 μm for bone tissue engineering. The hypothesis was that the incorporation of PLA (with higher mechanical stiffness/modulus and bioactivity) into PCL nanofibers would significantly improve human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) osteogenic differentiation in vitro and bone formation in vivo. Compared to neat PCL-3D scaffolds, PCL/PLA-3D blend scaffolds had higher mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity; as a result, they not only enhanced the cell viability of hMSCs but also promoted the osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, our in vivo studies revealed that PCL/PLA-3D scaffolds considerably facilitated new bone formation in a critical-sized cranial bone defect mouse model. In summary, both in vitro and in vivo results indicated that novel 3D electrospun PCL/PLA blend nanofibrous scaffolds would be strongly favorable/desired for hMSCs osteogenic differentiation and cranial bone formation.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

 

 

Posted by: tadeterman | January 15, 2017

November 2016

Abbott, A. G., T. Zhebentyayeva, Abdelali Barakat, & Z. R. Liu. (2015). The Genetic Control of Bud-Break in Trees. In C. Plomion & A. F. AdamBlondon (Eds.), Land Plants – Trees (Vol. 74, pp. 201-228). London: Academic Press Ltd-Elsevier Science Ltd.

To exploit ecogeographical niches of the temperate zone, trees and other perennial plant species optimize the timing of floral and vegetative bud break within the dynamic nature of the annual environmental cycle. This insures successful reproduction and continued growth over their lifespan. Adapting to the annual environmental cycle as well as more long-term environmental fluctuations, such as, global warming is critical to insuring survival of the species. Thus, the tree must utilize physiological systems to sense and respond in time and space to the appropriate environmental cues. Historically, many of the physiological players such as phytohormones and their actions have been well characterized, however, the underlying regulation of the genes and gene networks controlling these physiological systems remains relatively unknown. With advances in molecular genetics and genomics technologies, we are beginning to understand the genetic basis for a number of important phenological traits. It is the intent of this review to highlight our current state of knowledge for the genetics of the timing of bud-break in trees focusing on both fruit and forest trees to provide a framework to guide future efforts to understand how the tree coordinates annual growth, development and reproduction with the environmental cycle.

Biology Department.

 

Abdelrahman, Y., Scot P. Ouellette, R. J. Belland, & J. V. Cox. (2016). Polarized Cell Division of Chlamydia trachomatis. Plos Pathogens, 12(8), 20.

Bacterial cell division predominantly occurs by a highly conserved process, termed binary fission, that requires the bacterial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. Other mechanisms of bacterial cell division that are independent of FtsZ are rare. Although the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections and trachoma, lacks FtsZ, it has been assumed to divide by binary fission. We show here that Chlamydia divides by a polarized cell division process similar to the budding process of a subset of the Planctomycetes that also lack FtsZ. Prior to cell division, the major outer-membrane protein of Chlamydia is restricted to one pole of the cell, and the nascent daughter cell emerges from this pole by an asymmetric expansion of the membrane. Components of the chlamydial cell division machinery accumulate at the site of polar growth prior to the initiation of asymmetric membrane expansion and inhibitors that disrupt the polarity of C. trachomatis prevent cell division. The polarized cell division of C. trachomatis is the result of the unipolar growth and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid organism. This mechanism of cell division has not been documented in other human bacterial pathogens suggesting the potential for developing Chlamydia-specific therapeutic treatments.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Alomar, Fadhel, Jaipaul Singh, Hee-Seong Jang, …, William G. Mayhan, & Keshore R. Bidasee. (2016). Smooth muscle-generated methylglyoxal impairs endothelial cell-mediated vasodilatation of cerebral microvessels in type 1 diabetic rats. British Journal of Pharmacology, 173(23), 3307-3326.

<bold>Background and Purpose: </bold>Endothelial cell-mediated vasodilatation of cerebral arterioles is impaired in individuals with Type 1 diabetes (T1D). This defect compromises haemodynamics and can lead to hypoxia, microbleeds, inflammation and exaggerated ischaemia-reperfusion injuries. The molecular causes for dysregulation of cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (cECs) in T1D remains poorly defined. This study tests the hypothesis that cECs dysregulation in T1D is triggered by increased generation of the mitochondrial toxin, methylglyoxal, by smooth muscle cells in cerebral arterioles (cSMCs).<bold>Experimental Approach: </bold>Endothelial cell-mediated vasodilatation, vascular transcytosis inflammation, hypoxia and ischaemia-reperfusion injury were assessed in brains of male Sprague-Dawley rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and compared with those in diabetic rats with increased expression of methylglyoxal-degrading enzyme glyoxalase-I (Glo-I) in cSMCs.<bold>Key Results: </bold>After 7-8 weeks of T1D, endothelial cell-mediated vasodilatation of cerebral arterioles was impaired. Microvascular leakage, gliosis, macrophage/neutrophil infiltration, NF-κB activity and TNF-α levels were increased, and density of perfused microvessels was reduced. Transient occlusion of a mid-cerebral artery exacerbated ischaemia-reperfusion injury. In cSMCs, Glo-I protein was decreased, and the methylglyoxal-synthesizing enzyme, vascular adhesion protein 1 (VAP-1) and methylglyoxal were increased. Restoring Glo-I protein in cSMCs of diabetic rats to control levels via gene transfer, blunted VAP-1 and methylglyoxal increases, cECs dysfunction, microvascular leakage, inflammation, ischaemia-reperfusion injury and increased microvessel perfusion.<bold>Conclusions and Implications: </bold>Methylglyoxal generated by cSMCs induced cECs dysfunction, inflammation, hypoxia and exaggerated ischaemia-reperfusion injury in diabetic rats. Lowering methylglyoxal produced by cSMCs may be a viable therapeutic strategy to preserve cECs function and blunt deleterious downstream consequences in T1D.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Anderson, Jordan A.Sujan Lamichhane, & Gopinath Mani. (2016). Macrophage responses to 316L stainless steel and cobalt chromium alloys with different surface topographies. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 104(11), 2658-2672.

The surface topography of a biomaterial plays a vital role in determining macrophage interactions and influencing immune response. In this study, we investigated the effect of smooth and microrough topographies of commonly used metallic biomaterials such as 316 L stainless steel (SS) and cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloys on macrophage interactions. The macrophage adhesion was greater on CoCr compared to SS, irrespective of their topographies. The macrophage activation and the secretion of most pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IP-10) were greater on microrough surfaces than on smooth surfaces by day-1. However, by day-2, the macrophage activation on smooth surfaces was also significantly increased up to the same level as observed on the microrough surfaces, with more amount of cytokines secreted. The secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) was significantly increased from day-1 to day-2 on all the alloy surfaces with the effect most prominently observed on microrough surfaces. The production of nitric oxide by the macrophages did not show any major substrate-dependent effect. The foreign body giant cells formed by macrophages were least observed on the microrough surfaces of CoCr. Thus, this study demonstrated that the nature of material (SS or CoCr) and their surface topographies (smooth or microrough) strongly influence the macrophage responses. (C) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Biomedical Engineering Department, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Anuwatworn, AmornpolMaheedhar GedelaEdgard BendalyJulia A. Prescott-FochtJimmy YeeRichard Clark, & Orvar Jonsson. (2016). Sinus Venosus Atrial Septal Defect Complicated by Eisenmenger Syndrome and the Role of Vasodilator Therapy. Case Reports in Cardiology, 1-5.

Sinus venosus atrial septal defect is a rare congenital, interatrial communication defect at the junction of the right atrium and the vena cava. It accounts for 5–10% of cases of all atrial septal defects. Due to the rare prevalence and anatomical complexity, diagnosing sinus venous atrial septal defects poses clinical challenges which may delay diagnosis and treatment. Advanced cardiac imaging studies are useful tools to diagnose this clinical entity and to delineate the anatomy and any associated communications. Surgical correction of the anomaly is the primary treatment. We discuss a 43-year-old Hispanic female patient who presented with dyspnea and hypoxia following a laparoscopic myomectomy. She had been diagnosed with peripartum cardiomyopathy nine years ago at another hospital. Transesophageal echocardiography and computed tomographic angiography of the chest confirmed a diagnosis of sinus venosus atrial septal defect. She was also found to have pulmonary arterial hypertension and Eisenmenger syndrome. During a hemodynamic study, she responded to vasodilator and she was treated with Ambrisentan and Tadalafil. After six months, her symptoms improved and her pulmonary arterial hypertension decreased. We also observed progressive reversal of the right-to-left shunt. This case illustrates the potential benefit of vasodilator therapy in reversing Eisenmenger physiology, which may lead to surgical repair of the atrial septal defect as the primary treatment.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Arrick, Denise M., Chun Li, & William G. Mayhan. (2016). Sex-related differences in reactivity of cerebral arterioles during moderate exercise training.Microcirculation, 23(7), 549-557.

Objective Our goals were to determine the influence of sex on reactivity of cerebral arterioles and whether MExT could influence sex-related differences in reactivity of cerebral arterioles. Materials and Methods Responses of cerebral arterioles were measured in Sed and MExT adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats to eNOS-dependent (ADP), nNOS-dependent (NMDA), and NOS-independent (nitroglycerin) agonists before and following L-NMMA. In addition, protein expression for eNOS and nNOS was determined. Results NOS-dependent vasodilation was enhanced in Sed and MExT female rats compared to their male counterparts. L-NMMA produced a greater decrease in baseline diameter of arterioles in females compared to males, and produced less inhibition of NOS-dependent vasodilation in females. Expression of eNOS protein was significantly increased in Sed female when compared to Sed male rats; nNOS protein was similar in Sed males and females, but increased in MExT females. Conclusions The findings from this study indicate that while NOS-dependent vascular reactivity is increased in females, MExT does not alter vasodilation in males or females. These studies provide insights into the influence of sex and MExT on the cerebral microcirculation and may have implications regarding mechanisms that protect the brain in females compared to males.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Bardhoshi, Gerta, Kelly Duncan, & Amy Schweinle. (2016). Predictors of Parent Involvement and their Impact on Access of Postsecondary Education Facilitators among White and American Indian Parents. Journal of School Counseling, 14(4), 1-28.

This study examined demographic factors as predictors of parent involvement (engagement with school, support of learning, support of child) among parents of children that attended a school implementing a college access program. The authors also examined whether involvement predicted access of postsecondary education facilitators in parents, when accounting for demographic factors. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that parent race/ethnicity and income predicted involvement, while education level predicted access of postsecondary education facilitators. However, when including demographic factors, parent involvement was not predictive of access of postsecondary education facilitators.

School of Education.

 

Booze, Michelle L., Jason M. Hansen, & Peter F. Vitiello. (2016). A novel mouse model for the identification of thioredoxin-1 protein interactions. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 99, 533-543.

Thiol switches are important regulators of cellular signaling and are coordinated by several redox enzyme systems including thioredoxins, peroxiredoxins, and glutathione. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx1), in particular, is an important signaling molecule not only in response to redox perturbations, but also in cellular growth, regulation of gene expression, and apoptosis. The active site of this enzyme is a highly conserved C-G-P-C motif and the redox mechanism of Trx1 is rapid which presents a challenge in determining specific substrates. Numerous in vitro approaches have identified Trx1-dependent thiol switches; however, these findings may not be physiologically relevant and little is known about Trx1 interactions in vivo. In order to identify Trx1 targets in vivo , we generated a transgenic mouse with inducible expression of a mutant Trx1 transgene to stabilize intermolecular disulfides with protein substrates. Expression of the Trx1 “substrate trap” transgene did not interfere with endogenous thioredoxin or glutathione systems in brain, heart, lung, liver, and kidney. Following immunoprecipitation and proteomic analysis, we identified 41 homeostatic Trx1 interactions in perinatal lung, including previously described Trx1 substrates such as members of the peroxiredoxin family and collapsin response mediator protein 2. Using perinatal hyperoxia as a model of oxidative injury, we found 17 oxygen-induced interactions which included several cytoskeletal proteins which may be important to alveolar development. The data herein validates this novel mouse model for identification of tissue- and cell-specific Trx1-dependent pathways that regulate physiological signals in response to redox perturbations.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Bubak, Andrew N., Jazmine D. W. YaegerKenneth J. Renner, John G. Swallow, & Michael J. Greene. (2016). Neuromodulation of Nestmate Recognition Decisions by Pavement Ants. PLoS ONE, 11(11), 1-15.

Ant colonies are distributed systems that are regulated in a non-hierarchical manner. Without a central authority, individuals inform their decisions by comparing information in local cues to a set of inherent behavioral rules. Individual behavioral decisions collectively change colony behavior and lead to self-organization capable of solving complex problems such as the decision to engage in aggressive societal conflicts with neighbors. Despite the relevance to colony fitness, the mechanisms that drive individual decisions leading to cooperative behavior are not well understood. Here we show how sensory information, both tactile and chemical, and social context—isolation, nestmate interaction, or fighting non-nestmates—affects brain monoamine levels in pavement ants (Tetramorium caespitum). Our results provide evidence that changes in octopamine and serotonin in the brains of individuals are sufficient to alter the decision by pavement ants to be aggressive towards non-nestmate ants whereas increased brain levels of dopamine correlate to physical fighting. We propose a model in which the changes in brain states of many workers collectively lead to the self-organization of societal aggression between neighboring colonies of pavement ants.

Biology Department.

