Boullata, J. I., A. L. Carrera, …., Carol McGinnis, J. J. Wessel, S. Bajpai, M. L. Beebe, T. J. Kinn, M. G. Klang, L. Lord, K. Martin, C. Pompeii-Wolfe, J. Sullivan, A. Wood, A. Malone, P. Guenter, & Nutr Amer Soc Parenteral Enteral. (2017). ASPEN Safe Practices for Enteral Nutrition Therapy. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 41(1), 15-103.
Enteral nutrition (EN) is a valuable clinical intervention for patients of all ages in a variety of care settings. Along with its many outcome benefits come the potential for adverse effects. These safety issues are the result of clinical complications and of process-related errors. The latter can occur at any step from patient assessment, prescribing, and order review, to product selection, labeling, and administration. To maximize the benefits of EN while minimizing adverse events requires that a systematic approach of care be in place. This includes open communication, standardization, and incorporation of best practices into the EN process. This document provides recommendations based on the available evidence and expert consensus for safe practices, across each step of the process, for all those involved in caring for patients receiving EN.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Boyd, T. K., C. A. Wright, H. J. Odendaal, Amy J. Elliott, M. A. Sens, R. D. Folkerth, D. J. Roberts, H. C. Kinney, & Pass Network. (2017). The Stillbirth Classification System for the Safe Passage Study: Incorporating Mechanism, Etiology, and Recurrence.Pediatric and Developmental Pathology, 20(2), 120-132.
Objective: Describe the classification system for assigning the cause of stillbirth in the Safe Passage Study, an international, multi-institutional, prospective analysis conducted by the NIAAA/NICHD-funded Prenatal Alcohol in SIDS and Stillbirth (PASS) Research Network. The study mission is to determine the role of prenatal alcohol and/or cigarette smoke exposure in adverse pregnancy outcomes, including stillbirth, in a high-risk cohort of 12,000 maternal/fetal dyads. Methods: The PASS Network classification system is based upon 5 “sites of origin” for cause of stillbirth, further subdivided into mechanism subcategories; both are employed to assign an ultimate cause of death. Each PASS stillbirth was assigned a cause of death and status of sporadic versus recurrent. Adjudication involved review of maternal and obstetrical records; fetal autopsy and placental findings; and required complete consensus in each case. Two published classification systems, ie, INCODE and ReCoDe, were used for comparison. Results: Causes of stillbirth classified were fetal (26%), placental (53%), external (5%), and undetermined (16%). Nine cases (47%) had placental causes of death due to maternal disorders that carry recurrence risks. There was full agreement for cause of death across the 3 classification systems in 26% of cases and partial agreement among them in 42% of cases. Conclusions: The proposed PASS schema employs a user-friendly classification that provides comparable information to previously published systems. Advantages include its simplicity, mechanistic formulations, tight clinicopathologic integration, provision for an undetermined category, and its wide applicability to perinatal mortality review boards with access to information routinely collected during clinicopathologic evaluations.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Cheng, Li-Ji, Xin-Xia Fan, Yi-Peng Li, Qiao-Hua Wei, Feng-Rong Dai, Zhong-Ning Chen, & Zhenqiang Wang. (2017). Engineering solid-state porosity of synthetic supercontainers via modification of exo-cavities. Inorganic Chemistry Communications, 78, 61-64.
Two new coordination supercontainers have been successfully isolated from the self-assembly reactions of the container precursor p -phenylsulfonylcalix arene, Ni(II) or Co(II) ion, and diphenylmethane-4,4′-dicarboxylic acid. Crystal structure analysis revealed that these two coordination supercontainers possess a similar endo cavity and two deeper exo cavities compared to the related supercontainers based on p – tert -butylsulfonylcalix arene. Gas and vapor adsorption studies indicated that the new compounds are permanently porous and show much better CO 2 /O 2 and CO 2 /N 2 selectivity and higher vapor adsorption than the tert -butyl analogues.
Cross, Suzanne L., Drywater-Whitekiller, Virginia, Holder, Lea Ann, Norris, Debra, Caringi, James, & Trautman, Ashley. (2015). NCWWI Tribal Traineeship Programs: Promoting Diversity in the Child Welfare Workforce. Journal of Social Work Education, 51(/), S225-S238.
Twelve universities and one American Indian (AI) tribal college were selected for the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute’s 5-year stipend traineeship program. These tribal traineeships were designed to provide social work child welfare education for tribal and nontribal students. Twenty-two AI students and 58 nontribal students completed a bachelor or master’s of social work degree. The students’ field placements were in tribal agencies or public agencies that served a segment of the AI population. These programs were enhanced through the use of valuable relationships (i.e., partnerships, mentorships, allies), and cultural competence was a key aspect of the students’ education. The students’ education was enriched with a specific child welfare curriculum, cultural teachings, tribal traineeship collaborations, and tribal community events.
School of Health Sciences.
Disrud, B., Yulun Han, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2017). Molecular dynamics of laser-assisted decomposition of unstable molecules at the surface of carbon nanotubes: case study of CH2(NO2)(2) on CNT(4,0). Molecular Physics, 115(5), 674-682.
In this study, photoreactions of the dinitromethane molecule noncovalently adsorbed on the (4, 0) carbon nanotube (CNT) have been investigated by time-dependent, excited-state molecular dynamics, which takes into account simultaneous evolution of electronic excitation and nuclear positions under periodic optical excitations. It is found that desorption of molecular adsorbate from CNT surface can be controlled by UV-vis photoexcitations. In addition, it is shown that the presence of CNT substrate facilitates photodecomposition of the adsorbate molecule, related to optically controlled explosion. This model demonstrates potential of photoinduced charge transfer between the adsorbate and substrate, which can affect efficiency of desorption and decomposition reactions. This process has a potential use as a remote trigger for larger scale detonations, or as a mechanism for cleaning’ CNTs of unwanted functionalisation.
Ferguson, Tanner J., Swan, Russell, Sudhagoni, Ramu, & Berdahl, John P. (2017). Microbypass stent implantation with cataract extraction and endocyclophotocoagulation versus microbypass stent with cataract extraction for glaucoma. Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery, 43(3), 377-382.
Purpose To compare the outcomes of combined microbypass stent implantation, cataract extraction, and endocyclophotocoagulation (ECP) with those of implantation of the same microbypass stent with concomitant cataract surgery in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Setting Private Practice, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA. Design Retrospective consecutive case series. Methods Patients from January 2015 to August 2016 were included. The study group comprised eyes that had implantation of a microbypass stent in combination with cataract extraction and ECP. To compare outcomes, a control group of eyes with similar baseline characteristics that had implantation of a stent in combination with cataract surgery was established. Data were collected preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 day, 1 week, and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Data included intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of glaucoma medications. Results The mean preoperative IOP was 21.49 mm Hg ± 9.56 (SD) in the study group (51 eyes) and 20.66 ± 3.23 mm Hg in the control group (50 eyes). Twelve months postoperatively, the mean IOP reduction was 7.14 mm Hg in the study group and 4.48 mm Hg in the control group and the medication reduction was 38% (0.68) and 63% (1.06), respectively. Conclusions Patients who had implantation of the microbypass stent in combination with cataract surgery and ECP had significantly better IOP reduction than those who did not have ECP. The combination procedure was also effective in patients with severe OAG.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Gallivan, J. P., B. M. Stewart, Lee A. Baugh, D. M. Wolpert, & J. R. Flanagan. (2017). Rapid Automatic Motor Encoding of Competing Reach Options. Cell Reports, 18(7), 1619-1626.