 

Dai, Shengchuan, Manoucher Manoucheri, Junhong Gui, …, Shenjing Li, Jason D’souza, Fnu Virkram, Aditya Chada, & Haibing Jiang. (2016). Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Utility in Prediction of 30-Day Readmission Rate in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure. Cardiology Research & Practice, 1-7.

Background. Heart failure (HF) is one of the most common diagnoses associated with hospital readmission. We designed this prospective study to evaluate whether Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) score is associated with 30-day readmission in patients hospitalized with decompensated HF. Methods and Results. We enrolled 240 patients who met the study criteria. Forty-eight (20%) patients were readmitted for decompensated HF within thirty days of hospital discharge, and 192 (80%) patients were not readmitted. Compared to readmitted patients, nonreadmitted patients had a higher average KCCQ score (40.8 versus 32.6, P = 0.019) before discharge. Multivariate analyses showed that a high KCCQ score was associated with low HF readmission rate (adjusted OR = 0.566, P = 0.022). The c-statistic for the base model (age + gender) was 0.617. The combination of home medication and lab tests on the base model resulted in an integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) increase of 3.9%. On that basis, the KCQQ further increased IDI of 2.7%. Conclusions. The KCCQ score determined before hospital discharge was significantly associated with 30-day readmission rate in patients with HF, which may provide a clinically useful measure and could significantly improve readmission prediction reliability when combined with other clinical components.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

De, Pradip, J. H. Carlson, H. Wu, A. Marcus, Brian Leyland-Jones, & Nandini Dey. (2016). Wnt-beta-catenin pathway signals metastasis-associated tumor cell phenotypes in triple negative breast cancers. Oncotarget, 7(28), 43124-43149.

Tumor cells acquire metastasis-associated (MA) phenotypes following genetic alterations in them which cause deregulation of different signaling pathways. Earlier, we reported that an upregulation of the Wnt-beta-catenin pathway (WP) is one of the genetic salient features of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), and WP signaling is associated with metastasis in TNBC. Using cBioPortal, here we found that collective % of alteration(s) in WP genes, CTNNB1, APC and DVL1 among breast-invasive-carcinomas was 21% as compared to 56% in PAM50 Basal. To understand the functional relevance of WP in the biology of heterogeneous/metastasizing TNBC cells, we undertook this comprehensive study using 15 cell lines in which we examined the role of WP in the context of integrin-dependent MA-phenotypes. Directional movement of tumor cells was observed by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and quantitative confocal-video-microscopy while matrigel-invasion was studied by MMP7-specific casein-zymography. WntC59, XAV939, sulindac sulfide and beta-catenin siRNA (1) inhibited fibronectin-directed migration, (2) decreased podiaparameters and motility-descriptors, (3) altered filamentous-actin, (4) decreased matrigel-invasion and (5) inhibited cell proliferation as well as 3D clonogenic growth. Sulindac sulfide and beta-catenin siRNA decreased beta-catenin/active-beta-catenin and MMP7. LWnt3ACM-stimulated proliferation, clonogenicity, fibronection-directed migration and matrigel-invasion were perturbed by WP-modulators, sulindac sulfide and GDC-0941. We studied a direct involvement of WP in metastasis by stimulating brain-metastasis-specific MDA-MB231BR cells to demonstrate that LWnt3ACM-stimulated proliferation, clonogenicity and migration were blocked following sulindac sulfide, GDC-0941 and beta-catenin knockdown. We present the first evidence showing a direct functional relationship between WP activation and integrin-dependent MA-phenotypes. By proving the functional relationship between WP activation and MAphenotypes, our data mechanistically explains (1) why different components of WP are upregulated in TNBC, (2) how WP activation is associated with metastasis and (3) how integrin-dependent MA-phenotypes can be regulated by mitigating the WP.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Eid, Wael Emad, S. F. Shehata, D. A. Cole, & K. L. Doerman. (2016). PREDICTORS OF NONATTENDANCE AT AN ENDOCRINOLOGY OUTPATIENT CLINIC.Endocrine Practice, 22(8), 983-989.

Objective: To identify predictors potentially contributing to patients’ nonattendance or to same-day cancellation of scheduled appointments at an adult endocrinology office practice. Methods: A retrospective, records-based, cross-sectional study was conducted using data from 9,305 electronic medical records of patients presenting at a U.S. metropolitan adult endocrinology clinic in 2013. Statistical analyses included multivariate regression, calculated odds ratios, and posttest probabilities. Results: Of 29,178 total patient visits analyzed, 68% were attended by patients. Of total scheduled appointments, 7% resulted in nonattendance and 5% in same-day cancellation. The most significant predictors of nonattendance were a previous history of nonattendance (P<.001), uncontrolled diabetes (P<.001), and new patients to the practice (P<.001). Long lead- time to appointment (P=.001), younger age (P<. 001), and certain insurance carriers (P<. 001) also were significant predictors. Conclusion: Specific predictors of nonattendance at scheduled appointments were identified using statistical analysis of electronic medical record data. Previous history of nonattendance and having uncontrolled diabetes (especially in patients newly referred to the practice) are among these significant predictors. Identifying specific predictors for nonattendance enables targeted strategies to be developed.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Erck, AdamWendi Sapp, S. Kilina, & Dmitri Kilin. (2016). Photoinduced Charge Transfer at Interfaces of Carbon Nanotube and Lead Selenide Nanowire. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 120(40), 23197-23206.

Photoinduced generation of excitons and their nonradiative relaxation dynamics are simulated at the interface of (10, 0) carbon nanotubes (CNT) and a PbSe nanowire (NW). Possible pathways of photoinduced excitations are explored by combining a reduced density matrix approach in the basis of Kohn-Sham orbitals and on-the-fly nonadiabatic couplings. A range of neutral photoexcitations localized on the CNT is followed by formation of charge transfer (CT) states involving PbSe NW. Depending on the wavelength of the incident light, the initial photoexcitation can be followed by two directions of charge transfer: either (PbSe)(+)(CNT)(-) or (PbSe)(-)(CNT)(+). Excitation of a hot electron results in the CT state with an electron located at the NW and the hole at the CNT with shorter lifetime, while excitation of a hot hole leads to the CT state with an electron at the CNT and the hole at the PbSe having much longer lifetime. Observed ability to control the direction and the lifetime of the CT state makes the CNT/PbSe NW composites promising for photovoltaic applications.

Chemistry Department.

 

Fang, Jiaming, Benjamin George, Yunfei Shao, & Chao Wen. (2016). Affective and cognitive factors influencing repeat buying in e-commerce.Electronic Commerce Research & Applications, 19, 44-55.

Drawing on means-end chain theory and feelings-as-information theory , we propose a moderation model, and offer a detailed analysis of how the affective factor perceived enjoyment influences perceived value and repeat buying in e-tailing contexts. Based upon survey data from 651 online shoppers, we observe the complex moderation effects of e-shopping enjoyment on the relations between perceived benefits, sacrifice and perceived value. However, the moderation effect of enjoyment only appears in shoppers with a task-focused motivation. Furthermore, this study applies fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) and uncovers several equifinal configurations associated with the perceived value and repeat buying intention. The results reveal that none of the above-mentioned factors provide sufficient or necessary conditions for the presence of high perceived value and repeat buying intention. The findings suggest complex substitutive and complementary relationships between the factors and demonstrate the complexities of consumers’ online repurchase decision. This study thus helps to gain a better understanding of the conditions leading to e-shopping value and repeat buying behavior.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Fenton, J. I., E. A. Gurzell, E. A. Davidson, & William S. Harris. (2016). Red blood cell PUFAs reflect the phospholipid PUFA composition of major organs. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 112, 12-23.

Numerous clinical trials examining the use of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) on various health outcomes have been conducted, and fish oil remains one of the most widely used nutritional supplements. More recently, studies have begun to utilize the omega-3 index, defined as the sum of EPA+DHA in red blood cells (RBCs), as both a biomarker of n-3 LCPUFA exposure and a potential risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Considerably less research evaluates whether RBC phospholipid fatty acids reflect the phospholipid fatty acid composition of other tissues across increasing intakes of n-3 LCPUFAs. We fed mice diets containing increasing amounts of EPA+DHA, equivalent to current recommendations by the American Heart Association on a percent of energy basis, and analyzed the phospholipid fatty acid composition of various tissues in relation to RBCs. We observed that RBCs, heart, muscle, spleen, lung, and adipose tissues all respond to dietary supplementation with EPA+DHA with increasing n-3 LCPUFA and decreasing n-6 LCPUFA levels. Furthermore, the n-3 LCPUFA profiles of all measured tissues had strong (r > 0.7) and significant (p < 0.001) correlations to RBCs. Interestingly, we also observed changes in saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) levels across various tissues in response to increased EPA+DHA intakes despite there being no change in dietary SFA and MUFA. Specifically, there were increases in RBC SFA and spleen MUFA and decreases in heart MUFA. These demonstrate that the RBC, including the omega-3 index, may serve as a marker for the relative levels of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFAs in phospholipids of certain tissues. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Frejd, D., K. Dunaway, J. Hill, Jesse Van Maanen, & C. Carlson. (2016). The Genomic and Morphological Effects of Bisphenol A on Arabidopsis thaliana.Plos One, 11(9), 10.

The environmental toxin bisphenol A (BPA) is a known mammalian hormone disrupter but its effects on plants have not been well established. The effect of BPA on gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana was determined using microarray analysis and quantitative gene PCR. Many hormone responsive genes showed changes in expression after BPA treatment. BPA disrupted flowering by a mechanism that may involve disruption of auxin signaling. The results presented here indicate that BPA is a plant hormone disrupter.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Furr, Susan, & Kathleen Brown-Rice. (2016). Doctoral students’ knowledge of educators’ problems of professional competency. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 10(4), 223-230.

We surveyed doctoral students in APA-accredited programs (clinical psychology PhD, counseling psychology PhD, and clinical psychology PsyD; n = 939) and CACREP-accredited counseling/counselor education programs PhD (n = 345) to investigate their knowledge of educators’ problems of professional competency (PPC). Findings suggest the majority of respondents are aware of educators with PPC and are affected by these interactions. Areas such as educators’ unprofessional behavior (e.g., dishonesty, excessive tardiness, class absences), inadequate supervision skills, inappropriate boundaries, and inability to regulate emotions were cited by all groups as problematic while being culturally insensitive or culturally incompetent was a more prominent problem experienced by psychology doctoral students. Doctoral students reported that they had feelings of resentment toward educators who displayed PPC and viewed these educators as disrupting the learning environment in the classroom, interfering with their ability to concentrate and complete their own work, and increasing their workload. Limited differences between programs adhering to the scientist-practitioner model and programs following the practitioner-scholar model were noted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

School of Education.

 

Goodman, Barbara E. (2016). An evolution in student-centered teaching. Advances in Physiology Education, 40(3), 278-282.

The American Physiological Society (APS) Teaching Section annually honors an educator through its Claude Bernard Distinguished Lecture at the Experimental Biology meeting. Since I knew about my selection for almost a year, I had a long time to think about what I wanted to say and how I wanted to say it. The theme of my presentation was “nothing in education makes sense except in the light of student learning.” My presentation began with a video of my “And, But, Therefore” description of my educational scholarship (see Randy Olson Great Challenges Day at TEDMED 2013, Ref. 10). “Physiology is the basic foundation of all the health professions AND physiology can be hard for students to figure out BUT many physiology courses expect students to memorize a large number of facts; THEREFORE, my scholarship is to help students learn physiology better for the long-term with various types of student-centered learning opportunities.” To stress the goal of student-centered learning, my brief video was followed by a 2-min video of one of my students describing her experiences with student-centered learning in one of my two-semester Advanced Human Physiology classes. Since I have been convinced that Randy Olson is an expert on science communication (11), the rest of my presentation was the story about how I have evolved from a sage-on-the-stage lecturer into a student-centered learning facilitator. I have chosen Olson’s “And, But, Therefore” approach to narrative for this written version of key aspects of the presentation.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Hoover, K. M., A. N. Bubak, I. J. Law, Jazmine D. W. YaegerKenneth J. Renner, J. G. Swallow, & M. J. Greene. (2016). The organization of societal conflicts by pavement ants Tetramorium caespitum: an agent-based model of amine-mediated decision making. Current Zoology, 62(3), 277-284.

Ant colonies self-organize to solve complex problems despite the simplicity of an individual ant’s brain. Pavement ant Tetramorium caespitum colonies must solve the problem of defending the territory that they patrol in search of energetically rich forage. When members of 2 colonies randomly interact at the territory boundary a decision to fight occurs when: 1) there is a mismatch in nestmate recognition cues and 2) each ant has a recent history of high interaction rates with nestmate ants. Instead of fighting, some ants will decide to recruit more workers from the nest to the fighting location, and in this way a positive feedback mediates the development of colony wide wars. In ants, the monoamines serotonin (5-HT) and octopamine (OA) modulate many behaviors associated with colony organization and in particular behaviors associated with nestmate recognition and aggression. In this article, we develop and explore an agent-based model that conceptualizes how individual changes in brain concentrations of 5-HT and OA, paired with a simple threshold-based decision rule, can lead to the development of colony wide warfare. Model simulations do lead to the development of warfare with 91% of ants fighting at the end of 1 h. When conducting a sensitivity analysis, we determined that uncertainty in monoamine concentration signal decay influences the behavior of the model more than uncertainty in the decision-making rule or density. We conclude that pavement ant behavior is consistent with the detection of interaction rate through a single timed interval rather than integration of multiple interactions.