Mounting neural evidence suggests that, in situations in which there are multiple potential targets for action, the brain prepares, in parallel, competing movements associated with these targets, prior to implementing one of them. Central to this interpretation is the idea that competing viewed targets, prior to selection, are rapidly and automatically transformed into corresponding motor representations. Here, by applying target-specific, gradual visuomotor rotations and dissociating, unbeknownst to participants, the visual direction of potential targets from the direction of the movements required to reach the same targets, we provide direct evidence for this provocative idea. Our results offer strong empirical support for theories suggesting that competing action options are automatically represented in terms of the movements required to attain them. The rapid motor encoding of potential targets may support the fast optimization of motor costs under conditions of target uncertainty and allow the motor system to inform decisions about target selection.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Gerrish, Ed. (2017). The Effect of the Child Support Performance and Incentive Act of 1998 on Rewarded and Unrewarded Performance Goals. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 36(1), 65-+.
This paper examines the impact of the Child Support Performance and Incentive Act (CSPIA) of 1998 on child support performance measures that are rewarded financially as well as outcomes that are not rewarded. Three of the five performance measures explicitly rewarded by CSPIA are reconstructed in this analysis, as are two child support outcomes that were considered for financial rewards but were ultimately rejected. Using a panel interrupted time series model with state fixed effects and state-specific trends, this analysis finds that CSPIA had a statistically positive impact on just one rewarded performance goal, cost-effectiveness, and negatively impacted an unrewarded child support outcome-collections sent to other states. Effect sizes suggest that CSPIA had little impact on child support performance, on balance. These results provide more evidence to the ongoing debate about the ability of performance incentives to improve public sector performance. It also suggests that reforming performance systems in response to perceived problems may create new gaming responses. (C) 2016 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.
Political Science Department
Gnimpieba, Etienne Z., Menno S. VanDiermen, Shayla M. Gustafson, Bill Conn, & Carol M. Lushbough. (2017). Bio-TDS: bioscience query tool discovery system. Nucleic Acids Research, 45(D1), D1117-D1122.
Bioinformatics and computational biology play a critical role in bioscience and biomedical research. As researchers design their experimental projects, one major challenge is to find the most relevant bioinformatics toolkits that will lead to new knowledge discovery from their data. The Bio-TDS (Bioscience Query Tool Discovery Systems, http://biotds.org/) has been developed to assist researchers in retrieving the most applicable analytic tools by allowing them to formulate their questions as free text. The Bio-TDS is a flexible retrieval system that affords users from multiple bioscience domains (e.g. genomic, proteomic, bio-imaging) the ability to query over 12 000 analytic tool descriptions integrated from well-established, community repositories. One of the primary components of the Bio-TDS is the ontology and natural language processing workflow for annotation, curation, query processing, and evaluation. The Bio-TDS’s scientific impact was evaluated using sample questions posed by researchers retrieved from Biostars, a site focusing on biological data analysis. The Bio-TDS was compared to five similar bioscience analytic tool retrieval systems with the Bio-TDS outperforming the others in terms of relevance and completeness. The Bio-TDS offers researchers the capacity to associate their bioscience question with the most relevant computational toolsets required for the data analysis in their knowledge discovery process.
Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.
Hiller, K. M., D. Franzen, L. Lawson, …., Arleigh Trainor, D. Wald, & J. Jung. (2017). Clinical Assessment of Medical Students in the Emergency Department, a National Consensus Conference (http://westjem. com/articles/clinical-assessment-of-medical-students-in-theemergency-dep artment-a-nationalconsensus-conference.html). Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 18(1), 8.
Baisc Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Hsu, Benson S., & Sarah A. Jones-Sapienza. (2017). Air in All the Wrong Places. Pediatric Emergency Care, 33(2), 107-108.
Extraluminal air can occur through a wide variety of mechanisms. Often, the free air resides in isolated regions including the thorax, the peritoneum, or the mediastinum. We present a pediatric case where there was extensive extraluminal air simultaneously within several regions, one of which has never been reported in the literature.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Huyser, Kimberly R., Jillian Medeiros Pérez, Vickie D. Ybarra, Julia Marin Hellwege, & Lisa Sanchez. (2017). Differential influence of the great recession on political participation among race and ethnic groups. Social Science Quarterly, x(x), x-x.
Objective Our study seeks to understand the role of perceived economic stress of the Great Recession on political participation among blacks, whites, and Latinos. Methods We use the 2012 Collaborative Multi‐Racial Political Study and negative binomial regression to examine the impact of financial hardship on black, Hispanic, and white political participation. Results We find that political participation among whites is unaffected by the Great Recession and is largely motivated by political interest. Blacks are mobilized by financial hardship even after controlling for political enthusiasm and linked fate. Hispanics have the lowest level of political participation. Conclusion Overall, we conclude that the Great Recession did affect political behavior but differently across race and ethnic groups; specifically, Hispanics were least likely to politically engage if they experienced negative consequences of the Great Recession. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Political Science Department.
Jiang, Nan. (2017). ON THE CONVERGENCE OF beta-SCHEMES. International Journal of Numerical Analysis and Modeling, 14(1), 103-125.
Yang’s wavewise entropy inequality  is verified for beta-schemes which, when m = 2 and under a mild technique condition, guarantees the convergence of the schemes to the entropy solutions of convex conservation laws in one-dimensional scalar case. These schemes, constructed by S. Osher and S. Chakravarthy , are based on unwinding principle and use E-schemes as building blocks with simple flux limiters, without which all of them are even linearly unstable. The total variation diminishing property of these methods was established in the original work of S. Osher and S. Chakravarthy.
Kaldenberg, J., & Stacy Smallfield. (2017). Training older adults with low vision to use a computer tablet: A feasibility study. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 80(2), 117-122.
Introduction: The purpose of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential use of a computer tablet as a low vision device to facilitate performance of and satisfaction with daily activities for older adults with low vision. Method: A repeated measures design was used to measure outcomes. Four older adult women with low vision completed 10 weekly sessions of group training in tablet use. The feasibility of this research method and intervention was examined by evaluating recruitment capability, data collection procedures, outcome measures, intervention procedures, resources, and preliminary responses to intervention. Results: The four participants were all women, with a mean age of 74.25 years (68-81). Visual acuity ranged from 20/160 to 20/4000. Mean change in performance and satisfaction on the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure were 3.45 and 3.65, respectively. Daily tablet use increased from 15 minutes at pretest to 3 hours at posttest to 4.5 hours at follow-up. Conclusion: Group training in computer tablet use for older adults with low vision shows promise to improve performance and satisfaction in a variety of daily activities. With appropriate resources, the research method is feasible for a larger study examining this community-based intervention for older adults with low vision.