Biology Department.

 

Hoyme, H. Eugene, & Claire D. Coles. (2016). Alcohol-Related Neurobehavioral Disabilities: Need for Further Definition and Common Terminology.Pediatrics, 138(4), 1-3.

The article addresses the definition of neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (ND-PAE), how it intersects with the existing diagnostic categories of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and the need for ongoing research and development of common terminology for FASD. It suggests that every child evaluated for FASD must have expert assessment of growth and dysmorphology in addition to skilled neurobehavioral evaluation.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Hsu, Benson S.Saquib A. Lakhani, & M. Wilhelm. (2016). Acid-Base Disorders. Pediatrics in Review, 37(9), 361-369.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Huntington, Mark K.Jay Allison, & D. Nair. (2016). Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases. American Family Physician, 94(7), 551-557.

Several mosquito-borne viral infections have recently emerged in North America; West Nile virus is the most common in the United States. Although West Nile virus generally causes a self-limited, flulike febrile illness, a serious neuroinvasive form may occur. Dengue is the most common vector-borne viral disease worldwide, and it has been a significant public health threat in the United States since 2009. Known as breakbone fever for its severe myalgias and arthralgias, dengue may cause a hemorrhagic syndrome. Chikungunya also causes flulike febrile illness and disabling arthralgias. Although meningoencephalitis may occur with chikungunya, bleeding is uncommon. Symptoms of Zika virus infection are similar to those of dengue, but milder. Zika virus increases the risk of fetal brain abnormalities, including microcephaly, if a pregnant woman is infected. Zika virus is spread through Aedes albopictus mosquito bites, is transmitted sexually, and may rarely spread nonsexually from person to person. Diagnosis of these vector borne infections is clinical and serologic, and treatment is supportive. Other, well-established vector-borne diseases are also important. Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne bacterial disease that presents as a nonspecific syndrome of fever, headache, malaise, and myalgias. It is diagnosed via blood smear testing, with confirmatory serology. Ehrlichiosis is treated with doxycycline. Rickettsial infections are transmitted by fleas, mites, and ticks, and severity ranges from mild to life threatening. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, the most significant rickettsial infection, is primarily a clinical diagnosis that presents as fever, headache, myalgias, petechial rash, and tick exposure. Doxycycline is effective for rickettsial infections if administered promptly. Vector avoidance strategies are critical to the prevention of all of these infections. Copyright 2016 American Academy of Family Physicians.)

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Jacobs, Gerard A.Brandon L. GraySara E. EricksonElvira D. Gonzalez, & Randal P. Quevillon. (2016). Disaster Mental Health and Community-Based Psychological First Aid: Concepts and Education/Training. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 72(12), 1307-1317.

Any community can experience a disaster, and many traumatic events occur without warning. Psychologists can be an important resource assisting in psychological support for individuals and communities, in preparation for and in response to traumatic events. Disaster mental health and the community-based model of psychological first aid are described. The National Preparedness and Response Science Board has recommended that all mental health professionals be trained in disaster mental health, and that first responders, civic officials, emergency managers, and the general public be trained in community-based psychological first aid. Education and training resources in these two fields are described to assist psychologists and others in preparing themselves to assist their communities in difficult times and to help their communities learn to support one another.

Psychology Department.

 

Jenks, Christopher J., & Jerry Won Lee. (2016). Heteroglossic ideologies in world Englishes: an examination of the Hong Kong context. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 26(3), 384-402.

Much research in world Englishes centers on examining the linguistic features of a particular region. Such work can give the false impression of a collective homogeneous ideology of English within a geographic space. We refer to this limiting monolithic perspective of language ideology as ‘the single linguistic narrative.’ The present study builds on this body of work by investigating how often competing ideologies of English can circulate within a region. Focusing on the Hong Kong context, we adapt the concept of Bakhtinian heteroglossia to consider the simultaneous co-presence of varying ideologies of English. Through an analysis of self-narratives, we examine how Hong Kong university students construct expectations regarding how English should be used and what the colonial language means to their regional identity.

English Department.

 

Keifer, Joyce, & Cliff H. Summers. (2016). Putting the “Biology” Back into “Neurobiology”: The Strength of Diversity in Animal Model Systems for Neuroscience Research. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 10, 9.

Current trends in neuroscience research have moved toward a reliance on rodent animal models to study most aspects of brain function. Such laboratory-reared animals are highly inbred, have been disengaged from their natural environments for generations and appear to be of limited predictive value for successful clinical outcomes. In this Perspective article, we argue that research on a rich diversity of animal model systems is fundamental to new discoveries in evolutionarily conserved core physiological and molecular mechanisms that are the foundation of human brain function. Analysis of neural circuits across phyla will reveal general computational solutions that form the basis for adaptive behavioral responses. Further, we stress that development of ethoexperimental approaches to improve our understanding of behavioral nuance will help to realign our research strategies with therapeutic goals and improve the translational validity of specific animal models. Finally, we suggest that neuroscience has a role in environmental conservation of habitat and fauna that will preserve and protect the ecological settings that drive species-specific behavioral adaptations. A rich biodiversity will enhance our understanding of human brain function and lead in unpredicted directions for development of therapeutic treatments for neurological disorders.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Kim, Dae In, & Kyle J. Roux. (2016). Filling the Void: Proximity-Based Labeling of Proteins in Living Cells. Trends in Cell Biology, 26(11), 804-817.

There are inherent limitations with traditional methods to study protein behavior or to determine the constituency of proteins in discrete subcellular compartments. In response to these limitations, several methods have recently been developed that use proximity-dependent labeling. By fusing proteins to enzymes that generate reactive molecules, most commonly biotin, proximate proteins are covalently labeled to enable their isolation and identification. In this review we describe current methods for proximity-dependent labeling in living cells and discuss their applications and future use in the study of protein behavior.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Knisely, Kris A. (2016). Language learning and the gendered self: the case of French and masculinity in a US context. Gender and Language, 10(2), 216-239.

In a time of ever-increasing globalisation, the development of diverse linguistic skills has been growing in importance despite a trend of reduced language learning, which is particularly marked in Anglophone countries. Although the need for international interaction is not gender-specific, a growing body of literature has identified gender-related differences in language education. Existing research has demonstrated that different target languages have been gendered by students in different ways. Extending the existing literature, focused primarily on adolescents, a survey was administered to 294 students at four universities in the southeastern US to explore the degree to which young adults perceive languages as gendered and to which taking French is perceived as gender-norm violating. Findings suggest that although there are some similarities in terms of the gendering of languages and language study among adolescent and young adult learners, differences exists in the nature of this gendering.

Modern Languages Department.

 

LoCicero, Alice, Robert P. Marlin, David Jull-Patterson, Nancy M. Sweeney, Brandon Lee Gray, & J. Wesley Boyd. (2016). Enabling torture: APA, clinical psychology training and the failure to disobey. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 22(4), 345-355.

The American Psychological Association (APA) has historically had close ties with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD). Recent revelations describe problematic outcomes of those ties, as some in the APA colluded with the DOD to allow psychologists to participate, with expectation of impunity, in harsh interrogations that amounted to torture of Guantanamo detainees, during the Bush era. We now know that leaders in the APA purposely misled psychologists about the establishment of policies on psychologists’ roles in interrogations. Still, the authors wondered why, when the resulting policies reflected a clear contradiction of the fundamental duty to do no harm, few psychologists, in or out of the military, protested the policies articulated in 2005 by the committee on Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS). Previous research suggested that U.S. graduate students in clinical psychology receive little or no training in the duties of psychologists in military settings or in the ethical guidance offered by international treaties. Thus psychologists might not have been well prepared to critique the PENS policies or to refuse to participate in interrogations. To further explore this issue, the authors surveyed Directors of Clinical Training of doctoral programs in clinical psychology, asking how extensively their programs address dilemmas psychologists may face in military settings. The results indicate that most graduate programs offer little attention to dilemmas of unethical orders, violations of international conventions, or excessively harsh interrogations. These findings, combined with earlier studies, suggest that military psychologists may have been unprepared to address ethical dilemmas, whereas psychologists outside the military may have been unprepared to critique the APA’s collusion with the DOD. The authors suggest ways to address this apparent gap in ethics education for psychology graduate students, interns, and fellows. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

 

May, Philip A., Anna-Susan Marais, Marlene M. de Vries, …, & H. Eugene Hoyme. (2016). The continuum of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in a community in South Africa: Prevalence and characteristics in a fifth sample. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 168, 274-286.

The prevalence and characteristics of the continuum of diagnoses within fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were researched in a fifth sample in a South African community.<bold>Methods: </bold>An active case ascertainment approach was employed among all first grade learners in this community (n=862). Following individual examination by clinical geneticists/dysmorphologists, cognitive/behavioral testing, and maternal interviews, final diagnoses were made in multidisciplinary case conferences.<bold>Results: </bold>Physical measurements, cardinal facial features of FAS, and total dysmorphology scores clearly differentiated diagnostic categories in a consistent, linear fashion, from severe to mild. Neurodevelopmental delays and behavioral problems were significantly worse for each of the FASD diagnostic categories, although not as consistently linear across diagnostic groups. Alcohol use was documented by direct report from the mother in 71% to 100% of cases in specific diagnostic groups. Significant distal maternal risk factors in this population are: advanced maternal age at pregnancy; low height, weight, and body mass index (BMI); small head circumference; low education; low income; and rural residence. Even when controlling for socioeconomic status, prenatal drinking correlates significantly with total dysmorphology score, head circumference, and five cognitive and behavioral measures. In this community, FAS occurs in 59-79 per 1,000 children, and total FASD in 170-233 per 1,000 children, or 17% to 23%.<bold>Conclusions: </bold>Very high rates of FASD continue in this community where entrenched practices of regular binge drinking co-exist with challenging conditions for childbearing and child development in a significant portion of the population.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

McCormack, Leah. (2016). Blameless. New England Review-Middlebury Series, 37(3), 154-168.

English Department.

 

Millikin, Alice R.Meghann E. Jarchow, K. L. Olmstead, Rustan E. Krentz, & Mark D. Dixon. (2016). Site Preparation Drives Long-Term Plant Community Dynamics in Restored Tallgrass Prairie: A Case Study in Southeastern South Dakota. Environmental Management, 58(4), 597-605.

Most tallgrass prairies have been destroyed or altered, making restoration an important component to their conservation. Our goal was to evaluate progress 12-years post-restoration at Spirit Mound Historic Prairie and determine whether the outcomes varied based on different land use and restoration histories across the site. We examined changes in plant diversity, richness, evenness, non-native species relative abundance, and community composition from 2004 to 2013. Areas with different restoration treatments and land-use histories showed divergent results. Seventy percent of the site, previously annual row crop, was reconstructed using herbicide application followed by native seeding (hereafter reconstruction). Areas that were previously grazed, 15 % of the site, were restored with only partial seeding and no herbicide treatment (hereafter rehabilitation). Species richness and diversity increased over 40 % in the reconstruction since 2004 and remained over 1.9 times higher in the reconstructed areas than rehabilitated areas. Diversity did not change in the rehabilitation, but richness increased 47 % since 2004. Evenness decreased 11-26 % over time in both areas. Non-native species relative abundance did not change from 2004 to 2013, and remained five times higher in the rehabilitation than the reconstruction. Native C-4 grass and forb abundance increased over time in the reconstruction, whereas non-native C-3 grasses remained dominant in the rehabilitation. These results showed that restoration outcomes were radically different 12-years post-restoration among areas with different prior land uses that were subjected to different restoration practices. Long-term assessments are important to accurately determine restoration progress and inform management decisions.

Biology Department.

 

Mills, Stacia, Kate Wolitzky-Taylor, Anna Q. Xiao, Marie Claire Bourque, Sandra M. Peynado RojasDebanjana Bhattacharya, Annabelle K. Simpson, Aleea Maye, Pachida Lo, Aaron Clark, Russell Lim, & Francis G. Lu. (2016). Training on the DSM-5 cultural formulation interview improves cultural competence in general psychiatry residents: A multi-site study. Academic Psychiatry, 40(5), 829-834.

Objective: The authors assessed whether a 1-h didactic session on the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) improves cultural competence of general psychiatry residents. Methods: Psychiatry residents at six residency programs completed demographics and pre-intervention questionnaires, were exposed to a 1-h session on the CFI, and completed a post-intervention questionnaire. Repeated measures ANCOVA compared pre- to post-intervention change. Linear regression assessed whether previous cultural experience predicted post-intervention scores. Results: Mean scores on the questionnaire significantly changed from pre- to post-intervention (p < 0.001). Previous cultural experience did not predict post-intervention scores. Conclusions: Psychiatry residents’ cultural competence scores improved with a 1-h session on the CFI but with notable limitations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Narra, H. P., L. F. Shubitz, M. A. Mandel, H. T. Trinh, Kurt Griffin, A. S. Buntzman, J. A. Frelinger, J. N. Galgiani, & M. J. Orbach. (2016). A Coccidioides posadasii CPS1 Deletion Mutant Is Avirulent and Protects Mice from Lethal Infection. Infection and Immunity, 84(10), 3007-3016.

The CPS1 gene was identified as a virulence factor in the maize pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus. Hypothesizing that the homologous gene in Coccidioides posadasii could be important for virulence, we created a Delta cps1 deletion mutant which was unable to cause disease in three strains of mice (C57BL/6, BALB/c, or the severely immunodeficient NOD-scid, gamma c(null) [NSG]). Only a single colony was recovered from 1 of 60 C57BL/6 mice following intranasal infections of up to 4,400 spores. Following administration of very high doses (10,000 to 2.5 x 10(7) spores) to NSG and BALB/c mice, spherules were observed in lung sections at time points from day 3 to day 10 postinfection, but nearly all appeared degraded with infrequent endosporulation. Although the role of CPS1 in virulence is not understood, phenotypic alterations and transcription differences of at least 33 genes in the Delta cps1 strain versus C. posadasii is consistent with both metabolic and regulatory functions for the gene. The in vitro phenotype of the Delta cps1 strain showed slower growth of mycelia with delayed and lower spore production than C. posadasii, and in vitro spherules were smaller. Vaccination of C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice with live Delta cps1 spores either intranasally, intraperitoneally, or subcutaneously resulted in over 95% survival with mean residual lung fungal burdens of < 1,000 CFU from an otherwise lethal C. posadasii intranasal infection. Considering its apparently complete attenuation of virulence and the high degree of resistance to C. posadasii infection when used as a vaccine, the Delta cps1 strain is a promising vaccine candidate for preventing coccidioidomycosis in humans or other animals.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Olson, SethKathleen Brown-Rice, & Natasha Keller. (2016). Mental Health Practitioners’ Knowledge of Colleagues’ Problems of Professional Competency. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 38(4), 308-326.

There is a lack of empirical research on how mental health practitioners (MTIPs) are affected hy professional incompetency of their colleagues. To bridge this gap in the literature, a total of 213 MHPs were surveyed to determine their knowledge of coworkers’ problems of professional competency (PPC). Descriptive statistics were utilized to analyze the data. Findings suggest the majority of MHPs are aware of colleagues with PPC and believe these colleagues are disrupting the work environment and adversely affecting client care.

School of Education.

 

Payra, Soumen, Arijit Saha, Chia-Ming WuBalaranjan SelvaratnamThorn DramstadLuther Mahoney, Sant Kumar Verma, Suresh Thareja, Ranjit Koodali, & Subhash Banerjee. (2016). Fe–SBA-15 catalyzed synthesis of 2-alkoxyimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and screening of their in silico selectivity and binding affinity to biological targets. New Journal of Chemistry, 40(11), 9753-9760.

Here, we have demonstrated regioselective three-component synthesis of 2-alkoxyimidazopyridines using mesoporous Fe–SBA-15 as the catalyst and screened their in silico selectivity and binding affinity to different biological targets viz. farnesyl diphosphate synthase, phosphodiesterase III, GABAa and chemokine receptor CXCR4 using molecular docking simulations. Fe–SBA-15 has been characterized by nitrogen absorption–desorption, powder XRD, SEM, TEM studies and atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis. Fe–SBA-15 was very efficient in synthesizing imidazopyridines. The binding affinity study revealed that the 2-butoxy-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-methylH-imidazo[1,2-a] pyridine (4g) moiety has exhibited even better affinity in terms of MolDock, re-rank and steric scores than the marketed anti-inflammatory drug, olprinone.

 

Puckett, Jae A., F. I. Surace, H. M. Levitt, & S. G. Horne. (2016). Sexual Orientation Identity in Relation to Minority Stress and Mental Health in Sexual Minority Women. Lgbt Health, 3(5), 350-356.

Purpose: Research often erases the distinct experiences of bisexual and queer women through collapsing participants with lesbian or gay women. In addition, queer is often not included as a sexual orientation identity in research, therefore limiting the available information about how this group experiences minority stress. Given these limitations, we sought to compare groups, based on their sexual orientation identity, on experiences of minority stress and mental health to further understand between group differences that often go unaccounted for in research. Methods: Participants (N=249; age range 19-77; M=38.43, SD=12.98) completed an online survey exploring experiences of minority stress and mental health. Results: We found that the group most at risk for encountering minority stressors depended on the specific stressor being examined. Queer and gay or lesbian women encountered greater victimization, discrimination, and expectations of discrimination than bisexual women. However, bisexual women had higher levels of identity concealment and internalized heterosexism than gay, lesbian, or queer women. While queer women tended to have fewer proximal stressors, they were similar to bisexual women in terms of psychological distress, with both groups scoring higher than gay or lesbian women. Conclusions: These results highlight the need to examine between group differences in future research. The experiences of minority stress appear to complexly relate to psychological distress in varying ways for different groups of women, with bisexual and queer women having the highest rates of psychological distress although they vary in the types of stressors that they encounter. In addition, the experiences of queer women were divergent from those of gay, lesbian, or bisexual women across many of the stressors, indicating that there is a need to further recognize this distinct group of women in future research.

Psychology Department.

 

Qiao, Yupu, Long Zhang, Jia Li, Wei Lin, & Zhenqiang Wang. (2016). Switching on Supramolecular Catalysis via Cavity Mediation and Electrostatic Regulation. Angewandte Chemie, 128(41), 12970-12974.

Synthetic supercontainers constructed from divalent metal ions, carboxylate linkers, and sulfonylcalix[4]arene-based container precursors exhibit great promise as enzyme mimics that function in organic solvents. The capacity of these artificial hosts to catalyze Knoevenagel condensation can be switched on when the aldehyde substrate possesses a molecular size and shape matching the nanocavity of the supercontainers. In contrast, little reactivity is observed for other aldehydes that do not match the binding pocket. This substrate-dependent catalytic selectivity is attributed to the Brønsted acidity of the metal-bound water molecules located inside the nanocavity, which is amplified when the size/shape of the aldehyde substrate fits the binding cavity. The electrostatic environment of the binding cavity and the Brønsted acidity of the supercontainer can be further modulated using tetraalkylammonium-based regulators, leading to higher reactivity for the otherwise unreactive aldehydes.

Chemistry Department.

 

Quevillon, Randal P.Brandon L. GraySara E. EricksonElvira D. Gonzalez, & Gerard A. Jacobs. (2016). Helping the Helpers: Assisting Staff and Volunteer Workers Before, During, and After Disaster Relief Operations. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 72(12), 1348-1363.

Self-care strategies and system supports employed in preparation for, during, and after disaster relief operations (DROs) are crucial to relief worker well-being and the overall effectiveness of relief efforts. Relief organizations and management must structure DROs in a manner that promotes self-care and workers must implement proper self-care strategies. Proper self-care before, during, and after a DRO can reduce negative reactions to stressful emergency work and promote growth, mastery, and self-efficacy after the experience. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to discuss the importance of organizational supports and self-care strategies in disaster relief settings. This article emphasizes the role of both individual and management participation and commitment to relief worker support and positive experience in DROs and provides suggestions for doing so. These suggestions are derived from the empirical and experiential literature and extensions from the theoretical background, and from our experience as managers in DROs.

Psychology Department.

 

Roh, Soonhee, Catherine E. Burnette, Kyoung Hag Lee, Yeon-Shim Lee, & Scott D. Easton. (2016). Risk and Protective Factors for Depressive Symptoms Among Indigenous Older Adults: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and Social Support. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 59(4), 316-331.

Research on depression and intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by Indigenous older adults is virtually nonexistent. Given the associations between IPV and depression and their disproportionately high rates among Indigenous peoples in a context of historical oppression, the purpose of this inquiry is to examine how IPV and social support are associated with depressive symptoms for Indigenous older adults. We expand the knowledge base on IPV in later life, which primarily focuses on female samples, by including older men. We predicted: (a) IPV will be positively associated with depressive symptoms and (b) levels of social support will be negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses of data from a sample of Indigenous older adults (N = 233) in the Upper Midwest indicated that physical aggression (but not psychological aggression, sexual coercion, injury, or negotiation) was positively associated with depressive symptoms, whereas social support was negatively associated with depressive symptoms.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Ronan, Patrick J., N. Wongngamnit, & T. P. Beresford. (2016). Molecular Mechanisms of Cannabis Signaling in the Brain. In S. Rahman (Ed.), Molecular Basis of Drug Addiction (Vol. 137, pp. 123-147). San Diego: Elsevier Academic Press Inc.

Cannabis has been cultivated and used by humans for thousands of years. Research for decades was focused on understanding the mechanisms an illegal/addictive drug. This led to the discovery of the vast endocannabinoid system. Research has now shifted to understanding fundamental biological questions related to one of the most widespread signaling systems in both the brain and the body. Our understanding of cannabinoid signaling has advanced significantly in the last two decades. In this review, we discuss the state of knowledge on mechanisms of Cannabis signaling in the brain and the modulation of key brain neurotransmitter systems involved in both brain reward/addiction and psychiatric disorders. It is highly probable that various cannabinoids will be found to be efficacious in the treatment of a number of psychiatric disorders. However, while there is clearly much potential, marijuana has not been properly vetted by the medical-scientific evaluation process and there are clearly a range of potentially adverse side-effects-including addiction. We are at crossroads for research on endocannabinoid function and therapeutics (including the use of exogenous treatments such as Cannabis). With over 100 cannabinoid constituents, the majority of which have not been studied, there is much Cannabis research yet to be done. With more states legalizing both the medicinal and recreational use of marijuana the rigorous scientific investigation into cannabinoid signaling is imperative.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Simons, Jeffrey S.Raluca M. Simons, Carol O’Brien, Scott F. Stoltenberg, Jessica A. Keith, Jaime A. Hudson, & Carol O’Brien. (2017). PTSD, alcohol dependence, and conduct problems: Distinct pathways via lability and disinhibition. Addictive Behaviors, 64, 185-193.

This study tested the role of affect lability and disinhibition in mediating associations between PTSD symptoms and two forms of alcohol-related problems, dependence syndrome symptoms (e.g., impaired control over consumption) and conduct problems (e.g., assault, risk behaviors). Genotype at the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) was hypothesized to moderate associations between traumatic stress and PTSD symptoms. In addition, the study tested whether childhood traumatic stress moderated associations between combat trauma and PTSD symptoms. Participants were 270 OIF/OEF/OND veterans. The hypothesized model was largely supported. Participants with the low expression alleles of 5-HTTLPR (S or LG) exhibited stronger associations between childhood (but not combat) traumatic stress and PTSD symptoms. Affect lability mediated the associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol dependence symptoms. Behavioral disinhibition mediated associations between PTSD symptoms and conduct related problems. Conditional indirect effects indicated stronger associations between childhood traumatic stress and lability, behavioral disinhibition, alcohol consumption, AUD symptoms, and associated conduct problems via PTSD symptoms among those with the low expression 5-HTTLPR alleles. However, interactions between combat trauma and either childhood trauma or genotype were not significant. The results support the hypothesis that affect lability and behavioral disinhibition are potential intermediate traits with distinct associations with AUD and associated externalizing problems.

Psychology Department.

 

Son, Veronica, J. Chung, & J. P. Yom. (2016). When efficacy beliefs affect team attributions: relationships between self- and collective efficacy beliefs and team attributions over time. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 56(7-8), 939-948.

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the extent to which efficacy beliefs and perceptions of team performance influenced team causal attributions overtime. METHODS: A total of 258 undergraduate students were assigned to a three or four person team and played three games against three different opponents in a semi-round robin team bowling tournament. RESULTS: Multilevel modelling analyses revealed that individuals’ perceptions in team performance were positively associated with internal, stable, and team controllable attributions. Collective efficacy beliefs positively predicted team attributions overtime; whereas, self-efficacy beliefs were a negative predictor of team attributions across the tournament. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that individuals’ perceptions of their team’s success/failure were the stronger determinant of team attributions than their team’s winning/losing and, as well as, the efficacy beliefs team attributions relationships were moderated by time.

School of Education.

 

Strouse, Gabrielle A., & Patricia A. Ganea. (2016). Are prompts provided by electronic books as effective for teaching preschoolers a biological concept as those provided by adults? Early Education and Development, 27(8), 1190-1204.

Research Findings: Prior research indicates that shared book reading is an effective method for teaching biological concepts to young children. Adult questioning during reading enhances children’s comprehension. We investigated whether adult prompting during the reading of an electronic book enhanced children’s understanding of a biological concept. Ninety-one 4-year-olds read about camouflage in 3 conditions. We varied how prompts were provided: (a) read by the book, (b) read by a researcher, or (c) given face to face by the researcher. There was an interaction between children’s initial vocabulary level and condition. Children with low vocabulary scores gave fewer camouflage responses than their high-vocabulary peers, and this effect was particularly pronounced in the book-read condition. Children’s executive function was also measured and discussed. Practice or Policy: Our findings indicate that under some circumstances electronic prompts built into touchscreen books can be as effective at supporting conceptual development as the same prompts provided by a coreading adult. However, children with low vocabulary skills may be particularly supported by adult-led prompting. We suggest that adult prompting be used to motivate children to test and revise their own biological theories. Once children have learned strategies for updating their concepts, electronic prompting may be useful for scaffolding children’s transition to using the strategies when reading alone. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

School of Education.

 

Vallcaneras, Sandra S., Magalí de la Vega, Silvia M. Delgado, Alicia Motta, Carlos Telleria, Ana M. Rastrilla, & Marilina Casais. (2016). Prolactin modulates luteal regression from the coeliac ganglion via the superior ovarian nerve in the late-pregnant rat. Reproduction, Fertility & Development, 28(5), 565-573.