School of Health Sciences.
Keifer, Joyce, Neeraj K. Tiwari, Leah Buse, & Zhaoqing Zheng. (2017). Subunit-specific synaptic delivery of AMPA receptors by auxiliary chaperone proteins TARPγ8 and GSG1L in classical conditioning. Neuroscience Letters, 645, 53-59.
AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking has emerged as a fundamental concept for understanding mechanisms of learning and memory as well as many neurological disorders. Classical conditioning is a simple and highly conserved form of associative learning. Our studies use an ex vivo brainstem preparation in which to study cellular mechanisms underlying learning during a neural correlate of eyeblink conditioning. Two stages of AMPAR synaptic delivery underlie conditioning utilizing sequential trafficking of GluA1-containing AMPARs early in conditioning followed by replacement with GluA4 subunits later. Subunit-selective trafficking of AMPARs is poorly understood. Here, we focused on identification of auxiliary chaperone proteins that traffic AMPARs. The results show that auxiliary proteins TARPγ8 and GSG1L are colocalized with AMPARs on abducens motor neurons that generate the conditioning. Significantly, TARPγ8 was observed to chaperone GluA1-containing AMPARs during synaptic delivery early in conditioning while GSG1L chaperones GluA4 subunits later in conditioning. Interestingly, TARPγ8 remains at the membrane surface as GluA1 subunits are withdrawn and associates with GluA4 when they are delivered to synapses. These data indicate that GluA1- and GluA4-containing AMPARs are selectively chaperoned by TARPγ8 and GSG1L, respectively. Therefore, sequential subunit-selective trafficking of AMPARs during conditioning is achieved through the timing of their interactions with specific auxiliary proteins.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Lakhssassi, N., S. M. Liu, S. Bekal, …., Abdelali Barakat, & K. Meksem. (2017). Characterization of the Soluble NSF Attachment Protein gene family identifies two members involved in additive resistance to a plant pathogen. Scientific Reports, 7, 1-11.
Proteins with Tetratricopeptide-repeat (TPR) domains are encoded by large gene families and distributed in all plant lineages. In this study, the Soluble NSF-Attachment Protein (SNAP) subfamily of TPR containing proteins is characterized. In soybean, five members constitute the SNAP gene family: GmSNAP18, GmSNAP11, GmSNAP14, GmSNAP02, and GmSNAP09. Recently, GmSNAP18 has been reported to mediate resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN). Using a population of recombinant inbred lines from resistant and susceptible parents, the divergence of the SNAP gene family is analysed over time. Phylogenetic analysis of SNAP genes from 22 diverse plant species showed that SNAPs were distributed in six monophyletic clades corresponding to the major plant lineages. Conservation of the four TPR motifs in all species, including ancestral lineages, supports the hypothesis that SNAPs were duplicated and derived from a common ancestor and unique gene still present in chlorophytic algae. Syntenic analysis of regions harbouring GmSNAP genes in soybean reveals that this family expanded from segmental and tandem duplications following a tetraploidization event. qRT-PCR analysis of GmSNAPs indicates a co-regulation following SCN infection. Finally, genetic analysis demonstrates that GmSNAP11 contributes to an additive resistance to SCN. Thus, GmSNAP11 is identified as a novel minor gene conferring resistance to SCN.
Lane, David C., & W. DeCamp. (2017). ‘SPORTS WILL KEEP ‘EM OUT OF TROUBLE.: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SUBSTANCE USE AMONG ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS. Journal of Sport and Health Research, 9(1), 41-52.
Objective: The purpose of this research is to examine cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, steroids, and other drug use among high school and college students in the state of Delaware. This builds on previous research examining the dynamics of substance use and sports participation. Methods: The data come from the Delaware High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS-HS) and the College Risk Behaviors Study (CRBS), which are used to compare athletes and non-athletes. There were 7,781 high school students from the YRBS-HS and 4,019 college students from the CRBS in the sample. Results: Findings indicate that participants in team sports at the college level are significantly more likely to use alcohol and engage in binge drinking when compared to those who do not participate in team sports, but this effect is not found in most pre-college grades and other substances use rates are similar. High school athletes are significantly less likely to use cigarettes when compared to their non-athlete peers. Conclusion: These results suggest that those who participate in team sports are more likely to drink alcohol and engage in binge drinking at the high school and university level, especially males who participate in team sports at the university level. Second, efforts to construct meaningful comparison groups, a practice that has been underemployed when examining the relationship between sports participation and substance use, reveal a more complex picture about the relationship between substance use and participation in team sports.
Social Behavior Department.
Lawler, Michael J., Lisa A. Newland, Jarod T. Giger, Soonhee Roh, & Barbara L. Brockevelt. (2017). Ecological, Relationship-Based Model of Children’s Subjective Well-Being: Perspectives of 10-Year-Old Children in the United States and 10 Other Countries. Child Indicators Research, 10(1), 1-18.
The purpose of this study is to further assess the international relevance of an ecological, relationship-based model of children’s subjective well-being with samples of 10-year-old children from the United States (n = 502, M (age) = 10.66, SD = .55) and 10 other countries: Algeria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Israel, Nepal, Romania, Rwanda, South Korea, and Uganda (n = 502, M (age) = 10.12, SD = .48). All children completed the Children’s Worlds survey, which includes individual factors, contextual factors of home and family, life and neighborhood, school, and peers, and subjective well-being measures for life satisfaction, mental health, and self-image. The strongest predictors of children’s subjective well-being were family and peer relationships, school, and neighborhood quality. Findings support the international relevance of an ecological, relationship-based model of children’s subjective well-being.
School of Health Sciences.
Love, Heather A. (2017). Newsreels, Novels, and Cybernetics: Reading the Random Patterns of John Dos Passos’s U.S.A. Journal of Modern Literature, 40(2), 112-131.
The novels of Dos Passos’s U.S.A.trilogy (1930/1932/1936) are part of a cultural dialogue about the status of communication and information-processing in the early twentieth century. This dialogue includes cybernetics theories, which align information with both pattern and randomness. In Dos Passos’s trilogy, recognizable and predictable patterns jostle with random chance as key catalysts for change and progress in American culture. The novels’ ‘Newsreel’ sections (like the technology for which they are named) epitomize the perplexing, interconnected logic of cybernetic information, in which pattern meets randomness and fiction bleeds into history.
Madison, Joseph D., Elizabeth A. Berg, J. G. Abarca, S. M. Whitfield, O. Gorbatenko, A. Pinto, & Jacob L. Kerby. (2017). Characterization of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Inhibiting Bacteria from Amphibian Populations in Costa Rica.Frontiers in Microbiology, 8, 13.
Global amphibian declines and extinction events are occurring at an unprecedented rate. While several factors are responsible for declines and extinction, the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been cited as a major constituent in these events. While the effects of this chytrid fungus have been shown to cause broad scale population declines and extinctions, certain individuals and relict populations have shown resistance. This resistance has been attributed in part to the cutaneous bacterial microbiome. Here, we present the first study characterizing anti-Bd bacterial isolates from amphibian populations in Costa Rica, including the characterization of two strains of Serratiamarcescens presenting strong anti-Bd activity. Transcriptome sequencing was utilized for delineation of shifts in gene expression of the two previously uncharacterized strains of S. marcescens grown in three different treatments comprising Bd, heat-killed Bd, and a no Bd control. These results revealed up- and down-regulation of key genes associated with different metabolic and regulatory pathways. This information will be valuable in continued efforts to develop a bacterial-based approach for amphibian protection as well as providing direction for continued mechanistic inquiries of the bacterial anti-Bd response.
Maki, Kevin C., Johns, Colleen, Harris, William S., Puder, Mark, Freedman, Steven D., Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn, . . . Sancilio, Frederick D. (2017). Bioequivalence Demonstration for Ω-3 Acid Ethyl Ester Formulations: Rationale for Modification of Current Guidance. Clinical Therapeutics, 39(3), 652-658.
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance for establishing bioequivalence (BE) of ω-3 acid ethyl esters (containing both eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] as ethyl esters), used to treat severe hypertriglyceridemia, recommends the conduct of 2 studies: one with participants in the fasting state and one with participants in the fed state. For the fasting study, the primary measures of BE are baseline-adjusted EPA and DHA levels in total plasma lipids. For the fed study, the primary measures of BE are EPA and DHA ethyl esters in plasma. This guidance differs from that established for icosapent ethyl (EPA ethyl esters) in which the primary measure of BE is baseline-adjusted total EPA in plasma lipids for both the fasting and fed states. The FDA guidance for ω-3 acid ethyl esters is not supported by their physiologic characteristics and triglyceride-lowering mechanisms because EPA and DHA ethyl esters are best characterized as pro-drugs. This article presents an argument for amending the FDA draft guidance for ω-3 acid ethyl esters to use baseline-adjusted EPA and DHA in total plasma lipids as the primary measures of BE for both fasting and fed conditions. This change would harmonize the approaches for demonstration of BE for ω-3 acid ethyl esters and icosapent ethyl (EPA ethyl esters) products for future development programs and is the most physiologically rational approach to BE testing.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Malo, J., E. Holbrook, T. Zangeneh, C. Strawter, E. Oren, I. Robey, H. Erickson, R. Chahal, M. Durkin, C. Thompson, Susan E. Hoover, N. M. Ampel, L. J. Wheat, & K. S. Knox. (2017). Enhanced Antibody Detection and Diagnosis of Coccidioidomycosis with the MiraVista IgG and IgM Detection Enzyme Immunoassay. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 55(3), 893-901.
Coccidioidomycosis is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in areas of the southwestern United States in which the disease is endemic. Clinical presentations range from self-limited disease to severe disseminated disease. Therefore, early and accurate diagnosis is essential to ensure appropriate treatment and monitoring. Currently available diagnostic tests have variable accuracy, particularly in certain patient populations, and new tests may offer improved accuracy for the diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis. Serum samples from 103 cases of coccidioidomycosis and 373 controls were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies using the MVista anti-Coccidioides antibody enzyme immunoassay. Serum specimens from 170 controls from areas in which the disease is endemic and 44 cases were tested by immunodiffusion at MiraVista Diagnostics. The sensitivity of the MVista antibody assay was 88.3%, and the specificity was 90%. The sensitivity was maintained in the presence of immunocompromising conditions or immunosuppressive therapies. The sensitivity of immunodiffusion was 60.2%, and the specificity was 98.8%. The sensitivity of complement fixation ( 62 cases) was 66.1%, but the specificity could not be determined. The MVista anti-Coccidioides antibody enzyme immunoassay offers improved sensitivity, compared with immunodiffusion and complement fixation, is not impaired in immunocompromised patients, and permits highly reproducible semiquantification.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Melvin, S. A., N. H. Brito, Luke J. Mack, L. E. Engelhardt, W. P. Fifer, Amy J. Elliott, & K. G. Noble. (2017). Home Environment, But Not Socioeconomic Status, is Linked to Differences in Early Phonetic Perception Ability. Infancy, 22(1), 42-55.
Infants perceptually tune to the phonemes of their native languages in the first year of life, thereby losing the ability to discriminate non-native phonemes. Infants who perceptually tune earlier have been shown to develop stronger language skills later in childhood. We hypothesized that socioeconomic disparities, which have been associated with differences in the quality and quantity of language in the home, would contribute to individual differences in phonetic discrimination. Seventy-five infants were assessed on measures of phonetic discrimination at 9 months, on the quality of the home environment at 15 months, and on language abilities at both ages. Phonetic discrimination did not vary according to socioeconomic status (SES), but was significantly associated with the quality of the home environment. This association persisted when controlling for 9-month expressive language abilities, rendering it less likely that infants with better expressive language skills were simply engendering higher quality home interactions. This suggests that infants from linguistically richer home environments may be more tuned to their native language and therefore less able to discriminate non-native contrasts at 9 months relative to infants whose home environments are less responsive. These findings indicate that home language environments may be more critical than SES in contributing to early language perception, with possible implications for language development more broadly.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Min, Jia Wei, L. H. Lu, Jessica L. Freeling, Doug S. Martin, & Hongmin Wang. (2017). USP14 inhibitor attenuates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury in mice. Journal of Neurochemistry, 140(5), 826-833.
Stroke is associated with over-production of misfolded and aggregating proteins. However, it remains largely unclear whether enhanced removal of protein aggregates following ischemic stroke is neuroprotective. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) are a large group of proteases that regulate protein degradation. The ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (USP14) is a DUB that is associated with the proteasome and negatively regulates proteasome activity. In this study, we examined the effect of 1-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2,5-dimethylpyrrol-3-yl]-2-pyrrolidin-1-ylethanone (IU1), a specific small molecule inhibitor of USP14, on mouse focal cerebral ischemic stroke-induced neuronal injury in mice. We found that IU1 treatment attenuated ischemic stroke-caused neuronal injury, which was reflected by increased survival rate, reduced infarct volume, as well as decreased neuronal loss in the IU1-treated mice compared to the control-treated mice. Additionally, IU1 treatment is associated with reduced protein aggregates and enhanced proteasome functionality. These data not only highlight the significance of protein homeostasis in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury but also extend the therapeutic role of DUB inhibitors.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Newswander, Chad B., Matson, Aaron, & Newswander, Lynita K. (2017). The Recovery of Self-Interest Well Understood as a Regime Value: What Is at Stake/Why This Is Important? Administration & Society, 49(4), 552-574.