There is considerable evidence of the neuroendocrine control involved in luteal regression in the rat. In addition, circulating prolactin (PRL), which increases during the night before parturition, may gain access to the coeliac ganglion (CG), indirectly impacting the physiology of the ovary because of the known connection between the CG and the ovary via the superior ovarian nerve (SON). In this work we investigated in the CG-SON-ovary system and whether PRL added to the CG has an impact, indirectly via the SON, on luteal regression on Day 21 of pregnancy. The system was incubated without (control) or with PRL added to the CG. We measured the ovarian release of progesterone (P), oestradiol and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2α) by radioimmunoassay, and nitrites (NO) by the Griess method. Luteal mRNA expression of 3b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 20a-HSD, aromatase, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and apoptosis regulatory factors was analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. P release, the expression of Bcl-2 and the Bcl-2 : Bax ratio was lower than control preparations, while the expression of 20α-HSD and the release of NO and PGF2α were higher in the experimental group. In conclusion, PRL acts at the CG and, by a neural pathway, modulates luteal function at the end of pregnancy.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Wheeler, Cosette M., S. Rachel Skinner, M. Rowena Del Rosario-Raymundo, Suzanne M. Garland, Archana Chatterjee, …., & Galina Minkina. (2016). Efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in women older than 25 years: 7-year follow-up of the phase 3, double-blind, randomised controlled VIVIANE study. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 16(10), 1154-1168.

Although the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is greatest in young women, women older than 25 years remain at risk. We present data from the VIVIANE study of the HPV 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in adult women after 7 years of follow-up.<bold>Methods: </bold>In this phase 3, double-blind, randomised controlled trial, healthy women older than 25 years were enrolled (age stratified: 26-35 years, 36-45 years, and ≥46 years). Up to 15% in each age stratum had a history of HPV infection or disease. Women were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive HPV 16/18 vaccine or aluminium hydroxide control, with an internet-based system. The primary endpoint was vaccine efficacy against 6-month persistent infection or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or greater (CIN1+) associated with HPV 16/18. We did analyses in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy and total vaccinated cohort. Data for the combined primary endpoint in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy were considered significant when the lower limit of the 96·2% CI around the point estimate was greater than 30%. For all other endpoints and cohorts, data were considered significant when the lower limit of the 96·2% CI was greater than 0%. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00294047.<bold>Findings: </bold>The first participant was enrolled on Feb 16, 2006, and the last study visit took place on Jan 29, 2014. 4407 women were in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy (n=2209 vaccine, n=2198 control) and 5747 women in the total vaccinated cohort (n=2877 vaccine, n=2870 control). At month 84, in women seronegative for the corresponding HPV type in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy, vaccine efficacy against 6-month persistent infection or CIN1+ associated with HPV 16/18 was significant in all age groups combined (90·5%, 96·2% CI 78·6-96·5). Vaccine efficacy against HPV 16/18-related cytological abnormalities (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) and CIN1+ was also significant. We also noted significant cross-protective efficacy against 6-month persistent infection with HPV 31 (65·8%, 96·2% CI 24·9-85·8) and HPV 45 (70·7%, 96·2% CI 34·2-88·4). In the total vaccinated cohort, vaccine efficacy against CIN1+ irrespective of HPV was significant (22·9%, 96·2% CI 4·8-37·7). Serious adverse events related to vaccination occurred in five (0·2%) of 2877 women in the vaccine group and eight (0·3%) of 2870 women in the control group.<bold>Interpretation: </bold>In women older than 25 years, the HPV 16/18 vaccine continues to protect against infections, cytological abnormalities, and lesions associated with HPV 16/18 and CIN1+ irrespective of HPV type, and infection with non-vaccine types HPV 31 and HPV 45 over 7 years of follow-up.<bold>Funding: </bold>GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Yang, X. Y., Y. Xu, A. Brooks, B. Guo, Keith W. Miskimins, & S. Y. Qian. (2016). Knockdown delta-5-desaturase promotes the formation of a novel free radical byproduct from COX-catalyzed omega-6 peroxidation to induce apoptosis and sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to chemotherapy drugs. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 97, 342-350.

Recent research has demonstrated that colon cancer cell proliferation can be suppressed in the cells that overexpress COX-2 via generating 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid (a free radical byproduct) during dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, an omega-6 fatty acid) peroxidation from knocking down cellular delta-5-desaturase (D5D, the key enzyme for converting DGLA to the downstream omega-6, arachidonic acid). Here, this novel research finding is extended to pancreatic cancer growth, as COX-2 is also commonly overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. The pancreatic cancer cell line, BxPC-3 (with high COX-2 expression and mutated p53), was used to assess not only the inhibitory effects of the enhanced formation of 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid from cellular COX-2-catalyzed DGLA peroxidation but also its potential synergistic and/or additive effect on current chemotherapy drugs. This work demonstrated that, by inducing DNA damage through inhibition of histone deacetylase, a threshold level of 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid achieved in DGLA-treated and D5D-knockdown BxPC-3 cells subsequently induce cancer cell apoptosis. Furthermore, it was shown that a combination of D5D knockdown along with DGLA treatment could also significantly sensitize BxPC-3 cells to various chemotherapy drugs, likely via a p53-independent pathway through downregulating of anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g., Bcl-2) and activating pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g., caspase 3, 9). This study reinforces the supposition that using commonly overexpressed COX-2 for molecular targeting, a strategy conceptually distinct from the prevailing COX-2 inhibition strategy used in cancer treatment, is an important as well as viable alternative to inhibit cancer cell growth. Based on the COX-2 metabolic cascade, the outcomes presented here could guide the development of a novel omega-6-based dietary care strategy in combination with chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Inc.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Yulun, Han, Dmitri S. Kilin, P. Stanley MayMary T. Berry, & Meng Qingguo. (2016). Photofragmentation Pathways for Gas-Phase Lanthanide Tris(isopropylcyclopentadienyl) Complexes. Organometallics, 35(20), 3461-3473.

Photofragmentation mechanisms of gas-phase lanthanide tris(isopropylcyclopentadienyl) complexes, Ln(iCp)3, were studied through experimental photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PI-TOF-MS). A DFT-based time-dependent excited-state molecular dynamics (TDESMD) algorithm, under standard approximations, was used to simulate the photofragmentation process. Two competing reaction pathways, intact ligand stripping and ligand cracking within the metal-ligand complex, were hypothesized based on experimental data. It was evident that intramolecular hydrogen, methyl, and isopropyl abstraction play an important role in the ligand-cracking reaction pathway, leading to metal carbide and metal hydrocarbide products. The TDESMD simulations also produced branching reaction pathways for ligand ejection and ligand cracking and further suggested that both pathways are initiated by ligand-to-metal charge transfer. Although the simulations reproduced several of the proposed reactions and several of the products of cracking observed in the PI-TOF mass spectra, differences between the simulation and experimental results suggest specific directions for improvement in the computational model.

Chemistry Department.

 

Zeng, Z. C., S. Hu, S. C. Huang, Y. J. Zhang, W. X. Zhao, J. F. Li, Chaoyang Jiang, & B. Ren. (2016). Novel Electrochemical Raman Spectroscopy Enabled by Water Immersion Objective. Analytical Chemistry, 88(19), 9381-9385.

Electrochemical Raman spectroscopy is a powerful molecular lever diagnostic, technique for in situ investigation of adsorption and reactions on various material surfaces. However, there is still a big room to improve the optical path to meet the increasing request of higher detection sensitivity and spatial resolution. Herein, we proposed a novel electrochemical Raman setup based on a water immersion objective. It dramatically reduces mismatch of the refractive index in the light path: Consequently, significant: improvement in detection sensitivity and spatial resolution has been achieved from both Zemax simulation and the experimental results. Furthermore, the thickness of electrolyte layer could be expanded to 2 mm without any influence on the signal collection; Such a thick electrolyte layer allows a Much normal,electrochemical response during the spectroelectrochemical investigations of the methanol oxidation.

Chemistry Department.

 

Zhang, C.D. M. Meia, V. A. Kudryavtsev, & S. Fiorucci. (2016). Cosmogenic activation of materials used in rare event search experiments.Astroparticle Physics, 84, 62-69.

We evaluate the cosmogenic production rates in some materials that are commonly used as targets and shielding/supporting components for detecting rare events. The results from Geant4 simulations and the calculations of ACTIVIA are compared with the available experimental data. We demonstrate that the production rates from the Geant4-based simulations agree with the available data reasonably well. As a result, we report that the cosmogenic production of several isotopes in various materials can generate potential backgrounds for direct detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Physics Department.

 

Zhi-Cong, Zeng, Hu Shu, Huang Sheng-Chao, Zhang Yue-Jiao, Zhao Wei-Xing, Li Jian-Feng, Jiang Chaoyang, & Ren Bin. (2016). Novel Electrochemical Raman Spectroscopy Enabled by Water Immersion Objective. Analytical Chemistry, 88(19), 9381-9385.

Electrochemical Raman spectroscopy is a powerful molecular level diagnostic technique for in situ investigation of adsorption and reactions on various material surfaces. However, there is still a big room to improve the optical path to meet the increasing request of higher detection sensitivity and spatial resolution. Herein, we proposed a novel electrochemical Raman setup based on a water immersion objective. It dramatically reduces mismatch of the refractive index in the light path. Consequently, significant improvement in detection sensitivity and spatial resolution has been achieved from both Zemax simulation and the experimental results. Furthermore, the thickness of electrolyte layer could be expanded to 2 mm without any influence on the signal collection. Such a thick electrolyte layer allows a much normal electrochemical response during the spectroelectrochemical investigations of the methanol oxidation.

Chemistry Department.

 

Posted by: tadeterman | January 13, 2017

October 2016

Aboul-Enein, B. H., & W. Puddy. (2016). Contributions of Antoine Barthelemy Clot (1793-1868): A historiographical reflection of public health in Ottoman Egypt. Journal of Medical Biography, 24(3), 427-432.

This paper reviews the selected historiographic and contemporary literature that discussed the medical and public health contribution of Antoine Barthelemy Clot (Clot Bey) and how these contributions shaped modern public health in Ottoman Egypt, and the major features that led to the development of the public health infrastructure of early modern Egypt based on the contributions of Clot Bey. The literature discussed the establishment of Egypt’s first modern public health and medical schools under the direct administration and guidance of Clot Bey, and his major contribution in the fields of vaccination, quarantine, the development of a culturally congruent curriculum for medical students, and the public health policies and practices enacted during the reign of Muhammad Ali Pasha that addressed major communicable diseases affecting Egypt. With considerable support from the viceroy of Egypt despite popular resistance, Clot Bey significantly modernized Egyptian medicine, medical education and reformed the public health infrastructure. He became one of the preeminent medical figures of nineteenth century Ottoman Egypt.

School of Health Sciences.

Baack, Michelle L., B. J. Forred, T. D. Larsen, D. N. Jensen, A. L. Wachal, Muhammad A. Khan, & Peter F. Vitiello. (2016). Consequences of a Maternal High-Fat Diet and Late Gestation Diabetes on the Developing Rat Lung. Plos One, 11(8), 21.

Rationale Infants born to diabetic or obese mothers are at risk of respiratory distress and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), conceivably through fuel-mediated pathogenic mechanisms. Prior research and preventative measures focus on controlling maternal hyperglycemia, but growing evidence suggests a role for additional circulating fuels including lipids. Little is known about the individual or additive effects of a maternal high-fat diet on fetal lung development. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a maternal high-fat diet, alone and alongside late-gestation diabetes, on lung alveologenesis and vasculogenesis, as well as to ascertain if consequences persist beyond the perinatal period. Methods A rat model was used to study lung development in offspring from control, diabetes-exposed, high-fat diet-exposed and combination-exposed pregnancies via morphometric, histologic (alveolarization and vasculogenesis) and physiologic (echocardiography, pulmonary function) analyses at birth and 3 weeks of age. Outcomes were interrogated for diet, diabetes and interaction effect using ANOVA with significance set at p <= 0.05. Findings prompted additional mechanistic inquiry of key molecular pathways. Results Offspring exposed to maternal diabetes or high-fat diet, alone and in combination, had smaller lungs and larger hearts at birth. High-fat diet-exposed, but not diabetes-exposed offspring, had a higher perinatal death rate and echocardiographic evidence of PPHN at birth. Alveolar mean linear intercept, septal thickness, and airspace area (D-2) were not significantly different between the groups; however, markers of lung maturity were. Both diabetes-exposed and diet-exposed offspring expressed more T1 alpha protein, a marker of type I cells. Diet-exposed newborn pups expressed less surfactant protein B and had fewer pulmonary vessels enumerated. Mechanistic inquiry revealed alterations in AKT activation, higher endothelin-1 expression, and an impaired Txnip/VEGF pathway that are important for vessel growth and migration. After 3 weeks, mortality remained highest and static lung compliance and hysteresis were lowest in combination-exposed offspring. Conclusion This study emphasizes the effects of a maternal high-fat diet, especially alongside late-gestation diabetes, on pulmonary vasculogenesis, demonstrates adverse consequences beyond the perinatal period and directs attention to mechanistic pathways of interest. Findings provide a foundation for additional investigation of preventative and therapeutic strategies aimed at decreasing pulmonary morbidity in at-risk infants.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Barber, N. A., D. C. Taylor, & Venky Venkatachalam. (2016). Does the Product Really Matter? A Look at Mainstream Pro-Environmental Consumption Behavior. Journal of Food Products Marketing, 22(5), 521-554.

The overall objective of this article is to determine if the product matters in determining willingness to pay for pro-environmental products compared to non-pro-environmental products through experimental design. Ultimately, this research aims to use a posteriori or behavioral segmentation approach to cluster consumers using the price collected through a controlled auction experiment they would actually pay to purchase a pro-environmental product as opposed to a non-pro-environmental product, as well as profiling each segment according to (a) perceived product benefits; (b) values; (c) perceived consequences of purchase behavior; and (d) demographics based on self-reported survey data.

Beacom School of Business.

Barker, Matthew A. (2016). Current Issues with Hysterectomy. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, 43(3), 591-+.

Hysterectomy is one of the most common gynecologic surgeries. Early adoption of surgical advancements in hysterectomies has raised concerns over safety, quality, and costs. The risk of potential leiomyosarcoma in women undergoing minimally invasive hysterectomy led the US Food and Drug Administration to discourage the use of electronic power morcellator. Minimally invasive hysterectomies have increased substantially despite lack of data supporting its use over other forms of hysterectomy and increased costs. Health care reform is incentivizing providers to improve quality, improve safety, and decrease costs through standardized outcomes and process measures.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Bottger, T., C. W. Thiel, R. L. Cone, Y. Sun, & A. Faraon. (2016). Optical spectroscopy and decoherence studies of Yb3+:YAG at 968 nm. Physical Review B, 94(4), 13.

The F-2(7/2) <-> F-2(5/2) optical transitions of Yb3+ doped into (YAlO12)-Al-3-O-5 (YAG) were studied for potential quantum information and photonic signal processing applications. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy located the energy levels of the ground F-2(7/2) and excited F-2(5/2) manifolds, allowing inconsistencies between previous assignments of crystal field splittings in the literature to be resolved. These measurements reveal an unusually large splitting between the first and second levels in both the ground and excited multiplets, potentially providing for reduced sensitivity to thermally induced decoherence and spin-lattice relaxation. Spectral hole burning through two-level saturation was observed, determining the excited state lifetime to be 860 mu s and resolving ambiguities in previous fluorescence measurements that were caused by the large radiation trapping effects in this material. Optical decoherence measurements using two-pulse photon echoes gave a homogeneous linewidth of 18 kHz for an applied magnetic field of 1 T, narrowing to 5 kHz at 2.5 T. The observed decoherence was described by spectral diffusion attributed to Yb3+-Yb3+ magnetic dipole interactions. Laser absorption determined an inhomogeneous linewidth of 3.6 GHz for this transition in this 0.05%-doped crystal, which is narrower than for any other rare-earth-ion transition previously studied in the YAG host. The temperature dependence of the transition energy and linewidth of the lowest F-2(7/2) to lowest F-2(5/2) transition centered at 968.571 nm measured from 4 K to 300 K was well described by phonon scattering at higher temperatures, with an additional anomalous linear temperature-dependent broadening at temperatures below 80 K. Two magnetically inequivalent subgroups of Yb3+ ions were identified when a magnetic field was applied along the < 111 > axis, as expected for the D-2 sites in the cubic symmetry crystal, with ground and excited state effective g-values of g(g) = 3.40 (3.34) and g(e) = 1.04 (2.01), respectively. Together with the convenient diode laser wavelength of this transition, our study suggests that Yb3+:YAG is a promising material system for spectral hole burning and quantum information applications.

Physics Department.

Brown, S. L., Dayton J. Vogel, J. B. Miller, T. M. Inerbaev, R. J. Anthony, U. R. Kortshagen, . . . E. K. Hobbie. (2016). Enhancing Silicon Nanocrystal Photoluminescence through Temperature and Microstructure. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 120(33), 18909-18916.

Routes to enhancing the photoluminescence (PL) of colloidal silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) typically focus On changes in surface chemistry and the associated improvements in quantum yield. Here, we report a new more indirect approach that instead exploits the structure of the host matrix. Specifically, we demonstrate that changes in microstructure associated with a thermotropic phase transition in unbound ligand can increase the excitation fluence through scattering, yielding dramatic improvements in PL intensity without any discernible changes in fluorescence lifetime or quantum yield. Using size-purified plasma synthesized SiNCs prepared as solid and liquid samples, we use experiment and computation to examine both intrinsic size-resolved differences in the temperature-dependent PL and an anomalous contribution linked to matrix microstructure. Beyond revealing a potential new route to improved PL intensity, our results further clarity the role of surface states and the challenges that they present.

Chemistry Department.

Bubak, A. N., A. R. Gerken, Michael J. Watt, J. D. Costabile, Kenneth J. Renner, & J. G. Swallow. (2016). Assessment strategies and fighting patterns in animal contests: a role for serotonin? Current Zoology, 62(3), 257-263.

Accurate assessment of the probability of success in an aggressive confrontation with a conspecific is critical to the survival and fitness of the individuals. Various game theory models have examined these assessment strategies under the assumption that contests should favor the animal with the greater resource-holding potential (RHP), body size typically being the proxy. Mutual assessment asserts that an individual can assess their own RHP relative to their opponent, allowing the inferior animal the chance to flee before incurring unnecessary costs. The model of self-determined persistence, however, assumes that an individual will fight to a set personal threshold, independent of their opponent’s RHP. Both models have been repeatedly tested using size as a proxy for RHP, with neither receiving unambiguous support. Here we present both morphological and neurophysiological data from size-matched and mismatched stalk-eyed fly fights. We discovered differing fighting strategies between winners and losers. Winners readily escalated encounters to higher intensity and physical contact and engaged in less low-intensity, posturing behaviors compared with losers. Although these fighting strategies were largely independent of size, they were associated with elevated levels of 5-HT. Understanding the neurophysiological factors responsible for mediating the motivational state of opponents could help resolve the inconsistencies seen in current game theory models. Therefore, we contend that current studies using only size as a proxy for RHP may be inadequate in determining the intricacies of fighting ability and that future studies investigating assessment strategies and contest outcome should include neurophysiological data.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Cao, Y. H., K. L. Wang, X. M. Wang, Z. R. Gu, Q. H. Fan, W. Gibbons, . . . M. Shrestha. (2016). Hierarchical porous activated carbon for supercapacitor derived from corn stalk core by potassium hydroxide activation. Electrochimica Acta, 212, 839-847.

Hierarchical porous activated carbon (AC) was obtained from corn stalk pith with a hierarchical macroporous nature, which is composed of cells of soft and spongy texture. The high specific surface area (2495 m(2) g(-1)) of the activated carbon (AC) was produced by the activation of corn stalk core (CSC) using potassium hydroxide at 700 degrees C. SEM, TEM and XRD were used to test the microstructure and crystallographic orientation of the carbon samples. The cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were measured based on CSC-700. This sample had relatively low inner resistance of 1.0 Omega. The specific capacitance was 323 F g(-1) in 6 mol L-1 KOH electrolyte at a current density of 0.1 A g(-1), and it still maintained very good cyclic stability with capacitance retention ratio of 97.9% (from 265.0 to 262.4 F g(-1)) at current density of 1.0A g(-1) for 1000 cycles. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Chemistry Department.

Fercho, Kelene, & Lee A. Baugh. (2016). Cognitive attribution of the source of an error in object-lifting results in differences in motor generalization. Experimental Brain Research, 234(9), 2667-2676.

To lift an object, the motor system must predict the weight of the object and use this information to program appropriate lifting forces. If this prediction is erroneous, people may assign blame for the error to either themselves or an external source-a process called credit assignment. In the present study, we explored the role of credit assignment on weight predictions during a lifting task. Participants were told that the EMG surface electrodes attached to their lifting hand were either part of a “passive” system that recorded muscular activity, or part of an “active” system that would apply energy to the muscle, influencing weight perception. Participants performed 90 lifts of the training blocks, followed by 10 lifts of a newly encountered larger test block. In between training and test trials, the experimenter turned off the recording system and removed the surface electrodes for participants in the “active” group. For each lift, we determined the initial peak rate of change of vertical load force rate and load-phase duration, estimates of predicted object weight. Analysis of the first 10 training lifts and the last 10 training lifts revealed no effect of Active versus Passive EMG on weight predictions. However, after removing the EMG equipment, participants in the “active” group failed to scale their predictive load forces in the same manner as those in the “passive” condition when lifting a novel block. We conclude that cognitive information may play a role in credit assignment, influencing weight prediction when lifting novel objects.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Hanson, Elizabeth K., Emily Goldhammer, & Tanya Bethard. (2016). Telephone talk: effects of two access methods on phone call success. AAC: Augmentative & Alternative Communication, 32(3), 219-226.

The slower and unnatural timing of speech inherent to speech-generating devices (SGDs) can be a barrier to successful aided telephone calls. The timing of message delivery when using an SGD may vary depending on the type of access method used. We measured the difference in the success rate of telephone calls made with an SGD either using switch scanning or direct selection with eye gaze. The scripted calls, asking for directions, were placed to 100 randomly selected businesses. Analysis showed a statistically significant difference in the success rate between the two conditions, with eye gaze access resulting in more successful calls. Findings from this study suggest that people who use SGDs for phone calls may improve the timing of message delivery by using eye gaze access compared to switch scanning.

Communication Disorders Department.

Hanson, Jessica D., Jamie L. Jensen, Kelly Campbell, Kaushal Raj Chaudhary, & Susan E. Puumala. (2016). EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SUBSTANCE-EXPOSED PREGNANCIES AT ONE GREAT LAKES HOSPITAL THAT SERVES A LARGE NUMBER OF AMERICAN INDIANS. American Indian & Alaska Native Mental Health Research: The Journal of the National Center, 23(4), 44-62.

Objective: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of substance-exposed pregnancies at a hospital in the Great Lakes region of the U.S. Method: Data were collected via retrospective chart abstractions of patients who were seen for delivery at one Great Lakes region hospital during a 1-year period who were given at least one of the International Classification of Diseases codes related to substance use. Results: A total of 342 medical records were included in the analysis, and, while much race/ethnicity data were missing, a large percentage of those in our analysis identified as American Indian. The prevalence of substance-exposed pregnancies at this hospital during a 1-year period was 34.5%. The majority (84.8%) were tobacco users, and many were found to have multiple substance exposures. Also, 48.5% were found to have a mental health diagnosis in addition to substance use. Conclusions: Data from this project can be used in prevention efforts, including preconception care for women at risk for substance use and mental health issues.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Hargreaves Heap, Shaun P., Abhijit Ramalingam, & Brock V. Stoddard. (2016). Endowment inequality in public goods games: A re-examination. Economics Letters, 146, 4-7.

We present a clean test of whether inequality in endowments affects contributions to a public good. It is a clean test because, to our knowledge, it is the first to control for possible endowment effects. We find that the key adverse effect of inequality arises because the rich reduce their contributions when there is inequality.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Harris, William S., Serge Masson, Simona Barlera, Valentina Milani, Silvana Pileggi, Maria Grazia Franzosi, . . . Roberto Latini. (2016). Red blood cell oleic acid levels reflect olive oil intake while omega-3 levels reflect fish intake and the use of omega-3 acid ethyl esters: The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto Miocardico–Heart Failure trial. Nutrition Research, 36(9), 989-994.

The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto Miocardico–Heart Failure (GISSI-HF) study reported benefits of n-3 fatty acid (FA) treatment on cardiovascular (CV) events, but the effects of treatment on a putative CV disease risk factor, the red blood cell (RBC) n-3 FA level (the omega-3 index), have not been examined in this context. We hypothesized that treatment with prescription omega-3 acid ethyl esters (O3AEE) would increase the omega-3 index to the proposed cardioprotective value of 8%. RBCs were collected from a subset of patients participating in the GISSI-HF study (n = 461 out of 6975 randomized), at baseline and after 3 months of treatment with either an olive oil placebo or O3AEE (1 g/d). RBC FA levels were expressed as a percentage of total FA. Patients also reported their typical olive oil and fish intakes. RBC oleic acid levels were directly correlated with reported frequency of olive oil consumption, and the omega-3 index was correlated with reported fish intake ( P for trends <0.001 for both). After treatment, the omega-3 index increased from 4.8 ± 1.7% to 6.7 ± 1.9% but was unchanged in the placebo group (4.7 ± 1.7 to 4.8 ± 1.5%) ( P < .0001 for changes between groups). At 3 months, more patients reached the proposed target omega-3 index level of 8%-12% in the treated vs placebo group (22.6% vs. 1.3%, P < .0001), however, what omega-3 index levels were ultimately achieved after four years in this trial are unknown.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Hoover, K. M., A. N. Bubak, I. J. Law, Jazmine D. W. Yaeger, Kenneth J. Renner, J. G. Swallow, & M. J. Greene. (2016). The organization of societal conflicts by pavement ants Tetramorium caespitum: an agent-based model of amine-mediated decision making. Current Zoology, 62(3), 277-284.

Ant colonies self-organize to solve complex problems despite the simplicity of an individual ant’s brain. Pavement ant Tetramorium caespitum colonies must solve the problem of defending the territory that they patrol in search of energetically rich forage. When members of 2 colonies randomly interact at the territory boundary a decision to fight occurs when: 1) there is a mismatch in nestmate recognition cues and 2) each ant has a recent history of high interaction rates with nestmate ants. Instead of fighting, some ants will decide to recruit more workers from the nest to the fighting location, and in this way a positive feedback mediates the development of colony wide wars. In ants, the monoamines serotonin (5-HT) and octopamine (OA) modulate many behaviors associated with colony organization and in particular behaviors associated with nestmate recognition and aggression. In this article, we develop and explore an agent-based model that conceptualizes how individual changes in brain concentrations of 5-HT and OA, paired with a simple threshold-based decision rule, can lead to the development of colony wide warfare. Model simulations do lead to the development of warfare with 91% of ants fighting at the end of 1 h. When conducting a sensitivity analysis, we determined that uncertainty in monoamine concentration signal decay influences the behavior of the model more than uncertainty in the decision-making rule or density. We conclude that pavement ant behavior is consistent with the detection of interaction rate through a single timed interval rather than integration of multiple interactions.