Understood in economic terms, interest elevates baser human impulses and degrades higher human potential as it motivates individuals to value material gains over moral ones. Because of this influence, it is difficult to consider interest as a regime value. But just because it is beleaguered does not mean it ought to be abandoned, especially because interest is placed front and center in the constitutional order. Providing a perspective of the merits of interest, Alexis de Tocqueville offers a conceptualization that allows this regime value to be relevant even for contemporary administrators operating in spaces of diffused public responsibility.
Political Science Department.
Obaidullah, S. M., C. Goswami, K. C. Santosh, N. Das, C. Halder, & K. Roy. (2017). Separating Indic Scripts with matra for Effective Handwritten Script Identification in Multi-Script Documents. International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence, 31(5), 17.
We present a novel approach for separating Indic scripts with ‘matra’, which is used as a precursor to advance and/or ease subsequent handwritten script identification in multi-script documents. In our study, among state-of-the-art features and classifiers, an optimized fractal geometry analysis and random forest are found to be the best performer to distinguish scripts with ‘matra’ from their counterparts. For validation, a total of 1204 document images are used, where two different scripts with ‘matra’: Bangla and Devanagari are considered as positive samples and the other two di r erent scripts: Roman and Urdu are considered as negative samples. With this precursor, an overall script identification performance can be advanced by more than 5.13% in accuracy and 1.17 times faster in processing time as compared to conventional system.
Computer Science Department.
Peters, H. J., Haley N. Schwenk, Z. R. Ahlstrom, & L. N. McIalwain. (2017). Microaggressions: The experience of individuals with mental illness. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 30(1), 86-112.
The main objective of the study was to investigate the types of microaggressions experienced by individuals with mental illness (MI) based on this marginalized group status. This study included 4 focus groups, comprised of 18 individuals diagnosed with MI(es). The researchers qualitatively identified four themes (a) conveying stereotypes against individuals with MI (i.e. assumptions of inferiority, seeking attention or being dramatic, assumptions of coldness, bringing MI upon themselves, and using MI as an excuse), (b) invalidating the experience of having a MI (i.e. doubting existence, doubting severity, and avoiding acknowledgment of the MI), (c) defining a person by their disorder, and (d) misuse of terminology. Participants revealed the main perpetrators (i.e. family, friends, and professionals) of the microaggressions. The researchers discuss: how the identified themes compare to the three categories of microaggressions (i.e. microinsults, microinvalidations, and microassaults); similarities and differences between the current results and previously identified racial, gender, and sexual orientation microaggressions perpetrated in daily interactions and in therapeutic settings; and the perpetrators of microaggressions as they relate to prejudicial attitudes and social distance. Finally, the authors make recommendations for practitioners and researchers.
Puckett, Jae A., Sharon G. Horne, Francisco Surace, Alice Carter, Nicole Noffsinger-Frazier, Julie Shulman, Pam Detrie, Audrey Ervin, & Chad Mosher. (2017). Predictors of Sexual Minority Youth’s Reported Suicide Attempts and Mental Health. Journal of Homosexuality, 64(6), 697-715.
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth (LGBY) report higher rates of mental health concerns compared to heterosexual youth due to minority stressors. This study examined the interpersonal and intrapersonal variables that predict psychological distress and self-reported suicide attempts in a sample of 61 LGBY in the Mid-South, which is a highly overlooked regional area for LGBY research. Youth who lost friends when coming out were 29 times more likely to report suicide attempts, and those who experienced psychological maltreatment from caregivers were 9.5 times more likely to report a suicide attempt. Internalized heterosexism, feelings of guilt or shame, and psychological maltreatment from caregivers were significant predictors of depression and anxiety symptoms. This study highlights the importance of creating affirming spaces for LGBY, particularly in areas of the country that experience greater political oppression of sexual minorities, such as the Mid-South.
Riebschleger, Joanne, Norris, Debra, Pierce, Barbara, Pond, Debora L., & Cummings, Cristy. (2015). Preparing Social Work Students for Rural Child Welfare Practice: Emerging Curriculum Competencies. Journal of Social Work Education, 51, S209-S224.
Multiple issues that are unique to child welfare social work practice in rural areas markedly affect workforce recruitment and retention, yet little attention is given to the proficiencies needed to equip emerging social workers for this growing area of the field. Curriculum content is needed that provides students with the opportunity to master the skills needed to thrive as child welfare social workers in rural areas. Using an evidence-based practice critical thinking model as a guide, a systematic review of literature and documents addresses many of the competencies needed to prepare social work students for child welfare practice in rural areas. These competencies are identified. Suggestions for integration into the social work curriculum are offered.
School of Health Sciences.
Rivers, J. W., Gretchen N. Newberry, C. J. Schwarz, & D. R. Ardia. (2017). Success despite the stress: violet-green swallows increase glucocorticoids and maintain reproductive output despite experimental increases in flight costs. Functional Ecology, 31(1), 235-244.
Glucocorticoid steroid hormones play a central role in regulating the metabolic state of animals, especially when they cope with unanticipated stressors in their environment. The cort-adaptation hypothesis predicts that baseline concentrations of glucocorticoids are adjusted upward to match energetic needs and promote fitness when individuals are faced with physiological challenges, including those associated with reproduction. 2. We tested the cort-adaptation hypothesis in the violet-green swallow (Tachycineta thalassina) by experimentally increasing flight costs during the offspring rearing period. Individual females were assigned to one of three treatments: light feather clipping (removal of four wing feathers), heavy feather clipping (removal of eight wing feathers) or a sham-clip control. 3. We measured baseline corticosterone and body mass immediately prior to implementing treatments during the offspring rearing period and then 10 days after initial manipulations took place. We also quantified risk-taking behaviour, offspring feeding rate and the number of offspring fledged. Finally, we examined how treatments influenced offspring phenotype via measurements of nestling body mass and baseline corticosterone, as both measures have been associated with post-fledging survival. 4. We found that handicapped females significantly increased baseline corticosterone between the two sampling periods, with the magnitude of change in the light clipping and heavy clipping treatments 2.59 and 6.19 greater than controls, respectively. All individuals lost mass between the two sampling periods, but the degree of loss was greater for females in both clipping treatments relative to unmanipulated controls. 5. In contrast, we found no evidence of treatment differences in female risk-taking, offspring provisioning or in the number of offspring fledged. Offspring raised by females in both handicapped treatments did have significantly elevated baseline corticosterone relative to those in control broods, but we detected no treatment differences in offspring body mass. 6. Our study found that handicapped females increased circulating glucocorticoids and were able to maintain critical parental care behaviours and raise a similar number of offspring as unmanipulated controls. Thus, increases in baseline cort of handicapped females appeared to have allowed them to maintain fitness despite increased physiological challenges, providing support for the cort-adaptation hypothesis.