Biology Department.

Ikiugu, Moses N., & Ranelle M. Nissen. (2016). Intervention Strategies Used by Occupational Therapists Working in Mental Health and Their Theoretical Basis. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 32(2), 109-129.

The theoretical basis of occupational therapy interventions was investigated in two mental health facilities in the Midwestern United States. Using retrospective cohort and grounded theory designs, 121 medical records were reviewed and five occupational therapy practitioners were interviewed. Theoretical reasoning was not explicitly documented, but according to analysis, the behavioral/cognitive-behavioral model, client-centered models, and the model of human occupation were the most frequently used theories to guide interventions. Lack of documentation of theory use has significant implications for the value accorded to occupational therapy skills in health care. A larger study is recommended to increase external generalizability of the findings.

School of Health Sciences.

King, Georgina E., Nicholas J. G. Pearce, Helen M. Roberts, Victoria C. Smith, John A. Westgate, David R. Gaylord, & Mark R. Sweeney. (2016). Identification of a Kulshan caldera correlative tephra in the Palouse loess of Washington State, northwest USA. Quaternary Research, 86(2), 232-241.

The Kulshan caldera formed at ∼1.15 Ma on the present-day site of Mt. Baker, Washington State, northwest USA and erupted a compositionally zoned (dacite-rhyolite) magma and a correlative eruptive, the Lake Tapps tephra. This tephra has previously been described, but only from the Puget Lowland of NW Washington. Here an occurrence of a Kulshan caldera correlative tephra is described from the Quaternary Palouse loess at the Washtucna site (WA-3). Site WA-3 is located in east-central Washington, ∼340 km southeast of the Kulshan caldera and ∼300 km east-southeast of the Lake Tapps occurrence in the Puget Lowland. Major- and trace element chemistry and location of the deposit at Washtucna within reversed polarity sediments indicates that it is not correlative with the Mesa Falls, Rockland, Bishop Ash, Lava Creek B or Huckleberry Ridge tephras. Instead the Washtucna deposit is related to the Lake Tapps tephra by fractional crystallisation, but is chemically distinct, a consequence of its eruption from a compositionally zoned magma chamber. The correlation of the Washtucna occurrence to the Kulshan caldera-forming eruption indicates that it had an eruptive volume exceeding 100 km 3 , and that its tephra could provide a valuable early-Pleistocene chronostratigraphic marker in the Pacific Northwest.

Earth Sciences Department.

Lampert, Sara. (2016). Black Swan/White Raven: the racial politics of Elizabeth Greenfield’s American concert career, 1851-1855. American Nineteenth Century History, 17(1), 75-102.

In 1851, the former slave turned singer Elizabeth Greenfield traveled from her home of Philadelphia to Buffalo, New York, to pursue a career as a concert singer. This article explores the terms and reception of Greenfield’s tours of the northern United States and Upper Canada in the early 1850s, where she performed before predominantly white audiences. While white critics celebrated Greenfield in highly racialized terms as an untrained natural wonder, black activists like Frederick Douglass focused on the racist management of her career and criticized Greenfield for the segregation of her concerts. Told through analysis of reviews and promotional literature, the story of Greenfield’s early career makes visible the race and gender politics operating at the intersection of popular entertainment and black movements for racial uplift and equality in the antebellum North.

History Department.

 

Larson, Eric A., Paul A. Thompson, Z. K. Anderson, Keith A. Anderson, Roxana A. Lupu, Vicki Tigner, & Wendell W. Hoffman. (2016). Decreasing the critical value of hemoglobin required for physician notification reduces the rate of blood transfusions. International Journal of General Medicine, 9, 133-136.

Red blood cell transfusions have been cited as one of the most overused therapeutic interventions in the USA. Excessively aggressive transfusion practices may be driven by mandatory physician notification of critical hemoglobin values that do not generally require transfusion. We examined the effect of decreasing the critical value of hemoglobin from 8 to 7 g/dL at our institution. Along with this change, mandatory provider notification for readings between 7 and 8 g/dL was rescinded. Transfusion rates were compared retrospectively during paired 5-month periods for patients presenting in three key hemoglobin ranges (6.00-6.99, 7.00-7.99, and 8.00-8.99 g/dL). A change in transfusion practices was hypothesized in the 7-8 g/dL range, which was no longer labeled critical and for which mandated physician calls were rescinded. Transfusion rates showed a statistically significant 8% decrease (P <= 0.0001) during the 5-month period post change in our transfusion practices. This decrease in the 7.00-7.99 g/dL range was significantly greater than the 2% decrease observed in either the 6-6.99 g/dL (P=0.0017) or 8-8.99 g/dL (P <= 0.0001) range. Cost savings of up to $ 700,000/year were extrapolated from our results showing 491 fewer units of red blood cells transfused during the 5-month post change. These cost savings do not take into account the additional impact of complications associated with blood transfusions.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Louw, A., Kory Zimney, C. O’Hotto, & S. Hilton. (2016). The clinical application of teaching people about pain. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 32(5), 385-395.

Teaching people about the neurobiology and neurophysiology of their pain experience has a therapeutic effect and has been referred to as pain neuroscience education (PNE). Various high-quality randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews have shown increasing efficacy of PNE decreasing pain, disability, pain catastrophization, movement restrictions, and healthcare utilization. Research studies, however, by virtue of their design, are very controlled environments and, therefore, in contrast to the ever-increasing evidence for PNE, little is known about the clinical application of this emerging therapy. In contrast, case studies, case series, and expert opinion and perspectives by authorities in the world of pain science provide clinicians with a glimpse into potential real clinical application of PNE in the face of the ever-increasing chronic pain epidemic. By taking the material from the randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, case series, case studies, and expert opinion, this article aims to provide a proposed layout of the clinical application of PNE. The article systematically discusses key elements of PNE including examination, educational content, and delivery methods, merging of PNE with movement, goal setting, and progression. This perspectives article concludes with a call for research into the clinical application of PNE.

School of Health Sciences.

Macapagal, K., R. Coventry, Jae A. Puckett, G. Phillips, & B. Mustanski. (2016). Geosocial Networking App Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Serious Romantic Relationships. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(6), 1513-1524.

Geosocial networking (GSN) mobile phone applications (“apps”) are used frequently among men who have sex with men (MSM) to socialize and meet sexual partners. Though GSN apps are used by some MSM in partnered relationships, little is known about how the use of GSN apps among MSM in serious romantic relationships can influence couples’ sexual and relationship health. MSM in serious relationships (N=323; M age = 40 years) were recruited through a popular GSN app for MSM. Participants completed open-ended items regarding the costs and benefits of app use to their relationships, discussions of app use with their partners, and preferences for relationship education related to app use. Reported benefits of app use included improving sex and communication with one’s primary partner and fulfilling unmet sexual needs. Although approximately half had not discussed app use with their partners, citing app use as a”non-issue,” many cited various drawbacks to app use, including jealousy and being a distraction from the relationship. Few described sexual health concerns as a drawback to meeting partners through apps. Regarding relationship education preferences, most wanted help with general communication skills and how to express one’s sexual needs to a partner. Although GSN app use can enhance relationships and sex among partnered MSM, unclear communication about app use may contribute to negative relationship outcomes and could prevent partners from having sexual needs met. Relationship and sexual health education programs for male couples should consider addressing social media and technology use in their curricula.

Psychology Department.

Moon, H., Soonhee Roh, Y. S. Lee, & R. T. Goins. (2016). Disparities in Health, Health Care Access, and Life Experience Between American Indian and White Adults in South Dakota. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 3(2), 301-308.

Objectives The objective of this study is to investigate the factors associated with depressive symptoms and chronic illnesses in American Indians compared with White adults born in the post-World War II period, 1946 to 1964, and living in South Dakota. Design A cross-sectional design of American Indian and White adults aged 50 and older in South Dakota (Brookings, Vermillion, Sioux Falls, and all others areas of South Dakota) between January 2013 and May 2013 was used. American Indian and White adults (born between 1946 and 1964; N = 349). Data included sociodemographic factors and measures of chronic physical health condition, health care access, adverse childhood experiences, body mass index (BMI), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Technology Acceptance Model, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Depressive Symptoms. Results American Indian adults reported more chronic diseases and conditions, a lower self-perceived physical health, were more likely to be overweight or obese, had more adverse childhood experience (ACE), and reported a lower level of alcohol intake compared to White adults. BMI was significantly associated with an increased number of chronic conditions for both groups, and American Indians’ better perception of their physical health was significantly associated with lower total number of chronic conditions. Self-perceived mental health, a better level of access to health care, and a higher degree of social support were significantly inversely associated with the number of depressive symptoms for American Indian adults, while a greater level of ACE was significantly associated with an increased number of depressive symptoms for this group. Conclusion The current study not only support previous studies but also contributes to understanding the disparities in and risk factors potentially impacting American Indians’ physical and mental health. Our findings highlight the need to investigate the American Indians’ perceptions and knowledge about health care accessibility including availability as well as perceived barriers including social sensitivity and trust. Health professionals might need to pay attention to BMI, ACE, and social relationship among American Indian adults to improve physical and mental health.

School of Health Sciences.

Nowakowski, A. J., S. M. Whitfield, E. A. Eskew, …., Jacob L. Kerby, M. A. Donnelly, & B. D. Todd. (2016). Infection risk decreases with increasing mismatch in host and pathogen environmental tolerances. Ecology Letters, 19(9), 1051-1061.

The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has caused the greatest known wildlife pandemic, infecting over 500 amphibian species. It remains unclear why some host species decline from disease-related mortality whereas others persist. We introduce a conceptual model that predicts that infection risk in ectotherms will decrease as the difference between host and pathogen environmental tolerances (i.e. tolerance mismatch) increases. We test this prediction using both local-scale data from Costa Rica and global analyses of over 11 000 Bd infection assays. We find that infection prevalence decreases with increasing thermal tolerance mismatch and with increasing host tolerance of habitat modification. The relationship between environmental tolerance mismatches and Bd infection prevalence is generalisable across multiple amphibian families and spatial scales, and the magnitude of the tolerance mismatch effect depends on environmental context. These findings may help explain patterns of amphibian declines driven by a global wildlife pandemic.

Biology Department.

Ouellette, Scot P., Kelsey J. Rueden, & Elizabeth A. Rucks. (2016). Tryptophan Codon-Dependent Transcription in Chlamydia pneumoniae during Gamma Interferon-Mediated Tryptophan Limitation. Infection and Immunity, 84(9), 2703-2713.

In evolving to an obligate intracellular niche, Chlamydia has streamlined its genome by eliminating superfluous genes as it relies on the host cell for a variety of nutritional needs like amino acids. However, Chlamydia can experience amino acid starvation when the human host cell in which the bacteria reside is exposed to interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), which leads to a tryptophan (Trp)-limiting environment via induction of the enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). The stringent response is used to respond to amino acid starvation in most bacteria but is missing from Chlamydia. Thus, how Chlamydia, a Trp auxotroph, responds to Trp starvation in the absence of a stringent response is an intriguing question. We previously observed that C. pneumoniae responds to this stress by globally increasing transcription while globally decreasing translation, an unusual response. Here, we sought to understand this and hypothesized that the Trp codon content of a given gene would determine its transcription level. We quantified transcripts from C. pneumoniae genes that were either rich or poor in Trp codons and found that Trp codon-rich transcripts were increased, whereas those that lacked Trp codons were unchanged or even decreased. There were exceptions, and these involved operons or large genes with multiple Trp codons: downstream transcripts were less abundant after Trp codon-rich sequences. These data suggest that ribosome stalling on Trp codons causes a negative polar effect on downstream sequences. Finally, reassessing previous C. pneumoniae microarray data based on codon content, we found that upregulated transcripts were enriched in Trp codons, thus supporting our hypothesis.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Panaitof, S. C., Jazmine D. W. Yaeger, J. P. Speer, & Kenneth J. Renner. (2016). Biparental behavior in the burying beetle Nicrophorus orbicollis: a role for dopamine? Current Zoology, 62(3), 285-291.

Burying beetles Nicrophorus orbicollis exhibit facultative biparental care of young. To reproduce, a male-female burying beetle pair bury and prepare a small vertebrate carcass as food for its altricial young. During a breeding bout, male and female behavior changes synchronously at appropriate times and is coordinated to provide effective care for offspring. Although the ecological and evolutionary factors that shape this remarkable reproductive plasticity are well characterized, the neuromodulation of parental behavior is poorly understood. Juvenile hormone levels rise dramatically at the time beetle parents accept and feed larvae, remain highly elevated during the stages of most active care and fall abruptly when care is terminated. However, hormonal fluctuations alone cannot account for this elaborate control of reproduction. The biogenic amines octopamine (OA), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT) mediate a diversity of insect reproductive and social behaviors. In this study, we measured whole brain monoamine levels in individual male and female burying beetles and compared OA, DA, and 5-HT profiles between breeding (parental) and nonbreeding, unmated beetles. Remarkably, after 24 h of care, when parental feeding rates begin to peak, DA brain levels increase in breeding beetles when compared to nonbreeding controls. In contrast, brain OA and 5-HT levels did not change significantly. These results provide the first evidence for a potential role of DA in the modulation of burying beetle parental behavior.