Roat, R., M. M. Hossain, J. Christopherson, C. Free, S. Jain, C. Guay, R. Regazzi, & Z. Guo. (2017). Identification and Characterization of micro RNAs Associated With Human β-Cell Loss in a Mouse Model. American Journal of Transplantation, 17(4), 992-1007.
Currently there is no effective approach for monitoring early β-cell loss during islet graft rejection following human islet transplantation (HIT). Due to ethical and technical constraints, it is difficult to directly study biomarkers of islet destruction in humans. Here, we established a humanized mouse model with induced human β-cell death using adoptive lymphocyte transfer (ALT). Human islet grafts of ALT-treated mice had perigraft lymphocyte infiltration, fewer insulin+ β cells, and increased β-cell apoptosis. Islet-specific miR-375 was used to validate our model, and expression of miR-375 was significantly decreased in the grafts and increased in the circulation of ALT-treated mice before hyperglycemia. A NanoString expression assay was further used to profile 800 human miRNAs in the human islet grafts, and the results were validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We found that miR-4454 and miR-199a-5p were decreased in the human islet grafts following ALT and increased in the circulation prior to hyperglycemia. These data demonstrate that our in vivo model of induced human β-cell destruction is a robust method for identifying and characterizing circulating biomarkers, and suggest that miR-4454 and miR-199a-5p can serve as novel biomarkers associated with early human β-cell loss following HIT.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Rucks, Elizabeth A., Macy G. Olson, Lisa M. Jorgenson, Rekha R. Srinivasan, & Scot P. Ouellette. (2017). Development of a Proximity Labeling System to Map the Chlamydia trachomatis Inclusion Membrane. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 7, 17.
Chlamydia grows within a membrane-bound vacuole termed an inclusion. The cellular processes that support the biogenesis and integrity of this pathogen-specified parasitic organelle are not understood. Chlamydia secretes integral membrane proteins called Incs that insert into the chlamydial inclusion membrane (IM). Incs contain at least two hydrophobic transmembrane domains flanked by termini, which vary in size and are exposed to the host cytosol. In addition, Incs are temporally expressed during the chlamydial developmental cycle. Data examining Inc function are limited because of (i) the difficulty in working with hydrophobic proteins and (ii) the inherent fragility of the IM. We hypothesize that Incs function collaboratively to maintain the integrity of the chlamydial inclusion with small Incs organizing the IM and larger Incs interfacing with host cell machinery. To study this hypothesis, we have adapted a proximity-labeling strategy using APEX2, a mutant soybean ascorbate peroxidase that biotinylates interacting and proximal proteins within minutes in the presence of H2O2 and its exogenous substrate, biotin-phenol. We successfully expressed, from an inducible background, APEX2 alone, or fusion proteins of IncA(TM) (TM = transmembrane domain only), IncA, and IncF with APEX2 in Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2. IncF-APEX2, IncA(TM)-APEX2, and IncA-APEX2 localized to the IM whereas APEX2, lacking a secretion signal, remained associated with the bacteria. We determined the impact of overexpression on inclusion diameter, plasmid stability, and Golgi-derived sphingomyelin acquisition. While there was an overall impact of inducing construct expression. IncF-APEX2 overexpression most negatively impacted these measurements. Importantly. Inc-APEX2 expression in the presence of biotin-phenol resulted in biotinylation of the IM. These data suggest that Inc expression is regulated to control optimal IM biogenesis. We subsequently defined lysis conditions that solubilized known Incs and were compatible with pulldown conditions. Importantly, we have created powerful tools to allow direct examination of the dynamic composition of the IM, which will provide novel insights into key interactions that promote chlamydial growth and development within the inclusion.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Sapp, Wendi, B. Gifford, Zhenqiang Wang, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2017). Mathematical modeling of gas desorption from a metal-organic supercontainer cavity filled with stored N-2 gas at critical limits. Rsc Advances, 7(18), 11180-11190.
Metal-organic supercontainer (MOSC) molecules are ideal candidates for gas storage applications due to their construction with customizable ligands and tunable cavity and window sizes, which are found to be elastic in nature. Force field molecular dynamics (MD) are used to evaluate the utilization of MOSCs as nanoporous structures for gas storage. A MOSC, with nitrogen gas molecules filling the cavity, progresses through MD and releases gas molecules by applying temperature to the MOSC. It is the MOSC’s elasticity which is responsible for the desorption of guests at elevated temperatures. Data obtained from MD serves as a guide for the derivation of analytical equations that can be used to describe and explain the mechanism of gas desorption from within the cavity. Mathematical modeling of gas desorption from the center cavity can provide a method of predicting MOSC behavior for a broader range of pressures and temperatures, which is challenging for direct atomistic modeling. The utilization of MD can provide data for a wide variety of properties and processes in various materials under different conditions for a broad range of technology-related applications.
Sathyanesan, Monica, Haiar, Jacob M., Watt, Michael J., & Newton, Samuel S. (2017). Restraint stress differentially regulates inflammation and glutamate receptor gene expression in the hippocampus of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Stress: The International Journal on the Biology of Stress, 20(2), 197-204.
The inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6 and BALB/c have been used widely in preclinical psychiatric research. The differences in stress susceptibility of available strains has provided a useful platform to test pharmacological agents and behavioral responses. Previous brain gene profiling efforts have indicated that the inflammation and immune response gene pathway is the predominant gene network in the differential stress response of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. The implication is that a composite stress paradigm that includes a sequence of extended, varied and unpredictable stressors induces inflammation-related genes in the hippocampus. We hypothesized that the regulation of inflammation genes in the brain could constitute a primary stress response and tested this by employing a simple stress protocol, repeated exposure to the same stressor for 10 days, 2 h of restraint per day. We examined stress-induced regulation of 13 proinflammatory cytokine genes in male BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice using quantitative PCR. Elevated cytokine genes included tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL6), interleukin 10 (IL10), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) super family members and interleukin 1 receptor 1 (IL1R1). In addition, we examined restraint stress-induced regulation of 12 glutamate receptor genes in both strains. Our results show that restraint stress is sufficient to elevate the expression of inflammation-related genes in the hippocampus of both BABLB/c and C57BL/6 mice, but they differ in the genes that are induced and the magnitude of change. Cell types that are involved in this response include endothelial cells and astrocytes.Lay summaryRepeated exposure to a simple restraint stress altered the activities of genes involved in inflammation and the functions of the excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate. These changes in the hippocampus of the mouse brain showed differences that were dependent on the strain of mice and the length of the stress exposure. The effects of stress on activity of these genes may lead to alterations in behavior.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Sazama, Eric J., Michael J. Bosch, Carmelita S. Shouldis, Scot P. Ouellette, & Jeff S. Wesner. (2017). Incidence of Wolbachia in aquatic insects. Ecology and Evolution, 7(4), 1165-1169.