Biology Department.

Rund, Samuel S. C., Yoo Boyoung, Camille Alam, Taryn Green, Melissa T. Stephens, Erliang Zeng, . . . Michael E. Pfrender. (2016). Genome-wide profiling of 24 hr diel rhythmicity in the water flea, Daphnia pulex: network analysis reveals rhythmic gene expression and enhances functional gene annotation. BMC Genomics, 17, 1-20.

Background: Marine and freshwater zooplankton exhibit daily rhythmic patterns of behavior and physiology which may be regulated directly by the light:dark (LD) cycle and/or a molecular circadian clock. One of the best-studied zooplankton taxa, the freshwater crustacean Daphnia, has a 24 h diel vertical migration (DVM) behavior whereby the organism travels up and down through the water column daily. DVM plays a critical role in resource tracking and the behavioral avoidance of predators and damaging ultraviolet radiation. However, there is little information at the transcriptional level linking the expression patterns of genes to the rhythmic physiology/behavior of Daphnia. Results: Here we analyzed genome-wide temporal transcriptional patterns from Daphnia pulex collected over a 44 h time period under a 12:12 LD cycle (diel) conditions using a cosine-fitting algorithm. We used a comprehensive network modeling and analysis approach to identify novel co-regulated rhythmic genes that have similar network topological properties and functional annotations as rhythmic genes identified by the cosine-fitting analyses. Furthermore, we used the network approach to predict with high accuracy novel gene-function associations, thus enhancing current functional annotations available for genes in this ecologically relevant model species. Our results reveal that genes in many functional groupings exhibit 24 h rhythms in their expression patterns under diel conditions. We highlight the rhythmic expression of immunity, oxidative detoxification, and sensory process genes. We discuss differences in the chronobiology of D. pulex from other well-characterized terrestrial arthropods. Conclusions: This research adds to a growing body of literature suggesting the genetic mechanisms governing rhythmicity in crustaceans may be divergent from other arthropod lineages including insects. Lastly, these results highlight the power of using a network analysis approach to identify differential gene expression and provide novel functional annotation.

Selker, H. P., William S. Harris, C. E. Rackley, J. B. Marsh, R. Ruthazer, J. R. Beshansky, . . . L. H. Opie. (2016). Very early administration of glucose-insulin-potassium by emergency medical service for acute coronary syndromes: Biological mechanisms for benefit in the IMMEDIATE Trial. American Heart Journal, 178, 168-175.

Aims In the IMMEDIATE Trial, intravenous glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) was started as early as possible for patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome by ambulance paramedics in communities. In the IMMEDIATE Biological Mechanism Cohort substudy, reported here, we investigated potential modes of GIK action on specific circulating metabolic components. Specific attention was given to suppression of circulating oxygen-wasting free fatty acids (FFAs) that had been posed as part of the early GIK action related to averting cardiac arrest. Methods We analyzed the changes in plasma levels of FFA, glucose, C-peptide, and the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index. Results With GIK, there was rapid suppression of FFA levels with estimated levels for GIK and placebo groups after 2 hours of treatment of 480 and 781 mu mol/L (P < .0001), even while patterns of FFA saturation remained unchanged. There were no significant changes in the HOMA index in the GIK or placebo groups (HOMA index: placebo 10.93, GIK 12.99; P=.07), suggesting that GIK infusions were not countered by insulin resistance. Also, neither placebo nor GIK altered endogenous insulin secretion as reflected by unchanging C-peptide levels. Conclusion These mechanistic observations support the potential role of FFA suppression in very early cardioprotection by GIK. They also suggest that the IMMEDIATE Trial GIK formula is balanced with respect to its insulin and glucose composition, as it induced no endogenous insulin secretion.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Simons, Jeffrey S., Thomas A. Wills, Noah N. Emery, & Philip J. Spelman. (2016). Keep calm and carry on: Maintaining self-control when intoxicated, upset, or depleted. Cognition & Emotion, 30(8), 1415-1429.

This study tested within-person associations between intoxication, negative affect, and self-control demands and two forms of self-control failure, interpersonal conflict, and neglecting responsibilities. Effortful control was hypothesised to act as a buffer, reducing individual susceptibility to these within-person effects. In contrast, reactivity was hypothesised to potentiate the within-person associations. 274 young adults aged 18–27 (56% women, 93% white) completed experience sampling assessments for up to 49 days over the course of 1.3 years. Results indicated independent within-person effects of intoxication, negative affect, and self-control demands on the outcomes. Hypothesised moderating effects of reactivity were not supported. Effortful control did not moderate the effects of self-control demands as expected. However, effortful control exhibited a protective effect when individuals were intoxicated or upset to reduce the likelihood of maladaptive behavioural outcomes.

Psychology Department.

Tang, R. G., F. G. Jiang, J. C. Wen, Ying Deng, & Y. Y. Sun. (2016). Managing bacterial biofilms with chitosan-based polymeric nitric oxides: Inactivation of biofilm bacteria and synergistic effects with antibiotics. Journal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers, 31(4), 393-410.

In this study, we developed a new approach in the preparation of chitosan-based polymeric nitric oxides. Chitosan film (unreacted chitosan) reacted with glutaraldehyde to introduce aldehyde groups onto the material surface (glutaraldehyde-treated chitosan). Glutaraldehyde-treated chitosan reacted with a small-molecule nitric oxide donor, 3,3-bis(aminoethyl)-1-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-triazene, to covalently immobilize nitric oxide-releasing moieties onto the polymer (chitosan-based polymeric nitric oxide). Chitosan-based polymeric nitric oxide showed sustained release of nitric oxide. The activation energies and rate constants of nitric oxide release were determined. The released nitric oxide provided potent antimicrobial effects against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria living in biofilms, and the chitosan-based polymeric nitric oxide film showed added/synergistic effects with common antibiotics. At 4 degrees C, the chitosan-based polymeric nitric oxide could be stored for more than 1month, without significantly losing nitric oxide-releasing capabilities. Furthermore, chitosan-based polymeric nitric oxide showed excellent biocompatibility with mammalian cells, pointing to great potentials of the new materials for a wide range of biomedical applications.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

Wang, Yanqing, & Brian D. Burrell. (2016). Differences in chloride gradients allow for three distinct types of synaptic modulation by endocannabinoids. Journal of Neurophysiology, 116(2), 619-628.

Endocannabinoids can elicit persistent depression of excitatory and inhibitory synapses, reducing or enhancing (disinhibiting) neural circuit output, respectively. In this study, we examined whether differences in Cl- gradients can regulate which synapses undergo endocannabinoid-mediated synaptic depression vs. disinhibition using the well-characterized central nervous system (CNS) of the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana. Exogenous application of endocannabinoids or capsaicin elicits potentiation of pressure (P) cell synapses and depression of both polymodal (N-poly) and mechanical (N-mech) nociceptive synapses. In P synapses, blocking Cl- export prevented endocannabinoid-mediated potentiation, consistent with a disinhibition process that has been indicated by previous experiments. In N-mech neurons, which are depolarized by GABA due to an elevated Cl- equilibrium potentials (E-Cl), endocannabinoid-mediated depression was prevented by blocking Cl- import, indicating that this decrease in synaptic signaling was due to depression of excitatory GABAergic input (disexcitation). N-poly neurons are also depolarized by GABA, but endocannabinoids elicit depression in these synapses directly and were only weakly affected by disruption of Cl- import. Consequently, the primary role of elevated E-Cl may be to protect N-poly synapses from disinhibition. All forms of endocannabinoid-mediated plasticity required activation of transient potential receptor vanilloid (TRPV) channels. Endocannabinoid/TRPV-dependent synaptic plasticity could also be elicited by distinct patterns of afferent stimulation with low-frequency stimulation (LFS) eliciting endocannabinoid-mediated depression of N poly synapses and high-frequency stimulus (HFS) eliciting endocannabinoid-mediated potentiation of P synapses and depression of N-mech synapses. These findings demonstrate a critical role of differences in Cl- gradients between neurons in determining the sign, potentiation vs. depression, of synaptic modulation under normal physiological conditions.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Yang, X. Y., Y. Xu, A. Brooks, B. Guo, Keith W. Miskimins, & S. Y. Qian. (2016). Knockdown delta-5-desaturase promotes the formation of a novel free radical byproduct from COX-catalyzed omega-6 peroxidation to induce apoptosis and sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to chemotherapy drugs. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 97, 342-350.

Recent research has demonstrated that colon cancer cell proliferation can be suppressed in the cells that overexpress COX-2 via generating 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid (a free radical byproduct) during dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, an omega-6 fatty acid) peroxidation from knocking down cellular delta-5-desaturase (D5D, the key enzyme for converting DGLA to the downstream omega-6, arachidonic acid). Here, this novel research finding is extended to pancreatic cancer growth, as COX-2 is also commonly overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. The pancreatic cancer cell line, BxPC-3 (with high COX-2 expression and mutated p53), was used to assess not only the inhibitory effects of the enhanced formation of 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid from cellular COX-2-catalyzed DGLA peroxidation but also its potential synergistic and/or additive effect on current chemotherapy drugs. This work demonstrated that, by inducing DNA damage through inhibition of histone deacetylase, a threshold level of 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid achieved in DGLA-treated and D5D-knockdown BxPC-3 cells subsequently induce cancer cell apoptosis. Furthermore, it was shown that a combination of D5D knockdown along with DGLA treatment could also significantly sensitize BxPC-3 cells to various chemotherapy drugs, likely via a p53-independent pathway through downregulating of anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g., Bcl-2) and activating pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g., caspase 3, 9). This study reinforces the supposition that using commonly overexpressed COX-2 for molecular targeting, a strategy conceptually distinct from the prevailing COX-2 inhibition strategy used in cancer treatment, is an important as well as viable alternative to inhibit cancer cell growth. Based on the COX-2 metabolic cascade, the outcomes presented here could guide the development of a novel omega-6-based dietary care strategy in combination with chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Inc.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 Zhang, Lei, Maria B. Hapon, Alicia A. Goyeneche, Rekha Srinivasan, Carlos D. Gamarra-Luques, Eduardo A. Callegari, . . . Carlos M. Telleria. (2016). Mifepristone increases mRNA translation rate, triggers the unfolded protein response, increases autophagic flux, and kills ovarian cancer cells in combination with proteasome or lysosome inhibitors. Molecular Oncology, 10(7), 1099-1117.

The synthetic steroid mifepristone blocks the growth of ovarian cancer cells, yet the mechanism driving such effect is not entirely understood. Unbiased genomic and proteomic screenings using ovarian cancer cell lines of different genetic backgrounds and sensitivities to platinum led to the identification of two key genes upregulated by mifepristone and involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR): the master chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), glucose regulated protein (GRP) of 78 kDa, and the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous transcription factor (CHOP). GRP78 and CHOP were upregulated by mifepristone in ovarian cancer cells regardless of p53 status and platinum sensitivity. Further studies revealed that the three UPR-associated pathways, PERK, IRE1 alpha, and ATF6, were activated by mifepristone. Also, the synthetic steroid acutely increased mRNA translation rate, which, if prevented, abrogated the splicing of XBP1 mRNA, a non-translatable readout of IRE1 alpha activation. Moreover, mifepristone increased LC3-II levels due to increased autophagic flux. When the autophagic lysosomal pathway was inhibited with chloroquine, mifepristone was lethal to the cells. Lastly, doses of proteasome inhibitors that are inadequate to block the activity of the proteasomes, caused cell death when combined with mifepristone; this phenotype was accompanied by accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins denoting proteasome inhibition. The stimulation by mifepristone of ER stress and autophagic flux offers a therapeutic opportunity for utilizing this compound to sensitize ovarian cancer cells to proteasome or lysosome inhibitors. (C) 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Zhu, G. X., Yu Huang, G. Bhave, Y. Z. Wang, Z. B. Hu, & X. W. Liu. (2016). In situ growth of fluorescent silicon nanocrystals in a monolithic microcapsule as a photostable, versatile platform. Nanoscale, 8(34), 15645-15657.

A facile, one-step method was developed for the in situ formation of fluorescent silicon nanocrystals (SiNC) in a microspherical encapsulating matrix. The obtained SiNC encapsulated polymeric microcapsules (SiPM) possess uniform size (0.1-2.0 mu m), strong fluorescence, and nanoporous structure. A unique two stage, time dependent reaction was developed, as the growth of SiNC was slower than the formation of polymeric microcapsules. The resulting SiPM with increasing reaction time exhibited two levels of stability, and correspondingly, the release of SiNC in aqueous media showed different behavior. With reaction time <1 h, the obtained low-density SiPM (LD-SiPM) as matrix microcapsules, would release encapsulated SiNC on demand. With >1 h reaction time, resulting high-density SiPM (HD-SiPM) became stable SiNC reservoirs. SiPM exhibit stable photoluminescence. The porous structure and fluorescence quenching effects make SiPM suitable for bioimaging, drug loading and sorption of heavy metals (Hg2+ as shown) as an intrinsic indicator. SiPM were able to reduce metal ions, forming SiPM/metal oxide and SiPM/metal hybrids, and their applications in bio-sensing and catalysis were also demonstrated.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

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