Wolbachia is a genus of intracellular bacteria typically found within the reproductive systems of insects that manipulates those systems of their hosts. While current estimates of Wolbachia incidence suggest that it infects approximately half of all arthropod species, these estimates are based almost entirely on terrestrial insects. No systematic survey of Wolbachia in aquatic insects has been performed. To estimate Wolbachia incidence among aquatic insect species, we combined field-collected samples from the Missouri River (251 samples from 58 species) with a global database from previously published surveys. The final database contained 5,598 samples of 2,687 total species (228 aquatic and 2,459 terrestrial). We estimate that 52% (95% CrIs: 44%-60%) of aquatic insect species carry Wolbachia, compared to 60% (58%-63%) of terrestrial insects. Among aquatic insects, infected orders included Odonata, Coleoptera, Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, and Plecoptera. Incidence was highest within aquatic Diptera and Hemiptera (69%), Odonata (50%), and Coleoptera (53%), and was lowest within Ephemeroptera (13%). These results indicate that Wolbachia is common among aquatic insects, but incidence varies widely across orders and is especially uncertain in those orders with low sample sizes such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera.
Stamper, Christopher E., Hassell, James E., Kapitz, Adam J., Renner, Kenneth J., Orchinik, Miles, & Lowry, Christopher A. (2017). Activation of 5-HT 1A receptors in the rat dorsomedial hypothalamus inhibits stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. Stress: The International Journal on the Biology of Stress, 20(2), 223-230.
Acute activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, leading to the release of corticosteroid hormones into the circulation, is an adaptive response to perceived threats. Persistent activation of the HPA axis can lead to impaired physiological or behavioral function with maladaptive consequences. Thus, efficient control and termination of stress responses is essential for well-being. However, inhibitory control mechanisms governing the HPA axis are poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that serotonergic systems, acting within the medial hypothalamus, play an important role in inhibitory control of stress-induced HPA axis activity. To test this hypothesis, we surgically implanted chronic jugular cannulae in adult male rats and conducted bilateral microinjection of vehicle or the 5-HT1Areceptor agonist, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT; 8 nmol, 0.2 μL, 0.1 μL/min, per side) into the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) immediately prior to a 40 min period of restraint stress. Repeated blood sampling was conducted using an automated blood sampling system and plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bilateral intra-DMH microinjections of 8-OH-DPAT suppressed stress-induced increases in plasma corticosterone within 10 min of the onset of handling prior to restraint and, as measured by area-under-the-curve analysis of plasma corticosterone concentrations, during the 40 min period of restraint. These data support an inhibitory role for serotonergic systems, acting within the DMH, on stress-induced activation of the HPA axis. Lay summary:Inhibitory control of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) stress hormone response is important for well-being. One neurochemical implicated in inhibitory control of the HPA axis is serotonin. In this study we show that activation of serotonin receptors, specifically inhibitory 5-HT1Areceptors in the dorsomedial hypothalamus, is sufficient to inhibit stress-induced HPA axis activity in rats.
Terrell, T. R., R. Bostick, J. Barth, …., Verle Valentine, & G. Nichols. (2017). Multicenter cohort study on association of genotypes with prospective sports concussion: methods, lessons learned, and recommendations. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 57(1-2), 77-89.
BACKGROUND: Approximately 3.8 million sports related TBIs occur per year. Genetic variation may affect both TBI risk and post-TBI clinical outcome. Limited research has focused on genetic risk for concussion among athletes. We describe the design, methods, and baseline characteristics of this prospective cohort study designed to investigate a potential association between genetic polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E gene, APOE promoter G-219T, and Tau gene exon 6 polymorphisms (Ser(53) Pro and (Hist)47(yr)) with: 1) the risk of prospective concussion; 2) concussion severity; and 3) postconcussion neurocognitive recovery. METHODS: The prospective cohort study included a final population of 2947 college, high school, and professional athletes. Baseline data collection included a concussion/medical history questionnaire, neuropsychological (NP) testing, and genetic sampling for the genetic polymorphisms. Data collection on new concussions experienced utilized post-concussion history/mental status form, Lovell post-concussion symptom score, Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) and/or the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT)-1/SCAT-2, and post-concussion NP testing. RESULTS: This paper is focused on discussing the important methodological considerations, organizational challenges and lessons learned in the completion of a multi-center prospective cohort study. A total of 3740 subjects enrolled, with a total of 335 concussions experienced. CONCLUSIONS: Of critical importance to the success of a study of this type is to successfully recruit committed institutions with qualified local study personnel, obtain “buy-in” from study sites, and cultivate strong working relationships with study sites. The use of approved incentives may improve study site recruitment, enhance retention, and enhance compliance with study protocols. Future publications will detail the specific findings of this study. Collaborative research is very likely needed given the nature of this study population.
Sanford SChool of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Wang, L., & Dongming Mei. (2017). A comprehensive study of low-energy response for xenon-based dark matter experiments. Journal of Physics: G Nuclear & Particle Physics, 44(5), 1-1.
We report a comprehensive study of the energy response to low-energy recoils in dual-phase xenon-based dark matter experiments. A recombination model is developed to explain the recombination probability as a function of recoil energy at zero field and non-zero field. The role of e-ion recombination is discussed for both parent recombination and volume recombination. We find that the volume recombination under a non-zero field is constrained by a plasma effect, which is caused by a high density of charge carriers along the ionization track forming a plasma-like cloud of charge that shields the interior from the influence of the external electric field. Subsequently, the plasma time that determines the volume recombination probability at non-zero field is demonstrated to be different between electronic recoils (ERs) and nuclear recoils (NRs) due to the difference of ionization density between two processes. We show a weak field dependence of the plasma time for NRs and a stronger field dependence of the plasma time for ERs. As a result, the time-dependent recombination is implemented in the determination of charge and light yield with a generic model. Our model agrees well with the available experimental data from xenon-based dark matter experiments.
Wang, X. T., Li-Lin Rao, & Hongming Zheng. (2017). Neural substrates of framing effects in social contexts: A meta-analytical approach. Social Neuroscience, 12(3), 268-279.
We hypothesize that framing effects (risk-averse in the positive frame and risk-seeking in the negative frame) are likely to occur when ambiguous social contexts result in ambiguous or ambivalent risk preferences, leading the decision-maker to search for more subtle cues, such as verbal framing. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we examined framing effects in both unambiguous homogeneous group and more ambiguous heterogeneous group contexts. We began by conducting a meta-analysis and identified three regions of interest: the right inferior frontal gyrus, the left anterior cingulate (ACC)/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and the left amygdala. Our own fMRI data were collected while the participants made choices between a sure option and a gamble framed in terms of the number of lives to either save or die. The framing effect was evident in a heterogeneous context with a mixture of kin and strangers, but disappeared in a homogeneous group of either all kin-members or all strangers. The fMRI results revealed a greater activation in theright middle/inferior frontal gyrusunder the negative than the positive framing, and lessACC/vmPFCdeactivation under positive framing in the heterogamous/ambiguous context. The activation of theamygdalawas correlated with greater risk-seeking preference in homogeneous kinship contexts.
Wesner, Jeff S., D. M. Walters, T. S. Schmidt, J. M. Kraus, C. A. Stricker, W. H. Clements, & R. E. Wolf. (2017). Metamorphosis Affects Metal Concentrations and Isotopic Signatures in a Mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus): Implications for the Aquatic-Terrestrial Transfer of Metals. Environmental Science & Technology, 51(4), 2438-2446.
Insect metamorphosis often results in substantial chemical changes that can alter contaminant concentrations and fractionate isotopes. We exposed larval mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus) and their food (periphyton) to an aqueous zinc gradient (3-340 mu g Zn/l) and measured zinc concentrations at different stages of metamorphosis: larval, subimago, and imago. We also measured changes in stable isotopes (delta N-15 and delta C-13) in unexpoSed mayflies. Larval zinc concentrations were positively related to aqueous zinc, increasing 9-fold across the exposure gradient. Adult zinc concentrations were also positively related to aqueous zinc, but were 7-fold lower than larvae. This relationship varied according to adult substage and sex Tissue concentrations in female imagoes were not related to exposure concentrations, but the converse was true for all other stage-by-sex combinations. Metamorphosis also increased delta N-15 by similar to 0.8 parts per thousand, but not delta C-13. Thus, the main effects of metamorphosis on insect chemistry were large declines in zinc concentrations coupled with increased delta N-15 signatures. For zinc, this change was largely consistent across the aqueous exposure gradient. However, differences among sexes and stages suggest that caution is warranted when using nitrogen isotopes or metal concentrations measured in one insect stage (e.g., larvae) to assess risk to wildlife that feed on subsequent life stages (e.g., adults).
Yao, B., P. Kolla, Ranjit Koodali, Y. C. Ding, Selvaratnam Balaranjan, Sunav Shrestha, & A. Smirnova. (2017). Enzymatic decomposition and electrochemical study of alkali lignin by laccase (Trametes versicolor) in the presence of a natural mediator (methyl syringate). New Journal of Chemistry, 41(3), 958-964.
The aerobic-enzymatic decomposition of alkali lignin in the presence of laccase from Trametes versicolor (LTV) and the natural mediator methyl syringate in acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer solution (pH = 4.5) at 40 degrees C in an oxygen-rich (aerobic) environment is studied. SEM and BET analyses are used to characterize the changes in the surface area and morphology of lignin that occurred during the exposure to the laccase-mediator system (LMS) for 72 h. The LMS interaction causes a 2-fold improvement in the surface area from 4.9 to 9.8 m(2) g(-1), due to significant changes in the mesoporous structure of lignin within a pore size of 2-120 nm. This could be due to an efficient interaction of the surface phenolic groups and internal mesoporous beta-O-4 network of lignin with the LMS in an aerobic environment. To further understand the enzymatic degradation of lignin, electrochemical oxidation of a thin film of lignin on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) is performed under aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions in the presence of the LMS. A synergistic lignin electrooxidation in the aerobic environment is observed due to the promotion of LMS activity by a parallel oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Based on the electrochemical studies, a mechanism for understanding the role of oxygen in the enzymatic oxidation of lignin in an aerobic environment and the stability of the mediator radical (MS center dot) is proposed.
Yobi, A., K. A. Schlauch, R. L. Tillett, W. C. Yim, C. Espinoza, Bernard W. M. Wone, J. C. Cushman, & M. J. Oliver. (2017). Sporobolus stapfianus: Insights into desiccation tolerance in the resurrection grasses from linking transcriptomics to metabolomics. Bmc Plant Biology, 17, 30.
Background: Understanding the response of resurrection angiosperms to dehydration and rehydration is critical for deciphering the mechanisms of how plants cope with the rigors of water loss from their vegetative tissues. We have focused our studies on the C-4 resurrection grass, Sporobolus stapfianus Gandoger, as a member of a group of important forage grasses. Methods: We have combined non-targeted metabolomics with transcriptomics, via a NimbleGen array platform, to develop an understanding of how gene expression and metabolite profiles can be linked to generate a more detailed mechanistic appreciation of the cellular response to both desiccation and rehydration. Results: The rehydration transcriptome and metabolome are primarily geared towards the rapid return of photosynthesis, energy metabolism, protein turnover, and protein synthesis during the rehydration phase. However, there are some metabolites associated with ROS protection that remain elevated during rehydration, most notably the tocopherols. The analysis of the dehydration transcriptome reveals a strong concordance between transcript abundance and the associated metabolite abundance reported earlier, but only in responses that are directly related to cellular protection during dehydration: carbohydrate metabolism and redox homeostasis. The transcriptome response also provides strong support for the involvement of cellular protection processes as exemplified by the increases in the abundance of transcripts encoding late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, anti-oxidant enzymes, early light-induced proteins (ELIP) proteins, and cell-wall modification enzymes. There is little concordance between transcript and metabolite abundance for processes such as amino acid metabolism that do not appear to contribute directly to cellular protection, but are nonetheless important for the desiccation tolerant phenotype of S. stapfianus. Conclusions: The transcriptomes of both dehydration and rehydration offer insight into the complexity of the regulation of responses to these processes that involve complex signaling pathways and associated transcription factors. ABA appears to be important in the control of gene expression in both the latter stages of the dehydration and the early stages of rehydration. These findings add to the growing body of information detailing how plants tolerate and survive the severe cellular perturbations of dehydration, desiccation, and rehydration.
Zhao, C., X. Chen, C. S. Yang, …., Xuejun Wang, & J. B. Liu. (2017). Repurposing an antidandruff agent to treating cancer: zinc pyrithione inhibits tumor growth via targeting proteasome-associated deubiquitinases. Oncotarget, 8(8), 13942-13956.
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a central role in various cellular processes through selectively degrading proteins involved in critical cellular functions. Targeting UPS has been validated as a novel strategy for treating human cancer, as inhibitors of the 20S proteasome catalytic activity are currently in clinical use for treatment of multiple myeloma and other cancers, and the deubiquitinase activity associated with the proteasome is also a valid target for anticancer agents. Recent studies suggested that zinc pyrithione, an FDA-approved antidandruff agent, may have antitumor activity, but the detailed molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) targets the proteasome-associated DUBs (USP14 and UCHL5) and inhibits their activities, resulting in a rapid accumulation of protein-ubiquitin conjugates, but without inhibiting the proteolytic activities of 20S proteasomes. Furthermore, ZnPT exhibits cytotoxic effects against various cancer cell lines in vitro, selectively kills bone marrow cells from leukemia patients ex vivo, and efficiently inhibits the growth of lung adenocarcinoma cancer cell xenografts in nude mice. This study has identified zinc pyrithione, an FDA-approved pharmacological agent with potential antitumor properties as a proteasomal DUB inhibitor.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus