Posted by: tadeterman | April 19, 2017

April 2017

Boullata, J. I., A. L. Carrera, …., Carol McGinnis, J. J. Wessel, S. Bajpai, M. L. Beebe, T. J. Kinn, M. G. Klang, L. Lord, K. Martin, C. Pompeii-Wolfe, J. Sullivan, A. Wood, A. Malone, P. Guenter, & Nutr Amer Soc Parenteral Enteral. (2017). ASPEN Safe Practices for Enteral Nutrition Therapy. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 41(1), 15-103.

Enteral nutrition (EN) is a valuable clinical intervention for patients of all ages in a variety of care settings. Along with its many outcome benefits come the potential for adverse effects. These safety issues are the result of clinical complications and of process-related errors. The latter can occur at any step from patient assessment, prescribing, and order review, to product selection, labeling, and administration. To maximize the benefits of EN while minimizing adverse events requires that a systematic approach of care be in place. This includes open communication, standardization, and incorporation of best practices into the EN process. This document provides recommendations based on the available evidence and expert consensus for safe practices, across each step of the process, for all those involved in caring for patients receiving EN.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Boyd, T. K., C. A. Wright, H. J. Odendaal, Amy J. Elliott, M. A. Sens, R. D. Folkerth, D. J. Roberts, H. C. Kinney, & Pass Network. (2017). The Stillbirth Classification System for the Safe Passage Study: Incorporating Mechanism, Etiology, and Recurrence.Pediatric and Developmental Pathology, 20(2), 120-132.

Objective: Describe the classification system for assigning the cause of stillbirth in the Safe Passage Study, an international, multi-institutional, prospective analysis conducted by the NIAAA/NICHD-funded Prenatal Alcohol in SIDS and Stillbirth (PASS) Research Network. The study mission is to determine the role of prenatal alcohol and/or cigarette smoke exposure in adverse pregnancy outcomes, including stillbirth, in a high-risk cohort of 12,000 maternal/fetal dyads. Methods: The PASS Network classification system is based upon 5 “sites of origin” for cause of stillbirth, further subdivided into mechanism subcategories; both are employed to assign an ultimate cause of death. Each PASS stillbirth was assigned a cause of death and status of sporadic versus recurrent. Adjudication involved review of maternal and obstetrical records; fetal autopsy and placental findings; and required complete consensus in each case. Two published classification systems, ie, INCODE and ReCoDe, were used for comparison. Results: Causes of stillbirth classified were fetal (26%), placental (53%), external (5%), and undetermined (16%). Nine cases (47%) had placental causes of death due to maternal disorders that carry recurrence risks. There was full agreement for cause of death across the 3 classification systems in 26% of cases and partial agreement among them in 42% of cases. Conclusions: The proposed PASS schema employs a user-friendly classification that provides comparable information to previously published systems. Advantages include its simplicity, mechanistic formulations, tight clinicopathologic integration, provision for an undetermined category, and its wide applicability to perinatal mortality review boards with access to information routinely collected during clinicopathologic evaluations.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Cheng, Li-Ji, Xin-Xia Fan, Yi-Peng Li, Qiao-Hua Wei, Feng-Rong Dai, Zhong-Ning Chen, & Zhenqiang Wang. (2017). Engineering solid-state porosity of synthetic supercontainers via modification of exo-cavities. Inorganic Chemistry Communications, 78, 61-64.

Two new coordination supercontainers have been successfully isolated from the self-assembly reactions of the container precursor p -phenylsulfonylcalix [4]arene, Ni(II) or Co(II) ion, and diphenylmethane-4,4′-dicarboxylic acid. Crystal structure analysis revealed that these two coordination supercontainers possess a similar endo cavity and two deeper exo cavities compared to the related supercontainers based on p – tert -butylsulfonylcalix [4]arene. Gas and vapor adsorption studies indicated that the new compounds are permanently porous and show much better CO 2 /O 2 and CO 2 /N 2 selectivity and higher vapor adsorption than the tert -butyl analogues.

Chemistry Department.

 

Cross, Suzanne L., Drywater-Whitekiller, Virginia, Holder, Lea Ann, Norris, Debra, Caringi, James, & Trautman, Ashley. (2015). NCWWI Tribal Traineeship Programs: Promoting Diversity in the Child Welfare Workforce. Journal of Social Work Education, 51(/), S225-S238.

Twelve universities and one American Indian (AI) tribal college were selected for the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute’s 5-year stipend traineeship program. These tribal traineeships were designed to provide social work child welfare education for tribal and nontribal students. Twenty-two AI students and 58 nontribal students completed a bachelor or master’s of social work degree. The students’ field placements were in tribal agencies or public agencies that served a segment of the AI population. These programs were enhanced through the use of valuable relationships (i.e., partnerships, mentorships, allies), and cultural competence was a key aspect of the students’ education. The students’ education was enriched with a specific child welfare curriculum, cultural teachings, tribal traineeship collaborations, and tribal community events.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Disrud, B., Yulun Han, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2017). Molecular dynamics of laser-assisted decomposition of unstable molecules at the surface of carbon nanotubes: case study of CH2(NO2)(2) on CNT(4,0). Molecular Physics, 115(5), 674-682.

In this study, photoreactions of the dinitromethane molecule noncovalently adsorbed on the (4, 0) carbon nanotube (CNT) have been investigated by time-dependent, excited-state molecular dynamics, which takes into account simultaneous evolution of electronic excitation and nuclear positions under periodic optical excitations. It is found that desorption of molecular adsorbate from CNT surface can be controlled by UV-vis photoexcitations. In addition, it is shown that the presence of CNT substrate facilitates photodecomposition of the adsorbate molecule, related to optically controlled explosion. This model demonstrates potential of photoinduced charge transfer between the adsorbate and substrate, which can affect efficiency of desorption and decomposition reactions. This process has a potential use as a remote trigger for larger scale detonations, or as a mechanism for cleaning’ CNTs of unwanted functionalisation.

Chemistry Department.

 

Ferguson, Tanner J., Swan, Russell, Sudhagoni, Ramu, & Berdahl, John P. (2017). Microbypass stent implantation with cataract extraction and endocyclophotocoagulation versus microbypass stent with cataract extraction for glaucoma. Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery, 43(3), 377-382.

Purpose To compare the outcomes of combined microbypass stent implantation, cataract extraction, and endocyclophotocoagulation (ECP) with those of implantation of the same microbypass stent with concomitant cataract surgery in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Setting Private Practice, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA. Design Retrospective consecutive case series. Methods Patients from January 2015 to August 2016 were included. The study group comprised eyes that had implantation of a microbypass stent in combination with cataract extraction and ECP. To compare outcomes, a control group of eyes with similar baseline characteristics that had implantation of a stent in combination with cataract surgery was established. Data were collected preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 day, 1 week, and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Data included intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of glaucoma medications. Results The mean preoperative IOP was 21.49 mm Hg ± 9.56 (SD) in the study group (51 eyes) and 20.66 ± 3.23 mm Hg in the control group (50 eyes). Twelve months postoperatively, the mean IOP reduction was 7.14 mm Hg in the study group and 4.48 mm Hg in the control group and the medication reduction was 38% (0.68) and 63% (1.06), respectively. Conclusions Patients who had implantation of the microbypass stent in combination with cataract surgery and ECP had significantly better IOP reduction than those who did not have ECP. The combination procedure was also effective in patients with severe OAG.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Gallivan, J. P., B. M. Stewart, Lee A. Baugh, D. M. Wolpert, & J. R. Flanagan. (2017). Rapid Automatic Motor Encoding of Competing Reach Options. Cell Reports, 18(7), 1619-1626.

Mounting neural evidence suggests that, in situations in which there are multiple potential targets for action, the brain prepares, in parallel, competing movements associated with these targets, prior to implementing one of them. Central to this interpretation is the idea that competing viewed targets, prior to selection, are rapidly and automatically transformed into corresponding motor representations. Here, by applying target-specific, gradual visuomotor rotations and dissociating, unbeknownst to participants, the visual direction of potential targets from the direction of the movements required to reach the same targets, we provide direct evidence for this provocative idea. Our results offer strong empirical support for theories suggesting that competing action options are automatically represented in terms of the movements required to attain them. The rapid motor encoding of potential targets may support the fast optimization of motor costs under conditions of target uncertainty and allow the motor system to inform decisions about target selection.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Gerrish, Ed. (2017). The Effect of the Child Support Performance and Incentive Act of 1998 on Rewarded and Unrewarded Performance Goals. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 36(1), 65-+.

This paper examines the impact of the Child Support Performance and Incentive Act (CSPIA) of 1998 on child support performance measures that are rewarded financially as well as outcomes that are not rewarded. Three of the five performance measures explicitly rewarded by CSPIA are reconstructed in this analysis, as are two child support outcomes that were considered for financial rewards but were ultimately rejected. Using a panel interrupted time series model with state fixed effects and state-specific trends, this analysis finds that CSPIA had a statistically positive impact on just one rewarded performance goal, cost-effectiveness, and negatively impacted an unrewarded child support outcome-collections sent to other states. Effect sizes suggest that CSPIA had little impact on child support performance, on balance. These results provide more evidence to the ongoing debate about the ability of performance incentives to improve public sector performance. It also suggests that reforming performance systems in response to perceived problems may create new gaming responses. (C) 2016 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.

Political Science Department

 

Gnimpieba, Etienne Z.Menno S. VanDiermenShayla M. GustafsonBill Conn, & Carol M. Lushbough. (2017). Bio-TDS: bioscience query tool discovery system. Nucleic Acids Research, 45(D1), D1117-D1122.

Bioinformatics and computational biology play a critical role in bioscience and biomedical research. As researchers design their experimental projects, one major challenge is to find the most relevant bioinformatics toolkits that will lead to new knowledge discovery from their data. The Bio-TDS (Bioscience Query Tool Discovery Systems, http://biotds.org/) has been developed to assist researchers in retrieving the most applicable analytic tools by allowing them to formulate their questions as free text. The Bio-TDS is a flexible retrieval system that affords users from multiple bioscience domains (e.g. genomic, proteomic, bio-imaging) the ability to query over 12 000 analytic tool descriptions integrated from well-established, community repositories. One of the primary components of the Bio-TDS is the ontology and natural language processing workflow for annotation, curation, query processing, and evaluation. The Bio-TDS’s scientific impact was evaluated using sample questions posed by researchers retrieved from Biostars, a site focusing on biological data analysis. The Bio-TDS was compared to five similar bioscience analytic tool retrieval systems with the Bio-TDS outperforming the others in terms of relevance and completeness. The Bio-TDS offers researchers the capacity to associate their bioscience question with the most relevant computational toolsets required for the data analysis in their knowledge discovery process.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Hiller, K. M., D. Franzen, L. Lawson, …., Arleigh Trainor, D. Wald, & J. Jung. (2017). Clinical Assessment of Medical Students in the Emergency Department, a National Consensus Conference (http://westjem. com/articles/clinical-assessment-of-medical-students-in-theemergency-dep artment-a-nationalconsensus-conference.html). Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 18(1), 8.

Baisc Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Hsu, Benson S., & Sarah A. Jones-Sapienza. (2017). Air in All the Wrong Places. Pediatric Emergency Care, 33(2), 107-108.

Extraluminal air can occur through a wide variety of mechanisms. Often, the free air resides in isolated regions including the thorax, the peritoneum, or the mediastinum. We present a pediatric case where there was extensive extraluminal air simultaneously within several regions, one of which has never been reported in the literature.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Huyser, Kimberly R., Jillian Medeiros Pérez, Vickie D. Ybarra, Julia Marin Hellwege, & Lisa Sanchez. (2017). Differential influence of the great recession on political participation among race and ethnic groups. Social Science Quarterly, x(x), x-x.

Objective Our study seeks to understand the role of perceived economic stress of the Great Recession on political participation among blacks, whites, and Latinos. Methods We use the 2012 Collaborative Multi‐Racial Political Study and negative binomial regression to examine the impact of financial hardship on black, Hispanic, and white political participation. Results We find that political participation among whites is unaffected by the Great Recession and is largely motivated by political interest. Blacks are mobilized by financial hardship even after controlling for political enthusiasm and linked fate. Hispanics have the lowest level of political participation. Conclusion Overall, we conclude that the Great Recession did affect political behavior but differently across race and ethnic groups; specifically, Hispanics were least likely to politically engage if they experienced negative consequences of the Great Recession. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Political Science Department.

 

Jiang, Nan. (2017). ON THE CONVERGENCE OF beta-SCHEMES. International Journal of Numerical Analysis and Modeling, 14(1), 103-125.

Yang’s wavewise entropy inequality [19] is verified for beta-schemes which, when m = 2 and under a mild technique condition, guarantees the convergence of the schemes to the entropy solutions of convex conservation laws in one-dimensional scalar case. These schemes, constructed by S. Osher and S. Chakravarthy [13], are based on unwinding principle and use E-schemes as building blocks with simple flux limiters, without which all of them are even linearly unstable. The total variation diminishing property of these methods was established in the original work of S. Osher and S. Chakravarthy.

Mathematics Department.

 

Kaldenberg, J., & Stacy Smallfield. (2017). Training older adults with low vision to use a computer tablet: A feasibility study. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 80(2), 117-122.

Introduction: The purpose of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential use of a computer tablet as a low vision device to facilitate performance of and satisfaction with daily activities for older adults with low vision. Method: A repeated measures design was used to measure outcomes. Four older adult women with low vision completed 10 weekly sessions of group training in tablet use. The feasibility of this research method and intervention was examined by evaluating recruitment capability, data collection procedures, outcome measures, intervention procedures, resources, and preliminary responses to intervention. Results: The four participants were all women, with a mean age of 74.25 years (68-81). Visual acuity ranged from 20/160 to 20/4000. Mean change in performance and satisfaction on the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure were 3.45 and 3.65, respectively. Daily tablet use increased from 15 minutes at pretest to 3 hours at posttest to 4.5 hours at follow-up. Conclusion: Group training in computer tablet use for older adults with low vision shows promise to improve performance and satisfaction in a variety of daily activities. With appropriate resources, the research method is feasible for a larger study examining this community-based intervention for older adults with low vision.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Keifer, JoyceNeeraj K. TiwariLeah Buse, & Zhaoqing Zheng. (2017). Subunit-specific synaptic delivery of AMPA receptors by auxiliary chaperone proteins TARPγ8 and GSG1L in classical conditioning. Neuroscience Letters, 645, 53-59.

AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking has emerged as a fundamental concept for understanding mechanisms of learning and memory as well as many neurological disorders. Classical conditioning is a simple and highly conserved form of associative learning. Our studies use an ex vivo brainstem preparation in which to study cellular mechanisms underlying learning during a neural correlate of eyeblink conditioning. Two stages of AMPAR synaptic delivery underlie conditioning utilizing sequential trafficking of GluA1-containing AMPARs early in conditioning followed by replacement with GluA4 subunits later. Subunit-selective trafficking of AMPARs is poorly understood. Here, we focused on identification of auxiliary chaperone proteins that traffic AMPARs. The results show that auxiliary proteins TARPγ8 and GSG1L are colocalized with AMPARs on abducens motor neurons that generate the conditioning. Significantly, TARPγ8 was observed to chaperone GluA1-containing AMPARs during synaptic delivery early in conditioning while GSG1L chaperones GluA4 subunits later in conditioning. Interestingly, TARPγ8 remains at the membrane surface as GluA1 subunits are withdrawn and associates with GluA4 when they are delivered to synapses. These data indicate that GluA1- and GluA4-containing AMPARs are selectively chaperoned by TARPγ8 and GSG1L, respectively. Therefore, sequential subunit-selective trafficking of AMPARs during conditioning is achieved through the timing of their interactions with specific auxiliary proteins.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Lakhssassi, N., S. M. Liu, S. Bekal, …., Abdelali Barakat, & K. Meksem. (2017). Characterization of the Soluble NSF Attachment Protein gene family identifies two members involved in additive resistance to a plant pathogen. Scientific Reports, 7, 1-11.

Proteins with Tetratricopeptide-repeat (TPR) domains are encoded by large gene families and distributed in all plant lineages. In this study, the Soluble NSF-Attachment Protein (SNAP) subfamily of TPR containing proteins is characterized. In soybean, five members constitute the SNAP gene family: GmSNAP18, GmSNAP11, GmSNAP14, GmSNAP02, and GmSNAP09. Recently, GmSNAP18 has been reported to mediate resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN). Using a population of recombinant inbred lines from resistant and susceptible parents, the divergence of the SNAP gene family is analysed over time. Phylogenetic analysis of SNAP genes from 22 diverse plant species showed that SNAPs were distributed in six monophyletic clades corresponding to the major plant lineages. Conservation of the four TPR motifs in all species, including ancestral lineages, supports the hypothesis that SNAPs were duplicated and derived from a common ancestor and unique gene still present in chlorophytic algae. Syntenic analysis of regions harbouring GmSNAP genes in soybean reveals that this family expanded from segmental and tandem duplications following a tetraploidization event. qRT-PCR analysis of GmSNAPs indicates a co-regulation following SCN infection. Finally, genetic analysis demonstrates that GmSNAP11 contributes to an additive resistance to SCN. Thus, GmSNAP11 is identified as a novel minor gene conferring resistance to SCN.

Biology Department.

 

Lane, David C., & W. DeCamp. (2017). ‘SPORTS WILL KEEP ‘EM OUT OF TROUBLE.: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SUBSTANCE USE AMONG ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS. Journal of Sport and Health Research, 9(1), 41-52.

Objective: The purpose of this research is to examine cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, steroids, and other drug use among high school and college students in the state of Delaware. This builds on previous research examining the dynamics of substance use and sports participation. Methods: The data come from the Delaware High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS-HS) and the College Risk Behaviors Study (CRBS), which are used to compare athletes and non-athletes. There were 7,781 high school students from the YRBS-HS and 4,019 college students from the CRBS in the sample. Results: Findings indicate that participants in team sports at the college level are significantly more likely to use alcohol and engage in binge drinking when compared to those who do not participate in team sports, but this effect is not found in most pre-college grades and other substances use rates are similar. High school athletes are significantly less likely to use cigarettes when compared to their non-athlete peers. Conclusion: These results suggest that those who participate in team sports are more likely to drink alcohol and engage in binge drinking at the high school and university level, especially males who participate in team sports at the university level. Second, efforts to construct meaningful comparison groups, a practice that has been underemployed when examining the relationship between sports participation and substance use, reveal a more complex picture about the relationship between substance use and participation in team sports.

Social Behavior Department.

 

Lawler, Michael J.Lisa A. NewlandJarod T. GigerSoonhee Roh, & Barbara L. Brockevelt. (2017). Ecological, Relationship-Based Model of Children’s Subjective Well-Being: Perspectives of 10-Year-Old Children in the United States and 10 Other Countries. Child Indicators Research, 10(1), 1-18.

The purpose of this study is to further assess the international relevance of an ecological, relationship-based model of children’s subjective well-being with samples of 10-year-old children from the United States (n = 502, M (age) = 10.66, SD = .55) and 10 other countries: Algeria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Israel, Nepal, Romania, Rwanda, South Korea, and Uganda (n = 502, M (age) = 10.12, SD = .48). All children completed the Children’s Worlds survey, which includes individual factors, contextual factors of home and family, life and neighborhood, school, and peers, and subjective well-being measures for life satisfaction, mental health, and self-image. The strongest predictors of children’s subjective well-being were family and peer relationships, school, and neighborhood quality. Findings support the international relevance of an ecological, relationship-based model of children’s subjective well-being.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Love, Heather A. (2017). Newsreels, Novels, and Cybernetics: Reading the Random Patterns of John Dos Passos’s U.S.A. Journal of Modern Literature, 40(2), 112-131.

The novels of Dos Passos’s U.S.A.trilogy (1930/1932/1936) are part of a cultural dialogue about the status of communication and information-processing in the early twentieth century. This dialogue includes cybernetics theories, which align information with both pattern and randomness. In Dos Passos’s trilogy, recognizable and predictable patterns jostle with random chance as key catalysts for change and progress in American culture. The novels’ ‘Newsreel’ sections (like the technology for which they are named) epitomize the perplexing, interconnected logic of cybernetic information, in which pattern meets randomness and fiction bleeds into history.

English Department.

 

Madison, Joseph D.Elizabeth A. Berg, J. G. Abarca, S. M. Whitfield, O. Gorbatenko, A. Pinto, & Jacob L. Kerby. (2017). Characterization of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Inhibiting Bacteria from Amphibian Populations in Costa Rica.Frontiers in Microbiology, 8, 13.

Global amphibian declines and extinction events are occurring at an unprecedented rate. While several factors are responsible for declines and extinction, the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been cited as a major constituent in these events. While the effects of this chytrid fungus have been shown to cause broad scale population declines and extinctions, certain individuals and relict populations have shown resistance. This resistance has been attributed in part to the cutaneous bacterial microbiome. Here, we present the first study characterizing anti-Bd bacterial isolates from amphibian populations in Costa Rica, including the characterization of two strains of Serratiamarcescens presenting strong anti-Bd activity. Transcriptome sequencing was utilized for delineation of shifts in gene expression of the two previously uncharacterized strains of S. marcescens grown in three different treatments comprising Bd, heat-killed Bd, and a no Bd control. These results revealed up- and down-regulation of key genes associated with different metabolic and regulatory pathways. This information will be valuable in continued efforts to develop a bacterial-based approach for amphibian protection as well as providing direction for continued mechanistic inquiries of the bacterial anti-Bd response.

Biology Department.

 

Maki, Kevin C., Johns, Colleen, Harris, William S., Puder, Mark, Freedman, Steven D., Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn, . . . Sancilio, Frederick D. (2017). Bioequivalence Demonstration for Ω-3 Acid Ethyl Ester Formulations: Rationale for Modification of Current Guidance. Clinical Therapeutics, 39(3), 652-658.

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance for establishing bioequivalence (BE) of ω-3 acid ethyl esters (containing both eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] as ethyl esters), used to treat severe hypertriglyceridemia, recommends the conduct of 2 studies: one with participants in the fasting state and one with participants in the fed state. For the fasting study, the primary measures of BE are baseline-adjusted EPA and DHA levels in total plasma lipids. For the fed study, the primary measures of BE are EPA and DHA ethyl esters in plasma. This guidance differs from that established for icosapent ethyl (EPA ethyl esters) in which the primary measure of BE is baseline-adjusted total EPA in plasma lipids for both the fasting and fed states. The FDA guidance for ω-3 acid ethyl esters is not supported by their physiologic characteristics and triglyceride-lowering mechanisms because EPA and DHA ethyl esters are best characterized as pro-drugs. This article presents an argument for amending the FDA draft guidance for ω-3 acid ethyl esters to use baseline-adjusted EPA and DHA in total plasma lipids as the primary measures of BE for both fasting and fed conditions. This change would harmonize the approaches for demonstration of BE for ω-3 acid ethyl esters and icosapent ethyl (EPA ethyl esters) products for future development programs and is the most physiologically rational approach to BE testing.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Malo, J., E. Holbrook, T. Zangeneh, C. Strawter, E. Oren, I. Robey, H. Erickson, R. Chahal, M. Durkin, C. Thompson, Susan E. Hoover, N. M. Ampel, L. J. Wheat, & K. S. Knox. (2017). Enhanced Antibody Detection and Diagnosis of Coccidioidomycosis with the MiraVista IgG and IgM Detection Enzyme Immunoassay. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 55(3), 893-901.

Coccidioidomycosis is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in areas of the southwestern United States in which the disease is endemic. Clinical presentations range from self-limited disease to severe disseminated disease. Therefore, early and accurate diagnosis is essential to ensure appropriate treatment and monitoring. Currently available diagnostic tests have variable accuracy, particularly in certain patient populations, and new tests may offer improved accuracy for the diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis. Serum samples from 103 cases of coccidioidomycosis and 373 controls were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies using the MVista anti-Coccidioides antibody enzyme immunoassay. Serum specimens from 170 controls from areas in which the disease is endemic and 44 cases were tested by immunodiffusion at MiraVista Diagnostics. The sensitivity of the MVista antibody assay was 88.3%, and the specificity was 90%. The sensitivity was maintained in the presence of immunocompromising conditions or immunosuppressive therapies. The sensitivity of immunodiffusion was 60.2%, and the specificity was 98.8%. The sensitivity of complement fixation ( 62 cases) was 66.1%, but the specificity could not be determined. The MVista anti-Coccidioides antibody enzyme immunoassay offers improved sensitivity, compared with immunodiffusion and complement fixation, is not impaired in immunocompromised patients, and permits highly reproducible semiquantification.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Melvin, S. A., N. H. Brito, Luke J. Mack, L. E. Engelhardt, W. P. Fifer, Amy J. Elliott, & K. G. Noble. (2017). Home Environment, But Not Socioeconomic Status, is Linked to Differences in Early Phonetic Perception Ability. Infancy, 22(1), 42-55.

Infants perceptually tune to the phonemes of their native languages in the first year of life, thereby losing the ability to discriminate non-native phonemes. Infants who perceptually tune earlier have been shown to develop stronger language skills later in childhood. We hypothesized that socioeconomic disparities, which have been associated with differences in the quality and quantity of language in the home, would contribute to individual differences in phonetic discrimination. Seventy-five infants were assessed on measures of phonetic discrimination at 9 months, on the quality of the home environment at 15 months, and on language abilities at both ages. Phonetic discrimination did not vary according to socioeconomic status (SES), but was significantly associated with the quality of the home environment. This association persisted when controlling for 9-month expressive language abilities, rendering it less likely that infants with better expressive language skills were simply engendering higher quality home interactions. This suggests that infants from linguistically richer home environments may be more tuned to their native language and therefore less able to discriminate non-native contrasts at 9 months relative to infants whose home environments are less responsive. These findings indicate that home language environments may be more critical than SES in contributing to early language perception, with possible implications for language development more broadly.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Min, Jia Wei, L. H. Lu, Jessica L. FreelingDoug S. Martin, & Hongmin Wang. (2017). USP14 inhibitor attenuates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury in mice. Journal of Neurochemistry, 140(5), 826-833.

Stroke is associated with over-production of misfolded and aggregating proteins. However, it remains largely unclear whether enhanced removal of protein aggregates following ischemic stroke is neuroprotective. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) are a large group of proteases that regulate protein degradation. The ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (USP14) is a DUB that is associated with the proteasome and negatively regulates proteasome activity. In this study, we examined the effect of 1-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2,5-dimethylpyrrol-3-yl]-2-pyrrolidin-1-ylethanone (IU1), a specific small molecule inhibitor of USP14, on mouse focal cerebral ischemic stroke-induced neuronal injury in mice. We found that IU1 treatment attenuated ischemic stroke-caused neuronal injury, which was reflected by increased survival rate, reduced infarct volume, as well as decreased neuronal loss in the IU1-treated mice compared to the control-treated mice. Additionally, IU1 treatment is associated with reduced protein aggregates and enhanced proteasome functionality. These data not only highlight the significance of protein homeostasis in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury but also extend the therapeutic role of DUB inhibitors.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Newswander, Chad B.Matson, Aaron, & Newswander, Lynita K. (2017). The Recovery of Self-Interest Well Understood as a Regime Value: What Is at Stake/Why This Is Important? Administration & Society, 49(4), 552-574.

Understood in economic terms, interest elevates baser human impulses and degrades higher human potential as it motivates individuals to value material gains over moral ones. Because of this influence, it is difficult to consider interest as a regime value. But just because it is beleaguered does not mean it ought to be abandoned, especially because interest is placed front and center in the constitutional order. Providing a perspective of the merits of interest, Alexis de Tocqueville offers a conceptualization that allows this regime value to be relevant even for contemporary administrators operating in spaces of diffused public responsibility.

Political Science Department.

 

Obaidullah, S. M., C. Goswami, K. C. Santosh, N. Das, C. Halder, & K. Roy. (2017). Separating Indic Scripts with matra for Effective Handwritten Script Identification in Multi-Script Documents. International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence, 31(5), 17.

We present a novel approach for separating Indic scripts with ‘matra’, which is used as a precursor to advance and/or ease subsequent handwritten script identification in multi-script documents. In our study, among state-of-the-art features and classifiers, an optimized fractal geometry analysis and random forest are found to be the best performer to distinguish scripts with ‘matra’ from their counterparts. For validation, a total of 1204 document images are used, where two different scripts with ‘matra’: Bangla and Devanagari are considered as positive samples and the other two di r erent scripts: Roman and Urdu are considered as negative samples. With this precursor, an overall script identification performance can be advanced by more than 5.13% in accuracy and 1.17 times faster in processing time as compared to conventional system.

Computer Science Department.

 

Peters, H. J., Haley N. Schwenk, Z. R. Ahlstrom, & L. N. McIalwain. (2017). Microaggressions: The experience of individuals with mental illness. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 30(1), 86-112.

The main objective of the study was to investigate the types of microaggressions experienced by individuals with mental illness (MI) based on this marginalized group status. This study included 4 focus groups, comprised of 18 individuals diagnosed with MI(es). The researchers qualitatively identified four themes (a) conveying stereotypes against individuals with MI (i.e. assumptions of inferiority, seeking attention or being dramatic, assumptions of coldness, bringing MI upon themselves, and using MI as an excuse), (b) invalidating the experience of having a MI (i.e. doubting existence, doubting severity, and avoiding acknowledgment of the MI), (c) defining a person by their disorder, and (d) misuse of terminology. Participants revealed the main perpetrators (i.e. family, friends, and professionals) of the microaggressions. The researchers discuss: how the identified themes compare to the three categories of microaggressions (i.e. microinsults, microinvalidations, and microassaults); similarities and differences between the current results and previously identified racial, gender, and sexual orientation microaggressions perpetrated in daily interactions and in therapeutic settings; and the perpetrators of microaggressions as they relate to prejudicial attitudes and social distance. Finally, the authors make recommendations for practitioners and researchers.

Psychology Department.

 

Puckett, Jae A., Sharon G. Horne, Francisco Surace, Alice Carter, Nicole Noffsinger-Frazier, Julie Shulman, Pam Detrie, Audrey Ervin, & Chad Mosher. (2017). Predictors of Sexual Minority Youth’s Reported Suicide Attempts and Mental Health. Journal of Homosexuality, 64(6), 697-715.

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth (LGBY) report higher rates of mental health concerns compared to heterosexual youth due to minority stressors. This study examined the interpersonal and intrapersonal variables that predict psychological distress and self-reported suicide attempts in a sample of 61 LGBY in the Mid-South, which is a highly overlooked regional area for LGBY research. Youth who lost friends when coming out were 29 times more likely to report suicide attempts, and those who experienced psychological maltreatment from caregivers were 9.5 times more likely to report a suicide attempt. Internalized heterosexism, feelings of guilt or shame, and psychological maltreatment from caregivers were significant predictors of depression and anxiety symptoms. This study highlights the importance of creating affirming spaces for LGBY, particularly in areas of the country that experience greater political oppression of sexual minorities, such as the Mid-South.

Psychology Department.

 

Riebschleger, Joanne, Norris, Debra, Pierce, Barbara, Pond, Debora L., & Cummings, Cristy. (2015). Preparing Social Work Students for Rural Child Welfare Practice: Emerging Curriculum Competencies. Journal of Social Work Education, 51, S209-S224.

Multiple issues that are unique to child welfare social work practice in rural areas markedly affect workforce recruitment and retention, yet little attention is given to the proficiencies needed to equip emerging social workers for this growing area of the field. Curriculum content is needed that provides students with the opportunity to master the skills needed to thrive as child welfare social workers in rural areas. Using an evidence-based practice critical thinking model as a guide, a systematic review of literature and documents addresses many of the competencies needed to prepare social work students for child welfare practice in rural areas. These competencies are identified. Suggestions for integration into the social work curriculum are offered.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Rivers, J. W., Gretchen N. Newberry, C. J. Schwarz, & D. R. Ardia. (2017). Success despite the stress: violet-green swallows increase glucocorticoids and maintain reproductive output despite experimental increases in flight costs. Functional Ecology, 31(1), 235-244.

Glucocorticoid steroid hormones play a central role in regulating the metabolic state of animals, especially when they cope with unanticipated stressors in their environment. The cort-adaptation hypothesis predicts that baseline concentrations of glucocorticoids are adjusted upward to match energetic needs and promote fitness when individuals are faced with physiological challenges, including those associated with reproduction. 2. We tested the cort-adaptation hypothesis in the violet-green swallow (Tachycineta thalassina) by experimentally increasing flight costs during the offspring rearing period. Individual females were assigned to one of three treatments: light feather clipping (removal of four wing feathers), heavy feather clipping (removal of eight wing feathers) or a sham-clip control. 3. We measured baseline corticosterone and body mass immediately prior to implementing treatments during the offspring rearing period and then 10 days after initial manipulations took place. We also quantified risk-taking behaviour, offspring feeding rate and the number of offspring fledged. Finally, we examined how treatments influenced offspring phenotype via measurements of nestling body mass and baseline corticosterone, as both measures have been associated with post-fledging survival. 4. We found that handicapped females significantly increased baseline corticosterone between the two sampling periods, with the magnitude of change in the light clipping and heavy clipping treatments 2.59 and 6.19 greater than controls, respectively. All individuals lost mass between the two sampling periods, but the degree of loss was greater for females in both clipping treatments relative to unmanipulated controls. 5. In contrast, we found no evidence of treatment differences in female risk-taking, offspring provisioning or in the number of offspring fledged. Offspring raised by females in both handicapped treatments did have significantly elevated baseline corticosterone relative to those in control broods, but we detected no treatment differences in offspring body mass. 6. Our study found that handicapped females increased circulating glucocorticoids and were able to maintain critical parental care behaviours and raise a similar number of offspring as unmanipulated controls. Thus, increases in baseline cort of handicapped females appeared to have allowed them to maintain fitness despite increased physiological challenges, providing support for the cort-adaptation hypothesis.

Biology Department.

 

Roat, R., M. M. Hossain, J. Christopherson, C. Free, S. Jain, C. Guay, R. Regazzi, & Z. Guo. (2017). Identification and Characterization of micro RNAs Associated With Human β-Cell Loss in a Mouse Model. American Journal of Transplantation, 17(4), 992-1007.

Currently there is no effective approach for monitoring early β-cell loss during islet graft rejection following human islet transplantation (HIT). Due to ethical and technical constraints, it is difficult to directly study biomarkers of islet destruction in humans. Here, we established a humanized mouse model with induced human β-cell death using adoptive lymphocyte transfer (ALT). Human islet grafts of ALT-treated mice had perigraft lymphocyte infiltration, fewer insulin+ β cells, and increased β-cell apoptosis. Islet-specific miR-375 was used to validate our model, and expression of miR-375 was significantly decreased in the grafts and increased in the circulation of ALT-treated mice before hyperglycemia. A NanoString expression assay was further used to profile 800 human miRNAs in the human islet grafts, and the results were validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We found that miR-4454 and miR-199a-5p were decreased in the human islet grafts following ALT and increased in the circulation prior to hyperglycemia. These data demonstrate that our in vivo model of induced human β-cell destruction is a robust method for identifying and characterizing circulating biomarkers, and suggest that miR-4454 and miR-199a-5p can serve as novel biomarkers associated with early human β-cell loss following HIT.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Rucks, Elizabeth A.Macy G. OlsonLisa M. JorgensonRekha R. Srinivasan, & Scot P. Ouellette. (2017). Development of a Proximity Labeling System to Map the Chlamydia trachomatis Inclusion Membrane. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 7, 17.

Chlamydia grows within a membrane-bound vacuole termed an inclusion. The cellular processes that support the biogenesis and integrity of this pathogen-specified parasitic organelle are not understood. Chlamydia secretes integral membrane proteins called Incs that insert into the chlamydial inclusion membrane (IM). Incs contain at least two hydrophobic transmembrane domains flanked by termini, which vary in size and are exposed to the host cytosol. In addition, Incs are temporally expressed during the chlamydial developmental cycle. Data examining Inc function are limited because of (i) the difficulty in working with hydrophobic proteins and (ii) the inherent fragility of the IM. We hypothesize that Incs function collaboratively to maintain the integrity of the chlamydial inclusion with small Incs organizing the IM and larger Incs interfacing with host cell machinery. To study this hypothesis, we have adapted a proximity-labeling strategy using APEX2, a mutant soybean ascorbate peroxidase that biotinylates interacting and proximal proteins within minutes in the presence of H2O2 and its exogenous substrate, biotin-phenol. We successfully expressed, from an inducible background, APEX2 alone, or fusion proteins of IncA(TM) (TM = transmembrane domain only), IncA, and IncF with APEX2 in Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2. IncF-APEX2, IncA(TM)-APEX2, and IncA-APEX2 localized to the IM whereas APEX2, lacking a secretion signal, remained associated with the bacteria. We determined the impact of overexpression on inclusion diameter, plasmid stability, and Golgi-derived sphingomyelin acquisition. While there was an overall impact of inducing construct expression. IncF-APEX2 overexpression most negatively impacted these measurements. Importantly. Inc-APEX2 expression in the presence of biotin-phenol resulted in biotinylation of the IM. These data suggest that Inc expression is regulated to control optimal IM biogenesis. We subsequently defined lysis conditions that solubilized known Incs and were compatible with pulldown conditions. Importantly, we have created powerful tools to allow direct examination of the dynamic composition of the IM, which will provide novel insights into key interactions that promote chlamydial growth and development within the inclusion.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Sapp, Wendi, B. Gifford, Zhenqiang Wang, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2017). Mathematical modeling of gas desorption from a metal-organic supercontainer cavity filled with stored N-2 gas at critical limits. Rsc Advances, 7(18), 11180-11190.

Metal-organic supercontainer (MOSC) molecules are ideal candidates for gas storage applications due to their construction with customizable ligands and tunable cavity and window sizes, which are found to be elastic in nature. Force field molecular dynamics (MD) are used to evaluate the utilization of MOSCs as nanoporous structures for gas storage. A MOSC, with nitrogen gas molecules filling the cavity, progresses through MD and releases gas molecules by applying temperature to the MOSC. It is the MOSC’s elasticity which is responsible for the desorption of guests at elevated temperatures. Data obtained from MD serves as a guide for the derivation of analytical equations that can be used to describe and explain the mechanism of gas desorption from within the cavity. Mathematical modeling of gas desorption from the center cavity can provide a method of predicting MOSC behavior for a broader range of pressures and temperatures, which is challenging for direct atomistic modeling. The utilization of MD can provide data for a wide variety of properties and processes in various materials under different conditions for a broad range of technology-related applications.

Chemistry Department.

 

Sathyanesan, MonicaHaiar, Jacob M.Watt, Michael J., & Newton, Samuel S. (2017). Restraint stress differentially regulates inflammation and glutamate receptor gene expression in the hippocampus of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Stress: The International Journal on the Biology of Stress, 20(2), 197-204.

The inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6 and BALB/c have been used widely in preclinical psychiatric research. The differences in stress susceptibility of available strains has provided a useful platform to test pharmacological agents and behavioral responses. Previous brain gene profiling efforts have indicated that the inflammation and immune response gene pathway is the predominant gene network in the differential stress response of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. The implication is that a composite stress paradigm that includes a sequence of extended, varied and unpredictable stressors induces inflammation-related genes in the hippocampus. We hypothesized that the regulation of inflammation genes in the brain could constitute a primary stress response and tested this by employing a simple stress protocol, repeated exposure to the same stressor for 10 days, 2 h of restraint per day. We examined stress-induced regulation of 13 proinflammatory cytokine genes in male BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice using quantitative PCR. Elevated cytokine genes included tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL6), interleukin 10 (IL10), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) super family members and interleukin 1 receptor 1 (IL1R1). In addition, we examined restraint stress-induced regulation of 12 glutamate receptor genes in both strains. Our results show that restraint stress is sufficient to elevate the expression of inflammation-related genes in the hippocampus of both BABLB/c and C57BL/6 mice, but they differ in the genes that are induced and the magnitude of change. Cell types that are involved in this response include endothelial cells and astrocytes.Lay summaryRepeated exposure to a simple restraint stress altered the activities of genes involved in inflammation and the functions of the excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate. These changes in the hippocampus of the mouse brain showed differences that were dependent on the strain of mice and the length of the stress exposure. The effects of stress on activity of these genes may lead to alterations in behavior.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Sazama, Eric J.Michael J. BoschCarmelita S. ShouldisScot P. Ouellette, & Jeff S. Wesner. (2017). Incidence of Wolbachia in aquatic insects. Ecology and Evolution, 7(4), 1165-1169.

Wolbachia is a genus of intracellular bacteria typically found within the reproductive systems of insects that manipulates those systems of their hosts. While current estimates of Wolbachia incidence suggest that it infects approximately half of all arthropod species, these estimates are based almost entirely on terrestrial insects. No systematic survey of Wolbachia in aquatic insects has been performed. To estimate Wolbachia incidence among aquatic insect species, we combined field-collected samples from the Missouri River (251 samples from 58 species) with a global database from previously published surveys. The final database contained 5,598 samples of 2,687 total species (228 aquatic and 2,459 terrestrial). We estimate that 52% (95% CrIs: 44%-60%) of aquatic insect species carry Wolbachia, compared to 60% (58%-63%) of terrestrial insects. Among aquatic insects, infected orders included Odonata, Coleoptera, Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, and Plecoptera. Incidence was highest within aquatic Diptera and Hemiptera (69%), Odonata (50%), and Coleoptera (53%), and was lowest within Ephemeroptera (13%). These results indicate that Wolbachia is common among aquatic insects, but incidence varies widely across orders and is especially uncertain in those orders with low sample sizes such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera.

Biology Department.

 

Stamper, Christopher E., Hassell, James E., Kapitz, Adam J., Renner, Kenneth J., Orchinik, Miles, & Lowry, Christopher A. (2017). Activation of 5-HT 1A receptors in the rat dorsomedial hypothalamus inhibits stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. Stress: The International Journal on the Biology of Stress, 20(2), 223-230.

Acute activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, leading to the release of corticosteroid hormones into the circulation, is an adaptive response to perceived threats. Persistent activation of the HPA axis can lead to impaired physiological or behavioral function with maladaptive consequences. Thus, efficient control and termination of stress responses is essential for well-being. However, inhibitory control mechanisms governing the HPA axis are poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that serotonergic systems, acting within the medial hypothalamus, play an important role in inhibitory control of stress-induced HPA axis activity. To test this hypothesis, we surgically implanted chronic jugular cannulae in adult male rats and conducted bilateral microinjection of vehicle or the 5-HT1Areceptor agonist, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT; 8 nmol, 0.2 μL, 0.1 μL/min, per side) into the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) immediately prior to a 40 min period of restraint stress. Repeated blood sampling was conducted using an automated blood sampling system and plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bilateral intra-DMH microinjections of 8-OH-DPAT suppressed stress-induced increases in plasma corticosterone within 10 min of the onset of handling prior to restraint and, as measured by area-under-the-curve analysis of plasma corticosterone concentrations, during the 40 min period of restraint. These data support an inhibitory role for serotonergic systems, acting within the DMH, on stress-induced activation of the HPA axis. Lay summary:Inhibitory control of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) stress hormone response is important for well-being. One neurochemical implicated in inhibitory control of the HPA axis is serotonin. In this study we show that activation of serotonin receptors, specifically inhibitory 5-HT1Areceptors in the dorsomedial hypothalamus, is sufficient to inhibit stress-induced HPA axis activity in rats.

Biology Department.

 

Terrell, T. R., R. Bostick, J. Barth, …., Verle Valentine, & G. Nichols. (2017). Multicenter cohort study on association of genotypes with prospective sports concussion: methods, lessons learned, and recommendations. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 57(1-2), 77-89.

BACKGROUND: Approximately 3.8 million sports related TBIs occur per year. Genetic variation may affect both TBI risk and post-TBI clinical outcome. Limited research has focused on genetic risk for concussion among athletes. We describe the design, methods, and baseline characteristics of this prospective cohort study designed to investigate a potential association between genetic polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E gene, APOE promoter G-219T, and Tau gene exon 6 polymorphisms (Ser(53) Pro and (Hist)47(yr)) with: 1) the risk of prospective concussion; 2) concussion severity; and 3) postconcussion neurocognitive recovery. METHODS: The prospective cohort study included a final population of 2947 college, high school, and professional athletes. Baseline data collection included a concussion/medical history questionnaire, neuropsychological (NP) testing, and genetic sampling for the genetic polymorphisms. Data collection on new concussions experienced utilized post-concussion history/mental status form, Lovell post-concussion symptom score, Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) and/or the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT)-1/SCAT-2, and post-concussion NP testing. RESULTS: This paper is focused on discussing the important methodological considerations, organizational challenges and lessons learned in the completion of a multi-center prospective cohort study. A total of 3740 subjects enrolled, with a total of 335 concussions experienced. CONCLUSIONS: Of critical importance to the success of a study of this type is to successfully recruit committed institutions with qualified local study personnel, obtain “buy-in” from study sites, and cultivate strong working relationships with study sites. The use of approved incentives may improve study site recruitment, enhance retention, and enhance compliance with study protocols. Future publications will detail the specific findings of this study. Collaborative research is very likely needed given the nature of this study population.

Sanford SChool of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Wang, L., & Dongming Mei. (2017). A comprehensive study of low-energy response for xenon-based dark matter experiments. Journal of Physics: G Nuclear & Particle Physics, 44(5), 1-1.

We report a comprehensive study of the energy response to low-energy recoils in dual-phase xenon-based dark matter experiments. A recombination model is developed to explain the recombination probability as a function of recoil energy at zero field and non-zero field. The role of e-ion recombination is discussed for both parent recombination and volume recombination. We find that the volume recombination under a non-zero field is constrained by a plasma effect, which is caused by a high density of charge carriers along the ionization track forming a plasma-like cloud of charge that shields the interior from the influence of the external electric field. Subsequently, the plasma time that determines the volume recombination probability at non-zero field is demonstrated to be different between electronic recoils (ERs) and nuclear recoils (NRs) due to the difference of ionization density between two processes. We show a weak field dependence of the plasma time for NRs and a stronger field dependence of the plasma time for ERs. As a result, the time-dependent recombination is implemented in the determination of charge and light yield with a generic model. Our model agrees well with the available experimental data from xenon-based dark matter experiments.

Physics Department.

 

Wang, X. T., Li-Lin Rao, & Hongming Zheng. (2017). Neural substrates of framing effects in social contexts: A meta-analytical approach. Social Neuroscience, 12(3), 268-279.

We hypothesize that framing effects (risk-averse in the positive frame and risk-seeking in the negative frame) are likely to occur when ambiguous social contexts result in ambiguous or ambivalent risk preferences, leading the decision-maker to search for more subtle cues, such as verbal framing. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we examined framing effects in both unambiguous homogeneous group and more ambiguous heterogeneous group contexts. We began by conducting a meta-analysis and identified three regions of interest: the right inferior frontal gyrus, the left anterior cingulate (ACC)/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and the left amygdala. Our own fMRI data were collected while the participants made choices between a sure option and a gamble framed in terms of the number of lives to either save or die. The framing effect was evident in a heterogeneous context with a mixture of kin and strangers, but disappeared in a homogeneous group of either all kin-members or all strangers. The fMRI results revealed a greater activation in theright middle/inferior frontal gyrusunder the negative than the positive framing, and lessACC/vmPFCdeactivation under positive framing in the heterogamous/ambiguous context. The activation of theamygdalawas correlated with greater risk-seeking preference in homogeneous kinship contexts.

Psychology Department.

 

Wesner, Jeff S., D. M. Walters, T. S. Schmidt, J. M. Kraus, C. A. Stricker, W. H. Clements, & R. E. Wolf. (2017). Metamorphosis Affects Metal Concentrations and Isotopic Signatures in a Mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus): Implications for the Aquatic-Terrestrial Transfer of Metals. Environmental Science & Technology, 51(4), 2438-2446.

Insect metamorphosis often results in substantial chemical changes that can alter contaminant concentrations and fractionate isotopes. We exposed larval mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus) and their food (periphyton) to an aqueous zinc gradient (3-340 mu g Zn/l) and measured zinc concentrations at different stages of metamorphosis: larval, subimago, and imago. We also measured changes in stable isotopes (delta N-15 and delta C-13) in unexpoSed mayflies. Larval zinc concentrations were positively related to aqueous zinc, increasing 9-fold across the exposure gradient. Adult zinc concentrations were also positively related to aqueous zinc, but were 7-fold lower than larvae. This relationship varied according to adult substage and sex Tissue concentrations in female imagoes were not related to exposure concentrations, but the converse was true for all other stage-by-sex combinations. Metamorphosis also increased delta N-15 by similar to 0.8 parts per thousand, but not delta C-13. Thus, the main effects of metamorphosis on insect chemistry were large declines in zinc concentrations coupled with increased delta N-15 signatures. For zinc, this change was largely consistent across the aqueous exposure gradient. However, differences among sexes and stages suggest that caution is warranted when using nitrogen isotopes or metal concentrations measured in one insect stage (e.g., larvae) to assess risk to wildlife that feed on subsequent life stages (e.g., adults).

Biology Department.

 

Yao, B., P. Kolla, Ranjit Koodali, Y. C. Ding, Selvaratnam BalaranjanSunav Shrestha, & A. Smirnova. (2017). Enzymatic decomposition and electrochemical study of alkali lignin by laccase (Trametes versicolor) in the presence of a natural mediator (methyl syringate). New Journal of Chemistry, 41(3), 958-964.

The aerobic-enzymatic decomposition of alkali lignin in the presence of laccase from Trametes versicolor (LTV) and the natural mediator methyl syringate in acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer solution (pH = 4.5) at 40 degrees C in an oxygen-rich (aerobic) environment is studied. SEM and BET analyses are used to characterize the changes in the surface area and morphology of lignin that occurred during the exposure to the laccase-mediator system (LMS) for 72 h. The LMS interaction causes a 2-fold improvement in the surface area from 4.9 to 9.8 m(2) g(-1), due to significant changes in the mesoporous structure of lignin within a pore size of 2-120 nm. This could be due to an efficient interaction of the surface phenolic groups and internal mesoporous beta-O-4 network of lignin with the LMS in an aerobic environment. To further understand the enzymatic degradation of lignin, electrochemical oxidation of a thin film of lignin on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) is performed under aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions in the presence of the LMS. A synergistic lignin electrooxidation in the aerobic environment is observed due to the promotion of LMS activity by a parallel oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Based on the electrochemical studies, a mechanism for understanding the role of oxygen in the enzymatic oxidation of lignin in an aerobic environment and the stability of the mediator radical (MS center dot) is proposed.

Chemistry Department.

 

Yobi, A., K. A. Schlauch, R. L. Tillett, W. C. Yim, C. Espinoza, Bernard W. M. Wone, J. C. Cushman, & M. J. Oliver. (2017). Sporobolus stapfianus: Insights into desiccation tolerance in the resurrection grasses from linking transcriptomics to metabolomics. Bmc Plant Biology, 17, 30.

Background: Understanding the response of resurrection angiosperms to dehydration and rehydration is critical for deciphering the mechanisms of how plants cope with the rigors of water loss from their vegetative tissues. We have focused our studies on the C-4 resurrection grass, Sporobolus stapfianus Gandoger, as a member of a group of important forage grasses. Methods: We have combined non-targeted metabolomics with transcriptomics, via a NimbleGen array platform, to develop an understanding of how gene expression and metabolite profiles can be linked to generate a more detailed mechanistic appreciation of the cellular response to both desiccation and rehydration. Results: The rehydration transcriptome and metabolome are primarily geared towards the rapid return of photosynthesis, energy metabolism, protein turnover, and protein synthesis during the rehydration phase. However, there are some metabolites associated with ROS protection that remain elevated during rehydration, most notably the tocopherols. The analysis of the dehydration transcriptome reveals a strong concordance between transcript abundance and the associated metabolite abundance reported earlier, but only in responses that are directly related to cellular protection during dehydration: carbohydrate metabolism and redox homeostasis. The transcriptome response also provides strong support for the involvement of cellular protection processes as exemplified by the increases in the abundance of transcripts encoding late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, anti-oxidant enzymes, early light-induced proteins (ELIP) proteins, and cell-wall modification enzymes. There is little concordance between transcript and metabolite abundance for processes such as amino acid metabolism that do not appear to contribute directly to cellular protection, but are nonetheless important for the desiccation tolerant phenotype of S. stapfianus. Conclusions: The transcriptomes of both dehydration and rehydration offer insight into the complexity of the regulation of responses to these processes that involve complex signaling pathways and associated transcription factors. ABA appears to be important in the control of gene expression in both the latter stages of the dehydration and the early stages of rehydration. These findings add to the growing body of information detailing how plants tolerate and survive the severe cellular perturbations of dehydration, desiccation, and rehydration.

Biology Department.

 

Zhao, C., X. Chen, C. S. Yang, …., Xuejun Wang, & J. B. Liu. (2017). Repurposing an antidandruff agent to treating cancer: zinc pyrithione inhibits tumor growth via targeting proteasome-associated deubiquitinases. Oncotarget, 8(8), 13942-13956.

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a central role in various cellular processes through selectively degrading proteins involved in critical cellular functions. Targeting UPS has been validated as a novel strategy for treating human cancer, as inhibitors of the 20S proteasome catalytic activity are currently in clinical use for treatment of multiple myeloma and other cancers, and the deubiquitinase activity associated with the proteasome is also a valid target for anticancer agents. Recent studies suggested that zinc pyrithione, an FDA-approved antidandruff agent, may have antitumor activity, but the detailed molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) targets the proteasome-associated DUBs (USP14 and UCHL5) and inhibits their activities, resulting in a rapid accumulation of protein-ubiquitin conjugates, but without inhibiting the proteolytic activities of 20S proteasomes. Furthermore, ZnPT exhibits cytotoxic effects against various cancer cell lines in vitro, selectively kills bone marrow cells from leukemia patients ex vivo, and efficiently inhibits the growth of lung adenocarcinoma cancer cell xenografts in nude mice. This study has identified zinc pyrithione, an FDA-approved pharmacological agent with potential antitumor properties as a proteasomal DUB inhibitor.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus

 

 

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March 2017

Dag, Ali, Oztekin, A., Yucel, A., Bulur, S., & Megahed, F. M. (2017). Predicting heart transplantation outcomes through data analytics. Decision Support Systems, 94, 42-52.

Predicting the survival of heart transplant patients is an important, yet challenging problem since it plays a crucial role in understanding the matching procedure between a donor and a recipient. Data mining models can be used to effectively analyze and extract novel information from large/complex transplantation datasets. The objective of this study is to predict the 1-, 5-, and 9-year patient’s graft survival following a heart transplant surgery via the deployment of analytical models that are based on four powerful classification algorithms (i.e. decision trees, artificial neural networks, support vector machines, and logistic regression). Since the datasets used in this study has a much larger number of survival cases than deaths for 1- and 5-year survival analysis and vice versa for 9-year survival analysis, random under sampling (RUS) and synthetic minority over-sampling (SMOTE) are employed to overcome the data-imbalance problems. The results indicate that logistic regression combined with SMOTE achieves the best classification for the 1-, 5-, and 9-year outcome prediction, with area-under-the-curve (AUC) values of 0.624, 0.676, and 0.838, respectively. By applying sensitivity analysis to the data analytical models, the most important predictors and their associated contribution for the 1-, 5-, and 9-year graft survival of heart transplant patients are identified. By doing so, variables, whose importance changes over time, are differentiated. Not only this proposed hybrid approach gives superior results over the literature but also the models and identification of the variables present important retrospective findings, which can be the basis for a prospective medical study. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Freeling, Jessica L., & Rezvani, Khosrow. (2016). Assessment of murine colorectal cancer by micro-ultrasound using three dimensional reconstruction and non-linear contrast imaging. Molecular Therapy-Methods & Clinical Development, 3, 11.

The relatively low success rates of current colorectal cancer (CRC) therapies have led investigators to search for more specific treatments. Vertebrate models of colorectal cancer are essential tools for the verification of new therapeutic avenues such as gene therapy. The evaluation of colorectal cancer in mouse models has been limited due to the lack of an accurate quantitative and longitudinal noninvasive method. This work introduces a method of three-dimensional micro-ultrasound reconstruction and – microbubble administration for the comprehensive and longitudinal evaluation of CRC progression. This approach enabled quantification of both tumor volume and relative vascularity using a well-established inducible murine model of colon carcinogenesis. This inducible model recapitulated the adenocarcinoma sequence that occurs in human CRC allowing systematic in situ evaluation of the ultrasound technique. The administration of intravenous microbubbles facilitated enhancement of colon vascular contrast and quantification of relative vascularity of the mid and distal colon of the mouse in three dimensions. In addition, two-dimensional imaging in the sagittal orientation of the colon using Non-Linear Contrast Mode enabled calculation of relative blood volume and perfusion as the microbubbles entered the colon microvasculature. Quantitative results provided by the outlined protocol represent a noninvasive tool that can more accurately define CRC development and progression. This ultrasound technique will allow the practical and economical longitudinal study of murine CRC in both basic and preclinical studies.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Grassmeyer, Justin, Mukherjee, Malini, …., Zhao, Haotian,Fogarty, Eric, & Surendran, Kameswaran. (2017). Elf5 is a principal cell lineage specific transcription factor in the kidney that contributes to Aqp2 and Avpr2 gene expression. Developmental Biology, 424(1), 77-89.

The mammalian kidney collecting ducts are critical for water, electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis and develop as a branched network of tubular structures composed of principal cells intermingled with intercalated cells. The intermingled nature of the different collecting duct cell types has made it challenging to identify unique and critical factors that mark and/or regulate the development of the different collecting duct cell lineages. Here we report that the canonical Notch signaling pathway components, RBPJ and Presinilin1 and 2, are involved in patterning the mouse collecting duct cell fates by maintaining a balance between principal cell and intercalated cell fates. The relatively reduced number of principal cells in Notch-signaling-deficient kidneys offered a unique genetic leverage to identify critical principal cell-enriched factors by transcriptional profiling. Elf5 , which codes for an ETS transcription factor, is one such gene that is down-regulated in kidneys with Notch-signaling-deficient collecting ducts. Additionally, Elf5 is among the earliest genes up regulated by ectopic expression of activated Notch1 in the developing collecting ducts. In the kidney, Elf5 is first expressed early within developing collecting ducts and remains on in mature principal cells. Lineage tracing of Elf5 -expressing cells revealed that they are committed to the principal cell lineage by as early as E16.5. Over-expression of ETS Class IIa transcription factors, including Elf5, Elf3 and Ehf, increase the transcriptional activity of the proximal promoters of Aqp2 and Avpr2 in cultured ureteric duct cell lines. Conditional inactivation of Elf5 in the developing collecting ducts results in a small but significant reduction in the expression levels of Aqp2 and Avpr2 genes. We have identified Elf5 as an early maker of the principal cell lineage that contributes to the expression of principal cell specific genes.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Jacobs, Gerard A.Gray, Brandon L.Erickson, Sara E.,Gonzalez, Elvira D., & Quevillon, Randal P. (2016). Disaster Mental Health and Community-Based Psychological First Aid: Concepts and Education/Training. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 72(12), 1307-1317.

Any community can experience a disaster, and many traumatic events occur without warning. Psychologists can be an important resource assisting in psychological support for individuals and communities, in preparation for and in response to traumatic events. Disaster mental health and the community-based model of psychological first aid are described. The National Preparedness and Response Science Board has recommended that all mental health professionals be trained in disaster mental health, and that first responders, civic officials, emergency managers, and the general public be trained in community-based psychological first aid. Education and training resources in these two fields are described to assist psychologists and others in preparing themselves to assist their communities in difficult times and to help their communities learn to support one another. (C) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Psychology Department.

 

Liao, Y. N., Liu, N. N., Hua, X. L., Cai, J. Y., Xia, X. H., Wang, Xuejun, . . . Liu, J. B. (2017). Proteasome-associated deubiquitinase ubiquitin-specific protease 14 regulates prostate cancer proliferation by deubiquitinating and stabilizing androgen receptor. Cell Death & Disease, 8, 9.

Androgen receptor (AR) is frequently over-expressed and plays a critical role in the growth and progression of human prostate cancer. The therapy attempting to target AR signalling was established in decades ago but the treatment of prostate cancer is far from being satisfactory. The assignable cause is that our understanding of the mechanism of AR regulation and re-activation remains incomplete. Increasing evidence suggests that deubiquitinases are involved in the regulation of cancer development and progression but the specific underlying mechanism often is not elucidated. In the current study, we have identified ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (USP14) as a novel regulator of AR, inhibiting the degradation of AR via deubiquitinating this oncoprotein in the androgen-responsive prostate cancer cells. We found that (i) USP14 could bind to AR, and additionally, both genetic and pharmacological inhibition of USP14 accelerated the ubiquitination and degradation of AR; (ii) downregulation or inhibition of USP14 suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation of LNcap cells and, conversely, overexpression of USP14 promoted the proliferation; and (iii) reduction or inhibition of USP14 induced G0/G1 phase arrest in LNcap prostate cancer cells. Hence, we conclude that USP14 promotes prostate cancer progression likely through stabilization of AR, suggesting that USP14 could be a promising therapeutic target for prostate cancer.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Li, Jie, Ma, Wenxia, Yue, Guihua, …., Wang, Xuejun, & Su, Huabo. (2017). Cardiac proteasome functional insufficiency plays a pathogenic role in diabetic cardiomyopathy.Journal of Molecular & Cellular Cardiology, 102, 53-60.

Background Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a major risk factor in diabetic patients but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) facilitates protein quality control by degrading unnecessary and damaged proteins in eukaryotic cells, and dysfunction of UPS is implicated in various cardiac diseases. However, the overall functional status of the UPS and its pathophysiological role in diabetic cardiomyopathy have not been determined. Methods and results Type I diabetes was induced in wild-type and transgenic mice expressing a UPS functional reporter (GFPdgn) by injections of streptozotocin (STZ). STZ-induced diabetes progressively impaired cardiac UPS function as evidenced by the accumulation of GFPdgn proteins beginning two weeks after diabetes induction, and by a buildup of total and lysine (K) 48-linked polyubiquitinated proteins in the heart. To examine the functional role of the UPS in diabetic cardiomyopathy, cardiac overexpression of PA28α (PA28αOE) was used to enhance proteasome function in diabetic mouse hearts. PA28αOE diabetic mice displayed exhibited restoration of cardiac UPS function, as demonstrated by the diminished accumulation of GFPdgn and polyubiquitinated proteins. Moreover, PA28αOE diabetic mice exhibited reduced myocardial collagen deposition, decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and improved cardiac systolic and diastolic function. Conclusion Impairment of cardiac UPS function is an early event in STZ-induced diabetes. Overexpression of PA28α attenuates diabetes-induced proteotoxic stress and cardiomyopathy, suggesting a potential therapeutic role for enhancement of cardiac proteasome function in this disorder.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Puckett, Jae A., Horne, Sharon G., Maroney, Meredith R., Herbitter, Cara, & Levitt, Heidi M. (2017). Differences Across Contexts. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 41(1), 8-19.

Minority stressors encountered by lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) women are inherently connected to contextual experiences. Although there is a growing body of research on the benefits of gaining political rights and the costs of their denial, little research has focused on the effects of access to LGB-affirmative resources. In the current study with 1,017 women in same-sex relationships, we created profiles using latent class analysis to characterize the contexts in which participants were raised and the contexts in which they lived at the time of the study. We examined differences in interpersonal relationships, internalized heterosexism (IH), and outness across these profiles. Class 1 (28%) included participants who always lived in affirmative contexts with LGB-supportive resources. Class 2 participants (28%) always lived in more heterosexist contexts with few resources. Class 3 participants (44%) originally lived in more heterosexist contexts with few resources but shifted to more affirmative contexts. Class 3 individuals had greater social support and lower IH than Class 2 participants. Classes 1 and 3 had greater outness than Class 2. This study provides evidence linking IH to the lack of contextual supports. Our data also suggest that the quality of relationships for LGB women may remain strong even in heterosexist contexts. Actions that increase affirming resources will provide avenues for more positive identity development and interpersonal relationships for LGB individuals.

Psychology Department.

 

Quevillon, Randal P.Gray, Brandon L.Erickson, Sara E.,Gonzalez, Elvira D., & Jacobs, Gerard A. (2016). Helping the Helpers: Assisting Staff and Volunteer Workers Before, During, and After Disaster Relief Operations. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 72(12), 1348-1363.

Self-care strategies and system supports employed in preparation for, during, and after disaster relief operations (DROs) are crucial to relief worker well-being and the overall effectiveness of relief efforts. Relief organizations and management must structure DROs in a manner that promotes self-care and workers must implement proper self-care strategies. Proper self-care before, during, and after a DRO can reduce negative reactions to stressful emergency work and promote growth, mastery, and self-efficacy after the experience. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to discuss the importance of organizational supports and self-care strategies in disaster relief settings. This article emphasizes the role of both individual and management participation and commitment to relief worker support and positive experience in DROs and provides suggestions for doing so. These suggestions are derived from the empirical and experiential literature and extensions from the theoretical background, and from our experience as managers in DROs. (C) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Psychology Department.

 

Roh, Soonhee, Burnette, Catherine E., Lee, Kyoung Hag, Lee, Yeon-Shim, & Easton, Scott D. (2016). Risk and protective factors for depressive symptoms among indigenous older adults: Intimate partner violence (IPV) and social support. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 59(4), 316-331.

Research on depression and intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by Indigenous older adults is virtually nonexistent. Given the associations between IPV and depression and their disproportionately high rates among Indigenous peoples in a context of historical oppression, the purpose of this inquiry is to examine how IPV and social support are associated with depressive symptoms for Indigenous older adults. We expand the knowledge base on IPV in later life, which primarily focuses on female samples, by including older men. We predicted: (a) IPV will be positively associated with depressive symptoms and (b) levels of social support will be negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses of data from a sample of Indigenous older adults (N = 233) in the Upper Midwest indicated that physical aggression (but not psychological aggression, sexual coercion, injury, or negotiation) was positively associated with depressive symptoms, whereas social support was negatively associated with depressive symptoms.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Son, Jung-HoTamang, Sem RajFostvedt, Jade, &Hoefelmeyer, James D. (2017). Dehydrodechlorination of Methylene Chloride, Chloroform, and Chlorodiphenylmethane in the Presence of Ga/N Lewis Pairs. Organometallics, 36(2), 474-479.

Transmetalation occurs upon addition of GaCl3 to (quinolin-8-yl)trimethylstannane. The compound dissolves immediately in pyridine, and recrystallization gives dichloropyridinyl(quinolin-8-yl)gallium(III). In chloroform, the compound bis-mu-(quinolin-8-y1)-mu-chloro-dichlorodigallium(III) tetrachloro-gallate could be isolated in small quantities; however, the major product was trichloro(quinolinium-8-yl)gallate(III) zwitterion. The zwitterion also formed upon addition of methylene chloride or chlorodiphenylmethane. We hypothesize that the highly electrophilic digallyl cation abstracts chloride to form a carbocation and that proton transfer from the carbocation to the quinoline nitrogen affords transient carbenes. In particular, diphenyl carbene forms from dehydrodechlorination of chlorodiphenylmethane in toluene/cyclohexene to give a well-defined mixture of products due to cyclopropanation and C-H insertion reactions. Dichloropyridinyl(quinolin-8-yl)gallium(III) undergoes reaction with chloroform only at elevated temperature to yield quinolinium tetrachlorogallate salt as the product. This salt also forms in the reaction of chloroform with GaCl3 and quinoline at elevated temperature. The zwitterion could be converted to quinolinium tetrachlorogallate upon heating, which supports the idea that it was formed initially as an intermediate. Thus, the Ga/N Lewis pairs appear capable of dehydrodechlorination of chloroalkanes.

Chemistry Department.

 

Swanson, David L.King, Marisa O.Culver Iii, William, & Yufeng, Zhang. (2017). Within-Winter Flexibility in Muscle Masses, Myostatin, and Cellular Aerobic Metabolic Intensity in Passerine Birds. Physiological & Biochemical Zoology, 90(2), 210-222.

Metabolic rates of passerine birds are flexible traits that vary both seasonally and among and within winters. Seasonal variation in summit metabolic rates (Msum = maximum thermoregulatory metabolism) in birds is consistently correlated with changes in pectoralis muscle and heart masses and sometimes with variation in cellular aerobicmetabolic intensity, so these traits might also be associated with shorter-term, within-winter variation in metabolic rates. To determine whether these mechanisms are associated with within-winter variation in Msum, we examined the effects of short-term (ST; 0-7 d), medium-term (MT; 14-30 d), and long-term (LT; 30-yr means) temperature variables on pectoralis muscle and heart masses, pectoralis expression of the muscle-growth inhibitor myostatin and its metalloproteinase activators TLL-1 and TLL-2, and pectoralis and heart citrate synthase (CS; an indicator of cellular aerobic metabolic intensity) activities for two temperate-zone resident passerines, house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). For both species, pectoralis mass residuals were positively correlated with ST temperature variables, suggesting that cold temperatures resulted in increased turnover of pectoralis muscle, but heart mass showed little within-winter variation for either species. Pectoralis mRNA and protein expression of myostatin and the TLLs were only weakly correlated withSTandMTtemperature variables, which is largely consistent with trends in muscle masses for both species. Pectoralis and heart CS activities showed weak and variable trends with ST temperature variables in both species, suggesting only minor effects of temperature variation on cellular aerobic metabolic intensity. Thus, neither muscle or heart masses, regulation by the myostatin system, nor cellular aerobicmetabolic intensity varied consistently with winter temperature, suggesting that other factors regulate within-winter metabolic variation in these birds.

Biology Department.

 

Tjarks, B. Joel, Somani, N., Piliang, M., & Bergfeld, W. F. (2017). A proposed classification for follicular involvement by melanoma. Journal of Cutaneous Pathology, 44(1), 45-52.

Background: Folliculotropism in melanoma is poorly characterized and standard categorization for follicular involvement by melanoma is unavailable. We propose a logical categorization system. Methods: We conducted a search of our archives over a 24-year period for cases mentioning the terms follicle, follicular, folliculotropic, folliculocentric and melanoma. Results: We identified 90 cases of melanoma with involvement of the hair follicle. Distinct patterns were identified. The invasive patterns were primary follicular, folliculotropic and invasive arising from melanoma in situ (MIS) with extensive follicular involvement. Follicular involvement by MIS was either lentiginous, nested or a combination of both. A total of 29 invasive melanomas were identified. Of these 12 had invasive melanoma around the hair follicle, 2 were primary follicular melanomas, 7 showed folliculotropism and 3 were invasive melanomas arising from MIS around the follicle. Seventeen invasive melanomas had follicles only involved by MIS (9 nested, 6 nested and lentiginous and 2 lentiginous). A total of 61 cases of MIS with follicular involvement were identified; of these 33 were lentiginous, 10 nested and 18 both lentiginous and nested. Conclusion: We propose that the three distinct patterns of follicular involvement by invasive melanoma and the three distinct patterns of MIS will be valuable for logically categorizing involvement of the hair follicle by melanoma.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Wang, X. T., & Gang, H. F. (2017). Glucose-specific signaling effects on delay discounting in intertemporal choice.Physiology & Behavior, 169, 195-201.

We propose that decisions related to resource management (e.g., intertemporal choice between a smaller-and-sooner reward and a larger-and-later reward) are sensitive to and regulated by fluctuating blood glucose levels. Circulating glucose affects intertemporal choice by means of signaling body energy condition instead of serving as a replenishing resource for effortful cognitive processing. We intend to dissociate calorie-supplying functions from glucose-unique anticipatory effects on behavioral resource management, measured by delay discounting in making intertemporal choices. Regarding the anticipatory functions of the glucose-insulin system in regulating the degree of delay discounting, we tested three predictions: First, we predict that the signaling effects of circulating glucose on delay discounting do not need to be dose-dependent as long as glucose fluctuation indicates a directional trend in body energy budget. Second, such effects of glucose fluctuation on delay discounting are phagic (appetite related) instead of dipsian (thirst related). Third, this glucose-insulin signaling system requires glucose as the specific input, thus is insensitive to other forms of sugar that are not insulin regulated. In Study 1, fasting participants were randomly assigned to one of five groups: water consumption, zero-consumption, and three glucose consumption (18 g, 36 g, and 72 g cane sugar/250 ml water) groups. The participants competed two sets of intertemporal choice questions with varying delay discounting rates before and after a beverage intervention. The results showed that the rate of delay discounting was negatively correlated to blood glucose levels. The effects of circulating glucose on delay discounting closely followed the changes in blood glucose levels showing a plateau on both dose-response curies (i.e., the sugar dose-blood glucose level curve and the sugar does-delay discounting curve). Secondly, the effects of circulating glucose on delay discounting were significant only in the glucose ingestion group, but not in the Zero consumption and the water consumption groups, suggesting that the behavioral effects were in fact related to hunger-reduction instead of thirst-reduction. Study 2 revealed that glucose ingestion, but not Water or another form of sugar (xylitol matched to glucose either for sweetness or for calories), reduced delay discounting, making future options more attractive. This result suggests that signaling of body energy budget is indeed glucose -unique. Our results suggest a forecasting mechanism of the glucose-insulin system for both metabolic and behavioral regulations of resource acquisition and allocation. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Psychology Department.

 

Xu, Wenqin, & Elliott, Steven R. (2017). Solar axion search technique with correlated signals from multiple detectors.Astroparticle Physics, 89, 39-50.

The coherent Bragg scattering of photons converted from solar axions inside crystals would boost the signal for axion-photon coupling enhancing experimental sensitivity for these hypothetical particles. Knowledge of the scattering angle of solar axions with respect to the crystal lattice is required to make theoretical predications of signal strength. Hence, both the lattice axis angle within a crystal and the absolute angle between the crystal and the Sun must be known. In this paper, we examine how the experimental sensitivity changes with respect to various experimental parameters. We also demonstrate that, in a multiple-crystal setup, knowledge of the relative axis orientation between multiple crystals can improve the experimental sensitivity, or equivalently, relax the precision on the absolute solar angle measurement. However, if absolute angles of all crystal axes are measured, we find that a precision of 2 ∘ − 4 ∘ will suffice for an energy resolution of σ E = 0.04 E and a flat background. Finally, we also show that, given a minimum number of detectors, a signal model averaged over angles can substitute for precise crystal angular measurements, with some loss of sensitivity.

Physics Department.

Posted by: tadeterman | March 31, 2017

February 2017

Anderson, Jordan A., Remund, T., Pohlson, K., Lamichhane, Sujan, Evans, C., Evans, R., . . . Mani, Gopinath. (2017). In vitro and in vivo evaluation of effect of excipients in local delivery of paclitaxel using microporous infusion balloon catheters.Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B-Applied Biomaterials, 105(2), 376-390.

Drug-infusion balloons are one of the currently used local drug delivery devices for preventing restenosis after endovascular treatments. An antiproliferative drug (paclitaxel, PAT) is infused through the balloon using a cremophor-based formulation to control restenosis. However, the major limitations of this approach are poor in vivo drug uptake and a limit in the amount of PAT delivered because of cremophor toxicity. In this study, we have investigated the use of different excipients for effectively infusing PAT out of the balloon for improved drug uptake in the tissue. The excipients include nanoparticle albumin-bound PAT (nab-PAT, a nanobiomaterial used in cancer therapy), urea (a hydrophilic agent used for faster drug transfer), iodixanol (a contrast agent used for coronary angiography), and cremophor-PAT (the most commonly used PAT formulation). An in vitro drug release, smooth muscle cell (SMC) response, endothelial cell (EC) response, and in vivo drug uptake were investigated for all the different excipients of PAT infused through the balloon. The nab-PAT was as effective as cremophor in infusing out of the balloon and inhibiting SMC growth. Also, nab-PAT showed a significantly greater amount of in vivo PAT uptake than that of cremophor-PAT. Urea and iodixanol were not effective in delivering a clinically relevant dose of PAT due to the poor solubility of PAT in these excipients. Urea eradicated all the SMCs and ECs, suggesting a toxic effect, which impedes its use in balloon-based therapy. Thus, this study demonstrated that nab-PAT is an effective formulation to locally deliver PAT through infusion balloons. (C) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Burnette, Catherine Elizabeth,Soonhee, Roh, Kyoung Hag, Lee, Yeon-Shim, Lee, Newland, Lisa A., & Jung Sim, Jun. (2017). A Comparison of Risk and Protective Factors Related to Depressive Symptoms among American Indian and Caucasian Older Adults. Health & Social Work, 42(1), e15-e23.

Despite efforts to reduce health disparities, many American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations, including older adults, experience elevated levels of depression and associated suicide. Although adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and social support are well-documented risk and protective factors for depression in the general population, little is known about AI/AN populations, especially older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to depression among a sample of AI older adults in the Midwest. Data were collected using a self-administered survey completed by 479 AI and Caucasian respondents over the age of 50. The survey included standardized measures such as the Geriatric Depression Scale–Short Form, ACE Questionnaire, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the main hypotheses of the study. Results indicate that two dimensions of ACEs (childhood neglect and household dysfunction) were positively associated with depressive symptoms; social support was negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Perceived health and living alone were also significant predictors of depressive symptoms. ACEs may play a significant role in depression among AI/AN populations across the life course and into old age. Social support offers a promising mechanism to bolster resilience among AI/AN older adults.

School of Education.

 

De, P., Carlson, J. H., Jepperson, T., Willis, S., Leyland-Jones, B., &Dey, Nandini. (2017). RAC1 GTP-ase signals wnt-beta-catenin pathway mediated integrin-directed metastasis-associated tumor cell phenotypes in triple negative breast cancers. Oncotarget, 8(2), 3072-3103.

The acquisition of integrin-directed metastasis-associated (ID-MA) phenotypes by Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) cells is caused by an upregulation of the Wnt-beta-catenin pathway (WP). We reported that WP is one of the salient genetic features of TNBC. RAC-GTPases, small G-proteins which transduce signals from cell surface proteins including integrins, have been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis by their role in essential cellular functions like motility. The collective percentage of alteration(s) in RAC1 in ER+ve BC was lower as compared to ER-ve BC (35% vs 57%) (brca/tcga/pub2015). High expression of RAC1 was associated with poor outcome for RFS with HR= 1.48 [ CI: 1.15-1.9] p=0.0019 in the Hungarian ER-veBC cohort. Here we examined how WP signals are transduced via RAC1 in the context of ID-MA phenotypes in TNBC. Using pharmacological agents (sulindac sulfide), genetic tools (beta-catenin siRNA), WP modulators (Wnt-C59, XAV939), RAC1 inhibitors (NSC23766, W56) and WP stimulations (LWnt3ACM, Wnt3A recombinant) in a panel of 6-7 TNBC cell lines, we studied fibronectin-directed (1) migration, (2) matrigel invasion, (3) RAC1 and Cdc42 activation, (4) actin dynamics (confocal microscopy) and (5) podia-parameters. An attenuation of WP, which (a) decreased cellular levels of beta-catenin, as well as its nuclear active-form, (b) decreased fibronectin-induced migration, (c) decreased invasion, (d) altered actin dynamics and (e) decreased podia-parameters was successful in blocking fibronectin-mediated RAC1/Cdc42 activity. Both Wnt-antagonists and RAC1 inhibitors blocked fibronectin-induced RAC1 activation and inhibited the fibronectin-induced ID-MA phenotypes following specific WP stimulation by LWnt3ACM as well as Wnt3A recombinant protein. To test a direct involvement of RAC1-activation in WP-mediated ID-MA phenotypes, we stimulated brain-metastasis specific MDA-MB231BR cells with LWnt3ACM. LWnt3ACM-stimulated fibronectin-directed migration was blocked by RAC1 inhibition in MDA-MB231BR cells. In the light of our previous report that WP upregulation causes ID-MA phenotypes in TNBC tumor cells, here we provide the first mechanism based evidence to demonstrate that WP upregulation signals ID-MA tumor cell phenotypes in a RAC1-GTPase dependent manner involving exchange-factors like TIAM1 and VAV2. Our study demonstrates for the first time that betacatenin-RAC1 cascade signals integrin-directed metastasis-associated tumor cell phenotypes in TNBC.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Forred, B. J., Daugaard, D. R., Titus, B. K., …., & Vitiello, Peter F.(2017). Detoxification of Mitochondrial Oxidants and Apoptotic Signaling Are Facilitated by Thioredoxin-2 and Peroxiredoxin-3 during Hyperoxic Injury. Plos One, 12(1), 20.

Mitochondria play a fundamental role in the regulation of cell death during accumulation of oxidants. High concentrations of atmospheric oxygen (hyperoxia), used clinically to treat tissue hypoxia in premature newborns, is known to elicit oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury to pulmonary epithelial cells. A consequence of oxidative stress in mitochondria is the accumulation of peroxides which are detoxified by the dedicated mitochondrial thioredoxin system. This system is comprised of the oxidoreductase activities of peroxiredoxin-3 (Prx3), thioredoxin-2 (Trx2), and thioredoxin reductase-2 (TrxR2). The goal of this study was to understand the role of the mitochondrial thioredoxin system and mitochondrial injuries during hyperoxic exposure. Flow analysis of the redox-sensitive, mitochondrial-specific fluorophore, MitoSOX, indicated increased levels of mitochondrial oxidant formation in human adenocarcinoma cells cultured in 95% oxygen. Increased expression of Trx2 and TrxR2 in response to hyperoxia were not attributable to changes in mitochondrial mass, suggesting that hyperoxic upregulation of mitochondrial thioredoxins prevents accumulation of oxidized Prx3. Mitochondrial oxidoreductase activities were modulated through pharmacological inhibition of TrxR2 with auranofin and genetically through shRNA knockdown of Trx2 and Prx3. Diminished Trx2 and Prx3 expression was associated with accumulation of mitochondrial superoxide; however, only shRNA knockdown of Trx2 increased susceptibility to hyperoxic cell death and increased phosphorylation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1). In conclusion, the mitochondrial thioredoxin system regulates hyperoxic-mediated death of pulmonary epithelial cells through detoxification of oxidants and regulation of redox-dependent apoptotic signaling.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Hansen, John. (2017). Opiates for Chronic Pain. Pain Practice, 17(1), 147-148.

The article presents ten problems that would help improve patient-centered, multidisciplinary care for chronic pain, including structured opiate prescribing when indicated, in the U.S. Topics discussed include the poor outcomes of self-care, either individually or collectively, the challenge opiate prescribing risk reduction, and the problem of substance abuse and addiction.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Juber, Brian A., Harris Jackson, Kristina,Johnson, Kristopher B.Harris, William S., & Baack, Michelle L. (2017). Breast milk DHA levels may increase after informing women: a community-based cohort study from South Dakota USA. International Breastfeeding Journal, 12, 1-9.

Background: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid found in breast milk, has many health benefits for both mother and baby. A 2007 meta-analysis found U.S. women had breast milk DHA levels (0.20% of total fatty acids) below the worldwide mean (0.32%). In 2008, international dietary recommendations were made for pregnant and lactating women to consume 200 mg of DHA per day. This community-based study aimed to define current milk DHA levels from upper Midwest USA lactating mothers and to determine if providing information about their own level along with dietary recommendations would incite changes to increase breast milk DHA content. Methods: New mothers attending lactation classes or using hospital pumping rooms in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA participated by providing one drop of breast milk on a card for fatty acid analysis at baseline and 1 month after initial reporting. DHA levels were analyzed by gas chromatography. Mothers received a report of their own breast milk level along with dietary recommendations on DHA intake for lactating women. Median baseline and follow-up DHA levels were determined and differences were compared by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: At baseline, breast milk DHA content (n = 84) was highly variable (range 0.05 to 0.73%) with a median of 0.18% (IQR, 0.13, 0.28; mean ± SD, 0.22 ± 0.13%), well below the worldwide average (0.32%). Women who reported taking DHA supplements (n = 43) had higher levels than those who did not (0.23% vs. 0.15%, P < 0.0001). In a subset of 60 mothers who submitted a second sample, median breast milk DHA content increased from 0.19 to 0.22% (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Findings suggest that providing nursing mothers with their breast milk DHA level and education about DHA intake while breastfeeding motivates change to increase DHA levels.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Jung-Ho, SonTamang, Sem Raj,Fostvedt, Jade I., &Hoefelmeyer, James D. (2017). Dehydrodechlorination of Methylene Chloride, Chloroform, and Chlorodiphenylmethane in the Presence of Ga/N Lewis Pairs.Organometallics, 36(2), 474-479.

Transmetalation occurs upon addition of GaCl3 to (quinolin-8-yl)trimethylstannane. The compound dissolves immediately in pyridine, and recrystallization gives dichloropyridinyl(quinolin-8-yl)gallium(III). In chloroform, the compound bis-μ-(quinolin-8-yl)-μ-chloro-dichlorodigallium(III) tetrachlorogallate could be isolated in small quantities; however, the major product was trichloro(quinolinium-8-yl)gallate(III) zwitterion. The zwitterion also formed upon addition of methylene chloride or chlorodiphenylmethane. We hypothesize that the highly electrophilic digallyl cation abstracts chloride to form a carbocation and that proton transfer from the carbocation to the quinoline nitrogen affords transient carbenes. In particular, diphenyl carbene forms from dehydrodechlorination of chlorodiphenylmethane in toluene/cyclohexene to give a well-defined mixture of products due to cyclopropanation and C-H insertion reactions. Dichloropyridinyl(quinolin-8-yl)gallium(III) undergoes reaction with chloroform only at elevated temperature to yield quinolinium tetrachlorogallate salt as the product. This salt also forms in the reaction of chloroform with GaCl3 and quinoline at elevated temperature. The zwitterion could be converted to quinolinium tetrachlorogallate upon heating, which supports the idea that it was formed initially as an intermediate. Thus, the Ga/N Lewis pairs appear capable of dehydrodechlorination of chloroalkanes.

Chemistry Department.

 

Mayhan, William G., & Arrick, Denise M. (2017). Tetrahydrobiopterin rescues impaired responses of cerebral resistance arterioles during type 1 diabetes.Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research, 14(1), 33-39.

Our goal was to test the hypothesis that administration of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) would improve impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase-dependent dilation of cerebral arterioles during type 1 diabetes. In addition, we examined the influence of BH4 on levels of superoxide in brain tissue. In vivo diameter of cerebral arterioles in nondiabetic and diabetic rats was measured in response to endothelial nitric oxide synthase-dependent agonists (acetylcholine and adenosine 5-diphosphate) and an endothelial nitric oxide synthase-independent agonist (nitroglycerine) before and during application of BH4 (1.0 mu M). We also measured levels of superoxide from cortex tissue in nondiabetic and diabetic rats under basal states and during BH4. Acetylcholine and adenosine 5-diphosphate dilated cerebral arterioles in nondiabetic rats, but this vasodilation was significantly impaired in diabetic rats. In contrast, nitroglycerine produced similar vasodilation in nondiabetic and diabetic rats. Application of BH4 did not enhance vasodilation in nondiabetic rats but improved impaired cerebral vasodilation in diabetic rats. Basal superoxide levels were increased in cortex tissue from diabetic rats, and BH4 reduced these levels to that found in nondiabetic rats. Thus, BH4 is an important mediator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase-dependent responses of cerebral arterioles in diabetes and may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of cerebral vascular disease.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

McDougall, Matthew A.Walsh, MichaelWater, Kristina,Knigge, RyanMiller, Lindsey,Steverrner, Michalene, & Fogas, Bruce S. (2016). The effect of social networking sites on the relationship between perceived social support and depression.Psychiatry Research, 246, 223-229.

This study examined whether Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have a negative moderator effect on the established relationship between perceived social support and depression in psychiatric inpatients. Survey instruments assessing for depression, perceived social support, and SNS use, were filled out by 301 psychiatric inpatients. Additional data on age, gender, and primary psychiatric diagnosis were collected. A step-wise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine significant interactions. There was no significant interaction of SNS use on the relationship between perceived social support and depression when measured by Social Media Use Integration Scale or by hours of SNS use per day. There was a significant negative relationship between perceived social support and depression, and a significant positive relationship between hours of SNS use per day and depression, measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Limitations include a gender discrepancy among participants, generalizability, recall bias, and SNS measurement. This is the first study to look at SNS use and depression in psychiatric inpatients. SNS use did not affect perceived social support or the protective relationship between perceived social support and depression. Hours of SNS use per day were correlated with depression scores. Future studies between SNS use and depression should quantify daily SNS use. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

McDougall, Matthew A.Walsh, MichaelWattier, Kristina,Knigge, RyanMiller, Lindsey,Stevermer, Michalene, & Fogas, Bruce S. (2016). The effect of social networking sites on the relationship between perceived social support and depression.Psychiatry Research, 246, 223-229.

This study examined whether Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have a negative moderator effect on the established relationship between perceived social support and depression in psychiatric inpatients. Survey instruments assessing for depression, perceived social support, and SNS use, were filled out by 301 psychiatric inpatients. Additional data on age, gender, and primary psychiatric diagnosis were collected. A step-wise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine significant interactions. There was no significant interaction of SNS use on the relationship between perceived social support and depression when measured by Social Media Use Integration Scale or by hours of SNS use per day. There was a significant negative relationship between perceived social support and depression, and a significant positive relationship between hours of SNS use per day and depression, measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Limitations include a gender discrepancy among participants, generalizability, recall bias, and SNS measurement. This is the first study to look at SNS use and depression in psychiatric inpatients. SNS use did not affect perceived social support or the protective relationship between perceived social support and depression. Hours of SNS use per day were correlated with depression scores. Future studies between SNS use and depression should quantify daily SNS use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Meyer, M., Kovacs, Attila D., & Pearce, David A. (2017). Decreased sensitivity of palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1-deficient neurons to chemical anoxia.Metabolic Brain Disease, 32(1), 275-279.

Infantile CLN1 disease, also known as infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, is a fatal childhood neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the CLN1 gene. CLN1 encodes a soluble lysosomal enzyme, palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1), and it is still unclear why neurons are selectively vulnerable to the loss of PPT1 enzyme activity in infantile CLN1 disease. To examine the effects of PPT1 deficiency on several well-defined neuronal signaling and cell death pathways, different toxic insults were applied in cerebellar granule neuron cultures prepared from wild type (WT) and palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1-deficient (Ppt1 (-/-) ) mice, a model of infantile CLN1 disease. Glutamate uptake inhibition by t-PDC (L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid) or Zn2+-induced general mitochondrial dysfunction caused similar toxicity in WT and Ppt1 (-/-) cultures. Ppt1 (-/-) neurons, however, were more sensitive to mitochondrial complex I inhibition by MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium), and had significantly decreased sensitivity to chemical anoxia induced by the mitochondrial complex IV inhibitor, sodium azide. Our results indicate that PPT1 deficiency causes alterations in the mitochondrial respiratory chain.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Min, Jia-Wei, Lü, Lanhai, Freeling, Jessica L.Martin, Doug S., &Wang, Hongmin. (2017). USP14 inhibitor attenuates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury in mice. Journal of Neurochemistry, 140(5), 826-833.

Stroke is associated with over-production of misfolded and aggregating proteins. However, it remains largely unclear whether enhanced removal of protein aggregates following ischemic stroke is neuroprotective. Deubiquitinating enzymes ( DUBs) are a large group of proteases that regulate protein degradation. The ubiquitin-specific protease 14 ( USP14) is a DUB that is associated with the proteasome and negatively regulates proteasome activity. In this study, we examined the effect of 1-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2,5-dimethylpyrrol-3-yl]-2-pyrrolidin-1-ylethanone ( IU1), a specific small molecule inhibitor of USP14, on mouse focal cerebral ischemic stroke-induced neuronal injury in mice. We found that IU1 treatment attenuated ischemic stroke-caused neuronal injury, which was reflected by increased survival rate, reduced infarct volume, as well as decreased neuronal loss in the IU1-treated mice compared to the control-treated mice. Additionally, IU1 treatment is associated with reduced protein aggregates and enhanced proteasome functionality. These data not only highlight the significance of protein homeostasis in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury but also extend the therapeutic role of DUB inhibitors.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Pingree, M. J., Sole, Joshua S., O’ Brien, T. G., Eldrige, J. S., & Moeschler, S. M. (2017). Clinical Efficacy of an Ultrasound-Guided Greater Occipital Nerve Block at the Level of C2. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 42(1), 99-104.

Background and Objectives: The purpose of this prospective open-label study was to investigate the analgesic effects of an ultrasound-guided greater occipital nerve (GON) block at the level of C2, as the nerve courses superficially to the obliquus capitis inferior muscle. Methods: Patients with a diagnosis of occipital neuralgia or cervicogenic headache were recruited for the study. Ultrasound-guided GON blocks at the level of C2 were performed by experienced clinicians according to a standardized protocol. Numeric rating scale pain scores were recorded preinjection and at 30 minutes, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks after injection. Results: A total of 14 injections were performed with a mean procedure time of 3.75 minutes. Anesthesia in the GON distribution was achieved for 86% of patients at 30 minutes postinjection. Compared with baseline, numeric rating scale scores decreased by a mean of 3.78 at 30 minutes (P < 0.001), 2.64 at 2 weeks (P = 0.006), and 2.21 at 4 weeks (P = 0.01). There were no significant adverse events reported during the study period. Conclusions: This prospective open-label study demonstrated successful blockade of the GONat the level of C2 using a novel ultrasound-guided technique. Significant reductions in pain scores were observed over the 4-week study period, and no adverse events were reported. The observations from this study provide important preliminary data for future randomized trials involving patients with occipital neuralgia and cervicogenic headache.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Pitcher, Kristopher A., & Soluk, Daniel A. (2016). Inter-patch connectivity and intra-patch structure differentially alter prey consumption by multiple predators. Ecosphere, 7(11), 14.

Structural habitat complexity (SHC) and functional habitat connectivity (FHC) have important effects on predator-prey interactions and exert a strong influence on community structure/dynamics in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Although these factors vary simultaneously in most systems, their interactive effects are poorly understood. Using artificial pond mesocosms and multiple prey types, we manipulated plant density (SHC: low, high) and inter-patch distance (FHC: short, long) in a full factorial design to test for potential interactive effects of these factors on competition and predation by a dragonfly larva (Anax junius) and fish predator (Lepomis cyanallus). When inter-patch distances (FHC) were short, A. junius consumed more amphipods (36% +/- 4.6%) compared with long treatments (19% +/- 4.8%). We detected no significant effects of plant density (SHC) on prey consumption by A. junius. There were significant interactive effects of FHC and SHC on Lepomis cyanellus consumption of amphipods and damselflies. The most counterintuitive of these effects was that sunfish consumed more larval damselflies at high plant density (64% +/- 6.0%) than at low plant density (38% +/- 8.6%) but only in short connection treatments. This interactive effect of SHC and FHC on damselfly predation by L. cyanellus was likely because damselflies exhibited riskier behavior at higher SHC. Prey consumption with both predators present was additive, but no significant effect of either SHC or FHC on interspecific predation was detected, suggesting compensatory foraging responses. Structural habitat complexity and FHC interactively influence predator foraging behavior in complex, non-intuitive ways that are highly dependent on the predator/prey combination in question. Structural habitat complexity and FHC are currently being influenced by anthropogenic factors in multiple ways (e.g., habitat loss, global climate change), and being able to predict the responses of biotic communities to these changes should be an important consideration in restoration and conservation efforts.

Biology Department.

 

Posthumus, David C. (2016). Hereditary enemies? An examination of Sioux–Arikara relations prior to 1830. Plains Anthropologist, 61(240), 361-382.

Sociology and Anthropology Department.

 

Puckett, Jae A., Newcomb, M. E., Ryan, D. T., Swann, G., Garofalo, R., & Mustanski, B. (2017). Internalized Homophobia and Perceived Stigma: a Validation Study of Stigma Measures in a Sample of Young Men who Have Sex with Men. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 14(1), 1-16.

Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) experience minority stressors that impact their mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Internalized homophobia (IH) and perceived stigma represent two of these minority stressors, and there has been limited research empirically validating measures of these constructs. We validated measures of IH and perceived stigma with a sample of 450 YMSM (mean age = 18.9) and a sample of 370 YMSM (mean age = 22.9). Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported modifications to the IH and perceived stigma scales, ultimately revealing a three factor and one factor structure, respectively. Convergent and discriminant validity were examined utilizing correlations between IH, perceived stigma, and other variables related to minority stress (e.g., victimization). We evaluated predictive validity by examining relations with mental health, substance use, and risky sexual behaviors measured 12-months from baseline. There were mixed findings for IH, with subscales varying in their relations to mental health, drinking, and sexual risk variables. Perceived stigma was not related to mental health or substance use, but was associated with greater prevalence of STIs. Findings supported the use of these modified scales with YMSM and highlight the need for further measurement studies.

Psychology Department.

 

Puckett, Jae A., Newcomb, Michael E., Garofalo, Robert, & Mustanski, Brian. (2017). Examining the conditions under which internalized homophobia is associated with substance use and condomless sex in young msm: The moderating role of impulsivity. Annals of Behavioral Medicine.

Background: Internalized homophobia (IH) is the internalization of homophobic attitudes by sexual minorities due to social bias. IH has been inconsistently related to substance use and condomless sex for young men who have sex with men (YMSM).Purpose: We examined negative urgency (the tendency to act impulsively in response to negative emotional experiences), positive urgency (the tendency to act impulsively in response to positive emotional experiences), and sensation seeking as independent moderators of the association of IH with binge drinking, drug use, and condomless anal sex.Methods: Data were collected from 450 YMSM (mean age = 18.9) over the course of 18 months (baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up).Results: Hierarchical generalized linear modeling revealed that there was a significant moderation for binge drinking and receptive condomless anal sex, with the association between IH and these risk behaviors increased for those with higher levels of negative urgency and positive urgency.Conclusions: IH is important to the negative health outcomes of binge drinking and condomless anal sex for individuals high in negative and/or positive urgency, who may act impulsively to avoid subjective negative experiences or in the face of positive emotional experiences. Future research is needed to further establish additional conditions under which IH may be important to understanding risk behaviors in YMSM, which is essential to developing targeted prevention and intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Psychology Department.

 

Sariol, Ana M., & Abebe, Michael A. (2017). The influence of CEO power on explorative and exploitative organizational innovation. Journal of Business Research, 73, 38-45.

Despite the growing research evidence on the effect of powerful CEOs on organizational outcomes, their role in shaping the firm’s innovation agenda has received little scholarly attention. This study examines the effect of CEO power on exploratory and exploitative innovation. Drawing from core arguments of Behavioral Agency Theory, this study proposes that firms led by powerful CEOs are likely to pursue more exploratory and less exploitative innovations. Furthermore, these relationships are significantly strengthened by CEO Outsider Status. Using data from 150 U.S. firms, the results reveal a significant positive relationship between CEO power and explorative innovation. Contrary to predictions, firms led by powerful CEOs engage in more not less exploitative innovation when the CEO is appointed from outside the firm. Overall, the findings provide a more nuanced explanation of the link between CEO power and organizational innovation. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Sazama, Eric J., Bosch, Michael J.,Shouldis, Carmelita S.,Ouellette, Scot P., & Wesner, Jeff S. (2017). Incidence of Wolbachia in aquatic insects.Ecology & Evolution (20457758), 7(4), 1165-1169.

Wolbachia is a genus of intracellular bacteria typically found within the reproductive systems of insects that manipulates those systems of their hosts. While current estimates of Wolbachia incidence suggest that it infects approximately half of all arthropod species, these estimates are based almost entirely on terrestrial insects. No systematic survey of Wolbachia in aquatic insects has been performed. To estimate Wolbachia incidence among aquatic insect species, we combined field-collected samples from the Missouri River (251 samples from 58 species) with a global database from previously published surveys. The final database contained 5,598 samples of 2,687 total species (228 aquatic and 2,459 terrestrial). We estimate that 52% (95% CrIs: 44%-60%) of aquatic insect species carry Wolbachia, compared to 60% (58%-63%) of terrestrial insects. Among aquatic insects, infected orders included Odonata, Coleoptera, Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, and Plecoptera. Incidence was highest within aquatic Diptera and Hemiptera (69%), Odonata (50%), and Coleoptera (53%), and was lowest within Ephemeroptera (13%). These results indicate that Wolbachia is common among aquatic insects, but incidence varies widely across orders and is especially uncertain in those orders with low sample sizes such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Sheets, Jordan N., Iwanicki, M., Liu, J. F., Howitt, B. E., Hirsch, M. S., Gubbels, J. A. A., . . . Egland, Kristi A. (2016). SUSD2 expression in high-grade serous ovarian cancer correlates with increased patient survival and defective mesothelial clearance. Oncogenesis, 5, 12.

The cause of death among the majority of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients involves passive dissemination of cancer cells within the peritoneal cavity and subsequent implantation of cancer spheroids into adjacent organs. Thus, it is important to identify the factors that mediate EOC metastasis and implantation, including clearance of the mesothelium. Sushi domain containing 2 (SUSD2) encodes a type I transmembrane protein containing several functional domains inherent to adhesion molecules. Immunohistochemical analysis determined the presence of SUSD2 in several subtypes of EOC, with the strongest staining observed in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOCs). A high-density, clinically annotated HGSOC tissue microarray was stained with an anti-SUSD2 antibody. Patients with tumors that had a low percentage of SUSD2 staining cells had a shorter median survival (31.7 months) compared with patients who had tumors with extensive SUSD2 staining (49.1 months; P-value = 0.0083). To investigate the role of SUSD2 in HGSOCs, stable OVCAR3, OVSAHO and KURAMOCHI cell lines were established with knockdown (KD) or non-targeting (NT) of SUSD2. Boyden chamber and wound-healing assays demonstrated that OVCAR3, OVSAHO and KURAMOCHI SUSD2-KD cells migrated at significantly higher rates compared with their SUSD2 NT counterpart cell lines. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and western immunoblot analysis indicated an inverse relationship between SUSD2 and well-characterized mesenchymal proteins, including Twist-1, Zeb-1, N-cadherin, STEAP1, AHNAK, Snail-1, COL5A2 and Snail-3 in OVCAR3, OVSAHO and KURAMOCHI cell line models. In addition, OVCAR3 and KURAMOCHI SUSD2-KD spheroids displayed increased mesothelial clearance ability compared with cells that express endogenous levels of SUSD2. These data suggest that SUSD2 has a role in the inhibition of mesothelial clearance, which is required for metastasis. Altogether, our findings indicate that SUSD2 impedes migration, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitional and mesothelial clearance of HGSOC cells, consistent with prolonged survival of patients with SUSD2-expressing tumors.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Strouse, Gabrielle A., & Ganea, P. A. (2016). Are Prompts Provided by Electronic Books as Effective for Teaching Preschoolers a Biological Concept as Those Provided by Adults? Early Education and Development, 27(8), 1190-1204.

Research Findings: Prior research indicates that shared book reading is an effective method for teaching biological concepts to young children. Adult questioning during reading enhances children’s comprehension. We investigated whether adult prompting during the reading of an electronic book enhanced children’s understanding of a biological concept. Ninety-one 4-year- olds read about camouflage in 3 conditions. We varied how prompts were provided: (a) read by the book, (b) read by a researcher, or (c) given face to face by the researcher. There was an interaction between children’s initial vocabulary level and condition. Children with low vocabulary scores gave fewer camouflage responses than their high-vocabulary peers, and this effect was particularly pronounced in the book-read condition. Children’s executive function was also measured and discussed. Practice or Policy: Our findings indicate that under some circumstances electronic prompts built into touchscreen books can be as effective at supporting conceptual development as the same prompts provided by a coreading adult. However, children with low vocabulary skills may be particularly supported by adult-led prompting. We suggest that adult prompting be used to motivate children to test and revise their own biological theories. Once children have learned strategies for updating their concepts, electronic prompting may be useful for scaffolding children’s transition to using the strategies when reading alone.

School of Education.

 

Strouse, Gabrielle A., & Ganea, Patricia A. (2017). Toddlers’ word learning and transfer from electronic and print books.Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 156, 129-142.

Transfer from symbolic media to the real world can be difficult for young children. A sample of 73 toddlers aged 17 to 23 months were read either an electronic book displayed on a touchscreen device or a traditional print book in which a novel object was paired with a novel label. Toddlers in both conditions learned the label within the context of the book. However, only those who read the traditional format book generalized and transferred the label to other contexts. An older group of 28 toddlers aged 24 to 30 months did generalize and transfer from the electronic book. Across ages, those children who primarily used screens to watch prerecorded video at home transferred less from the electronic book than those with more diverse home media experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

School of Education.

 

Tamang, Sem Raj, & Hoefelmeyer, James D. (2016). Direct arylation catalysis with chloro 8-(dimesitylboryl)quinoline-kappa N copper(I). Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry, 12, 2757-2762.

We report direct arylation of arylhalides with unactivated sp(2) C-H bonds in benzene and naphthalene using a copper(I) catalyst featuring an ambiphilic ligand, (quinolin-8-yl) dimesitylborane. Direct arylation could be achieved with 0.2 mol % catalyst and 3 equivalents of base (KO(t-Bu)) at 80 degrees C to afford TON approximate to 160-190 over 40 hours.

Chemistry Department.

 

Villano, Ines, Messina, Antonietta, Valenzano, Anna, …., Summers, Cliff H., & Mallick, Birendra N. (2017). Basal Forebrain Cholinergic System and Orexin Neurons: Effects on Attention.Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 11, 1-11.

The basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic system has an important role in attentive functions. The cholinergic system can be activated by different inputs, and in particular, by orexin neurons, whose cell bodies are located within the postero-lateral hypothalamus. Recently the orexin-producing neurons have been proved to promote arousal and attention through their projections to the BF. The aim of this review article is to summarize the evidence showing that the orexin system contributes to attentional processing by an increase in cortical acetylcholine release and in cortical neurons activity.

Biology Department.

 

Wang, X. T., & Huangfu, Gang. (2017). Glucose-specific signaling effects on delay discounting in intertemporal choice.Physiology & Behavior, 169, 195-201.

We propose that decisions related to resource management (e.g., intertemporal choice between a smaller-and-sooner reward and a larger-and-later reward) are sensitive to and regulated by fluctuating blood glucose levels. Circulating glucose affects intertemporal choice by means of signaling body energy condition instead of serving as a replenishing resource for effortful cognitive processing. We intend to dissociate calorie-supplying functions from glucose-unique anticipatory effects on behavioral resource management, measured by delay discounting in making intertemporal choices. Regarding the anticipatory functions of the glucose–insulin system in regulating the degree of delay discounting, we tested three predictions: First, we predict that the signaling effects of circulating glucose on delay discounting do not need to be dose-dependent as long as glucose fluctuation indicates a directional trend in body energy budget. Second, such effects of glucose fluctuation on delay discounting are phagic (appetite related) instead of dipsian (thirst related). Third, this glucose–insulin signaling system requires glucose as the specific input, thus is insensitive to other forms of sugar that are not insulin regulated. In Study 1, fasting participants were randomly assigned to one of five groups: water consumption, zero-consumption, and three glucose consumption (18 g, 36 g, and 72 g cane sugar/250 ml water) groups. The participants competed two sets of intertemporal choice questions with varying delay discounting rates before and after a beverage intervention. The results showed that the rate of delay discounting was negatively correlated to blood glucose levels. The effects of circulating glucose on delay discounting closely followed the changes in blood glucose levels showing a plateau on both dose-response curves (i.e., the sugar dose-blood glucose level curve and the sugar does-delay discounting curve). Secondly, the effects of circulating glucose on delay discounting were significant only in the glucose ingestion group, but not in the zero consumption and the water consumption groups, suggesting that the behavioral effects were in fact related to hunger-reduction instead of thirst-reduction. Study 2 revealed that glucose ingestion, but not water or another form of sugar (xylitol matched to glucose either for sweetness or for calories), reduced delay discounting, making future options more attractive. This result suggests that signaling of body energy budget is indeed glucose-unique. Our results suggest a forecasting mechanism of the glucose-insulin system for both metabolic and behavioral regulations of resource acquisition and allocation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Psychology Department.

 

Wang, Z. F., Kedzierski, L., Nuessing, S., …., Huber, Victor C., Jackson, D. C., . . . Kedzierska, K. (2016). Establishment of memory CD8(+) T cells with live attenuated influenza virus across different vaccination doses. Journal of General Virology, 97, 3205-3214.

FluMist has been used in children and adults for more than 10 years. As pre-existing CD8(+) T cell memory pools can provide heterologous immunity against distinct influenza viruses, it is important to understand influenza-specific CD8(+) T cell responses elicited by different live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) regimens. In this study, we immunized mice intranasally with two different doses of live-attenuated PR8 virus (PR8 ts, H1N1), low and high, and then assessed protective efficacy by challenging animals with heterosubtypic X31-H3N2 virus at 6 weeks post-vaccination. Different LAIV doses elicited influenza-specific CD8(+) T cell responses in lungs and spleen, but unexpectedly not in bronchoalveolar lavage. Interestingly, the immunodominance hierarchy at the acute phase after immunization varied depending on the LAIV dose; however, these differences disappeared at 6 weeks post-vaccination, resulting in generation of comparable CD8(+) T cell memory pools. After vaccination with either dose, sufficient numbers of specific CD8(+) T cells were generated for recall and protection of mice against heterosubtypic H1N1 -> H3N2 challenge. As a result, immunized mice displayed reduced weight loss, diminished inflammatory responses and lower viral titres in lungs, when compared to unvaccinated animals. Interestingly, the higher dose led to enhanced viral clearance on day 5 post-challenge, though this was not associated with increased CD8(+) T cell responses, but with higher levels of non-neutralizing antibodies against the priming virus. Our study suggests that, while different LAIV doses result in distinct immune profiles, even a low dose produces sufficient protective CD8(+) T cell memory against challenge infection, though the high dose results in more rapid viral clearance and reduced inflammation.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Yao, Bin, Kolla, Praveen, Koodali, Ranjit, Ding, Yichun, Balaranjan, SelvaratnamShrestha, Sunav, & Smirnova, Alevtina. (2017). Enzymatic decomposition and electrochemical study of alkali lignin by laccase (Trametes versicolor) in the presence of a natural mediator (methyl syringate). New Journal of Chemistry, 41(3), 958-964.

The aerobic-enzymatic decomposition of alkali lignin in the presence of laccase from Trametes versicolor (LTV) and the natural mediator methyl syringate in acetic acid–sodium acetate buffer solution (pH = 4.5) at 40 °C in an oxygen-rich (aerobic) environment is studied. SEM and BET analyses are used to characterize the changes in the surface area and morphology of lignin that occurred during the exposure to the laccase–mediator system (LMS) for 72 h. The LMS interaction causes a 2-fold improvement in the surface area from 4.9 to 9.8 m2 g−1, due to significant changes in the mesoporous structure of lignin within a pore size of 2–120 nm. This could be due to an efficient interaction of the surface phenolic groups and internal mesoporous β-O-4 network of lignin with the LMS in an aerobic environment. To further understand the enzymatic degradation of lignin, electrochemical oxidation of a thin film of lignin on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) is performed under aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions in the presence of the LMS. A synergistic lignin electrooxidation in the aerobic environment is observed due to the promotion of LMS activity by a parallel oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Based on the electrochemical studies, a mechanism for understanding the role of oxygen in the enzymatic oxidation of lignin in an aerobic environment and the stability of the mediator radical (MSṖ) is proposed.

Chemistry Department.

 

Yao, Qingqing, Cosme, J. G. L., Xu, T.,Miszuk, Jacob M., Picciani, P. H. S., Fong, H., & Sun, Hongli. (2017). Three dimensional electrospun PCL/PLA blend nanofibrous scaffolds with significantly improved stem cells osteogenic differentiation and cranial bone formation.Biomaterials, 115, 115-127.

Nanofibrous scaffolds that are morphologically/structurally similar to natural ECM are highly interested for tissue engineering; however, the electrospinning technique has the difficulty in directly producing clinically relevant 3D nanofibrous scaffolds with desired structural properties. To address this challenge, we have developed an innovative technique of thermally induced nanofiber self-agglomeration (TISA) recently. The aim of this work was to prepare (via the TISA technique) and evaluate 3D electrospun PCL/PLA blend (mass ratio: 4/1) nanofibrous scaffolds having high porosity of similar to 95.8% as well as interconnected and hierarchically structured pores with sizes from sub-micrometers to similar to 300 mu m for bone tissue engineering. The hypothesis was that the incorporation of PLA (with higher mechanical stiffness/modulus and bioactivity) into PCL nanofibers would significantly improve human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) osteogenic differentiation in vitro and bone formation in vivo. Compared to neat PCL-3D scaffolds, PCL/PLA-3D blend scaffolds had higher mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity; as a result, they not only enhanced the cell viability of hMSCs but also promoted the osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, our in vivo studies revealed that PCL/PLA-3D scaffolds considerably facilitated new bone formation in a critical-sized cranial bone defect mouse model. In summary, both in vitro and in vivo results indicated that novel 3D electrospun PCL/PLA blend nanofibrous scaffolds would be strongly favorable/desired for hMSCs osteogenic differentiation and cranial bone formation. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

Posted by: tadeterman | March 31, 2017

January 2017

Aloreidi, KhalilBhavesh Patel, & Muslim Atiq. (2016). Intraductal cholangioscopy-guided electrohydraulic lithotripsy as a rescue therapy for impacted common bile duct stones within a Dormia basket. Endoscopy, 48, E357-E358.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Anuwatworn, AmornpolMaheedhar GedelaEdgard BendalyJulia A. Prescott-FochtJimmy YeeRichard Clark, et al. (2016). Sinus Venosus Atrial Septal Defect Complicated by Eisenmenger Syndrome and the Role of Vasodilator Therapy. Case Reports in Cardiology, 5.

Sinus venosus atrial septal defect is a rare congenital, interatrial communication defect at the junction of the right atrium and the vena cava. It accounts for 5-10% of cases of all atrial septal defects. Due to the rare prevalence and anatomical complexity, diagnosing sinus venous atrial septal defects poses clinical challenges which may delay diagnosis and treatment. Advanced cardiac imaging studies are useful tools to diagnose this clinical entity and to delineate the anatomy and any associated communications. Surgical correction of the anomaly is the primary treatment. We discuss a 43-year-old Hispanic female patient who presented with dyspnea and hypoxia following a laparoscopic myomectomy. She had been diagnosed with peripartum cardiomyopathy nine years ago at another hospital. Transesophageal echocardiography and computed tomographic angiography of the chest confirmed a diagnosis of sinus venosus atrial septal defect. She was also found to have pulmonary arterial hypertension and Eisenmenger syndrome. During a hemodynamic study, she responded to vasodilator and she was treated with Ambrisentan and Tadalafil. After six months, her symptoms improved and her pulmonary arterial hypertension decreased. We also observed progressive reversal of the right-to-left shunt. This case illustrates the potential benefit of vasodilator therapy in reversing Eisenmenger physiology, which may lead to surgical repair of the atrial septal defect as the primary treatment.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Bubak, A. N., J. D. W. Yaeger, Kenneth J. Renner, J. G. Swallow, & M. J. Greene. (2016). Neuromodulation of Nestmate Recognition Decisions by Pavement Ants. Plos One, 11(11), 15.

Ant colonies are distributed systems that are regulated in a non-hierarchical manner. Without a central authority, individuals inform their decisions by comparing information in local cues to a set of inherent behavioral rules. Individual behavioral decisions collectively change colony behavior and lead to self-organization capable of solving complex problems such as the decision to engage in aggressive societal conflicts with neighbors. Despite the relevance to colony fitness, the mechanisms that drive individual decisions leading to cooperative behavior are not well understood. Here we show how sensory information, both tactile and chemical, and social context-isolation, nestmate interaction, or fighting non-nestmates-affects brain monoamine levels in pavement ants (Tetramorium caespitum). Our results provide evidence that changes in octopamine and serotonin in the brains of individuals are sufficient to alter the decision by pavement ants to be aggressive towards non-nestmate ants whereas increased brain levels of dopamine correlate to physical fighting. We propose a model in which the changes in brain states of many workers collectively lead to the self-organization of societal aggression between neighboring colonies of pavement ants.

Biology Department.

 

Cerny, Shana. (2016). The Role of Occupational Therapy within the Federal Strategic Action Plan on Services for Victims of Human Trafficking in the United States. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 32(4), 317-328.

The occupational injustices experienced by human trafficking survivors lead to immediate occupational performance deficits and promote long-term instability. Experience and previous patterns of behavior contribute to the deficits and instability. The occupational manifestations of complex trauma are reflected in the inability to participate in meaningful and necessary occupations. Occupational therapy intervention can be a means of empowering victims of human trafficking by using the occupational therapy process, occupational therapy theories, and models of practice. Occupational therapy practitioners can enable survivors to address the intrinsic and extrinsic barriers to achieving increased overall well-being and occupational performance.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Dag, Ali, Asil Oztekin, Ahmet Yucel, Serkan Bulur, & Fadel M. Megahed. (2017). Predicting heart transplantation outcomes through data analytics. Decision Support Systems, 94, 42-52.

Predicting the survival of heart transplant patients is an important, yet challenging problem since it plays a crucial role in understanding the matching procedure between a donor and a recipient. Data mining models can be used to effectively analyze and extract novel information from large/complex transplantation datasets. The objective of this study is to predict the 1-, 5-, and 9-year patient’s graft survival following a heart transplant surgery via the deployment of analytical models that are based on four powerful classification algorithms (i.e. decision trees, artificial neural networks, support vector machines, and logistic regression). Since the datasets used in this study has a much larger number of survival cases than deaths for 1- and 5-year survival analysis and vice versa for 9-year survival analysis, random under sampling (RUS) and synthetic minority over-sampling (SMOTE) are employed to overcome the data-imbalance problems. The results indicate that logistic regression combined with SMOTE achieves the best classification for the 1-, 5-, and 9-year outcome prediction, with area-under-the-curve (AUC) values of 0.624, 0.676, and 0.838, respectively. By applying sensitivity analysis to the data analytical models, the most important predictors and their associated contribution for the 1-, 5-, and 9-year graft survival of heart transplant patients are identified. By doing so, variables, whose importance changes over time, are differentiated. Not only this proposed hybrid approach gives superior results over the literature but also the models and identification of the variables present important retrospective findings, which can be the basis for a prospective medical study.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Fang, J. M., Benjamin George, Y. F. Shao, & C. Wen. (2016). Affective and cognitive factors influencing repeat buying in e-commerce. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 19, 44-55.

Drawing on means-end chain theory and feelings-as-information theory, we propose a moderation model, and offer a detailed analysis of how the affective factor perceived enjoyment influences perceived value and repeat buying in e-tailing contexts. Based upon survey data from 651 online shoppers, we observe the complex moderation effects of e-shopping enjoyment on the relations between perceived benefits, sacrifice and perceived value. However, the moderation effect of enjoyment only appears in shoppers with a task-focused motivation. Furthermore, this study applies fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) and uncovers several equifinal configurations associated with the perceived value and repeat buying intention. The results reveal that none of the above-mentioned factors provide sufficient or necessary conditions for the presence of high perceived value and repeat buying intention. The findings suggest complex substitutive and complementary relationships between the factors and demonstrate the complexities of consumers’ online repurchase decision. This study thus helps to gain a better understanding of the conditions leading to e-shopping value and repeat buying behavior.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Ferguson, Tanner J., J. P. Berdahl, J. A. Schweitzer, & Ramu Sudhagoni. (2016). Evaluation of a Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stent in Pseudophakic Patients With Open-Angle Glaucoma. Journal of Glaucoma, 25(11), 896-900.

Purpose of the Study:The purpose of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the iStent Trabecular Micro-Bypass stent in pseudophakic patients with open-angle glaucoma.Methods:Retrospective, consecutive case series from October 2012 to May 2015 with no exclusion criteria. The series comprised 42 pseudophakic eyes with open-angle glaucoma that were implanted with 1 iStent. Data were collected preoperatively, and postoperative data were collected at 1 day, 1 week, 1, 3 and 6 months, 1 year, 18 months and 2 years. Data included intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications, the incidence of postoperative IOP pressure spikes 15 mm Hg at any timepoint, and the need for additional surgery.Results:The mean preoperative IOP was 20.266.00 mm Hg. At 1 year postoperatively, the mean IOP was 16.34 +/- 3.78 mm Hg (P<0.01). At 2 years postoperatively, the mean IOP was 13.62 +/- 4.55 (P<0.01). The mean number of glaucoma medications was 1.95 +/- 1.01 preoperative and 1.69 +/- 1.28 (P>0.05) at 1 year postoperatively. Postoperatively, 3 eyes (7%) experienced an IOP increase of 15 mm Hg above their baseline IOP that responded to topical therapy. In total, 96% of patients with an IOP19 mm Hg achieved a reduction in IOP at their last collected follow-up.Conclusions:The insertion of the iStent Trabecular Micro-Bypass stent effectively lowers IOP in pseudophakic patients with open-angle glaucoma. Although medication use was not significantly reduced postoperatively at 1 year, 80% of patients either experienced a reduction or no change in medication use. The safety profile appears favorable with a low rate of IOP spikes and only 1 patient requiring additional surgery.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Gaher, Raluca M., Carol O’brien, Paul Smiley, & Austin M. Hahn. (2016). Alexithymia, coping styles and traumatic stress symptoms in a sample of veterans who experienced military sexual trauma. Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 32(1), 55-62.

The current study examined the association between alexithymia and coping styles (planning, positive reinterpretation and growth, social‐emotion coping, and denial), and trauma symptoms in a clinical sample of 170 male and female veterans who experienced sexual trauma during military service. Denial was the only coping style positively associated with trauma symptoms, and it mediated the relationship between alexithymia and trauma symptoms. Alexithymia was negatively associated with planning. Likewise, alexithymia was negatively associated with social‐emotional coping and with positive reinterpretation and growth. The results speak to the significant role that alexithymia has in predicting individual coping styles.

Psychology Department.

 

Goh, P. K., L. R. Doyle, …., H. Eugene Hoyme, J. A. Kable, P. A. May, et al. (2016). A Decision Tree to Identify Children Affected by Prenatal Alcohol Exposure. Journal of Pediatrics, 177, 121-+.

Objective To develop and validate a hierarchical decision tree model that combines neurobehavioral and physical measures to identify children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure even when facial dysmorphology is not present. Study design Data were collected as part of a multisite study across the US. The model was developed after we evaluated more than 1000 neurobehavioral and dysmorphology variables collected from 434 children (8-16 years of age) with prenatal alcohol exposure, with and without fetal alcohol syndrome, and nonexposed control subjects, with and without other clinically-relevant behavioral or cognitive concerns. The model subsequently was validated in an independent sample of 454 children in 2 age ranges (5-7 years or 10-16 years). In all analyses, the discriminatory ability of each model step was tested with logistic regression. Classification accuracies and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Results The model consisted of variables from 4 measures (2 parent questionnaires, an IQ score, and a physical examination). Overall accuracy rates for both the development and validation samples met or exceeded our goal of 80% overall accuracy. Conclusions The decision tree model distinguished children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure from nonexposed control subjects, including those with other behavioral concerns or conditions. Improving identification of this population will streamline access to clinical services, including multidisciplinary evaluation and treatment.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Hackemer, Kurt. (2017). Wartime Trauma and the Lure of the Frontier: Civil War Veterans in Dakota Territory. Journal of Military History, 81(1), 75-103.

This paper quantitatively analyzes an 1885 Dakota Territory census to draw larger conclusions about Civil War veterans who migrated to the frontier. A sample of almost 6,000 veterans suggests that a significant percentage experienced some degree of wartime trauma, needed to reestablish themselves socially and economically, and took advantage of what financial security they had when homesteading newly opened territory. They were more likely to move to newly opened counties by themselves rather than with comrades from the war, relying on prior relationships only when moving to more established regions of the frontier where those associations might prove useful.

History Department.

 

Hocking, Elise C.Raluca M. Simons, & Renata J. Surette. (2016). Attachment style as a mediator between childhood maltreatment and the experience of betrayal trauma as an adult. Child Abuse & Neglect, 52, 94-101.

Previous research has demonstrated a positive association between child maltreatment and adult interpersonal trauma (Arata, 2000; Crawford & Wright, 2007). From a betrayal trauma theory perspective, evidence suggests that the experience of trauma high in betrayal (e.g., child maltreatment by parents or guardians) increases ones risk of betrayal trauma as an adult (Gobin & Freyd, 2009). However, the mechanisms explaining these associations are not well understood; attachment theory could provide further insight. Child maltreatment is associated with insecure attachment (Baer & Martinez, 2006; Muller et al., 2000). Insecure attachment is also associated with deficits in interpersonal functioning and risk for intimate partner violence, suggesting insecure attachment may mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and the experience of betrayal trauma as an adult. The current study tested this hypothesis in a sample of 601 college students. Participants completed online questionnaires including the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS), the Experiences in Close Relationships—Revised (ECR-R) and the Brief Betrayal Trauma Survey (BBTS). Results indicated that child maltreatment is associated with adult betrayal trauma and anxious attachment partially mediates this relationship.

Psychology Department.

 

Hong, K., G. L. Zhao, Zhongkui Hong, Z. Sun, Y. Yang, P. S. Clifford, et al. (2016). Mechanical activation of angiotensin II type 1 receptors causes actin remodelling and myogenic responsiveness in skeletal muscle arterioles. Journal of Physiology-London, 594(23), 7027-7047.

The G(q/11) protein-coupled angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) has been shown to be activated by mechanical stimuli. In the vascular system, evidence supports the AT(1)R being a mechanosensor that contributes to arteriolar myogenic constriction. The aim of this study was to determine if AT(1)R mechanoactivation affects myogenic constriction in skeletal muscle arterioles and to determine underlying cellular mechanisms. Using pressure myography to study rat isolated first-order cremaster muscle arterioles the AT(1)R inhibitor candesartan (10(-7)-10(-5) M) showed partial but concentration-dependent inhibition of myogenic reactivity. Inhibition was demonstrated by a rightward shift in the pressure-diameter relationship over the intraluminal pressure range, 30-110 mmHg. Pressure-induced changes in global vascular smooth muscle intracellularCa(2+) (using Fura-2) were similar in the absence or presence of candesartan, indicating that AT(1)R-mediated myogenic constriction relies on Ca2+-independent downstream signalling. The diacylglycerol analogue 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG) reversed the inhibitory effect of candesartan, while this rescue effect was prevented by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF 109203X. Both candesartan and PKC inhibition caused increased G-actin levels, as determined by Western blotting of vessel lysates, supporting involvement of cytoskeletal remodelling. At the single vascular smooth muscle cell level, atomic force microscopy showed that cell swelling (stretch) with hypotonic buffer also caused thickening of cortical actin fibres and this was blocked by candesartan. Collectively, the present studies support growing evidence for novel modes of activation of the AT(1)R in arterioles and suggest that mechanically activated AT(1)R generates diacylglycerol, which in turn activates PKC which induces the actin cytoskeleton reorganization that is required for pressure-induced vasoconstriction.

Biomedical Engineering Department, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Huang, ShupingChoumini Balasanthiran, S. Tretiak, James D. Hoefelmeyer, S. V. Kilina, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2016). Dynamics of charge at water-to-semiconductor interface: Case study of wet 001 anatase TiO2 nanowire. Chemical Physics, 481, 184-190.

The behavior of water molecules on the surfaces of the TiO2 nanowire grown in [001] direction has been investigated by combining theoretical calculations and experiments. Calculated UV-visible absorption spectra reproduce the main features of the experimental spectra. Computations predict that a photoexcitation followed by a sequence of relaxation events results in photoluminescence across the gap. TiO2 nanowires in vacuum and aqueous environment exhibit different dynamics of photo-excited charge carriers. In water, computed relaxation of electrons (holes) is approximately 2 (4) times faster compared with vacuum environment. Faster relaxation of holes vs. electrons and specific spatial localization of holes result to formation of long lived charge transfer excitation with positive charge at the surface of the nanowire. Comparison of relaxation process in TiO2/water interfaces focusing on different surfaces and nanostructures has potential in identifying structural characteristics of TiO2 materials important for efficient photo-electrochemical water splitting. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

 

Jumbe, T., S. S. Comstock, William S. Harris, J. Kinabo, M. B. Pontifex, & J. I. Fenton. (2016). Whole-blood fatty acids are associated with executive function in Tanzanian children aged 4-6 years: a cross-sectional study. British Journal of Nutrition, 116(9), 1537-1545.

Essential fatty acids (EFA) are PUFA that are metabolised to long-chain PUFA and are important for brain development and cognitive function. The objective of this study was to determine the association between whole-blood EFA and cognitive function in Tanzanian children. A total of 325 2-6-year-old children attempted the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) tasks to assess executive function. Blood samples were collected for fatty acid (FA) analysis by GC. Associations between executive function and FA levels were assessed by regression. Among the 130 4-6-year-old children who attempted the DCCS tasks, whole-blood levels of linoleic acid were positively associated with executive function, whereas whole-blood levels of a-linolenic acid and nervonic acid were inversely associated with executive function. A full model including all twenty-five FA explained 38% of the variation in executive function, whereas a reduced model including only the EFA (a-linolenic acid and linoleic acid), DHA and EPA explained 25% of the variation in executive function. Children who had sufficient whole-blood levels of EFA were 3.8 times more likely to successfully complete all DCCS tasks compared with children with insufficient EFA. These results suggest that whole-blood FA levels are associated with cognitive abilities. Intervention trials that include assessment of whole-blood FA levels are required to determine the relationships between intake, blood levels and executive function in Tanzanian children.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Keifer, Joyce, & Cliff H. Summers. (2016). Putting the ‘biology’ back into ‘neurobiology’: The strength of diversity in animal model systems for neuroscience research. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 10(x), x-x.

Current trends in neuroscience research have moved toward a reliance on rodent animal models to study most aspects of brain function. Such laboratory-reared animals are highly inbred, have been disengaged from their natural environments for generations and appear to be of limited predictive value for successful clinical outcomes. In this Perspective article, we argue that research on a rich diversity of animal model systems is fundamental to new discoveries in evolutionarily conserved core physiological and molecular mechanisms that are the foundation of human brain function. Analysis of neural circuits across phyla will reveal general computational solutions that form the basis for adaptive behavioral responses. Further, we stress that development of ethoexperimental approaches to improve our understanding of behavioral nuance will help to realign our research strategies with therapeutic goals and improve the translational validity of specific animal models. Finally, we suggest that neuroscience has a role in environmental conservation of habitat and fauna that will preserve and protect the ecological settings that drive species-specific behavioral adaptations. A rich biodiversity will enhance our understanding of human brain function and lead in unpredicted directions for development of therapeutic treatments for neurological disorders.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Kelly, Shawn C.Shenjing LiTomasz StysPaul A. Thompson, & A.Dam T. Stys. (2016). Reduction in Contrast Nephropathy From Coronary Angiography and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Ultra-Low Contrast Delivery Using an Automated Contrast Injector System. Journal of Invasive Cardiology, 28(11), 446-450.

Objective. To evaluate the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) following coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) utilizing a novel ultra-low contrast delivery (ULCD) technique. Background. Current techniques for reducing contrast volumes during angiographic and PCI procedures require the use of advanced coronary imaging methods, such as intravascular ultrasound and coronary flow wires. We propose the use of the ACIST CVi automated contrast injector system (Bracco Diagnostics) with a novel programming technique that significantly reduces contrast volumes and CIN development. Methods. From 2013 to 2014, a total of 123 patients with stage III or higher chronic kidney disease (CKD) underwent coronary angiography, PCI, or a combined procedure using the ULCD technique. A retrospective analysis was conducted to evaluate contrast volumes and rate of CIN development. Patients developing CIN were compared using tests of proportions. Results. The median contrast volume was 17.9 mL (n = 123). The study cohorts comprised diagnostic (15.2 mL; n = 72), PCI (17.1 mL; n = 30), and PCI + diagnostic groups (27.9 mL; n = 21). The incidence of CIN observed in the entire cohort through day 7 was 3.3% (4/123). Seventy-five percent of the CIN cases occurred following diagnostic angiography alone. Longitudinal follow-up at 21 days identified an additional 5 cases of CIN. Compared to literature data, the ULCD technique delivers less contrast per case. Conclusion. The adaptation of the ULCD technique for coronary procedures significantly reduces contrast volume delivery when compared with conventional practice or previously described low-contrast techniques. The ULCD appears to be an efficacious method of limiting CIN development in a susceptible population with CKD.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Lan, X. Y., C. Zhao, X. Chen, …., X. J. Wang, X. P. Shi, et al. (2016). Nickel pyrithione induces apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia cells resistant to imatinib via both Bcr/Abl-dependent and Bcr/Abl-independent mechanisms. Journal of Hematology & Oncology, 9, 16.

Background: Acquired imatinib (IM) resistance is frequently characterized by Bcr-Abl mutations that affect IM binding and kinase inhibition in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Bcr-Abl-T315I mutation is the predominant mechanism of the acquired resistance to IM. Therefore, it is urgent to search for additional approaches and targeting strategies to overcome IM resistance. We recently reported that nickel pyrithione (NiPT) potently inhibits the ubiquitin proteasome system via targeting the 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (UCHL5 and USP14), without effecting on the 20S proteasome. In this present study, we investigated the effect of NiPT, a novel proteasomal deubiquitinase inhibitor, on cell survival or apoptosis in CML cells bearing Bcr-Abl-T315I or wild-type Bcr-Abl. Methods: Cell viability was examined by MTS assay and trypan blue exclusion staining assay in KBM5, KBM5R, K562, BaF3-p210-WT, BaF3-p210-T315I cells, and CML patients’ bone marrow samples treated with NiPT. Cell apoptosis in CML cells was detected with Annexin V-FITC/PI and rhodamine-123 staining followed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry and with western blot analyses for apoptosis-associated proteins. Expression levels of Bcr-Abl in CML cells were analyzed by using western blotting and real-time PCR. The 20S proteasome peptidase activity was measured using specific fluorogenic substrate. Active-site-directed labeling of proteasomal DUBs, as well as the phosphorylation of USP14 was used for evaluating the inhibition of the DUBs activity by NiPT. Mouse xenograft models of KBM5 and KBM5R cells were analyzed, and Bcr-Abl-related proteins and protein biomarkers related to proliferation, differentiation, and adhesion in tumor tissues were detected by western blots and/or immunohistological analyses. Results: NiPT induced apoptosis in CML cells and inhibited the growth of IM-resistant Bcr-Abl-T315I xenografts in nude mice. Mechanistically, NiPT induced decreases in Bcr-Abl proteins, which were associated with downregulation of Bcr-Abl transcription and with the cleavage of Bcr-Abl protein by activated caspases. NiPT-induced ubiquitin proteasome system inhibition induced caspase activation in both IM-resistant and IM-sensitive CML cells, and the caspase activation was required for NiPT-induced Bcr-Abl downregulation and apoptotic cell death. Conclusions: These findings support that NiPT can overcome IM resistance through both Bcr-Abl-dependent and Bcr-Abl-independent mechanisms, providing potentially a new option for CML treatment.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Landeen, Laurie B.Elizabeth M. HultgrenTaylor M. Kapsch, & Paul W. Mallory. (2016). Vaginal cuff dehiscence: a randomized trial comparing robotic vaginal cuff closure methods. Journal of Robotic Surgery, 10(4), 337-341.

The purpose of this study is to compare the rate of vaginal cuff dehiscence between two different methods of closure in patients undergoing robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy and explore variables related to postoperative breakdown. This was a prospective, randomized controlled study with two arms. The control group (Arm 1) underwent single-layer continuous closure while the study group (Arm 2) had three additional imbricating figure-of-X sutures placed in addition to the standard protocol. Of the 263 patients who completed the study, 4 patients (1.49 %) experienced dehiscence of the vaginal cuff. Three of the four patients with dehiscence received the standard single vaginal cuff closure (Arm 1) and the one remaining case of dehiscence underwent the protocol with additional sutures (Arm 2). All patients who experienced dehiscence were current smokers. Our study suggests that there may be benefit in adding additional sutures to the standard single-layer vaginal cuff closure procedure. Physicians should evaluate smoking status before deciding on a vaginal cuff closure method.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Lonsdale, Damian J. (2017). Intentions to Cheat: Ajzen’s Planned Behavior and Goal-Related Personality Facets. Journal of Psychology, 151(2), 113-129.

This study sought to test antecedents to college students’ intentions to cheat by utilizing Ajzen’s (1991) theory of planned behavior (TPB), and four goal-related personality facets. Those facets were behavioral approach, behavioral inhibition, need for achievement-hope of success, and need for achievement-fear of failure. As hypothesized, perceived friends’ and parents’ attitudes toward academic dishonesty (two subjective norms) and perceived ease of cheating (perceived behavioral control) all positively predicted overall intentions to cheat. Perceived friends’ attitudes seemed to play a more influential role than perceived parents’ attitudes. Interestingly, male students reported greater parental acceptance of academic misconduct than female students reported. Among the personality facets, behavioral approach and need for achievement-hope of success were positive and negative predictors of cheating intentions, respectively. A more finegrained examination of take-home assignments revealed that students considered them easier to cheat on and reported greater intentions to cheat on them in comparison to other forms of academic work (e.g., exams and papers). Also, need for achievement-fear of failure positively predicted intentions to cheat on take-home assignments, but not other cheating intentions. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Nan, Jiang. (2017). ON THE CONVERGENCE OF β-SCHEMES. International Journal of Numerical Analysis & Modeling, 14(1), 103-125.

Yang’s wavewise entropy inequality [19] is verified for β-schemes which, when m = 2 and under a mild technique condition, guarantees the convergence of the schemes to the entropy solutions of convex conservation laws in one-dimensional scalar case. These schemes, constructed by S. Osher and S. Chakravarthy [13], are based on unwinding principle and use E-schemes as building blocks with simple flux limiters, without which all of them are even linearly unstable. The total variation diminishing property of these methods was established in the original work of S. Osher and S. Chakravarthy.

Mathematics Department.

 

Rosenfeld, Silvana A., & Matthew P. Sayre. (2016). LLAMAS ON THE LAND: PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF MEAT AT CHAVIN DE HUANTAR, PERU. Latin American Antiquity, 27(4), 497-511.

Chavin de Huantar is a Formative-period site (broadly 1500-200 B.C.) in the Peruvian Andes known for its highly complex art and monumental architecture. Recent excavations in the La Banda sector uncovered domestic settlements. The zooarchaeological analysis demonstrates that meat was locally produced and many bone tools were manufactured in this sector. These results contrast with previous faunal analysis from other parts of the site in which it was argued that dry camelid meat on the bone (ch’arki) was traded in exchange for local crops. The local economy of Chavin de Huantar was complex, showing different economic strategies across the site. While there is abundant evidence for the trade of lightweight exotic goods at the site (seashells, marine bone, obsidian, and cinnabar), the subsistence economy was locally focused.

Social Behavior Department.

 

Rudolph, M. C., B. E. Young, K. H. Jackson, N. F. Krebs, William S. Harris, & P. S. Maclean. (2016). Human Milk Fatty Acid Composition: Comparison of Novel Dried Milk Spot Versus Standard Liquid Extraction Methods. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, 21(3-4), 131-138.

Accurate assessment of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) content of human milk (HM) provides a powerful means to evaluate the FA nutrient status of breastfed infants. The conventional standard for FA composition analysis of HM is liquid extraction, trans-methylation, and analyte detection resolved by gas chromatography. This standard approach requires fresh or frozen samples, storage in deep freeze, organic solvents, and specialized equipment in processing and analysis. Further, HM collection is often impractical for many studies in the free living environment, particularly for studies in developing countries. In the present study, we compare a novel and more practical approach to sample collection and processing that involves the spotting and drying similar to 50 mu L of HM on a specialized paper stored and transported at ambient temperatures until analysis. Deming regression indicated the two methods aligned very well for all LC-PUFA and the abundant HM FA. Additionally, strong correlations (r > 0.85) were observed for DHA, ARA, EPA, linoleic (LA), and alpha-linolenic acids (ALA), which are of particular interest to the health of the developing infant. Taken together, our data suggest this more practical and inexpensive method of collection, storage, and transport of HM milk samples could dramatically facilitate studies of HM, as well as understanding its lipid composition influences on human health and development.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Schwebach, A., & Jennifer Ball. (2016). Urine Drug Screening Minimizing False-Positives and False-Negatives to Optimize Patient Care. Us Pharmacist, 41(8), 26-30.

Urine drug screening is a common way to test for compliance with medications having high abuse potential. False-negatives and false-positives from immunoassays can lead to adverse consequences for patients and providers. By identifying medications that contribute to false-negatives and false-positives, pharmacists decrease misinterpretations from urine drug screens. Unexpected results from urine immunoassays should have a confirmatory gas chromatography-mass spectrometry or a high-performance liquid chromatography test performed. Pharmacists can provide guidance in selecting appropriate drug therapies that are less likely to cause false readings, thus decreasing the need for additional testing.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Shaikh, K.S. KellyM. GedelaV. KumarA. Stys, & T. Stys. (2016). Novel Use of an Orbital Atherectomy Device for In-Stent Restenosis: Lessons Learned. Case Reports in Cardiology, 4.

We present a case of a 67-year-old man with stage III chronic kidney disease, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and high surgical risk who presented with two episodes of acute coronary syndrome attributed to in-stent restenosis (ISR) associated with heavily calcified lesions. In this case, we were able to improve luminal patency with orbital atherectomy system (OAS); however, withdrawal of the device resulted in a device/stent interaction, causing failure of the device. Given limitations in current evidence and therapies, managing ISR can be a technical and cognitive challenge. Balloon expansion of the affected region often provides unsatisfactory results, possibly related to significant calcium burden. OAS could be an efficacious way of reestablishing luminal patency in ISR lesions, as these lesions are often heavily calcified.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Tjarks, B. Joel, Najwa Somani, Melissa Piliang, & Wilma F. Bergfeld. (2017). A proposed classification for follicular involvement by melanoma. Journal of Cutaneous Pathology, 44(1), 45-52.

Background Folliculotropism in melanoma is poorly characterized and standard categorization for follicular involvement by melanoma is unavailable. We propose a logical categorization system. Methods We conducted a search of our archives over a 24-year period for cases mentioning the terms follicle, follicular, folliculotropic, folliculocentric and melanoma. Results We identified 90 cases of melanoma with involvement of the hair follicle. Distinct patterns were identified. The invasive patterns were primary follicular, folliculotropic and invasive arising from melanoma in situ ( MIS) with extensive follicular involvement. Follicular involvement by MIS was either lentiginous, nested or a combination of both. A total of 29 invasive melanomas were identified. Of these 12 had invasive melanoma around the hair follicle, 2 were primary follicular melanomas, 7 showed folliculotropism and 3 were invasive melanomas arising from MIS around the follicle. Seventeen invasive melanomas had follicles only involved by MIS (9 nested, 6 nested and lentiginous and 2 lentiginous). A total of 61 cases of MIS with follicular involvement were identified; of these 33 were lentiginous, 10 nested and 18 both lentiginous and nested. Conclusion We propose that the three distinct patterns of follicular involvement by invasive melanoma and the three distinct patterns of MIS will be valuable for logically categorizing involvement of the hair follicle by melanoma.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Venkatesan, S., J. Y. Sun, L. J. Zhang, A. Dubey, Andrew Sykes, T. Y. Lin, et al. (2016). An oligothiophene chromophore with a macrocyclic side chain: synthesis, morphology, charge transport, and photovoltaic performance. Rsc Advances, 6(104), 102043-102056.

An oligothiophene chromophore RingBDT(T(3)A)(2) has been synthesized, where BDT is benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene, Ring is a 1,12-dodecylenedioxy cyclic side chain on the benzene of BDT, T-3 is 2,2′:5′,2 ”-terthiophene, and A is an electron acceptor. In single crystals, the immediate precursor of RingBDT(T(3)A)(2) formed pi-dimers and the ring prevented further p-stacking of the dimers. A differential scanning calorimetry study showed that BDT(T(3)A)(2), the ringless analog with two 2-ethylhexyloxy side chains on BDT, crystallized quickly from its melt upon cooling, while crystallization of RingBDT(T(3)A)(2) melt upon cooling was slow and incomplete. Interestingly, RingBDT(T(3)A)(2) solid crystallized fast at similar to 110 degrees C upon heating, but its thin films (200 nm) remained amorphous after annealing at 80 degrees C. Despite the amorphous nature, the hole mobility of RingBDT(T(3)A)(2) films (1.52 x 10(-3) cm(2) V-1 s(-1)) was 144% higher than that of the highly crystalline BDT(T(3)A)(2) films (200-80 nm). Solar cells were fabricated from blends of the chromophores and phenyl-C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM). Thermal annealing at 100 degrees C for 10 minutes enhanced chromophore p-p interaction, and improved device fill factor and efficiency for the RingBDT(T(3)A)(2) blend solar cells, while retaining the amorphous nature of blend. In stark contrast, thermal annealing under the same conditions caused the efficiency of BDT(T(3)A)(2) cell efficiency to drop by 82%. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of using a macrocyclic side chain as a strategy for developing amorphous molecular semiconducting materials with improved mobility and morphological stability.

Chemistry Department.

 

Yao, QingqingYangxi Liu, J. N. Tao, K. M. Baumgarten, & Hongli Sun. (2016). Hypoxia-Mimicking Nanofibrous Scaffolds Promote Endogenous Bone Regeneration. Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces, 8(47), 32450-32459.

Utilizing biomimetic materials to potentiate endogenous cell growth or signaling is superior to relying on exogenous cells or signals for bone formation. Desferoxamine (DFO), which is a hypoxia-mimetic agent that chelates iron (Fe3+), mimics hypoxia to encourage bone healing. However, high cytotoxicity, off-target effects, and the short half-life of DFO have significantly impeded its further applications. We mitigated these side effects by locally immobilizing DFO onto a gelatin nanofibrous (GF) scaffold that retained DFO’s ability to chelate Fe3+. Moreover, DFO-functionalized GF (GF-DFO) scaffolds, which have similar micro/macrostructures to GF scaffolds, not only demonstrated decreased cytotoxicity on both human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human mesenchymal stem cells but also significantly increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in vitro. Most importantly, in our in vivo experiments on a critical-sized cranial bone defect mouse model, a significant amount of bone was formed in most of the GF-DFO scaffolds after six weeks, while very little new bone was observed in the GF scaffolds. These data suggest that use of a hypoxia-mimicking nanofibrous scaffold is a promising strategy for promoting endogenous bone formation.

Biomedical Engineering Department, Sioux Falls Campus.

Posted by: tadeterman | January 17, 2017

December 2016

Bonilla, J. O., Eduardo A. Callegari, C. D. Delfini, M. C. Estevez, & L. B. Villegas. (2016). Simultaneous chromate and sulfate removal by Streptomyces sp MC1. Changes in intracellular protein profile induced by Cr(VI). Journal of Basic Microbiology, 56(11), 1212-1221.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of increasing sulfate concentrations on chromium removal, to evaluate the effect of the presence of Cr(VI) on sulfate removal by Streptomyces sp. MC1 and to analyze the differential protein expression profile in the presence of this metal for the identification of proteins repressed or overexpressed. In the presence of Cr(VI) but in the absence of sulfate ions, bacterial growth was negligible, showing the Cr(VI) toxicity for this bacterium. However, the sulfate presence stimulated bacterium growth and Cr(VI) removal, regardless of its concentrations. Streptomyces sp. MC1 showed ability to remove chromium and sulfate simultaneously. Also, the sulfate presence favored the decrease of total chromium concentration from supernatants reaching a decrease of 50% at 48h. In presence of chromium, seven proteins were down-expressed and showed homology to proteins involved in protein biosynthesis, energy production and free radicals detoxification while two proteins involved in oxidation-reduction processes identified as dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase and S-adenosyl-l-methionine synthase were overexpressed.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Chaudhary, R., K. Saadin, K. P. Bliden, William S. Harris, B. Dinh, T. Sharma, U. S. Tantry, & P. A. Gurbel. (2016). Risk factors associated with plasma omega-3 fatty acid levels in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 113, 40-45.

Introduction: We sought to determine the associations between plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and various cardiovascular risk factors and with the use of fish oil supplements (FOS). Patients and methods: Patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing cardiac catheterization (n = 433) were studied. Serum fatty acid (FA) composition, the concentrations of lipids and biomarkers of oxidative stress, and dietary/lifestyle factors were measured. Results: FOS use was associated with a higher plasma EPA+DHA levels (3.7 +/- 1.5 vs. 2.6 +/- 1.1%, p < 0.0001). However, there was no relationship between FOS dose (mg/day) and EPA+DHA levels in 76 patients reporting FOS use (r = -0.21, p = 0.07). Lower levels were inversely associated with risk factor profiles including lower ApoB100/ApoA1 ratios (p < 0.001). Discussion and conclusions: Higher EPA+DHA levels characterized patients with lower CAD risk. The lack of relations between FOS dose and plasma EPA+DHA levels likely reflects uncaptured variability in EPA+DHA content of supplements. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Chiang, J. Y., Y. L. Lio, & T. R. Tsai. (2016). Empirical Bayesian Strategy for Sampling Plans with Warranty Under Truncated Censoring. International Journal of Reliability QChiauality & Safety Engineering, 23(5), 15.

To reach an optimal acceptance sampling decision for products, whose lifetimes are Burr type XII distribution, sampling plans are developed with a rebate warranty policy based on truncated censored data. The smallest sample size and acceptance number are determined to minimize the expected total cost, which consists of the test cost, experimental time cost, the cost of lot acceptance or rejection, and the warranty cost. A new method, which combines a simple empirical Bayesian method and the genetic algorithm (GA) method, named the EB-GA method, is proposed to estimate the unknown distribution parameter and hyper-parameters. The parameters of the GA are determined through using an optimal Taguchi design procedure to reduce the subjectivity of parameter determination. An algorithm is presented to implement the EB-GA method. The application of the proposed method is illustrated by an example. Monte Carlo simulation results show that the EB-GA method works well for parameter estimation in terms of small bias and mean square error.

Mathematics Department.

 

Collins, B., J. Z. Williams, Heather Karu, J. P. Hodde, V. A. Martin, & G. C. Gurtner. (2016). Nipple Reconstruction with the Biodesign Nipple Reconstruction Cylinder: A Prospective Clinical Study. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery-Global Open, 4(8), 6.

Background: Nipple reconstruction is the last stage in cosmetic reconstruction of the breast after mastectomy, but no method produces reliable and consistent aesthetic results. This study examined the use of the Biodesign Nipple Reconstruction Cylinder (NRC) during reconstruction of the nipple after mastectomy. Methods: Patients with a history of breast cancer and mastectomy desiring nipple reconstruction were invited to participate. After obtaining consent, unilateral or bilateral nipple reconstruction was performed. Skin flaps were raised, the NRC was placed beneath the flaps as a stent, and the site was protected for up to 4 weeks with a nipple shield. Nipple projection was measured for 12 months after surgery. Patient satisfaction was measured and adverse events were recorded. Follow-up examinations were performed at 1 week, and then at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Results: Eighty-two nipple reconstructions were performed in 50 patients. Related postoperative adverse events were minor, but reported in 8 reconstructions (9.8%) representing 7 patients (14.0%). Average projection at 6 and 12 months was 4.1 +/- 1.6 mm and 3.8 +/- 1.5 mm, respectively, compared with 10.5 +/- 2.2 mm 1 week after surgery. Of patients completing the satisfaction questionnaire at 12 months, 70/75 (93.3%) of reconstructions were rated “pleased” or “very pleased” with the overall outcome. Overall, 45/46 (97.8%) patients would recommend nipple reconstruction to other women. Conclusions: The Biodesign NRC offers a safe alternative to nipple reconstruction, resulting in stable projection and a high level of patient satisfaction for 12 months after placement.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Dellinger, Mayanna. (2016). An “Act of God”? Rethinking Contractual Impracticability in an Era of Anthropogenic Climate Change. Hastings Law Journal, 67(6), 1551-1619.

“Extreme” weather has become the new normal. Previously considered to be inexplicable and unpredictable “acts of God,” such weather can no longer reasonably be said to be so. They are acts of man. The current doctrine of contractual impracticability rests on the notion that a party may be exculpated from contractual liability if supervening events render a performance impracticable, unless they have implicitly or explicitly assumed the risk. To a large extent, courts still consider the foreseeability of the event and an a party’s ability to control it. However, it makes little logical or legal sense to continue to allow parties to escape liability for weather events that are in fact highly foreseeable given today’s knowledge about the causes and effects of severe weather. Some parties may even be found to have had some “control” of the development of the weather event and thus not be able to avoid liability. This Article proposes taking a new, hard look at the doctrine of impracticability and the closely related doctrine of frustration of purpose. By modernizing these doctrines to reflect current on-the-ground reality, the judiciary may further help instigate a broader awareness of the underlying problem and need for corrective action against climate change at both the private and governance scales. Meanwhile, a more equitable risk-sharing framework should be implemented where contracting parties have failed to reach a sufficiently detailed antecedent agreement on the issue. The law is never static. It must reflect real world phenomena. Climate change is a highly complex problem requiring attention and legal solutions for many problems including contractual performance liability. The general public is often said to have lost faith in the judiciary. Given this perception, courts could regain some of that faith in the context of events for which no “God,” other supernatural power, or even nature can be blamed.

School of Law.

 

Dempers, J. J., J. Coldrey, E. H. Burger, …., Brad B. Randall, R. D. Folkerth, H. C. Kinney, & Pass Network. (2016). The Institution of a Standardized Investigation Protocol for Sudden Infant Death in the Eastern Metropole, Cape Town, South Africa. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 61(6), 1508-1514.

The rate for the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in Cape Town, South Africa, is estimated to be among the highest in the world (3.41/1000 live births). In several of these areas, including those of extreme poverty, only sporadic, nonstandardized infant autopsy, and death scene investigation (DSI) occurred. In this report, we detail a feasibility project comprising 18 autopsied infants with sudden and unexpected death whose causes of death were adjudicated according to the 1991 NICHD definitions (SIDS, n = 7; known cause of death, n = 7; and unclassified, n = 4). We instituted a standardized autopsy and infant DSI through a collaborative effort of local forensic pathology officers and clinical providers. The high standard of forensic investigation met international standards, identified preventable disease, and allowed for incorporation of research. We conclude that an effective infant autopsy and DSI protocol can be established in areas with both high sudden unexpected infant death, and elsewhere. (SUID)/SIDS risk and infrastructure challenges.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Haynes, R. L., R. D. Folkerth, D. S. Paterson, K. G. Broadbelt, S. D. Zaharie, R. H. Hewlett, J. J. Dempers, E. Burger, S. Wadee, P. Schubert, C. Wright, M. A. Sens, Laura NelsenBradley B. Randall, H. Tran, E. Geldenhuys, A. J. Elliott, H. J. Odendaal, H. C. Kinney, & Pass Network. (2016). Serotonin Receptors in the Medulla Oblongata of the Human Fetus and Infant: The Analytic Approach of the International Safe Passage Study. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, 75(11), 1048-1057.

The Safe Passage Study is an international, prospective study of approximately 12 000 pregnancies to determine the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) upon stillbirth and the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). A key objective of the study is to elucidate adverse effects of PAE upon binding to serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptors in brainstem homeostatic networks postulated to be abnormal in unexplained stillbirth and/or SIDS. We undertook a feasibility assessment of 5-HT1A receptor binding using autoradiography in the medulla oblongata (6 nuclei in 27 cases). 5-HT1A binding was compared to a reference dataset from the San Diego medical examiner’s system. There was no adverse effect of postmortem interval <= 100 h. The distribution and quantitated values of 5-HT1A binding in Safe Passage Study cases were essentially identical to those in the reference dataset, and virtually identical between stillbirths and live born fetal cases in grossly non-macerated tissues. The pattern of binding was present at mid-gestation with dramatic changes in binding levels in the medullary 5-HT nuclei over the second half of gestation; there was a plateau at lower levels in the neonatal period and into infancy. This study demonstrates feasibility of 5-HT1A binding analysis in the medulla in the Safe Passage Study.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Ikiugu, Moses N., Ashley K. Hoyme, Brittany Mueller, & Rochelle R. Reinke. (2016). Difference between meaningful and psychologically rewarding occupations: Findings from two pilot studies. Journal of Occupational Science, 23(2), 266-277.

Introduction: Meaningful occupations are hypothesized to be healing because they activate the dopaminergic neural pathways in the brain. We investigated whether: 1) self-selected meaningful occupations activated the dopaminergic neural pathways; and 2) there were differences in the categories of occupations that were perceived by study participants to be; a) meaningful, b) psychologically rewarding (likely to activate the dopaminergic or reward neural pathways), and/or c) both meaningful and psychologically rewarding. Method: In study number one, participants’ brains were scanned on fMRI while they watched themselves engaging in various types of occupations. In study number two we used the Experience sampling method and Repeated Measures designs. Findings: Self-selected meaningful occupations did not activate the reward neural pathways as hypothesized. Occupational category had an effect on mood and meaningfulness. Fun occupations elicited the most positive mood, especially when they were mentally stimulating and were performed with other people. Conclusion: Occupations that were both meaningful and psychologically rewarding were mentally stimulating and fostered connection with other people. Psychologically rewarding occupations tended to be perceived as fun, while physically stimulating occupations were perceived as meaningful. A larger study with a more representative sample will be conducted in an attempt to verify these findings.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Lamichhane, Sujan, Jordan Anderson, T. Remund, P. Kelly, & Gopinath Mani. (2016). Dextran sulfate as a drug delivery platform for drug-coated balloons: Preparation, characterization, in vitro drug elution, and smooth muscle cell response. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B-Applied Biomaterials, 104(7), 1416-1430.

Drug-coated balloons (DCBs) have now emerged as a promising approach to treat peripheral artery disease. However, a significant amount of drug from the balloon surface is lost during balloon tracking and results in delivering only a subtherapeutic dose of drug at the diseased site. Hence, in this study, the use of dextran sulfate (DS) polymer was investigated as a platform to control the drug release from balloons. An antiproliferative drug, paclitaxel (PAT), was incorporated into DS films (PAT-DS). The characterizations using SEM, FT-IR, and DSC showed that the films prepared were smooth and homogenous with PAT molecularly dispersed in the bulk of DS matrix in amorphous form. An investigation on the interaction of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with control-DS and PAT-DS films showed that both films inhibited SMC growth, with a superior inhibitory effect observed for PAT-DS films. PAT-DS coatings were then produced on balloon catheters. The integrity of coatings was well-maintained when the balloons were either deflated or inflated. In this study, up to 2.2 mu g/mm(2) of PAT was loaded on the balloons using the DS platform. Drug elution studies showed that only 10 to 20% of the total PAT loaded was released from the PAT-DS coated balloons during the typical time period of balloon tracking (1 min) and then approximate to 80% of the total PAT loaded was released during the typical time period of balloon inflation and treatment (from 1 min to 4 min). Thus, this study demonstrated the use of DS as a platform to control drug delivery from balloons. (c) 2015 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1416-1430, 2016.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Liu, J., M. Yamashita, & A. K. Soma. (2016). Light yield of an undoped CsI crystal coupled directly to a photomultiplier tube at 77 Kelvin. Journal of Instrumentation, 11, 18.

A light yield of 20.4 +/- 0.8 photoelectrons/keV was achieved with an undoped CsI crystal coupled directly to a photomultiplier tube at 77 Kelvin. This is by far the largest yield in the world achieved with CsI crystals. An energy threshold that is several times lower than the current dark matter experiments utilizing CsI(Tl) crystals may be achievable using this technique. Together with novel CsI crystal purification methods, the technique may be used to improve the sensitivities of dark matter and coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments. Also measured were the scintillation light decay constants of the undoped CsI crystal at both room temperature and 77 Kelvin. The results are consistent with those in the literature.

Physics Department.

 

Ragsdale, A. K., B. M. Frederick, D. W. Dukes, Andrea L. Liebl, K. G. Ashton, E. D. McCoy, H. R. Mushinsky, & A. W. Schrey. (2016). Fire Increases Genetic Diversity of Populations of Six-Lined Racerunner. Journal of Heredity, 107(7), 654-659.

Wildfires are highly variable and can disturb habitats, leading to direct and indirect effects on the genetic characteristics of local populations. Florida scrub is a fire-dependent, highly fragmented, and severely threatened habitat. Understanding the effect of fire on genetic characteristics of the species that use this habitat is critically important. We investigated one such lizard, the Six-lined Racerunner (Aspidoscelis sexlineata), which has a strong preference for open areas. We collected Six-lined Racerunners (n = 154) from 11 sites in Highlands County, FL, and defined 2 time-since-last-fire (TSF) categories: recently burned and long unburned. We screened genetic variation at 6 microsatellites to estimate genetic differentiation and compare genetic diversity among sites to determine the relationship with TSF. A clear pattern exists between genetic diversity and TSF in the absence of strong genetic differentiation. Genetic diversity was greater and inbreeding was lower in sites with more recent TSF, and genetic characteristics had significantly larger variance in long unburned sites compared with more recently burned sites. Our results suggest that fire suppression increases variance in genetic characteristics of the Six-lined Racerunner. More generally, fire may benefit genetic characteristics of some species that use fire-dependent habitats and management efforts for such severely fragmented habitat will be challenged by the presence of multiple species with incompatible fire preferences.

Biology Department.

 

Solanki, Rajeshwan R., Jamie L. Scholl, Michael J. Watt, Kenneth J. Renner, & Gina L. Forster. (2016). Amphetamine Withdrawal Differentially Increases the Expression of Organic Cation Transporter 3 and Serotonin Transporter in Limbic Brain Regions. Journal of Experimental Neuroscience, 10, 93-100.

Amphetamine withdrawal increases anxiety and stress sensitivity related to blunted ventral hippocampus (vHipp) and enhances the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) serotonin responses. Extracellular serotonin levels are regulated by the serotonin transporter (SERT) and organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3), and vHipp OCT3 expression is enhanced during 24 hours of amphetamine withdrawal, while SERT expression is unaltered. Here, we tested whether OCT3 and SERT expression in the CeA is also affected during acute withdrawal to explain opposing regional alterations in limbic serotonergic neurotransmission and if respective changes continued with two weeks of withdrawal. We also determined whether changes in transporter expression were confined to these regions. Male rats received amphetamine or saline for two weeks followed by 24 hours or two weeks of withdrawal, with transporter expression measured using Western immunoblot. OCT3 and SERT expression increased in the CeA at both withdrawal timepoints. In the vHipp, OCT3 expression increased only at 24 hours of withdrawal, with an equivalent pattern seen in the dorsomedial hypothalamus. No changes were evident in any other regions sampled. These regionally specific changes in limbic OCT3 and SERT expression may partially contribute to the serotonergic imbalance and negative affect during amphetamine withdrawal.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Wang, Xiao-Tian, Rui Zheng, Yan-Han Xuan, Jie Chen, & Shu Li. (2016). Not All Risks Are Created Equal: A Twin Study and Meta-Analyses of Risk Taking Across Seven Domains. Journal of Experimental Psychology-General, 145(11), 1548-1560.

Humans routinely deal with both traditional and novel risks. Different kinds of risks have been a driving force for both evolutionary adaptations and personal development. This study explored the genetic and environmental influences on human risk taking in different task domains. Our approach was threefold. First, we integrated several scales of domain-specific risk-taking propensity and developed a synthetic scale, including both evolutionarily typical and modern risks in the following 7 domains: cooperation/competition, safety, reproduction, natural/physical risk, moral risk, financial risk, and gambling. Second, we conducted a twin study using the scale to estimate the contributions of genes and environment to risk taking in each of these 7 domains. Third, we conducted a series of meta-analyses of extant twin studies across the 7 risk domains. The results showed that individual differences in risk-taking propensity and its consistency across domains were mainly regulated by additive genetic influences and individually unique environmental experiences. The heritability estimates from the meta-analyses ranged from 29% in financial risk taking to 55% in safety. Supporting the notion of risk-domain specificity, both the behavioral and genetic correlations among the 7 domains were generally low. Among the relatively few correlations between pairs of risk domains, our analysis revealed a common genetic factor that regulates moral, financial, and natural/physical risk taking. This is the first effort to separate genetic and environmental influences on risk taking across multiple domains in a single study and integrate the findings of extant twin studies via a series of meta-analyses conducted in different task domains.

Psychology Department.

 

Wei, W. Z., J. Liu, & D. M. Mei. (2016). Discrimination of nuclear and electronic recoil events using plasma effect in germanium detectors. Journal of Instrumentation, 11, 17.

We report a new method of using the plasma time difference, which results from the plasma effect, between the nuclear and electronic recoil events in high-purity germanium detectors to distinguish these two types of events in the search for rare physics processes. The physics mechanism of the plasma effect is discussed in detail. A numerical model is developed to calculate the plasma time for nuclear and electronic recoils at various energies in germanium detectors. It can be shown that under certain conditions the plasma time difference is large enough to be observable. The experimental aspects in realizing such a discrimination in germanium detectors is discussed.

Physics Department.

 

Zhao, C., X. Chen, D. Zang, …., X. Wang, & J. Liu. (2016). A novel nickel complex works as a proteasomal deubiquitinase inhibitor for cancer therapy. Oncogene, 35(45), 5916-5927.

Based on the central role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in the degradation of cellular proteins, proteasome inhibition has been considered an attractive approach for anticancer therapy. Deubiquitinases (DUBs) remove ubiquitin conjugates from diverse substrates; therefore, they are essential regulators of the UPS. DUB inhibitors, especially the inhibitors of proteasomal DUBs are becoming a research hotspot in targeted cancer therapy. Previous studies have shown that metal complexes, such as copper and zinc complexes, can induce cancer cell apoptosis through inhibiting UPS function. Moreover, we have found that copper pyrithione inhibits both 19S proteasome-associated DUBs and 20S proteasome activity with a mechanism distinct from that of the classical 20S proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. In the present study, we reveal that (i) nickel pyrithione complex (NiPT) potently inhibits the UPS via targeting the 19S proteasome-associated DUBs (UCHL5 and USP14), without effecting on the 20S proteasome; (ii) NiPT selectively induces proteasome inhibition and apoptosis in cultured tumor cells and cancer cells from acute myeloid leukemia human patients; and (iii) NiPT inhibits proteasome function and tumor growth in nude mice. This study, for the first time, uncovers a nickel complex as an effective inhibitor of the 19S proteasomal DUBs and suggests a potentially new strategy for cancer treatment.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Hahn, Christine K.Jill M. Morris, & Gerard A. Jacobs. (2016). Predictors of bystander behaviors and sexual assertiveness among college women attending a sexual assault prevention program. Journal of Community Psychology.

Identifying predictors of bystander behaviors and sexual assertiveness can help to inform sexual assault prevention programs on college campuses. College sorority members (N = 141) completed measures of sexual assault history, rape myth acceptance, bystander self‐efficacy, sexual assertiveness, and bystander behaviors before attending The Women’s Program, which is a bystander‐based sexual assault prevention program. Regression analyses were conducted. Lower rape myth acceptance and greater bystander self‐efficacy predicted more engagement in bystander behaviors and higher sexual assertiveness. A total of 28 participants completed a 2‐week follow‐up survey that included measures of rape myth acceptance, bystander self‐efficacy, and sexual assertiveness. T‐test analyses were conducted. Rape myth acceptance was significantly lower among participants at 2‐week follow‐up compared to baseline. Implications for sexual assault prevention on college campuses are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Psychology Department.

 

Hong, Kwangseok, Guiling Zhao, Zhongkui Hong, Zhe Sun, Yan Yang, Philip S. Clifford, Michael J. Davis, Gerald A. Meininger, & Michael A. Hill. (2016). Mechanical activation of angiotensin II type 1 receptors causes actin remodelling and myogenic responsiveness in skeletal muscle arterioles. Journal of Physiology, 594(23), 7027-7047.

The Gq/11 protein-coupled angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) has been shown to be activated by mechanical stimuli. In the vascular system, evidence supports the AT1R being a mechanosensor that contributes to arteriolar myogenic constriction. The aim of this study was to determine if AT1R mechanoactivation affects myogenic constriction in skeletal muscle arterioles and to determine underlying cellular mechanisms. Using pressure myography to study rat isolated first-order cremaster muscle arterioles the AT1R inhibitor candesartan (10−7-10−5 m) showed partial but concentration-dependent inhibition of myogenic reactivity. Inhibition was demonstrated by a rightward shift in the pressure-diameter relationship over the intraluminal pressure range, 30-110 mmHg. Pressure-induced changes in global vascular smooth muscle intracellular Ca2+ (using Fura-2) were similar in the absence or presence of candesartan, indicating that AT1R-mediated myogenic constriction relies on Ca2+-independent downstream signalling. The diacylglycerol analogue 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG) reversed the inhibitory effect of candesartan, while this rescue effect was prevented by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF 109203X. Both candesartan and PKC inhibition caused increased G-actin levels, as determined by Western blotting of vessel lysates, supporting involvement of cytoskeletal remodelling. At the single vascular smooth muscle cell level, atomic force microscopy showed that cell swelling (stretch) with hypotonic buffer also caused thickening of cortical actin fibres and this was blocked by candesartan. Collectively, the present studies support growing evidence for novel modes of activation of the AT1R in arterioles and suggest that mechanically activated AT1R generates diacylglycerol, which in turn activates PKC which induces the actin cytoskeleton reorganization that is required for pressure-induced vasoconstriction.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Huang, ShupingChoumini Balasanthiran, Sergei Tretiak, James D. Hoefelmeyer, Svetlana V. Kilina, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2016). Dynamics of charge at water-to-semiconductor interface: Case study of wet [0 0 1] anatase TiO2 nanowire. Chemical Physics, 481, 184-190.

The behavior of water molecules on the surfaces of the TiO 2 nanowire grown in [0 0 1] direction has been investigated by combining theoretical calculations and experiments. Calculated UV–visible absorption spectra reproduce the main features of the experimental spectra. Computations predict that a photoexcitation followed by a sequence of relaxation events results in photoluminescence across the gap. TiO 2 nanowires in vacuum and aqueous environment exhibit different dynamics of photo-excited charge carriers. In water, computed relaxation of electrons (holes) is approximately 2 (4) times faster compared with vacuum environment. Faster relaxation of holes vs. electrons and specific spatial localization of holes result to formation of long lived charge transfer excitation with positive charge at the surface of the nanowire. Comparison of relaxation process in TiO 2 /water interfaces focusing on different surfaces and nanostructures has potential in identifying structural characteristics of TiO 2 materials important for efficient photo-electrochemical water splitting.

Chemistry Department.

 

McDougall, Matthew A.Michael WalshKristina WattierRyan KniggeLindsey Miller,Michalene Stevermer, & Bruce S. Fogas. (2016). The effect of social networking sites on the relationship between perceived social support and depression.Psychiatry Research, 246, 223-229.

This study examined whether Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have a negative moderator effect on the established relationship between perceived social support and depression in psychiatric inpatients. Survey instruments assessing for depression, perceived social support, and SNS use, were filled out by 301 psychiatric inpatients. Additional data on age, gender, and primary psychiatric diagnosis were collected. A step-wise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine significant interactions. There was no significant interaction of SNS use on the relationship between perceived social support and depression when measured by Social Media Use Integration Scale or by hours of SNS use per day. There was a significant negative relationship between perceived social support and depression, and a significant positive relationship between hours of SNS use per day and depression, measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Limitations include a gender discrepancy among participants, generalizability, recall bias, and SNS measurement. This is the first study to look at SNS use and depression in psychiatric inpatients. SNS use did not affect perceived social support or the protective relationship between perceived social support and depression. Hours of SNS use per day were correlated with depression scores. Future studies between SNS use and depression should quantify daily SNS use.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Rezvani, Khosrow. (2016). UBXD Proteins: A Family of Proteins with Diverse Functions in Cancer. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 17(10), 18.

The UBXD family is a diverse group of UBX (ubiquitin-regulatory X) domain-containing proteins in mammalian cells. Members of this family contain a UBX domain typically located at the carboxyl-terminal of the protein. In contrast to the UBX domain shared by all members of UBXD family, the amino-terminal domains are diverse and appear to carry out different roles in a subcellular localization-dependent manner. UBXD proteins are principally associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they positively or negatively regulate the ER-associated degradation machinery (ERAD). The distinct protein interaction networks of UBXD proteins allow them to have specific functions independent of the ERAD pathway in a cell type- and tissue context-dependent manner. Recent reports have illustrated that a number of mammalian members of the UBXD family play critical roles in several proliferation and apoptosis pathways dysregulated in selected types of cancer. This review covers recent advances that elucidate the therapeutic potential of selected members of the UBXD family that can contribute to tumor growth.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Roh, Soonhee, Catherine E. Burnette, Kyoung Hag Lee, Yeon-Shim Lee, James I. Martin, &Michael J. Lawler. (2017). Predicting Help-Seeking Attitudes Toward Mental Health Services Among American Indian Older Adults. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 36(1), 94-115.

American Indian (AI) older adults are vulnerable to mental health disparities, yet very little is known about the factors associated with help-seeking for mental health services among them. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of Andersen’s Behavioral Model in explaining AI older adults’ help-seeking attitudes toward professional mental health services. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine predisposing, enabling, and need variables as predictors of help-seeking attitudes toward mental health services in a sample of 233 AI older adults from the Midwest. The model was found to have limited utility in the context of older AI help-seeking attitudes, as the proportion of explained variance was low. Gender, perceived stigma, social support, and physical health were significant predictors, whereas age, perceived mental health, and health insurance were not.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Simons, Raluca M.Jeffrey S. SimonsDawne OlsonLee Baugh, Vincent Magnotta, & Gina Forster. (2016). Posttraumatic stress and alcohol use among veterans: Amygdala and anterior cingulate activation to emotional cues. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 30(7), 720-732.

This fMRI study tested a model of combat trauma, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), alcohol use, and behavioral and neural responses to emotional cues in 100 OIF/OEF/OND veterans. Multilevel structural equation models were tested for left and right dorsal ACC (dACC), rostral ACC (rACC), and amygdala blood-oxygen- level dependent responses during the emotional counting Stroop test and masked faces task. In the Stroop task, combat exposure moderated the effect of combat stimuli resulting in hyperactivation in the rACC and dACC. Activation in the left amygdala also increased in response to combat stimuli, but effects did not vary as a function of combat severity. In the masked faces task, activation patterns did not vary as a function of stimulus. However, at the between-person level, amygdala activation during the masked faces task was inversely associated with PTSS. In respect to behavioral outcomes, higher PTSS were associated with a stronger Stroop effect, suggesting greater interference associated with combat words. Results are consistent with the premise that combat trauma results in hyperactivation in the ACC in response to combat stimuli, and, via its effect on PTSS, is associated with deficits in cognitive performance in the presence of combat stimuli. Across tasks, predeployment drinking was inversely associated with activation in the dACC but not the rACC or amygdala. Drinking may be a buffering factor, or negatively reinforcing in part because of its effects on normalizing brain response following trauma exposure. Alternatively, drinking may undermine adaptive functioning of the dACC when responding to traumatic stress cues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Psychology Department.

 

Williams, Suzanne Ellen, Leon Greene, Sonya Satinsky, & John Neuberger. (2016). Content Analysis of Conceptually Based Physical Education in Southeastern United States Universities and Colleges. Physical Educator, 73(4), 671-688.

The purposes of this study were to explore PE in higher education through the offering of traditional activity- and skills-based physical education (ASPE) and conceptually based physical education (CPE) courses and to conduct an exploratory content analysis on the CPE available to students in randomized colleges and universities in the Southeastern United States. Method: A randomized sample of 56 institutions was screened to determine if PE and CPE courses were offered and/or required, followed by a closer examination of the CPE courses. Results: Preliminary research indicated that 73% of the institutions required PE as a general education requirement, 77% offered CPE, and 46% included CPE in the general education requirements. Further research suggested that upon comparison to national healthand PE-related standards and recommendations, many course content analysis criteria dependent variables including course components, description and objectives, curriculum, and evaluation scored 50% or higher, which indicated shared characteristics among all of the CPE courses. Conclusions: PE and CPE are important components of high-er education, with the majority of the institutions in this sample including PE in their general education requirements. In addition, most of these institutions offered CPE, with nearly half stipulating a CPE requirement. More specifically, this sample of CPE courses shared many commonalities. Programming combining health education concepts in the classroom and regular PA and exercise in a laboratory setting may encourage students to have active, healthy lifestyles during the semester of enrollment that can be continued later in life.

School of Education.

 

Xiaoying, Lan, Zhao Chong, Chen Xin, Zhang Peiquan, …., Wang Xuejun, Shi Xianping, & Liu Jinbao. (2016). Nickel pyrithione induces apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia cells resistant to imatinib via both Bcr/Abl-dependent and Bcr/Abl-independent mechanisms. Journal of Hematology & Oncology, 9, 1-16.

Background: Acquired imatinib (IM) resistance is frequently characterized by Bcr-Abl mutations that affect IM binding and kinase inhibition in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Bcr-Abl-T315I mutation is the predominant mechanism of the acquired resistance to IM. Therefore, it is urgent to search for additional approaches and targeting strategies to overcome IM resistance. We recently reported that nickel pyrithione (NiPT) potently inhibits the ubiquitin proteasome system via targeting the 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (UCHL5 and USP14), without effecting on the 20S proteasome. In this present study, we investigated the effect of NiPT, a novel proteasomal deubiquitinase inhibitor, on cell survival or apoptosis in CML cells bearing Bcr-Abl-T315I or wild-type Bcr-Abl. Methods: Cell viability was examined by MTS assay and trypan blue exclusion staining assay in KBM5, KBM5R, K562, BaF3-p210-WT, BaF3-p210-T315I cells, and CML patients’ bone marrow samples treated with NiPT. Cell apoptosis in CML cells was detected with Annexin V-FITC/PI and rhodamine-123 staining followed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry and with western blot analyses for apoptosis-associated proteins. Expression levels of Bcr-Abl in CML cells were analyzed by using western blotting and real-time PCR. The 20S proteasome peptidase activity was measured using specific fluorogenic substrate. Active-site-directed labeling of proteasomal DUBs, as well as the phosphorylation of USP14 was used for evaluating the inhibition of the DUBs activity by NiPT. Mouse xenograft models of KBM5 and KBM5R cells were analyzed, and Bcr-Abl-related proteins and protein biomarkers related to proliferation, differentiation, and adhesion in tumor tissues were detected by western blots and/or immunohistological analyses. Results: NiPT induced apoptosis in CML cells and inhibited the growth of IM-resistant Bcr-Abl-T315I xenografts in nude mice. Mechanistically, NiPT induced decreases in Bcr-Abl proteins, which were associated with downregulation of Bcr-Abl transcription and with the cleavage of Bcr-Abl protein by activated caspases. NiPT-induced ubiquitin proteasome system inhibition induced caspase activation in both IM-resistant and IM-sensitive CML cells, and the caspase activation was required for NiPT-induced Bcr-Abl downregulation and apoptotic cell death. Conclusions: These findings support that NiPT can overcome IM resistance through both Bcr-Abl-dependent and Bcr-Abl-independent mechanisms, providing potentially a new option for CML treatment.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Yao, Qingqing, Jaqueline G. L. Cosme, Tao Xu, Jacob M. Miszuk, Paulo H. S. Picciani, Hao Fong, & Hongli Sun. (2017). Three dimensional electrospun PCL/PLA blend nanofibrous scaffolds with significantly improved stem cells osteogenic differentiation and cranial bone formation. Biomaterials, 115, 115-127.

Nanofibrous scaffolds that are morphologically/structurally similar to natural ECM are highly interested for tissue engineering; however, the electrospinning technique has the difficulty in directly producing clinically relevant 3D nanofibrous scaffolds with desired structural properties. To address this challenge, we have developed an innovative technique of thermally induced nanofiber self-agglomeration (TISA) recently. The aim of this work was to prepare ( via the TISA technique) and evaluate 3D electrospun PCL/PLA blend (mass ratio: 4/1) nanofibrous scaffolds having high porosity of ∼95.8% as well as interconnected and hierarchically structured pores with sizes from sub-micrometers to∼300 μm for bone tissue engineering. The hypothesis was that the incorporation of PLA (with higher mechanical stiffness/modulus and bioactivity) into PCL nanofibers would significantly improve human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) osteogenic differentiation in vitro and bone formation in vivo. Compared to neat PCL-3D scaffolds, PCL/PLA-3D blend scaffolds had higher mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity; as a result, they not only enhanced the cell viability of hMSCs but also promoted the osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, our in vivo studies revealed that PCL/PLA-3D scaffolds considerably facilitated new bone formation in a critical-sized cranial bone defect mouse model. In summary, both in vitro and in vivo results indicated that novel 3D electrospun PCL/PLA blend nanofibrous scaffolds would be strongly favorable/desired for hMSCs osteogenic differentiation and cranial bone formation.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

 

 

Posted by: tadeterman | January 15, 2017

November 2016

Abbott, A. G., T. Zhebentyayeva, Abdelali Barakat, & Z. R. Liu. (2015). The Genetic Control of Bud-Break in Trees. In C. Plomion & A. F. AdamBlondon (Eds.), Land Plants – Trees (Vol. 74, pp. 201-228). London: Academic Press Ltd-Elsevier Science Ltd.

To exploit ecogeographical niches of the temperate zone, trees and other perennial plant species optimize the timing of floral and vegetative bud break within the dynamic nature of the annual environmental cycle. This insures successful reproduction and continued growth over their lifespan. Adapting to the annual environmental cycle as well as more long-term environmental fluctuations, such as, global warming is critical to insuring survival of the species. Thus, the tree must utilize physiological systems to sense and respond in time and space to the appropriate environmental cues. Historically, many of the physiological players such as phytohormones and their actions have been well characterized, however, the underlying regulation of the genes and gene networks controlling these physiological systems remains relatively unknown. With advances in molecular genetics and genomics technologies, we are beginning to understand the genetic basis for a number of important phenological traits. It is the intent of this review to highlight our current state of knowledge for the genetics of the timing of bud-break in trees focusing on both fruit and forest trees to provide a framework to guide future efforts to understand how the tree coordinates annual growth, development and reproduction with the environmental cycle.

Biology Department.

 

Abdelrahman, Y., Scot P. Ouellette, R. J. Belland, & J. V. Cox. (2016). Polarized Cell Division of Chlamydia trachomatis. Plos Pathogens, 12(8), 20.

Bacterial cell division predominantly occurs by a highly conserved process, termed binary fission, that requires the bacterial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. Other mechanisms of bacterial cell division that are independent of FtsZ are rare. Although the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections and trachoma, lacks FtsZ, it has been assumed to divide by binary fission. We show here that Chlamydia divides by a polarized cell division process similar to the budding process of a subset of the Planctomycetes that also lack FtsZ. Prior to cell division, the major outer-membrane protein of Chlamydia is restricted to one pole of the cell, and the nascent daughter cell emerges from this pole by an asymmetric expansion of the membrane. Components of the chlamydial cell division machinery accumulate at the site of polar growth prior to the initiation of asymmetric membrane expansion and inhibitors that disrupt the polarity of C. trachomatis prevent cell division. The polarized cell division of C. trachomatis is the result of the unipolar growth and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid organism. This mechanism of cell division has not been documented in other human bacterial pathogens suggesting the potential for developing Chlamydia-specific therapeutic treatments.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Alomar, Fadhel, Jaipaul Singh, Hee-Seong Jang, …, William G. Mayhan, & Keshore R. Bidasee. (2016). Smooth muscle-generated methylglyoxal impairs endothelial cell-mediated vasodilatation of cerebral microvessels in type 1 diabetic rats. British Journal of Pharmacology, 173(23), 3307-3326.

<bold>Background and Purpose: </bold>Endothelial cell-mediated vasodilatation of cerebral arterioles is impaired in individuals with Type 1 diabetes (T1D). This defect compromises haemodynamics and can lead to hypoxia, microbleeds, inflammation and exaggerated ischaemia-reperfusion injuries. The molecular causes for dysregulation of cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (cECs) in T1D remains poorly defined. This study tests the hypothesis that cECs dysregulation in T1D is triggered by increased generation of the mitochondrial toxin, methylglyoxal, by smooth muscle cells in cerebral arterioles (cSMCs).<bold>Experimental Approach: </bold>Endothelial cell-mediated vasodilatation, vascular transcytosis inflammation, hypoxia and ischaemia-reperfusion injury were assessed in brains of male Sprague-Dawley rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and compared with those in diabetic rats with increased expression of methylglyoxal-degrading enzyme glyoxalase-I (Glo-I) in cSMCs.<bold>Key Results: </bold>After 7-8 weeks of T1D, endothelial cell-mediated vasodilatation of cerebral arterioles was impaired. Microvascular leakage, gliosis, macrophage/neutrophil infiltration, NF-κB activity and TNF-α levels were increased, and density of perfused microvessels was reduced. Transient occlusion of a mid-cerebral artery exacerbated ischaemia-reperfusion injury. In cSMCs, Glo-I protein was decreased, and the methylglyoxal-synthesizing enzyme, vascular adhesion protein 1 (VAP-1) and methylglyoxal were increased. Restoring Glo-I protein in cSMCs of diabetic rats to control levels via gene transfer, blunted VAP-1 and methylglyoxal increases, cECs dysfunction, microvascular leakage, inflammation, ischaemia-reperfusion injury and increased microvessel perfusion.<bold>Conclusions and Implications: </bold>Methylglyoxal generated by cSMCs induced cECs dysfunction, inflammation, hypoxia and exaggerated ischaemia-reperfusion injury in diabetic rats. Lowering methylglyoxal produced by cSMCs may be a viable therapeutic strategy to preserve cECs function and blunt deleterious downstream consequences in T1D.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Anderson, Jordan A.Sujan Lamichhane, & Gopinath Mani. (2016). Macrophage responses to 316L stainless steel and cobalt chromium alloys with different surface topographies. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 104(11), 2658-2672.

The surface topography of a biomaterial plays a vital role in determining macrophage interactions and influencing immune response. In this study, we investigated the effect of smooth and microrough topographies of commonly used metallic biomaterials such as 316 L stainless steel (SS) and cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloys on macrophage interactions. The macrophage adhesion was greater on CoCr compared to SS, irrespective of their topographies. The macrophage activation and the secretion of most pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IP-10) were greater on microrough surfaces than on smooth surfaces by day-1. However, by day-2, the macrophage activation on smooth surfaces was also significantly increased up to the same level as observed on the microrough surfaces, with more amount of cytokines secreted. The secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) was significantly increased from day-1 to day-2 on all the alloy surfaces with the effect most prominently observed on microrough surfaces. The production of nitric oxide by the macrophages did not show any major substrate-dependent effect. The foreign body giant cells formed by macrophages were least observed on the microrough surfaces of CoCr. Thus, this study demonstrated that the nature of material (SS or CoCr) and their surface topographies (smooth or microrough) strongly influence the macrophage responses. (C) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Biomedical Engineering Department, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Anuwatworn, AmornpolMaheedhar GedelaEdgard BendalyJulia A. Prescott-FochtJimmy YeeRichard Clark, & Orvar Jonsson. (2016). Sinus Venosus Atrial Septal Defect Complicated by Eisenmenger Syndrome and the Role of Vasodilator Therapy. Case Reports in Cardiology, 1-5.

Sinus venosus atrial septal defect is a rare congenital, interatrial communication defect at the junction of the right atrium and the vena cava. It accounts for 5–10% of cases of all atrial septal defects. Due to the rare prevalence and anatomical complexity, diagnosing sinus venous atrial septal defects poses clinical challenges which may delay diagnosis and treatment. Advanced cardiac imaging studies are useful tools to diagnose this clinical entity and to delineate the anatomy and any associated communications. Surgical correction of the anomaly is the primary treatment. We discuss a 43-year-old Hispanic female patient who presented with dyspnea and hypoxia following a laparoscopic myomectomy. She had been diagnosed with peripartum cardiomyopathy nine years ago at another hospital. Transesophageal echocardiography and computed tomographic angiography of the chest confirmed a diagnosis of sinus venosus atrial septal defect. She was also found to have pulmonary arterial hypertension and Eisenmenger syndrome. During a hemodynamic study, she responded to vasodilator and she was treated with Ambrisentan and Tadalafil. After six months, her symptoms improved and her pulmonary arterial hypertension decreased. We also observed progressive reversal of the right-to-left shunt. This case illustrates the potential benefit of vasodilator therapy in reversing Eisenmenger physiology, which may lead to surgical repair of the atrial septal defect as the primary treatment.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Arrick, Denise M., Chun Li, & William G. Mayhan. (2016). Sex-related differences in reactivity of cerebral arterioles during moderate exercise training.Microcirculation, 23(7), 549-557.

Objective Our goals were to determine the influence of sex on reactivity of cerebral arterioles and whether MExT could influence sex-related differences in reactivity of cerebral arterioles. Materials and Methods Responses of cerebral arterioles were measured in Sed and MExT adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats to eNOS-dependent (ADP), nNOS-dependent (NMDA), and NOS-independent (nitroglycerin) agonists before and following L-NMMA. In addition, protein expression for eNOS and nNOS was determined. Results NOS-dependent vasodilation was enhanced in Sed and MExT female rats compared to their male counterparts. L-NMMA produced a greater decrease in baseline diameter of arterioles in females compared to males, and produced less inhibition of NOS-dependent vasodilation in females. Expression of eNOS protein was significantly increased in Sed female when compared to Sed male rats; nNOS protein was similar in Sed males and females, but increased in MExT females. Conclusions The findings from this study indicate that while NOS-dependent vascular reactivity is increased in females, MExT does not alter vasodilation in males or females. These studies provide insights into the influence of sex and MExT on the cerebral microcirculation and may have implications regarding mechanisms that protect the brain in females compared to males.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Bardhoshi, Gerta, Kelly Duncan, & Amy Schweinle. (2016). Predictors of Parent Involvement and their Impact on Access of Postsecondary Education Facilitators among White and American Indian Parents. Journal of School Counseling, 14(4), 1-28.

This study examined demographic factors as predictors of parent involvement (engagement with school, support of learning, support of child) among parents of children that attended a school implementing a college access program. The authors also examined whether involvement predicted access of postsecondary education facilitators in parents, when accounting for demographic factors. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that parent race/ethnicity and income predicted involvement, while education level predicted access of postsecondary education facilitators. However, when including demographic factors, parent involvement was not predictive of access of postsecondary education facilitators.

School of Education.

 

Booze, Michelle L., Jason M. Hansen, & Peter F. Vitiello. (2016). A novel mouse model for the identification of thioredoxin-1 protein interactions. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 99, 533-543.

Thiol switches are important regulators of cellular signaling and are coordinated by several redox enzyme systems including thioredoxins, peroxiredoxins, and glutathione. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx1), in particular, is an important signaling molecule not only in response to redox perturbations, but also in cellular growth, regulation of gene expression, and apoptosis. The active site of this enzyme is a highly conserved C-G-P-C motif and the redox mechanism of Trx1 is rapid which presents a challenge in determining specific substrates. Numerous in vitro approaches have identified Trx1-dependent thiol switches; however, these findings may not be physiologically relevant and little is known about Trx1 interactions in vivo. In order to identify Trx1 targets in vivo , we generated a transgenic mouse with inducible expression of a mutant Trx1 transgene to stabilize intermolecular disulfides with protein substrates. Expression of the Trx1 “substrate trap” transgene did not interfere with endogenous thioredoxin or glutathione systems in brain, heart, lung, liver, and kidney. Following immunoprecipitation and proteomic analysis, we identified 41 homeostatic Trx1 interactions in perinatal lung, including previously described Trx1 substrates such as members of the peroxiredoxin family and collapsin response mediator protein 2. Using perinatal hyperoxia as a model of oxidative injury, we found 17 oxygen-induced interactions which included several cytoskeletal proteins which may be important to alveolar development. The data herein validates this novel mouse model for identification of tissue- and cell-specific Trx1-dependent pathways that regulate physiological signals in response to redox perturbations.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Bubak, Andrew N., Jazmine D. W. YaegerKenneth J. Renner, John G. Swallow, & Michael J. Greene. (2016). Neuromodulation of Nestmate Recognition Decisions by Pavement Ants. PLoS ONE, 11(11), 1-15.

Ant colonies are distributed systems that are regulated in a non-hierarchical manner. Without a central authority, individuals inform their decisions by comparing information in local cues to a set of inherent behavioral rules. Individual behavioral decisions collectively change colony behavior and lead to self-organization capable of solving complex problems such as the decision to engage in aggressive societal conflicts with neighbors. Despite the relevance to colony fitness, the mechanisms that drive individual decisions leading to cooperative behavior are not well understood. Here we show how sensory information, both tactile and chemical, and social context—isolation, nestmate interaction, or fighting non-nestmates—affects brain monoamine levels in pavement ants (Tetramorium caespitum). Our results provide evidence that changes in octopamine and serotonin in the brains of individuals are sufficient to alter the decision by pavement ants to be aggressive towards non-nestmate ants whereas increased brain levels of dopamine correlate to physical fighting. We propose a model in which the changes in brain states of many workers collectively lead to the self-organization of societal aggression between neighboring colonies of pavement ants.

Biology Department.

 

Dai, Shengchuan, Manoucher Manoucheri, Junhong Gui, …, Shenjing Li, Jason D’souza, Fnu Virkram, Aditya Chada, & Haibing Jiang. (2016). Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Utility in Prediction of 30-Day Readmission Rate in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure. Cardiology Research & Practice, 1-7.

Background. Heart failure (HF) is one of the most common diagnoses associated with hospital readmission. We designed this prospective study to evaluate whether Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) score is associated with 30-day readmission in patients hospitalized with decompensated HF. Methods and Results. We enrolled 240 patients who met the study criteria. Forty-eight (20%) patients were readmitted for decompensated HF within thirty days of hospital discharge, and 192 (80%) patients were not readmitted. Compared to readmitted patients, nonreadmitted patients had a higher average KCCQ score (40.8 versus 32.6, P = 0.019) before discharge. Multivariate analyses showed that a high KCCQ score was associated with low HF readmission rate (adjusted OR = 0.566, P = 0.022). The c-statistic for the base model (age + gender) was 0.617. The combination of home medication and lab tests on the base model resulted in an integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) increase of 3.9%. On that basis, the KCQQ further increased IDI of 2.7%. Conclusions. The KCCQ score determined before hospital discharge was significantly associated with 30-day readmission rate in patients with HF, which may provide a clinically useful measure and could significantly improve readmission prediction reliability when combined with other clinical components.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

De, Pradip, J. H. Carlson, H. Wu, A. Marcus, Brian Leyland-Jones, & Nandini Dey. (2016). Wnt-beta-catenin pathway signals metastasis-associated tumor cell phenotypes in triple negative breast cancers. Oncotarget, 7(28), 43124-43149.

Tumor cells acquire metastasis-associated (MA) phenotypes following genetic alterations in them which cause deregulation of different signaling pathways. Earlier, we reported that an upregulation of the Wnt-beta-catenin pathway (WP) is one of the genetic salient features of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), and WP signaling is associated with metastasis in TNBC. Using cBioPortal, here we found that collective % of alteration(s) in WP genes, CTNNB1, APC and DVL1 among breast-invasive-carcinomas was 21% as compared to 56% in PAM50 Basal. To understand the functional relevance of WP in the biology of heterogeneous/metastasizing TNBC cells, we undertook this comprehensive study using 15 cell lines in which we examined the role of WP in the context of integrin-dependent MA-phenotypes. Directional movement of tumor cells was observed by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and quantitative confocal-video-microscopy while matrigel-invasion was studied by MMP7-specific casein-zymography. WntC59, XAV939, sulindac sulfide and beta-catenin siRNA (1) inhibited fibronectin-directed migration, (2) decreased podiaparameters and motility-descriptors, (3) altered filamentous-actin, (4) decreased matrigel-invasion and (5) inhibited cell proliferation as well as 3D clonogenic growth. Sulindac sulfide and beta-catenin siRNA decreased beta-catenin/active-beta-catenin and MMP7. LWnt3ACM-stimulated proliferation, clonogenicity, fibronection-directed migration and matrigel-invasion were perturbed by WP-modulators, sulindac sulfide and GDC-0941. We studied a direct involvement of WP in metastasis by stimulating brain-metastasis-specific MDA-MB231BR cells to demonstrate that LWnt3ACM-stimulated proliferation, clonogenicity and migration were blocked following sulindac sulfide, GDC-0941 and beta-catenin knockdown. We present the first evidence showing a direct functional relationship between WP activation and integrin-dependent MA-phenotypes. By proving the functional relationship between WP activation and MAphenotypes, our data mechanistically explains (1) why different components of WP are upregulated in TNBC, (2) how WP activation is associated with metastasis and (3) how integrin-dependent MA-phenotypes can be regulated by mitigating the WP.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Eid, Wael Emad, S. F. Shehata, D. A. Cole, & K. L. Doerman. (2016). PREDICTORS OF NONATTENDANCE AT AN ENDOCRINOLOGY OUTPATIENT CLINIC.Endocrine Practice, 22(8), 983-989.

Objective: To identify predictors potentially contributing to patients’ nonattendance or to same-day cancellation of scheduled appointments at an adult endocrinology office practice. Methods: A retrospective, records-based, cross-sectional study was conducted using data from 9,305 electronic medical records of patients presenting at a U.S. metropolitan adult endocrinology clinic in 2013. Statistical analyses included multivariate regression, calculated odds ratios, and posttest probabilities. Results: Of 29,178 total patient visits analyzed, 68% were attended by patients. Of total scheduled appointments, 7% resulted in nonattendance and 5% in same-day cancellation. The most significant predictors of nonattendance were a previous history of nonattendance (P<.001), uncontrolled diabetes (P<.001), and new patients to the practice (P<.001). Long lead- time to appointment (P=.001), younger age (P<. 001), and certain insurance carriers (P<. 001) also were significant predictors. Conclusion: Specific predictors of nonattendance at scheduled appointments were identified using statistical analysis of electronic medical record data. Previous history of nonattendance and having uncontrolled diabetes (especially in patients newly referred to the practice) are among these significant predictors. Identifying specific predictors for nonattendance enables targeted strategies to be developed.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Erck, AdamWendi Sapp, S. Kilina, & Dmitri Kilin. (2016). Photoinduced Charge Transfer at Interfaces of Carbon Nanotube and Lead Selenide Nanowire. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 120(40), 23197-23206.

Photoinduced generation of excitons and their nonradiative relaxation dynamics are simulated at the interface of (10, 0) carbon nanotubes (CNT) and a PbSe nanowire (NW). Possible pathways of photoinduced excitations are explored by combining a reduced density matrix approach in the basis of Kohn-Sham orbitals and on-the-fly nonadiabatic couplings. A range of neutral photoexcitations localized on the CNT is followed by formation of charge transfer (CT) states involving PbSe NW. Depending on the wavelength of the incident light, the initial photoexcitation can be followed by two directions of charge transfer: either (PbSe)(+)(CNT)(-) or (PbSe)(-)(CNT)(+). Excitation of a hot electron results in the CT state with an electron located at the NW and the hole at the CNT with shorter lifetime, while excitation of a hot hole leads to the CT state with an electron at the CNT and the hole at the PbSe having much longer lifetime. Observed ability to control the direction and the lifetime of the CT state makes the CNT/PbSe NW composites promising for photovoltaic applications.

Chemistry Department.

 

Fang, Jiaming, Benjamin George, Yunfei Shao, & Chao Wen. (2016). Affective and cognitive factors influencing repeat buying in e-commerce.Electronic Commerce Research & Applications, 19, 44-55.

Drawing on means-end chain theory and feelings-as-information theory , we propose a moderation model, and offer a detailed analysis of how the affective factor perceived enjoyment influences perceived value and repeat buying in e-tailing contexts. Based upon survey data from 651 online shoppers, we observe the complex moderation effects of e-shopping enjoyment on the relations between perceived benefits, sacrifice and perceived value. However, the moderation effect of enjoyment only appears in shoppers with a task-focused motivation. Furthermore, this study applies fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) and uncovers several equifinal configurations associated with the perceived value and repeat buying intention. The results reveal that none of the above-mentioned factors provide sufficient or necessary conditions for the presence of high perceived value and repeat buying intention. The findings suggest complex substitutive and complementary relationships between the factors and demonstrate the complexities of consumers’ online repurchase decision. This study thus helps to gain a better understanding of the conditions leading to e-shopping value and repeat buying behavior.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Fenton, J. I., E. A. Gurzell, E. A. Davidson, & William S. Harris. (2016). Red blood cell PUFAs reflect the phospholipid PUFA composition of major organs. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 112, 12-23.

Numerous clinical trials examining the use of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) on various health outcomes have been conducted, and fish oil remains one of the most widely used nutritional supplements. More recently, studies have begun to utilize the omega-3 index, defined as the sum of EPA+DHA in red blood cells (RBCs), as both a biomarker of n-3 LCPUFA exposure and a potential risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Considerably less research evaluates whether RBC phospholipid fatty acids reflect the phospholipid fatty acid composition of other tissues across increasing intakes of n-3 LCPUFAs. We fed mice diets containing increasing amounts of EPA+DHA, equivalent to current recommendations by the American Heart Association on a percent of energy basis, and analyzed the phospholipid fatty acid composition of various tissues in relation to RBCs. We observed that RBCs, heart, muscle, spleen, lung, and adipose tissues all respond to dietary supplementation with EPA+DHA with increasing n-3 LCPUFA and decreasing n-6 LCPUFA levels. Furthermore, the n-3 LCPUFA profiles of all measured tissues had strong (r > 0.7) and significant (p < 0.001) correlations to RBCs. Interestingly, we also observed changes in saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) levels across various tissues in response to increased EPA+DHA intakes despite there being no change in dietary SFA and MUFA. Specifically, there were increases in RBC SFA and spleen MUFA and decreases in heart MUFA. These demonstrate that the RBC, including the omega-3 index, may serve as a marker for the relative levels of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFAs in phospholipids of certain tissues. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Frejd, D., K. Dunaway, J. Hill, Jesse Van Maanen, & C. Carlson. (2016). The Genomic and Morphological Effects of Bisphenol A on Arabidopsis thaliana.Plos One, 11(9), 10.

The environmental toxin bisphenol A (BPA) is a known mammalian hormone disrupter but its effects on plants have not been well established. The effect of BPA on gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana was determined using microarray analysis and quantitative gene PCR. Many hormone responsive genes showed changes in expression after BPA treatment. BPA disrupted flowering by a mechanism that may involve disruption of auxin signaling. The results presented here indicate that BPA is a plant hormone disrupter.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Furr, Susan, & Kathleen Brown-Rice. (2016). Doctoral students’ knowledge of educators’ problems of professional competency. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 10(4), 223-230.

We surveyed doctoral students in APA-accredited programs (clinical psychology PhD, counseling psychology PhD, and clinical psychology PsyD; n = 939) and CACREP-accredited counseling/counselor education programs PhD (n = 345) to investigate their knowledge of educators’ problems of professional competency (PPC). Findings suggest the majority of respondents are aware of educators with PPC and are affected by these interactions. Areas such as educators’ unprofessional behavior (e.g., dishonesty, excessive tardiness, class absences), inadequate supervision skills, inappropriate boundaries, and inability to regulate emotions were cited by all groups as problematic while being culturally insensitive or culturally incompetent was a more prominent problem experienced by psychology doctoral students. Doctoral students reported that they had feelings of resentment toward educators who displayed PPC and viewed these educators as disrupting the learning environment in the classroom, interfering with their ability to concentrate and complete their own work, and increasing their workload. Limited differences between programs adhering to the scientist-practitioner model and programs following the practitioner-scholar model were noted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

School of Education.

 

Goodman, Barbara E. (2016). An evolution in student-centered teaching. Advances in Physiology Education, 40(3), 278-282.

The American Physiological Society (APS) Teaching Section annually honors an educator through its Claude Bernard Distinguished Lecture at the Experimental Biology meeting. Since I knew about my selection for almost a year, I had a long time to think about what I wanted to say and how I wanted to say it. The theme of my presentation was “nothing in education makes sense except in the light of student learning.” My presentation began with a video of my “And, But, Therefore” description of my educational scholarship (see Randy Olson Great Challenges Day at TEDMED 2013, Ref. 10). “Physiology is the basic foundation of all the health professions AND physiology can be hard for students to figure out BUT many physiology courses expect students to memorize a large number of facts; THEREFORE, my scholarship is to help students learn physiology better for the long-term with various types of student-centered learning opportunities.” To stress the goal of student-centered learning, my brief video was followed by a 2-min video of one of my students describing her experiences with student-centered learning in one of my two-semester Advanced Human Physiology classes. Since I have been convinced that Randy Olson is an expert on science communication (11), the rest of my presentation was the story about how I have evolved from a sage-on-the-stage lecturer into a student-centered learning facilitator. I have chosen Olson’s “And, But, Therefore” approach to narrative for this written version of key aspects of the presentation.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Hoover, K. M., A. N. Bubak, I. J. Law, Jazmine D. W. YaegerKenneth J. Renner, J. G. Swallow, & M. J. Greene. (2016). The organization of societal conflicts by pavement ants Tetramorium caespitum: an agent-based model of amine-mediated decision making. Current Zoology, 62(3), 277-284.

Ant colonies self-organize to solve complex problems despite the simplicity of an individual ant’s brain. Pavement ant Tetramorium caespitum colonies must solve the problem of defending the territory that they patrol in search of energetically rich forage. When members of 2 colonies randomly interact at the territory boundary a decision to fight occurs when: 1) there is a mismatch in nestmate recognition cues and 2) each ant has a recent history of high interaction rates with nestmate ants. Instead of fighting, some ants will decide to recruit more workers from the nest to the fighting location, and in this way a positive feedback mediates the development of colony wide wars. In ants, the monoamines serotonin (5-HT) and octopamine (OA) modulate many behaviors associated with colony organization and in particular behaviors associated with nestmate recognition and aggression. In this article, we develop and explore an agent-based model that conceptualizes how individual changes in brain concentrations of 5-HT and OA, paired with a simple threshold-based decision rule, can lead to the development of colony wide warfare. Model simulations do lead to the development of warfare with 91% of ants fighting at the end of 1 h. When conducting a sensitivity analysis, we determined that uncertainty in monoamine concentration signal decay influences the behavior of the model more than uncertainty in the decision-making rule or density. We conclude that pavement ant behavior is consistent with the detection of interaction rate through a single timed interval rather than integration of multiple interactions.

Biology Department.

 

Hoyme, H. Eugene, & Claire D. Coles. (2016). Alcohol-Related Neurobehavioral Disabilities: Need for Further Definition and Common Terminology.Pediatrics, 138(4), 1-3.

The article addresses the definition of neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (ND-PAE), how it intersects with the existing diagnostic categories of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and the need for ongoing research and development of common terminology for FASD. It suggests that every child evaluated for FASD must have expert assessment of growth and dysmorphology in addition to skilled neurobehavioral evaluation.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Hsu, Benson S.Saquib A. Lakhani, & M. Wilhelm. (2016). Acid-Base Disorders. Pediatrics in Review, 37(9), 361-369.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Huntington, Mark K.Jay Allison, & D. Nair. (2016). Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases. American Family Physician, 94(7), 551-557.

Several mosquito-borne viral infections have recently emerged in North America; West Nile virus is the most common in the United States. Although West Nile virus generally causes a self-limited, flulike febrile illness, a serious neuroinvasive form may occur. Dengue is the most common vector-borne viral disease worldwide, and it has been a significant public health threat in the United States since 2009. Known as breakbone fever for its severe myalgias and arthralgias, dengue may cause a hemorrhagic syndrome. Chikungunya also causes flulike febrile illness and disabling arthralgias. Although meningoencephalitis may occur with chikungunya, bleeding is uncommon. Symptoms of Zika virus infection are similar to those of dengue, but milder. Zika virus increases the risk of fetal brain abnormalities, including microcephaly, if a pregnant woman is infected. Zika virus is spread through Aedes albopictus mosquito bites, is transmitted sexually, and may rarely spread nonsexually from person to person. Diagnosis of these vector borne infections is clinical and serologic, and treatment is supportive. Other, well-established vector-borne diseases are also important. Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne bacterial disease that presents as a nonspecific syndrome of fever, headache, malaise, and myalgias. It is diagnosed via blood smear testing, with confirmatory serology. Ehrlichiosis is treated with doxycycline. Rickettsial infections are transmitted by fleas, mites, and ticks, and severity ranges from mild to life threatening. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, the most significant rickettsial infection, is primarily a clinical diagnosis that presents as fever, headache, myalgias, petechial rash, and tick exposure. Doxycycline is effective for rickettsial infections if administered promptly. Vector avoidance strategies are critical to the prevention of all of these infections. Copyright 2016 American Academy of Family Physicians.)

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Jacobs, Gerard A.Brandon L. GraySara E. EricksonElvira D. Gonzalez, & Randal P. Quevillon. (2016). Disaster Mental Health and Community-Based Psychological First Aid: Concepts and Education/Training. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 72(12), 1307-1317.

Any community can experience a disaster, and many traumatic events occur without warning. Psychologists can be an important resource assisting in psychological support for individuals and communities, in preparation for and in response to traumatic events. Disaster mental health and the community-based model of psychological first aid are described. The National Preparedness and Response Science Board has recommended that all mental health professionals be trained in disaster mental health, and that first responders, civic officials, emergency managers, and the general public be trained in community-based psychological first aid. Education and training resources in these two fields are described to assist psychologists and others in preparing themselves to assist their communities in difficult times and to help their communities learn to support one another.

Psychology Department.

 

Jenks, Christopher J., & Jerry Won Lee. (2016). Heteroglossic ideologies in world Englishes: an examination of the Hong Kong context. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 26(3), 384-402.

Much research in world Englishes centers on examining the linguistic features of a particular region. Such work can give the false impression of a collective homogeneous ideology of English within a geographic space. We refer to this limiting monolithic perspective of language ideology as ‘the single linguistic narrative.’ The present study builds on this body of work by investigating how often competing ideologies of English can circulate within a region. Focusing on the Hong Kong context, we adapt the concept of Bakhtinian heteroglossia to consider the simultaneous co-presence of varying ideologies of English. Through an analysis of self-narratives, we examine how Hong Kong university students construct expectations regarding how English should be used and what the colonial language means to their regional identity.

English Department.

 

Keifer, Joyce, & Cliff H. Summers. (2016). Putting the “Biology” Back into “Neurobiology”: The Strength of Diversity in Animal Model Systems for Neuroscience Research. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 10, 9.

Current trends in neuroscience research have moved toward a reliance on rodent animal models to study most aspects of brain function. Such laboratory-reared animals are highly inbred, have been disengaged from their natural environments for generations and appear to be of limited predictive value for successful clinical outcomes. In this Perspective article, we argue that research on a rich diversity of animal model systems is fundamental to new discoveries in evolutionarily conserved core physiological and molecular mechanisms that are the foundation of human brain function. Analysis of neural circuits across phyla will reveal general computational solutions that form the basis for adaptive behavioral responses. Further, we stress that development of ethoexperimental approaches to improve our understanding of behavioral nuance will help to realign our research strategies with therapeutic goals and improve the translational validity of specific animal models. Finally, we suggest that neuroscience has a role in environmental conservation of habitat and fauna that will preserve and protect the ecological settings that drive species-specific behavioral adaptations. A rich biodiversity will enhance our understanding of human brain function and lead in unpredicted directions for development of therapeutic treatments for neurological disorders.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Kim, Dae In, & Kyle J. Roux. (2016). Filling the Void: Proximity-Based Labeling of Proteins in Living Cells. Trends in Cell Biology, 26(11), 804-817.

There are inherent limitations with traditional methods to study protein behavior or to determine the constituency of proteins in discrete subcellular compartments. In response to these limitations, several methods have recently been developed that use proximity-dependent labeling. By fusing proteins to enzymes that generate reactive molecules, most commonly biotin, proximate proteins are covalently labeled to enable their isolation and identification. In this review we describe current methods for proximity-dependent labeling in living cells and discuss their applications and future use in the study of protein behavior.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Knisely, Kris A. (2016). Language learning and the gendered self: the case of French and masculinity in a US context. Gender and Language, 10(2), 216-239.

In a time of ever-increasing globalisation, the development of diverse linguistic skills has been growing in importance despite a trend of reduced language learning, which is particularly marked in Anglophone countries. Although the need for international interaction is not gender-specific, a growing body of literature has identified gender-related differences in language education. Existing research has demonstrated that different target languages have been gendered by students in different ways. Extending the existing literature, focused primarily on adolescents, a survey was administered to 294 students at four universities in the southeastern US to explore the degree to which young adults perceive languages as gendered and to which taking French is perceived as gender-norm violating. Findings suggest that although there are some similarities in terms of the gendering of languages and language study among adolescent and young adult learners, differences exists in the nature of this gendering.

Modern Languages Department.

 

LoCicero, Alice, Robert P. Marlin, David Jull-Patterson, Nancy M. Sweeney, Brandon Lee Gray, & J. Wesley Boyd. (2016). Enabling torture: APA, clinical psychology training and the failure to disobey. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 22(4), 345-355.

The American Psychological Association (APA) has historically had close ties with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD). Recent revelations describe problematic outcomes of those ties, as some in the APA colluded with the DOD to allow psychologists to participate, with expectation of impunity, in harsh interrogations that amounted to torture of Guantanamo detainees, during the Bush era. We now know that leaders in the APA purposely misled psychologists about the establishment of policies on psychologists’ roles in interrogations. Still, the authors wondered why, when the resulting policies reflected a clear contradiction of the fundamental duty to do no harm, few psychologists, in or out of the military, protested the policies articulated in 2005 by the committee on Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS). Previous research suggested that U.S. graduate students in clinical psychology receive little or no training in the duties of psychologists in military settings or in the ethical guidance offered by international treaties. Thus psychologists might not have been well prepared to critique the PENS policies or to refuse to participate in interrogations. To further explore this issue, the authors surveyed Directors of Clinical Training of doctoral programs in clinical psychology, asking how extensively their programs address dilemmas psychologists may face in military settings. The results indicate that most graduate programs offer little attention to dilemmas of unethical orders, violations of international conventions, or excessively harsh interrogations. These findings, combined with earlier studies, suggest that military psychologists may have been unprepared to address ethical dilemmas, whereas psychologists outside the military may have been unprepared to critique the APA’s collusion with the DOD. The authors suggest ways to address this apparent gap in ethics education for psychology graduate students, interns, and fellows. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

 

May, Philip A., Anna-Susan Marais, Marlene M. de Vries, …, & H. Eugene Hoyme. (2016). The continuum of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in a community in South Africa: Prevalence and characteristics in a fifth sample. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 168, 274-286.

The prevalence and characteristics of the continuum of diagnoses within fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were researched in a fifth sample in a South African community.<bold>Methods: </bold>An active case ascertainment approach was employed among all first grade learners in this community (n=862). Following individual examination by clinical geneticists/dysmorphologists, cognitive/behavioral testing, and maternal interviews, final diagnoses were made in multidisciplinary case conferences.<bold>Results: </bold>Physical measurements, cardinal facial features of FAS, and total dysmorphology scores clearly differentiated diagnostic categories in a consistent, linear fashion, from severe to mild. Neurodevelopmental delays and behavioral problems were significantly worse for each of the FASD diagnostic categories, although not as consistently linear across diagnostic groups. Alcohol use was documented by direct report from the mother in 71% to 100% of cases in specific diagnostic groups. Significant distal maternal risk factors in this population are: advanced maternal age at pregnancy; low height, weight, and body mass index (BMI); small head circumference; low education; low income; and rural residence. Even when controlling for socioeconomic status, prenatal drinking correlates significantly with total dysmorphology score, head circumference, and five cognitive and behavioral measures. In this community, FAS occurs in 59-79 per 1,000 children, and total FASD in 170-233 per 1,000 children, or 17% to 23%.<bold>Conclusions: </bold>Very high rates of FASD continue in this community where entrenched practices of regular binge drinking co-exist with challenging conditions for childbearing and child development in a significant portion of the population.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

McCormack, Leah. (2016). Blameless. New England Review-Middlebury Series, 37(3), 154-168.

English Department.

 

Millikin, Alice R.Meghann E. Jarchow, K. L. Olmstead, Rustan E. Krentz, & Mark D. Dixon. (2016). Site Preparation Drives Long-Term Plant Community Dynamics in Restored Tallgrass Prairie: A Case Study in Southeastern South Dakota. Environmental Management, 58(4), 597-605.

Most tallgrass prairies have been destroyed or altered, making restoration an important component to their conservation. Our goal was to evaluate progress 12-years post-restoration at Spirit Mound Historic Prairie and determine whether the outcomes varied based on different land use and restoration histories across the site. We examined changes in plant diversity, richness, evenness, non-native species relative abundance, and community composition from 2004 to 2013. Areas with different restoration treatments and land-use histories showed divergent results. Seventy percent of the site, previously annual row crop, was reconstructed using herbicide application followed by native seeding (hereafter reconstruction). Areas that were previously grazed, 15 % of the site, were restored with only partial seeding and no herbicide treatment (hereafter rehabilitation). Species richness and diversity increased over 40 % in the reconstruction since 2004 and remained over 1.9 times higher in the reconstructed areas than rehabilitated areas. Diversity did not change in the rehabilitation, but richness increased 47 % since 2004. Evenness decreased 11-26 % over time in both areas. Non-native species relative abundance did not change from 2004 to 2013, and remained five times higher in the rehabilitation than the reconstruction. Native C-4 grass and forb abundance increased over time in the reconstruction, whereas non-native C-3 grasses remained dominant in the rehabilitation. These results showed that restoration outcomes were radically different 12-years post-restoration among areas with different prior land uses that were subjected to different restoration practices. Long-term assessments are important to accurately determine restoration progress and inform management decisions.

Biology Department.

 

Mills, Stacia, Kate Wolitzky-Taylor, Anna Q. Xiao, Marie Claire Bourque, Sandra M. Peynado RojasDebanjana Bhattacharya, Annabelle K. Simpson, Aleea Maye, Pachida Lo, Aaron Clark, Russell Lim, & Francis G. Lu. (2016). Training on the DSM-5 cultural formulation interview improves cultural competence in general psychiatry residents: A multi-site study. Academic Psychiatry, 40(5), 829-834.

Objective: The authors assessed whether a 1-h didactic session on the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) improves cultural competence of general psychiatry residents. Methods: Psychiatry residents at six residency programs completed demographics and pre-intervention questionnaires, were exposed to a 1-h session on the CFI, and completed a post-intervention questionnaire. Repeated measures ANCOVA compared pre- to post-intervention change. Linear regression assessed whether previous cultural experience predicted post-intervention scores. Results: Mean scores on the questionnaire significantly changed from pre- to post-intervention (p < 0.001). Previous cultural experience did not predict post-intervention scores. Conclusions: Psychiatry residents’ cultural competence scores improved with a 1-h session on the CFI but with notable limitations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Narra, H. P., L. F. Shubitz, M. A. Mandel, H. T. Trinh, Kurt Griffin, A. S. Buntzman, J. A. Frelinger, J. N. Galgiani, & M. J. Orbach. (2016). A Coccidioides posadasii CPS1 Deletion Mutant Is Avirulent and Protects Mice from Lethal Infection. Infection and Immunity, 84(10), 3007-3016.

The CPS1 gene was identified as a virulence factor in the maize pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus. Hypothesizing that the homologous gene in Coccidioides posadasii could be important for virulence, we created a Delta cps1 deletion mutant which was unable to cause disease in three strains of mice (C57BL/6, BALB/c, or the severely immunodeficient NOD-scid, gamma c(null) [NSG]). Only a single colony was recovered from 1 of 60 C57BL/6 mice following intranasal infections of up to 4,400 spores. Following administration of very high doses (10,000 to 2.5 x 10(7) spores) to NSG and BALB/c mice, spherules were observed in lung sections at time points from day 3 to day 10 postinfection, but nearly all appeared degraded with infrequent endosporulation. Although the role of CPS1 in virulence is not understood, phenotypic alterations and transcription differences of at least 33 genes in the Delta cps1 strain versus C. posadasii is consistent with both metabolic and regulatory functions for the gene. The in vitro phenotype of the Delta cps1 strain showed slower growth of mycelia with delayed and lower spore production than C. posadasii, and in vitro spherules were smaller. Vaccination of C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice with live Delta cps1 spores either intranasally, intraperitoneally, or subcutaneously resulted in over 95% survival with mean residual lung fungal burdens of < 1,000 CFU from an otherwise lethal C. posadasii intranasal infection. Considering its apparently complete attenuation of virulence and the high degree of resistance to C. posadasii infection when used as a vaccine, the Delta cps1 strain is a promising vaccine candidate for preventing coccidioidomycosis in humans or other animals.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Olson, SethKathleen Brown-Rice, & Natasha Keller. (2016). Mental Health Practitioners’ Knowledge of Colleagues’ Problems of Professional Competency. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 38(4), 308-326.

There is a lack of empirical research on how mental health practitioners (MTIPs) are affected hy professional incompetency of their colleagues. To bridge this gap in the literature, a total of 213 MHPs were surveyed to determine their knowledge of coworkers’ problems of professional competency (PPC). Descriptive statistics were utilized to analyze the data. Findings suggest the majority of MHPs are aware of colleagues with PPC and believe these colleagues are disrupting the work environment and adversely affecting client care.

School of Education.

 

Payra, Soumen, Arijit Saha, Chia-Ming WuBalaranjan SelvaratnamThorn DramstadLuther Mahoney, Sant Kumar Verma, Suresh Thareja, Ranjit Koodali, & Subhash Banerjee. (2016). Fe–SBA-15 catalyzed synthesis of 2-alkoxyimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and screening of their in silico selectivity and binding affinity to biological targets. New Journal of Chemistry, 40(11), 9753-9760.

Here, we have demonstrated regioselective three-component synthesis of 2-alkoxyimidazopyridines using mesoporous Fe–SBA-15 as the catalyst and screened their in silico selectivity and binding affinity to different biological targets viz. farnesyl diphosphate synthase, phosphodiesterase III, GABAa and chemokine receptor CXCR4 using molecular docking simulations. Fe–SBA-15 has been characterized by nitrogen absorption–desorption, powder XRD, SEM, TEM studies and atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis. Fe–SBA-15 was very efficient in synthesizing imidazopyridines. The binding affinity study revealed that the 2-butoxy-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-methylH-imidazo[1,2-a] pyridine (4g) moiety has exhibited even better affinity in terms of MolDock, re-rank and steric scores than the marketed anti-inflammatory drug, olprinone.

 

Puckett, Jae A., F. I. Surace, H. M. Levitt, & S. G. Horne. (2016). Sexual Orientation Identity in Relation to Minority Stress and Mental Health in Sexual Minority Women. Lgbt Health, 3(5), 350-356.

Purpose: Research often erases the distinct experiences of bisexual and queer women through collapsing participants with lesbian or gay women. In addition, queer is often not included as a sexual orientation identity in research, therefore limiting the available information about how this group experiences minority stress. Given these limitations, we sought to compare groups, based on their sexual orientation identity, on experiences of minority stress and mental health to further understand between group differences that often go unaccounted for in research. Methods: Participants (N=249; age range 19-77; M=38.43, SD=12.98) completed an online survey exploring experiences of minority stress and mental health. Results: We found that the group most at risk for encountering minority stressors depended on the specific stressor being examined. Queer and gay or lesbian women encountered greater victimization, discrimination, and expectations of discrimination than bisexual women. However, bisexual women had higher levels of identity concealment and internalized heterosexism than gay, lesbian, or queer women. While queer women tended to have fewer proximal stressors, they were similar to bisexual women in terms of psychological distress, with both groups scoring higher than gay or lesbian women. Conclusions: These results highlight the need to examine between group differences in future research. The experiences of minority stress appear to complexly relate to psychological distress in varying ways for different groups of women, with bisexual and queer women having the highest rates of psychological distress although they vary in the types of stressors that they encounter. In addition, the experiences of queer women were divergent from those of gay, lesbian, or bisexual women across many of the stressors, indicating that there is a need to further recognize this distinct group of women in future research.

Psychology Department.

 

Qiao, Yupu, Long Zhang, Jia Li, Wei Lin, & Zhenqiang Wang. (2016). Switching on Supramolecular Catalysis via Cavity Mediation and Electrostatic Regulation. Angewandte Chemie, 128(41), 12970-12974.

Synthetic supercontainers constructed from divalent metal ions, carboxylate linkers, and sulfonylcalix[4]arene-based container precursors exhibit great promise as enzyme mimics that function in organic solvents. The capacity of these artificial hosts to catalyze Knoevenagel condensation can be switched on when the aldehyde substrate possesses a molecular size and shape matching the nanocavity of the supercontainers. In contrast, little reactivity is observed for other aldehydes that do not match the binding pocket. This substrate-dependent catalytic selectivity is attributed to the Brønsted acidity of the metal-bound water molecules located inside the nanocavity, which is amplified when the size/shape of the aldehyde substrate fits the binding cavity. The electrostatic environment of the binding cavity and the Brønsted acidity of the supercontainer can be further modulated using tetraalkylammonium-based regulators, leading to higher reactivity for the otherwise unreactive aldehydes.

Chemistry Department.

 

Quevillon, Randal P.Brandon L. GraySara E. EricksonElvira D. Gonzalez, & Gerard A. Jacobs. (2016). Helping the Helpers: Assisting Staff and Volunteer Workers Before, During, and After Disaster Relief Operations. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 72(12), 1348-1363.

Self-care strategies and system supports employed in preparation for, during, and after disaster relief operations (DROs) are crucial to relief worker well-being and the overall effectiveness of relief efforts. Relief organizations and management must structure DROs in a manner that promotes self-care and workers must implement proper self-care strategies. Proper self-care before, during, and after a DRO can reduce negative reactions to stressful emergency work and promote growth, mastery, and self-efficacy after the experience. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to discuss the importance of organizational supports and self-care strategies in disaster relief settings. This article emphasizes the role of both individual and management participation and commitment to relief worker support and positive experience in DROs and provides suggestions for doing so. These suggestions are derived from the empirical and experiential literature and extensions from the theoretical background, and from our experience as managers in DROs.

Psychology Department.

 

Roh, Soonhee, Catherine E. Burnette, Kyoung Hag Lee, Yeon-Shim Lee, & Scott D. Easton. (2016). Risk and Protective Factors for Depressive Symptoms Among Indigenous Older Adults: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and Social Support. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 59(4), 316-331.

Research on depression and intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by Indigenous older adults is virtually nonexistent. Given the associations between IPV and depression and their disproportionately high rates among Indigenous peoples in a context of historical oppression, the purpose of this inquiry is to examine how IPV and social support are associated with depressive symptoms for Indigenous older adults. We expand the knowledge base on IPV in later life, which primarily focuses on female samples, by including older men. We predicted: (a) IPV will be positively associated with depressive symptoms and (b) levels of social support will be negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses of data from a sample of Indigenous older adults (N = 233) in the Upper Midwest indicated that physical aggression (but not psychological aggression, sexual coercion, injury, or negotiation) was positively associated with depressive symptoms, whereas social support was negatively associated with depressive symptoms.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Ronan, Patrick J., N. Wongngamnit, & T. P. Beresford. (2016). Molecular Mechanisms of Cannabis Signaling in the Brain. In S. Rahman (Ed.), Molecular Basis of Drug Addiction (Vol. 137, pp. 123-147). San Diego: Elsevier Academic Press Inc.

Cannabis has been cultivated and used by humans for thousands of years. Research for decades was focused on understanding the mechanisms an illegal/addictive drug. This led to the discovery of the vast endocannabinoid system. Research has now shifted to understanding fundamental biological questions related to one of the most widespread signaling systems in both the brain and the body. Our understanding of cannabinoid signaling has advanced significantly in the last two decades. In this review, we discuss the state of knowledge on mechanisms of Cannabis signaling in the brain and the modulation of key brain neurotransmitter systems involved in both brain reward/addiction and psychiatric disorders. It is highly probable that various cannabinoids will be found to be efficacious in the treatment of a number of psychiatric disorders. However, while there is clearly much potential, marijuana has not been properly vetted by the medical-scientific evaluation process and there are clearly a range of potentially adverse side-effects-including addiction. We are at crossroads for research on endocannabinoid function and therapeutics (including the use of exogenous treatments such as Cannabis). With over 100 cannabinoid constituents, the majority of which have not been studied, there is much Cannabis research yet to be done. With more states legalizing both the medicinal and recreational use of marijuana the rigorous scientific investigation into cannabinoid signaling is imperative.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Simons, Jeffrey S.Raluca M. Simons, Carol O’Brien, Scott F. Stoltenberg, Jessica A. Keith, Jaime A. Hudson, & Carol O’Brien. (2017). PTSD, alcohol dependence, and conduct problems: Distinct pathways via lability and disinhibition. Addictive Behaviors, 64, 185-193.

This study tested the role of affect lability and disinhibition in mediating associations between PTSD symptoms and two forms of alcohol-related problems, dependence syndrome symptoms (e.g., impaired control over consumption) and conduct problems (e.g., assault, risk behaviors). Genotype at the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) was hypothesized to moderate associations between traumatic stress and PTSD symptoms. In addition, the study tested whether childhood traumatic stress moderated associations between combat trauma and PTSD symptoms. Participants were 270 OIF/OEF/OND veterans. The hypothesized model was largely supported. Participants with the low expression alleles of 5-HTTLPR (S or LG) exhibited stronger associations between childhood (but not combat) traumatic stress and PTSD symptoms. Affect lability mediated the associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol dependence symptoms. Behavioral disinhibition mediated associations between PTSD symptoms and conduct related problems. Conditional indirect effects indicated stronger associations between childhood traumatic stress and lability, behavioral disinhibition, alcohol consumption, AUD symptoms, and associated conduct problems via PTSD symptoms among those with the low expression 5-HTTLPR alleles. However, interactions between combat trauma and either childhood trauma or genotype were not significant. The results support the hypothesis that affect lability and behavioral disinhibition are potential intermediate traits with distinct associations with AUD and associated externalizing problems.

Psychology Department.

 

Son, Veronica, J. Chung, & J. P. Yom. (2016). When efficacy beliefs affect team attributions: relationships between self- and collective efficacy beliefs and team attributions over time. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 56(7-8), 939-948.

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the extent to which efficacy beliefs and perceptions of team performance influenced team causal attributions overtime. METHODS: A total of 258 undergraduate students were assigned to a three or four person team and played three games against three different opponents in a semi-round robin team bowling tournament. RESULTS: Multilevel modelling analyses revealed that individuals’ perceptions in team performance were positively associated with internal, stable, and team controllable attributions. Collective efficacy beliefs positively predicted team attributions overtime; whereas, self-efficacy beliefs were a negative predictor of team attributions across the tournament. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that individuals’ perceptions of their team’s success/failure were the stronger determinant of team attributions than their team’s winning/losing and, as well as, the efficacy beliefs team attributions relationships were moderated by time.

School of Education.

 

Strouse, Gabrielle A., & Patricia A. Ganea. (2016). Are prompts provided by electronic books as effective for teaching preschoolers a biological concept as those provided by adults? Early Education and Development, 27(8), 1190-1204.

Research Findings: Prior research indicates that shared book reading is an effective method for teaching biological concepts to young children. Adult questioning during reading enhances children’s comprehension. We investigated whether adult prompting during the reading of an electronic book enhanced children’s understanding of a biological concept. Ninety-one 4-year-olds read about camouflage in 3 conditions. We varied how prompts were provided: (a) read by the book, (b) read by a researcher, or (c) given face to face by the researcher. There was an interaction between children’s initial vocabulary level and condition. Children with low vocabulary scores gave fewer camouflage responses than their high-vocabulary peers, and this effect was particularly pronounced in the book-read condition. Children’s executive function was also measured and discussed. Practice or Policy: Our findings indicate that under some circumstances electronic prompts built into touchscreen books can be as effective at supporting conceptual development as the same prompts provided by a coreading adult. However, children with low vocabulary skills may be particularly supported by adult-led prompting. We suggest that adult prompting be used to motivate children to test and revise their own biological theories. Once children have learned strategies for updating their concepts, electronic prompting may be useful for scaffolding children’s transition to using the strategies when reading alone. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

School of Education.

 

Vallcaneras, Sandra S., Magalí de la Vega, Silvia M. Delgado, Alicia Motta, Carlos Telleria, Ana M. Rastrilla, & Marilina Casais. (2016). Prolactin modulates luteal regression from the coeliac ganglion via the superior ovarian nerve in the late-pregnant rat. Reproduction, Fertility & Development, 28(5), 565-573.

There is considerable evidence of the neuroendocrine control involved in luteal regression in the rat. In addition, circulating prolactin (PRL), which increases during the night before parturition, may gain access to the coeliac ganglion (CG), indirectly impacting the physiology of the ovary because of the known connection between the CG and the ovary via the superior ovarian nerve (SON). In this work we investigated in the CG-SON-ovary system and whether PRL added to the CG has an impact, indirectly via the SON, on luteal regression on Day 21 of pregnancy. The system was incubated without (control) or with PRL added to the CG. We measured the ovarian release of progesterone (P), oestradiol and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2α) by radioimmunoassay, and nitrites (NO) by the Griess method. Luteal mRNA expression of 3b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 20a-HSD, aromatase, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and apoptosis regulatory factors was analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. P release, the expression of Bcl-2 and the Bcl-2 : Bax ratio was lower than control preparations, while the expression of 20α-HSD and the release of NO and PGF2α were higher in the experimental group. In conclusion, PRL acts at the CG and, by a neural pathway, modulates luteal function at the end of pregnancy.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Wheeler, Cosette M., S. Rachel Skinner, M. Rowena Del Rosario-Raymundo, Suzanne M. Garland, Archana Chatterjee, …., & Galina Minkina. (2016). Efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in women older than 25 years: 7-year follow-up of the phase 3, double-blind, randomised controlled VIVIANE study. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 16(10), 1154-1168.

Although the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is greatest in young women, women older than 25 years remain at risk. We present data from the VIVIANE study of the HPV 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in adult women after 7 years of follow-up.<bold>Methods: </bold>In this phase 3, double-blind, randomised controlled trial, healthy women older than 25 years were enrolled (age stratified: 26-35 years, 36-45 years, and ≥46 years). Up to 15% in each age stratum had a history of HPV infection or disease. Women were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive HPV 16/18 vaccine or aluminium hydroxide control, with an internet-based system. The primary endpoint was vaccine efficacy against 6-month persistent infection or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or greater (CIN1+) associated with HPV 16/18. We did analyses in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy and total vaccinated cohort. Data for the combined primary endpoint in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy were considered significant when the lower limit of the 96·2% CI around the point estimate was greater than 30%. For all other endpoints and cohorts, data were considered significant when the lower limit of the 96·2% CI was greater than 0%. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00294047.<bold>Findings: </bold>The first participant was enrolled on Feb 16, 2006, and the last study visit took place on Jan 29, 2014. 4407 women were in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy (n=2209 vaccine, n=2198 control) and 5747 women in the total vaccinated cohort (n=2877 vaccine, n=2870 control). At month 84, in women seronegative for the corresponding HPV type in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy, vaccine efficacy against 6-month persistent infection or CIN1+ associated with HPV 16/18 was significant in all age groups combined (90·5%, 96·2% CI 78·6-96·5). Vaccine efficacy against HPV 16/18-related cytological abnormalities (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) and CIN1+ was also significant. We also noted significant cross-protective efficacy against 6-month persistent infection with HPV 31 (65·8%, 96·2% CI 24·9-85·8) and HPV 45 (70·7%, 96·2% CI 34·2-88·4). In the total vaccinated cohort, vaccine efficacy against CIN1+ irrespective of HPV was significant (22·9%, 96·2% CI 4·8-37·7). Serious adverse events related to vaccination occurred in five (0·2%) of 2877 women in the vaccine group and eight (0·3%) of 2870 women in the control group.<bold>Interpretation: </bold>In women older than 25 years, the HPV 16/18 vaccine continues to protect against infections, cytological abnormalities, and lesions associated with HPV 16/18 and CIN1+ irrespective of HPV type, and infection with non-vaccine types HPV 31 and HPV 45 over 7 years of follow-up.<bold>Funding: </bold>GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Yang, X. Y., Y. Xu, A. Brooks, B. Guo, Keith W. Miskimins, & S. Y. Qian. (2016). Knockdown delta-5-desaturase promotes the formation of a novel free radical byproduct from COX-catalyzed omega-6 peroxidation to induce apoptosis and sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to chemotherapy drugs. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 97, 342-350.

Recent research has demonstrated that colon cancer cell proliferation can be suppressed in the cells that overexpress COX-2 via generating 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid (a free radical byproduct) during dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, an omega-6 fatty acid) peroxidation from knocking down cellular delta-5-desaturase (D5D, the key enzyme for converting DGLA to the downstream omega-6, arachidonic acid). Here, this novel research finding is extended to pancreatic cancer growth, as COX-2 is also commonly overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. The pancreatic cancer cell line, BxPC-3 (with high COX-2 expression and mutated p53), was used to assess not only the inhibitory effects of the enhanced formation of 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid from cellular COX-2-catalyzed DGLA peroxidation but also its potential synergistic and/or additive effect on current chemotherapy drugs. This work demonstrated that, by inducing DNA damage through inhibition of histone deacetylase, a threshold level of 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid achieved in DGLA-treated and D5D-knockdown BxPC-3 cells subsequently induce cancer cell apoptosis. Furthermore, it was shown that a combination of D5D knockdown along with DGLA treatment could also significantly sensitize BxPC-3 cells to various chemotherapy drugs, likely via a p53-independent pathway through downregulating of anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g., Bcl-2) and activating pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g., caspase 3, 9). This study reinforces the supposition that using commonly overexpressed COX-2 for molecular targeting, a strategy conceptually distinct from the prevailing COX-2 inhibition strategy used in cancer treatment, is an important as well as viable alternative to inhibit cancer cell growth. Based on the COX-2 metabolic cascade, the outcomes presented here could guide the development of a novel omega-6-based dietary care strategy in combination with chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Inc.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Yulun, Han, Dmitri S. Kilin, P. Stanley MayMary T. Berry, & Meng Qingguo. (2016). Photofragmentation Pathways for Gas-Phase Lanthanide Tris(isopropylcyclopentadienyl) Complexes. Organometallics, 35(20), 3461-3473.

Photofragmentation mechanisms of gas-phase lanthanide tris(isopropylcyclopentadienyl) complexes, Ln(iCp)3, were studied through experimental photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PI-TOF-MS). A DFT-based time-dependent excited-state molecular dynamics (TDESMD) algorithm, under standard approximations, was used to simulate the photofragmentation process. Two competing reaction pathways, intact ligand stripping and ligand cracking within the metal-ligand complex, were hypothesized based on experimental data. It was evident that intramolecular hydrogen, methyl, and isopropyl abstraction play an important role in the ligand-cracking reaction pathway, leading to metal carbide and metal hydrocarbide products. The TDESMD simulations also produced branching reaction pathways for ligand ejection and ligand cracking and further suggested that both pathways are initiated by ligand-to-metal charge transfer. Although the simulations reproduced several of the proposed reactions and several of the products of cracking observed in the PI-TOF mass spectra, differences between the simulation and experimental results suggest specific directions for improvement in the computational model.

Chemistry Department.

 

Zeng, Z. C., S. Hu, S. C. Huang, Y. J. Zhang, W. X. Zhao, J. F. Li, Chaoyang Jiang, & B. Ren. (2016). Novel Electrochemical Raman Spectroscopy Enabled by Water Immersion Objective. Analytical Chemistry, 88(19), 9381-9385.

Electrochemical Raman spectroscopy is a powerful molecular lever diagnostic, technique for in situ investigation of adsorption and reactions on various material surfaces. However, there is still a big room to improve the optical path to meet the increasing request of higher detection sensitivity and spatial resolution. Herein, we proposed a novel electrochemical Raman setup based on a water immersion objective. It dramatically reduces mismatch of the refractive index in the light path: Consequently, significant: improvement in detection sensitivity and spatial resolution has been achieved from both Zemax simulation and the experimental results. Furthermore, the thickness of electrolyte layer could be expanded to 2 mm without any influence on the signal collection; Such a thick electrolyte layer allows a Much normal,electrochemical response during the spectroelectrochemical investigations of the methanol oxidation.

Chemistry Department.

 

Zhang, C.D. M. Meia, V. A. Kudryavtsev, & S. Fiorucci. (2016). Cosmogenic activation of materials used in rare event search experiments.Astroparticle Physics, 84, 62-69.

We evaluate the cosmogenic production rates in some materials that are commonly used as targets and shielding/supporting components for detecting rare events. The results from Geant4 simulations and the calculations of ACTIVIA are compared with the available experimental data. We demonstrate that the production rates from the Geant4-based simulations agree with the available data reasonably well. As a result, we report that the cosmogenic production of several isotopes in various materials can generate potential backgrounds for direct detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Physics Department.

 

Zhi-Cong, Zeng, Hu Shu, Huang Sheng-Chao, Zhang Yue-Jiao, Zhao Wei-Xing, Li Jian-Feng, Jiang Chaoyang, & Ren Bin. (2016). Novel Electrochemical Raman Spectroscopy Enabled by Water Immersion Objective. Analytical Chemistry, 88(19), 9381-9385.

Electrochemical Raman spectroscopy is a powerful molecular level diagnostic technique for in situ investigation of adsorption and reactions on various material surfaces. However, there is still a big room to improve the optical path to meet the increasing request of higher detection sensitivity and spatial resolution. Herein, we proposed a novel electrochemical Raman setup based on a water immersion objective. It dramatically reduces mismatch of the refractive index in the light path. Consequently, significant improvement in detection sensitivity and spatial resolution has been achieved from both Zemax simulation and the experimental results. Furthermore, the thickness of electrolyte layer could be expanded to 2 mm without any influence on the signal collection. Such a thick electrolyte layer allows a much normal electrochemical response during the spectroelectrochemical investigations of the methanol oxidation.

Chemistry Department.

 

Posted by: tadeterman | January 13, 2017

October 2016

Aboul-Enein, B. H., & W. Puddy. (2016). Contributions of Antoine Barthelemy Clot (1793-1868): A historiographical reflection of public health in Ottoman Egypt. Journal of Medical Biography, 24(3), 427-432.

This paper reviews the selected historiographic and contemporary literature that discussed the medical and public health contribution of Antoine Barthelemy Clot (Clot Bey) and how these contributions shaped modern public health in Ottoman Egypt, and the major features that led to the development of the public health infrastructure of early modern Egypt based on the contributions of Clot Bey. The literature discussed the establishment of Egypt’s first modern public health and medical schools under the direct administration and guidance of Clot Bey, and his major contribution in the fields of vaccination, quarantine, the development of a culturally congruent curriculum for medical students, and the public health policies and practices enacted during the reign of Muhammad Ali Pasha that addressed major communicable diseases affecting Egypt. With considerable support from the viceroy of Egypt despite popular resistance, Clot Bey significantly modernized Egyptian medicine, medical education and reformed the public health infrastructure. He became one of the preeminent medical figures of nineteenth century Ottoman Egypt.

School of Health Sciences.

Baack, Michelle L., B. J. Forred, T. D. Larsen, D. N. Jensen, A. L. Wachal, Muhammad A. Khan, & Peter F. Vitiello. (2016). Consequences of a Maternal High-Fat Diet and Late Gestation Diabetes on the Developing Rat Lung. Plos One, 11(8), 21.

Rationale Infants born to diabetic or obese mothers are at risk of respiratory distress and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), conceivably through fuel-mediated pathogenic mechanisms. Prior research and preventative measures focus on controlling maternal hyperglycemia, but growing evidence suggests a role for additional circulating fuels including lipids. Little is known about the individual or additive effects of a maternal high-fat diet on fetal lung development. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a maternal high-fat diet, alone and alongside late-gestation diabetes, on lung alveologenesis and vasculogenesis, as well as to ascertain if consequences persist beyond the perinatal period. Methods A rat model was used to study lung development in offspring from control, diabetes-exposed, high-fat diet-exposed and combination-exposed pregnancies via morphometric, histologic (alveolarization and vasculogenesis) and physiologic (echocardiography, pulmonary function) analyses at birth and 3 weeks of age. Outcomes were interrogated for diet, diabetes and interaction effect using ANOVA with significance set at p <= 0.05. Findings prompted additional mechanistic inquiry of key molecular pathways. Results Offspring exposed to maternal diabetes or high-fat diet, alone and in combination, had smaller lungs and larger hearts at birth. High-fat diet-exposed, but not diabetes-exposed offspring, had a higher perinatal death rate and echocardiographic evidence of PPHN at birth. Alveolar mean linear intercept, septal thickness, and airspace area (D-2) were not significantly different between the groups; however, markers of lung maturity were. Both diabetes-exposed and diet-exposed offspring expressed more T1 alpha protein, a marker of type I cells. Diet-exposed newborn pups expressed less surfactant protein B and had fewer pulmonary vessels enumerated. Mechanistic inquiry revealed alterations in AKT activation, higher endothelin-1 expression, and an impaired Txnip/VEGF pathway that are important for vessel growth and migration. After 3 weeks, mortality remained highest and static lung compliance and hysteresis were lowest in combination-exposed offspring. Conclusion This study emphasizes the effects of a maternal high-fat diet, especially alongside late-gestation diabetes, on pulmonary vasculogenesis, demonstrates adverse consequences beyond the perinatal period and directs attention to mechanistic pathways of interest. Findings provide a foundation for additional investigation of preventative and therapeutic strategies aimed at decreasing pulmonary morbidity in at-risk infants.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Barber, N. A., D. C. Taylor, & Venky Venkatachalam. (2016). Does the Product Really Matter? A Look at Mainstream Pro-Environmental Consumption Behavior. Journal of Food Products Marketing, 22(5), 521-554.

The overall objective of this article is to determine if the product matters in determining willingness to pay for pro-environmental products compared to non-pro-environmental products through experimental design. Ultimately, this research aims to use a posteriori or behavioral segmentation approach to cluster consumers using the price collected through a controlled auction experiment they would actually pay to purchase a pro-environmental product as opposed to a non-pro-environmental product, as well as profiling each segment according to (a) perceived product benefits; (b) values; (c) perceived consequences of purchase behavior; and (d) demographics based on self-reported survey data.

Beacom School of Business.

Barker, Matthew A. (2016). Current Issues with Hysterectomy. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, 43(3), 591-+.

Hysterectomy is one of the most common gynecologic surgeries. Early adoption of surgical advancements in hysterectomies has raised concerns over safety, quality, and costs. The risk of potential leiomyosarcoma in women undergoing minimally invasive hysterectomy led the US Food and Drug Administration to discourage the use of electronic power morcellator. Minimally invasive hysterectomies have increased substantially despite lack of data supporting its use over other forms of hysterectomy and increased costs. Health care reform is incentivizing providers to improve quality, improve safety, and decrease costs through standardized outcomes and process measures.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Bottger, T., C. W. Thiel, R. L. Cone, Y. Sun, & A. Faraon. (2016). Optical spectroscopy and decoherence studies of Yb3+:YAG at 968 nm. Physical Review B, 94(4), 13.

The F-2(7/2) <-> F-2(5/2) optical transitions of Yb3+ doped into (YAlO12)-Al-3-O-5 (YAG) were studied for potential quantum information and photonic signal processing applications. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy located the energy levels of the ground F-2(7/2) and excited F-2(5/2) manifolds, allowing inconsistencies between previous assignments of crystal field splittings in the literature to be resolved. These measurements reveal an unusually large splitting between the first and second levels in both the ground and excited multiplets, potentially providing for reduced sensitivity to thermally induced decoherence and spin-lattice relaxation. Spectral hole burning through two-level saturation was observed, determining the excited state lifetime to be 860 mu s and resolving ambiguities in previous fluorescence measurements that were caused by the large radiation trapping effects in this material. Optical decoherence measurements using two-pulse photon echoes gave a homogeneous linewidth of 18 kHz for an applied magnetic field of 1 T, narrowing to 5 kHz at 2.5 T. The observed decoherence was described by spectral diffusion attributed to Yb3+-Yb3+ magnetic dipole interactions. Laser absorption determined an inhomogeneous linewidth of 3.6 GHz for this transition in this 0.05%-doped crystal, which is narrower than for any other rare-earth-ion transition previously studied in the YAG host. The temperature dependence of the transition energy and linewidth of the lowest F-2(7/2) to lowest F-2(5/2) transition centered at 968.571 nm measured from 4 K to 300 K was well described by phonon scattering at higher temperatures, with an additional anomalous linear temperature-dependent broadening at temperatures below 80 K. Two magnetically inequivalent subgroups of Yb3+ ions were identified when a magnetic field was applied along the < 111 > axis, as expected for the D-2 sites in the cubic symmetry crystal, with ground and excited state effective g-values of g(g) = 3.40 (3.34) and g(e) = 1.04 (2.01), respectively. Together with the convenient diode laser wavelength of this transition, our study suggests that Yb3+:YAG is a promising material system for spectral hole burning and quantum information applications.

Physics Department.

Brown, S. L., Dayton J. Vogel, J. B. Miller, T. M. Inerbaev, R. J. Anthony, U. R. Kortshagen, . . . E. K. Hobbie. (2016). Enhancing Silicon Nanocrystal Photoluminescence through Temperature and Microstructure. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 120(33), 18909-18916.

Routes to enhancing the photoluminescence (PL) of colloidal silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) typically focus On changes in surface chemistry and the associated improvements in quantum yield. Here, we report a new more indirect approach that instead exploits the structure of the host matrix. Specifically, we demonstrate that changes in microstructure associated with a thermotropic phase transition in unbound ligand can increase the excitation fluence through scattering, yielding dramatic improvements in PL intensity without any discernible changes in fluorescence lifetime or quantum yield. Using size-purified plasma synthesized SiNCs prepared as solid and liquid samples, we use experiment and computation to examine both intrinsic size-resolved differences in the temperature-dependent PL and an anomalous contribution linked to matrix microstructure. Beyond revealing a potential new route to improved PL intensity, our results further clarity the role of surface states and the challenges that they present.

Chemistry Department.

Bubak, A. N., A. R. Gerken, Michael J. Watt, J. D. Costabile, Kenneth J. Renner, & J. G. Swallow. (2016). Assessment strategies and fighting patterns in animal contests: a role for serotonin? Current Zoology, 62(3), 257-263.

Accurate assessment of the probability of success in an aggressive confrontation with a conspecific is critical to the survival and fitness of the individuals. Various game theory models have examined these assessment strategies under the assumption that contests should favor the animal with the greater resource-holding potential (RHP), body size typically being the proxy. Mutual assessment asserts that an individual can assess their own RHP relative to their opponent, allowing the inferior animal the chance to flee before incurring unnecessary costs. The model of self-determined persistence, however, assumes that an individual will fight to a set personal threshold, independent of their opponent’s RHP. Both models have been repeatedly tested using size as a proxy for RHP, with neither receiving unambiguous support. Here we present both morphological and neurophysiological data from size-matched and mismatched stalk-eyed fly fights. We discovered differing fighting strategies between winners and losers. Winners readily escalated encounters to higher intensity and physical contact and engaged in less low-intensity, posturing behaviors compared with losers. Although these fighting strategies were largely independent of size, they were associated with elevated levels of 5-HT. Understanding the neurophysiological factors responsible for mediating the motivational state of opponents could help resolve the inconsistencies seen in current game theory models. Therefore, we contend that current studies using only size as a proxy for RHP may be inadequate in determining the intricacies of fighting ability and that future studies investigating assessment strategies and contest outcome should include neurophysiological data.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Cao, Y. H., K. L. Wang, X. M. Wang, Z. R. Gu, Q. H. Fan, W. Gibbons, . . . M. Shrestha. (2016). Hierarchical porous activated carbon for supercapacitor derived from corn stalk core by potassium hydroxide activation. Electrochimica Acta, 212, 839-847.

Hierarchical porous activated carbon (AC) was obtained from corn stalk pith with a hierarchical macroporous nature, which is composed of cells of soft and spongy texture. The high specific surface area (2495 m(2) g(-1)) of the activated carbon (AC) was produced by the activation of corn stalk core (CSC) using potassium hydroxide at 700 degrees C. SEM, TEM and XRD were used to test the microstructure and crystallographic orientation of the carbon samples. The cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were measured based on CSC-700. This sample had relatively low inner resistance of 1.0 Omega. The specific capacitance was 323 F g(-1) in 6 mol L-1 KOH electrolyte at a current density of 0.1 A g(-1), and it still maintained very good cyclic stability with capacitance retention ratio of 97.9% (from 265.0 to 262.4 F g(-1)) at current density of 1.0A g(-1) for 1000 cycles. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Chemistry Department.

Fercho, Kelene, & Lee A. Baugh. (2016). Cognitive attribution of the source of an error in object-lifting results in differences in motor generalization. Experimental Brain Research, 234(9), 2667-2676.

To lift an object, the motor system must predict the weight of the object and use this information to program appropriate lifting forces. If this prediction is erroneous, people may assign blame for the error to either themselves or an external source-a process called credit assignment. In the present study, we explored the role of credit assignment on weight predictions during a lifting task. Participants were told that the EMG surface electrodes attached to their lifting hand were either part of a “passive” system that recorded muscular activity, or part of an “active” system that would apply energy to the muscle, influencing weight perception. Participants performed 90 lifts of the training blocks, followed by 10 lifts of a newly encountered larger test block. In between training and test trials, the experimenter turned off the recording system and removed the surface electrodes for participants in the “active” group. For each lift, we determined the initial peak rate of change of vertical load force rate and load-phase duration, estimates of predicted object weight. Analysis of the first 10 training lifts and the last 10 training lifts revealed no effect of Active versus Passive EMG on weight predictions. However, after removing the EMG equipment, participants in the “active” group failed to scale their predictive load forces in the same manner as those in the “passive” condition when lifting a novel block. We conclude that cognitive information may play a role in credit assignment, influencing weight prediction when lifting novel objects.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Hanson, Elizabeth K., Emily Goldhammer, & Tanya Bethard. (2016). Telephone talk: effects of two access methods on phone call success. AAC: Augmentative & Alternative Communication, 32(3), 219-226.

The slower and unnatural timing of speech inherent to speech-generating devices (SGDs) can be a barrier to successful aided telephone calls. The timing of message delivery when using an SGD may vary depending on the type of access method used. We measured the difference in the success rate of telephone calls made with an SGD either using switch scanning or direct selection with eye gaze. The scripted calls, asking for directions, were placed to 100 randomly selected businesses. Analysis showed a statistically significant difference in the success rate between the two conditions, with eye gaze access resulting in more successful calls. Findings from this study suggest that people who use SGDs for phone calls may improve the timing of message delivery by using eye gaze access compared to switch scanning.

Communication Disorders Department.

Hanson, Jessica D., Jamie L. Jensen, Kelly Campbell, Kaushal Raj Chaudhary, & Susan E. Puumala. (2016). EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SUBSTANCE-EXPOSED PREGNANCIES AT ONE GREAT LAKES HOSPITAL THAT SERVES A LARGE NUMBER OF AMERICAN INDIANS. American Indian & Alaska Native Mental Health Research: The Journal of the National Center, 23(4), 44-62.

Objective: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of substance-exposed pregnancies at a hospital in the Great Lakes region of the U.S. Method: Data were collected via retrospective chart abstractions of patients who were seen for delivery at one Great Lakes region hospital during a 1-year period who were given at least one of the International Classification of Diseases codes related to substance use. Results: A total of 342 medical records were included in the analysis, and, while much race/ethnicity data were missing, a large percentage of those in our analysis identified as American Indian. The prevalence of substance-exposed pregnancies at this hospital during a 1-year period was 34.5%. The majority (84.8%) were tobacco users, and many were found to have multiple substance exposures. Also, 48.5% were found to have a mental health diagnosis in addition to substance use. Conclusions: Data from this project can be used in prevention efforts, including preconception care for women at risk for substance use and mental health issues.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Hargreaves Heap, Shaun P., Abhijit Ramalingam, & Brock V. Stoddard. (2016). Endowment inequality in public goods games: A re-examination. Economics Letters, 146, 4-7.

We present a clean test of whether inequality in endowments affects contributions to a public good. It is a clean test because, to our knowledge, it is the first to control for possible endowment effects. We find that the key adverse effect of inequality arises because the rich reduce their contributions when there is inequality.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Harris, William S., Serge Masson, Simona Barlera, Valentina Milani, Silvana Pileggi, Maria Grazia Franzosi, . . . Roberto Latini. (2016). Red blood cell oleic acid levels reflect olive oil intake while omega-3 levels reflect fish intake and the use of omega-3 acid ethyl esters: The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto Miocardico–Heart Failure trial. Nutrition Research, 36(9), 989-994.

The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto Miocardico–Heart Failure (GISSI-HF) study reported benefits of n-3 fatty acid (FA) treatment on cardiovascular (CV) events, but the effects of treatment on a putative CV disease risk factor, the red blood cell (RBC) n-3 FA level (the omega-3 index), have not been examined in this context. We hypothesized that treatment with prescription omega-3 acid ethyl esters (O3AEE) would increase the omega-3 index to the proposed cardioprotective value of 8%. RBCs were collected from a subset of patients participating in the GISSI-HF study (n = 461 out of 6975 randomized), at baseline and after 3 months of treatment with either an olive oil placebo or O3AEE (1 g/d). RBC FA levels were expressed as a percentage of total FA. Patients also reported their typical olive oil and fish intakes. RBC oleic acid levels were directly correlated with reported frequency of olive oil consumption, and the omega-3 index was correlated with reported fish intake ( P for trends <0.001 for both). After treatment, the omega-3 index increased from 4.8 ± 1.7% to 6.7 ± 1.9% but was unchanged in the placebo group (4.7 ± 1.7 to 4.8 ± 1.5%) ( P < .0001 for changes between groups). At 3 months, more patients reached the proposed target omega-3 index level of 8%-12% in the treated vs placebo group (22.6% vs. 1.3%, P < .0001), however, what omega-3 index levels were ultimately achieved after four years in this trial are unknown.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Hoover, K. M., A. N. Bubak, I. J. Law, Jazmine D. W. Yaeger, Kenneth J. Renner, J. G. Swallow, & M. J. Greene. (2016). The organization of societal conflicts by pavement ants Tetramorium caespitum: an agent-based model of amine-mediated decision making. Current Zoology, 62(3), 277-284.

Ant colonies self-organize to solve complex problems despite the simplicity of an individual ant’s brain. Pavement ant Tetramorium caespitum colonies must solve the problem of defending the territory that they patrol in search of energetically rich forage. When members of 2 colonies randomly interact at the territory boundary a decision to fight occurs when: 1) there is a mismatch in nestmate recognition cues and 2) each ant has a recent history of high interaction rates with nestmate ants. Instead of fighting, some ants will decide to recruit more workers from the nest to the fighting location, and in this way a positive feedback mediates the development of colony wide wars. In ants, the monoamines serotonin (5-HT) and octopamine (OA) modulate many behaviors associated with colony organization and in particular behaviors associated with nestmate recognition and aggression. In this article, we develop and explore an agent-based model that conceptualizes how individual changes in brain concentrations of 5-HT and OA, paired with a simple threshold-based decision rule, can lead to the development of colony wide warfare. Model simulations do lead to the development of warfare with 91% of ants fighting at the end of 1 h. When conducting a sensitivity analysis, we determined that uncertainty in monoamine concentration signal decay influences the behavior of the model more than uncertainty in the decision-making rule or density. We conclude that pavement ant behavior is consistent with the detection of interaction rate through a single timed interval rather than integration of multiple interactions.

Biology Department.

Ikiugu, Moses N., & Ranelle M. Nissen. (2016). Intervention Strategies Used by Occupational Therapists Working in Mental Health and Their Theoretical Basis. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 32(2), 109-129.

The theoretical basis of occupational therapy interventions was investigated in two mental health facilities in the Midwestern United States. Using retrospective cohort and grounded theory designs, 121 medical records were reviewed and five occupational therapy practitioners were interviewed. Theoretical reasoning was not explicitly documented, but according to analysis, the behavioral/cognitive-behavioral model, client-centered models, and the model of human occupation were the most frequently used theories to guide interventions. Lack of documentation of theory use has significant implications for the value accorded to occupational therapy skills in health care. A larger study is recommended to increase external generalizability of the findings.

School of Health Sciences.

King, Georgina E., Nicholas J. G. Pearce, Helen M. Roberts, Victoria C. Smith, John A. Westgate, David R. Gaylord, & Mark R. Sweeney. (2016). Identification of a Kulshan caldera correlative tephra in the Palouse loess of Washington State, northwest USA. Quaternary Research, 86(2), 232-241.

The Kulshan caldera formed at ∼1.15 Ma on the present-day site of Mt. Baker, Washington State, northwest USA and erupted a compositionally zoned (dacite-rhyolite) magma and a correlative eruptive, the Lake Tapps tephra. This tephra has previously been described, but only from the Puget Lowland of NW Washington. Here an occurrence of a Kulshan caldera correlative tephra is described from the Quaternary Palouse loess at the Washtucna site (WA-3). Site WA-3 is located in east-central Washington, ∼340 km southeast of the Kulshan caldera and ∼300 km east-southeast of the Lake Tapps occurrence in the Puget Lowland. Major- and trace element chemistry and location of the deposit at Washtucna within reversed polarity sediments indicates that it is not correlative with the Mesa Falls, Rockland, Bishop Ash, Lava Creek B or Huckleberry Ridge tephras. Instead the Washtucna deposit is related to the Lake Tapps tephra by fractional crystallisation, but is chemically distinct, a consequence of its eruption from a compositionally zoned magma chamber. The correlation of the Washtucna occurrence to the Kulshan caldera-forming eruption indicates that it had an eruptive volume exceeding 100 km 3 , and that its tephra could provide a valuable early-Pleistocene chronostratigraphic marker in the Pacific Northwest.

Earth Sciences Department.

Lampert, Sara. (2016). Black Swan/White Raven: the racial politics of Elizabeth Greenfield’s American concert career, 1851-1855. American Nineteenth Century History, 17(1), 75-102.

In 1851, the former slave turned singer Elizabeth Greenfield traveled from her home of Philadelphia to Buffalo, New York, to pursue a career as a concert singer. This article explores the terms and reception of Greenfield’s tours of the northern United States and Upper Canada in the early 1850s, where she performed before predominantly white audiences. While white critics celebrated Greenfield in highly racialized terms as an untrained natural wonder, black activists like Frederick Douglass focused on the racist management of her career and criticized Greenfield for the segregation of her concerts. Told through analysis of reviews and promotional literature, the story of Greenfield’s early career makes visible the race and gender politics operating at the intersection of popular entertainment and black movements for racial uplift and equality in the antebellum North.

History Department.

 

Larson, Eric A., Paul A. Thompson, Z. K. Anderson, Keith A. Anderson, Roxana A. Lupu, Vicki Tigner, & Wendell W. Hoffman. (2016). Decreasing the critical value of hemoglobin required for physician notification reduces the rate of blood transfusions. International Journal of General Medicine, 9, 133-136.

Red blood cell transfusions have been cited as one of the most overused therapeutic interventions in the USA. Excessively aggressive transfusion practices may be driven by mandatory physician notification of critical hemoglobin values that do not generally require transfusion. We examined the effect of decreasing the critical value of hemoglobin from 8 to 7 g/dL at our institution. Along with this change, mandatory provider notification for readings between 7 and 8 g/dL was rescinded. Transfusion rates were compared retrospectively during paired 5-month periods for patients presenting in three key hemoglobin ranges (6.00-6.99, 7.00-7.99, and 8.00-8.99 g/dL). A change in transfusion practices was hypothesized in the 7-8 g/dL range, which was no longer labeled critical and for which mandated physician calls were rescinded. Transfusion rates showed a statistically significant 8% decrease (P <= 0.0001) during the 5-month period post change in our transfusion practices. This decrease in the 7.00-7.99 g/dL range was significantly greater than the 2% decrease observed in either the 6-6.99 g/dL (P=0.0017) or 8-8.99 g/dL (P <= 0.0001) range. Cost savings of up to $ 700,000/year were extrapolated from our results showing 491 fewer units of red blood cells transfused during the 5-month post change. These cost savings do not take into account the additional impact of complications associated with blood transfusions.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Louw, A., Kory Zimney, C. O’Hotto, & S. Hilton. (2016). The clinical application of teaching people about pain. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 32(5), 385-395.

Teaching people about the neurobiology and neurophysiology of their pain experience has a therapeutic effect and has been referred to as pain neuroscience education (PNE). Various high-quality randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews have shown increasing efficacy of PNE decreasing pain, disability, pain catastrophization, movement restrictions, and healthcare utilization. Research studies, however, by virtue of their design, are very controlled environments and, therefore, in contrast to the ever-increasing evidence for PNE, little is known about the clinical application of this emerging therapy. In contrast, case studies, case series, and expert opinion and perspectives by authorities in the world of pain science provide clinicians with a glimpse into potential real clinical application of PNE in the face of the ever-increasing chronic pain epidemic. By taking the material from the randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, case series, case studies, and expert opinion, this article aims to provide a proposed layout of the clinical application of PNE. The article systematically discusses key elements of PNE including examination, educational content, and delivery methods, merging of PNE with movement, goal setting, and progression. This perspectives article concludes with a call for research into the clinical application of PNE.

School of Health Sciences.

Macapagal, K., R. Coventry, Jae A. Puckett, G. Phillips, & B. Mustanski. (2016). Geosocial Networking App Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Serious Romantic Relationships. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(6), 1513-1524.

Geosocial networking (GSN) mobile phone applications (“apps”) are used frequently among men who have sex with men (MSM) to socialize and meet sexual partners. Though GSN apps are used by some MSM in partnered relationships, little is known about how the use of GSN apps among MSM in serious romantic relationships can influence couples’ sexual and relationship health. MSM in serious relationships (N=323; M age = 40 years) were recruited through a popular GSN app for MSM. Participants completed open-ended items regarding the costs and benefits of app use to their relationships, discussions of app use with their partners, and preferences for relationship education related to app use. Reported benefits of app use included improving sex and communication with one’s primary partner and fulfilling unmet sexual needs. Although approximately half had not discussed app use with their partners, citing app use as a”non-issue,” many cited various drawbacks to app use, including jealousy and being a distraction from the relationship. Few described sexual health concerns as a drawback to meeting partners through apps. Regarding relationship education preferences, most wanted help with general communication skills and how to express one’s sexual needs to a partner. Although GSN app use can enhance relationships and sex among partnered MSM, unclear communication about app use may contribute to negative relationship outcomes and could prevent partners from having sexual needs met. Relationship and sexual health education programs for male couples should consider addressing social media and technology use in their curricula.

Psychology Department.

Moon, H., Soonhee Roh, Y. S. Lee, & R. T. Goins. (2016). Disparities in Health, Health Care Access, and Life Experience Between American Indian and White Adults in South Dakota. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 3(2), 301-308.

Objectives The objective of this study is to investigate the factors associated with depressive symptoms and chronic illnesses in American Indians compared with White adults born in the post-World War II period, 1946 to 1964, and living in South Dakota. Design A cross-sectional design of American Indian and White adults aged 50 and older in South Dakota (Brookings, Vermillion, Sioux Falls, and all others areas of South Dakota) between January 2013 and May 2013 was used. American Indian and White adults (born between 1946 and 1964; N = 349). Data included sociodemographic factors and measures of chronic physical health condition, health care access, adverse childhood experiences, body mass index (BMI), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Technology Acceptance Model, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Depressive Symptoms. Results American Indian adults reported more chronic diseases and conditions, a lower self-perceived physical health, were more likely to be overweight or obese, had more adverse childhood experience (ACE), and reported a lower level of alcohol intake compared to White adults. BMI was significantly associated with an increased number of chronic conditions for both groups, and American Indians’ better perception of their physical health was significantly associated with lower total number of chronic conditions. Self-perceived mental health, a better level of access to health care, and a higher degree of social support were significantly inversely associated with the number of depressive symptoms for American Indian adults, while a greater level of ACE was significantly associated with an increased number of depressive symptoms for this group. Conclusion The current study not only support previous studies but also contributes to understanding the disparities in and risk factors potentially impacting American Indians’ physical and mental health. Our findings highlight the need to investigate the American Indians’ perceptions and knowledge about health care accessibility including availability as well as perceived barriers including social sensitivity and trust. Health professionals might need to pay attention to BMI, ACE, and social relationship among American Indian adults to improve physical and mental health.

School of Health Sciences.

Nowakowski, A. J., S. M. Whitfield, E. A. Eskew, …., Jacob L. Kerby, M. A. Donnelly, & B. D. Todd. (2016). Infection risk decreases with increasing mismatch in host and pathogen environmental tolerances. Ecology Letters, 19(9), 1051-1061.

The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has caused the greatest known wildlife pandemic, infecting over 500 amphibian species. It remains unclear why some host species decline from disease-related mortality whereas others persist. We introduce a conceptual model that predicts that infection risk in ectotherms will decrease as the difference between host and pathogen environmental tolerances (i.e. tolerance mismatch) increases. We test this prediction using both local-scale data from Costa Rica and global analyses of over 11 000 Bd infection assays. We find that infection prevalence decreases with increasing thermal tolerance mismatch and with increasing host tolerance of habitat modification. The relationship between environmental tolerance mismatches and Bd infection prevalence is generalisable across multiple amphibian families and spatial scales, and the magnitude of the tolerance mismatch effect depends on environmental context. These findings may help explain patterns of amphibian declines driven by a global wildlife pandemic.

Biology Department.

Ouellette, Scot P., Kelsey J. Rueden, & Elizabeth A. Rucks. (2016). Tryptophan Codon-Dependent Transcription in Chlamydia pneumoniae during Gamma Interferon-Mediated Tryptophan Limitation. Infection and Immunity, 84(9), 2703-2713.

In evolving to an obligate intracellular niche, Chlamydia has streamlined its genome by eliminating superfluous genes as it relies on the host cell for a variety of nutritional needs like amino acids. However, Chlamydia can experience amino acid starvation when the human host cell in which the bacteria reside is exposed to interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), which leads to a tryptophan (Trp)-limiting environment via induction of the enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). The stringent response is used to respond to amino acid starvation in most bacteria but is missing from Chlamydia. Thus, how Chlamydia, a Trp auxotroph, responds to Trp starvation in the absence of a stringent response is an intriguing question. We previously observed that C. pneumoniae responds to this stress by globally increasing transcription while globally decreasing translation, an unusual response. Here, we sought to understand this and hypothesized that the Trp codon content of a given gene would determine its transcription level. We quantified transcripts from C. pneumoniae genes that were either rich or poor in Trp codons and found that Trp codon-rich transcripts were increased, whereas those that lacked Trp codons were unchanged or even decreased. There were exceptions, and these involved operons or large genes with multiple Trp codons: downstream transcripts were less abundant after Trp codon-rich sequences. These data suggest that ribosome stalling on Trp codons causes a negative polar effect on downstream sequences. Finally, reassessing previous C. pneumoniae microarray data based on codon content, we found that upregulated transcripts were enriched in Trp codons, thus supporting our hypothesis.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Panaitof, S. C., Jazmine D. W. Yaeger, J. P. Speer, & Kenneth J. Renner. (2016). Biparental behavior in the burying beetle Nicrophorus orbicollis: a role for dopamine? Current Zoology, 62(3), 285-291.

Burying beetles Nicrophorus orbicollis exhibit facultative biparental care of young. To reproduce, a male-female burying beetle pair bury and prepare a small vertebrate carcass as food for its altricial young. During a breeding bout, male and female behavior changes synchronously at appropriate times and is coordinated to provide effective care for offspring. Although the ecological and evolutionary factors that shape this remarkable reproductive plasticity are well characterized, the neuromodulation of parental behavior is poorly understood. Juvenile hormone levels rise dramatically at the time beetle parents accept and feed larvae, remain highly elevated during the stages of most active care and fall abruptly when care is terminated. However, hormonal fluctuations alone cannot account for this elaborate control of reproduction. The biogenic amines octopamine (OA), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT) mediate a diversity of insect reproductive and social behaviors. In this study, we measured whole brain monoamine levels in individual male and female burying beetles and compared OA, DA, and 5-HT profiles between breeding (parental) and nonbreeding, unmated beetles. Remarkably, after 24 h of care, when parental feeding rates begin to peak, DA brain levels increase in breeding beetles when compared to nonbreeding controls. In contrast, brain OA and 5-HT levels did not change significantly. These results provide the first evidence for a potential role of DA in the modulation of burying beetle parental behavior.

Biology Department.

Rund, Samuel S. C., Yoo Boyoung, Camille Alam, Taryn Green, Melissa T. Stephens, Erliang Zeng, . . . Michael E. Pfrender. (2016). Genome-wide profiling of 24 hr diel rhythmicity in the water flea, Daphnia pulex: network analysis reveals rhythmic gene expression and enhances functional gene annotation. BMC Genomics, 17, 1-20.

Background: Marine and freshwater zooplankton exhibit daily rhythmic patterns of behavior and physiology which may be regulated directly by the light:dark (LD) cycle and/or a molecular circadian clock. One of the best-studied zooplankton taxa, the freshwater crustacean Daphnia, has a 24 h diel vertical migration (DVM) behavior whereby the organism travels up and down through the water column daily. DVM plays a critical role in resource tracking and the behavioral avoidance of predators and damaging ultraviolet radiation. However, there is little information at the transcriptional level linking the expression patterns of genes to the rhythmic physiology/behavior of Daphnia. Results: Here we analyzed genome-wide temporal transcriptional patterns from Daphnia pulex collected over a 44 h time period under a 12:12 LD cycle (diel) conditions using a cosine-fitting algorithm. We used a comprehensive network modeling and analysis approach to identify novel co-regulated rhythmic genes that have similar network topological properties and functional annotations as rhythmic genes identified by the cosine-fitting analyses. Furthermore, we used the network approach to predict with high accuracy novel gene-function associations, thus enhancing current functional annotations available for genes in this ecologically relevant model species. Our results reveal that genes in many functional groupings exhibit 24 h rhythms in their expression patterns under diel conditions. We highlight the rhythmic expression of immunity, oxidative detoxification, and sensory process genes. We discuss differences in the chronobiology of D. pulex from other well-characterized terrestrial arthropods. Conclusions: This research adds to a growing body of literature suggesting the genetic mechanisms governing rhythmicity in crustaceans may be divergent from other arthropod lineages including insects. Lastly, these results highlight the power of using a network analysis approach to identify differential gene expression and provide novel functional annotation.

Selker, H. P., William S. Harris, C. E. Rackley, J. B. Marsh, R. Ruthazer, J. R. Beshansky, . . . L. H. Opie. (2016). Very early administration of glucose-insulin-potassium by emergency medical service for acute coronary syndromes: Biological mechanisms for benefit in the IMMEDIATE Trial. American Heart Journal, 178, 168-175.

Aims In the IMMEDIATE Trial, intravenous glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) was started as early as possible for patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome by ambulance paramedics in communities. In the IMMEDIATE Biological Mechanism Cohort substudy, reported here, we investigated potential modes of GIK action on specific circulating metabolic components. Specific attention was given to suppression of circulating oxygen-wasting free fatty acids (FFAs) that had been posed as part of the early GIK action related to averting cardiac arrest. Methods We analyzed the changes in plasma levels of FFA, glucose, C-peptide, and the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index. Results With GIK, there was rapid suppression of FFA levels with estimated levels for GIK and placebo groups after 2 hours of treatment of 480 and 781 mu mol/L (P < .0001), even while patterns of FFA saturation remained unchanged. There were no significant changes in the HOMA index in the GIK or placebo groups (HOMA index: placebo 10.93, GIK 12.99; P=.07), suggesting that GIK infusions were not countered by insulin resistance. Also, neither placebo nor GIK altered endogenous insulin secretion as reflected by unchanging C-peptide levels. Conclusion These mechanistic observations support the potential role of FFA suppression in very early cardioprotection by GIK. They also suggest that the IMMEDIATE Trial GIK formula is balanced with respect to its insulin and glucose composition, as it induced no endogenous insulin secretion.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Simons, Jeffrey S., Thomas A. Wills, Noah N. Emery, & Philip J. Spelman. (2016). Keep calm and carry on: Maintaining self-control when intoxicated, upset, or depleted. Cognition & Emotion, 30(8), 1415-1429.

This study tested within-person associations between intoxication, negative affect, and self-control demands and two forms of self-control failure, interpersonal conflict, and neglecting responsibilities. Effortful control was hypothesised to act as a buffer, reducing individual susceptibility to these within-person effects. In contrast, reactivity was hypothesised to potentiate the within-person associations. 274 young adults aged 18–27 (56% women, 93% white) completed experience sampling assessments for up to 49 days over the course of 1.3 years. Results indicated independent within-person effects of intoxication, negative affect, and self-control demands on the outcomes. Hypothesised moderating effects of reactivity were not supported. Effortful control did not moderate the effects of self-control demands as expected. However, effortful control exhibited a protective effect when individuals were intoxicated or upset to reduce the likelihood of maladaptive behavioural outcomes.

Psychology Department.

Tang, R. G., F. G. Jiang, J. C. Wen, Ying Deng, & Y. Y. Sun. (2016). Managing bacterial biofilms with chitosan-based polymeric nitric oxides: Inactivation of biofilm bacteria and synergistic effects with antibiotics. Journal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers, 31(4), 393-410.

In this study, we developed a new approach in the preparation of chitosan-based polymeric nitric oxides. Chitosan film (unreacted chitosan) reacted with glutaraldehyde to introduce aldehyde groups onto the material surface (glutaraldehyde-treated chitosan). Glutaraldehyde-treated chitosan reacted with a small-molecule nitric oxide donor, 3,3-bis(aminoethyl)-1-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-triazene, to covalently immobilize nitric oxide-releasing moieties onto the polymer (chitosan-based polymeric nitric oxide). Chitosan-based polymeric nitric oxide showed sustained release of nitric oxide. The activation energies and rate constants of nitric oxide release were determined. The released nitric oxide provided potent antimicrobial effects against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria living in biofilms, and the chitosan-based polymeric nitric oxide film showed added/synergistic effects with common antibiotics. At 4 degrees C, the chitosan-based polymeric nitric oxide could be stored for more than 1month, without significantly losing nitric oxide-releasing capabilities. Furthermore, chitosan-based polymeric nitric oxide showed excellent biocompatibility with mammalian cells, pointing to great potentials of the new materials for a wide range of biomedical applications.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

Wang, Yanqing, & Brian D. Burrell. (2016). Differences in chloride gradients allow for three distinct types of synaptic modulation by endocannabinoids. Journal of Neurophysiology, 116(2), 619-628.

Endocannabinoids can elicit persistent depression of excitatory and inhibitory synapses, reducing or enhancing (disinhibiting) neural circuit output, respectively. In this study, we examined whether differences in Cl- gradients can regulate which synapses undergo endocannabinoid-mediated synaptic depression vs. disinhibition using the well-characterized central nervous system (CNS) of the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana. Exogenous application of endocannabinoids or capsaicin elicits potentiation of pressure (P) cell synapses and depression of both polymodal (N-poly) and mechanical (N-mech) nociceptive synapses. In P synapses, blocking Cl- export prevented endocannabinoid-mediated potentiation, consistent with a disinhibition process that has been indicated by previous experiments. In N-mech neurons, which are depolarized by GABA due to an elevated Cl- equilibrium potentials (E-Cl), endocannabinoid-mediated depression was prevented by blocking Cl- import, indicating that this decrease in synaptic signaling was due to depression of excitatory GABAergic input (disexcitation). N-poly neurons are also depolarized by GABA, but endocannabinoids elicit depression in these synapses directly and were only weakly affected by disruption of Cl- import. Consequently, the primary role of elevated E-Cl may be to protect N-poly synapses from disinhibition. All forms of endocannabinoid-mediated plasticity required activation of transient potential receptor vanilloid (TRPV) channels. Endocannabinoid/TRPV-dependent synaptic plasticity could also be elicited by distinct patterns of afferent stimulation with low-frequency stimulation (LFS) eliciting endocannabinoid-mediated depression of N poly synapses and high-frequency stimulus (HFS) eliciting endocannabinoid-mediated potentiation of P synapses and depression of N-mech synapses. These findings demonstrate a critical role of differences in Cl- gradients between neurons in determining the sign, potentiation vs. depression, of synaptic modulation under normal physiological conditions.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Yang, X. Y., Y. Xu, A. Brooks, B. Guo, Keith W. Miskimins, & S. Y. Qian. (2016). Knockdown delta-5-desaturase promotes the formation of a novel free radical byproduct from COX-catalyzed omega-6 peroxidation to induce apoptosis and sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to chemotherapy drugs. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 97, 342-350.

Recent research has demonstrated that colon cancer cell proliferation can be suppressed in the cells that overexpress COX-2 via generating 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid (a free radical byproduct) during dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, an omega-6 fatty acid) peroxidation from knocking down cellular delta-5-desaturase (D5D, the key enzyme for converting DGLA to the downstream omega-6, arachidonic acid). Here, this novel research finding is extended to pancreatic cancer growth, as COX-2 is also commonly overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. The pancreatic cancer cell line, BxPC-3 (with high COX-2 expression and mutated p53), was used to assess not only the inhibitory effects of the enhanced formation of 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid from cellular COX-2-catalyzed DGLA peroxidation but also its potential synergistic and/or additive effect on current chemotherapy drugs. This work demonstrated that, by inducing DNA damage through inhibition of histone deacetylase, a threshold level of 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid achieved in DGLA-treated and D5D-knockdown BxPC-3 cells subsequently induce cancer cell apoptosis. Furthermore, it was shown that a combination of D5D knockdown along with DGLA treatment could also significantly sensitize BxPC-3 cells to various chemotherapy drugs, likely via a p53-independent pathway through downregulating of anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g., Bcl-2) and activating pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g., caspase 3, 9). This study reinforces the supposition that using commonly overexpressed COX-2 for molecular targeting, a strategy conceptually distinct from the prevailing COX-2 inhibition strategy used in cancer treatment, is an important as well as viable alternative to inhibit cancer cell growth. Based on the COX-2 metabolic cascade, the outcomes presented here could guide the development of a novel omega-6-based dietary care strategy in combination with chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Inc.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 Zhang, Lei, Maria B. Hapon, Alicia A. Goyeneche, Rekha Srinivasan, Carlos D. Gamarra-Luques, Eduardo A. Callegari, . . . Carlos M. Telleria. (2016). Mifepristone increases mRNA translation rate, triggers the unfolded protein response, increases autophagic flux, and kills ovarian cancer cells in combination with proteasome or lysosome inhibitors. Molecular Oncology, 10(7), 1099-1117.

The synthetic steroid mifepristone blocks the growth of ovarian cancer cells, yet the mechanism driving such effect is not entirely understood. Unbiased genomic and proteomic screenings using ovarian cancer cell lines of different genetic backgrounds and sensitivities to platinum led to the identification of two key genes upregulated by mifepristone and involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR): the master chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), glucose regulated protein (GRP) of 78 kDa, and the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous transcription factor (CHOP). GRP78 and CHOP were upregulated by mifepristone in ovarian cancer cells regardless of p53 status and platinum sensitivity. Further studies revealed that the three UPR-associated pathways, PERK, IRE1 alpha, and ATF6, were activated by mifepristone. Also, the synthetic steroid acutely increased mRNA translation rate, which, if prevented, abrogated the splicing of XBP1 mRNA, a non-translatable readout of IRE1 alpha activation. Moreover, mifepristone increased LC3-II levels due to increased autophagic flux. When the autophagic lysosomal pathway was inhibited with chloroquine, mifepristone was lethal to the cells. Lastly, doses of proteasome inhibitors that are inadequate to block the activity of the proteasomes, caused cell death when combined with mifepristone; this phenotype was accompanied by accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins denoting proteasome inhibition. The stimulation by mifepristone of ER stress and autophagic flux offers a therapeutic opportunity for utilizing this compound to sensitize ovarian cancer cells to proteasome or lysosome inhibitors. (C) 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Zhu, G. X., Yu Huang, G. Bhave, Y. Z. Wang, Z. B. Hu, & X. W. Liu. (2016). In situ growth of fluorescent silicon nanocrystals in a monolithic microcapsule as a photostable, versatile platform. Nanoscale, 8(34), 15645-15657.

A facile, one-step method was developed for the in situ formation of fluorescent silicon nanocrystals (SiNC) in a microspherical encapsulating matrix. The obtained SiNC encapsulated polymeric microcapsules (SiPM) possess uniform size (0.1-2.0 mu m), strong fluorescence, and nanoporous structure. A unique two stage, time dependent reaction was developed, as the growth of SiNC was slower than the formation of polymeric microcapsules. The resulting SiPM with increasing reaction time exhibited two levels of stability, and correspondingly, the release of SiNC in aqueous media showed different behavior. With reaction time <1 h, the obtained low-density SiPM (LD-SiPM) as matrix microcapsules, would release encapsulated SiNC on demand. With >1 h reaction time, resulting high-density SiPM (HD-SiPM) became stable SiNC reservoirs. SiPM exhibit stable photoluminescence. The porous structure and fluorescence quenching effects make SiPM suitable for bioimaging, drug loading and sorption of heavy metals (Hg2+ as shown) as an intrinsic indicator. SiPM were able to reduce metal ions, forming SiPM/metal oxide and SiPM/metal hybrids, and their applications in bio-sensing and catalysis were also demonstrated.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

Posted by: sarahhansenweb | June 7, 2016

June 2016

Davies, Daniel R., Dawne Olson, Danielle L. Meyer, Jamie L. Scholl, Michael J. Watt, Pasquale Manzerra, . . . Gina L. Forster. (2016). Mild traumatic brain injury with social defeat stress alters anxiety, contextual fear extinction, and limbic monoamines in adult rats. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 10.
 
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) produces symptoms similar to those typifying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in humans. We sought to determine whether a rodent model of stress concurrent with mTBI produces characteristics of PTSD such as impaired contextual fear extinction, while also examining concurrent alterations to limbic monoamine activity in brain regions relevant to fear and anxiety states. Male rats were exposed to social stress or control conditions immediately prior to mTBI induction, and 6 days later were tested either for anxiety-like behavior using the elevated plus maze (EPM), or for contextual fear conditioning and extinction. Brains were collected 24 h after EPM testing, and tissue from various limbic regions analyzed for content of monoamines, their precursors and metabolites using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Either social defeat or mTBI alone decreased time spent in open arms of the EPM, indicating greater anxiety-like behavior. However, this effect was enhanced by the combination of treatments. Further, rats exposed to both social defeat and mTBI exhibited greater freezing within extinction sessions compared to all other groups, suggesting impaired contextual fear extinction. Social defeat combined with mTBI also had greater effects on limbic monoamines than either insult alone, particularly with respect to serotonergic effects associated with anxiety and fear learning. The results suggest social stress concurrent with mTBI produces provides a relevant animal model for studying the prevention and treatment of post-concussive psychobiological outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)
 
 
 
Fercho, Kelene, & Lee A. Baugh. (2016). Cognitive attribution of the source of an error in object-lifting results in differences in motor generalization. Experimental Brain Research.
 
To lift an object, the motor system must predict the weight of the object and use this information to program appropriate lifting forces. If this prediction is erroneous, people may assign blame for the error to either themselves or an external source—a process called credit assignment. In the present study, we explored the role of credit assignment on weight predictions during a lifting task. Participants were told that the EMG surface electrodes attached to their lifting hand were either part of a “passive” system that recorded muscular activity, or part of an “active” system that would apply energy to the muscle, influencing weight perception. Participants performed 90 lifts of the training blocks, followed by 10 lifts of a newly encountered larger test block. In between training and test trials, the experimenter turned off the recording system and removed the surface electrodes for participants in the “active” group. For each lift, we determined the initial peak rate of change of vertical load force rate and load-phase duration, estimates of predicted object weight. Analysis of the first 10 training lifts and the last 10 training lifts revealed no effect of Active versus Passive EMG on weight predictions. However, after removing the EMG equipment, participants in the “active” group failed to scale their predictive load forces in the same manner as those in the “passive” condition when lifting a novel block. We conclude that cognitive information may play a role in credit assignment, influencing weight prediction when lifting novel objects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Zhang, Fan, Sigurd Hartnett, Alex Sample, Sabrina Schnack, & Yifan Li. (2016). High fat diet induced alterations of atrial electrical activities in mice. American journal of cardiovascular disease, 6(1), 1-9.
 
Obesity is a well-known risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases. Recent clinical data showed that overweight and obese patients have higher incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) compared with individuals with normal body weights, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effects of a high fat diet on atrial activities in mice. ICR male mice were fed a regular diet (RD) or a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks. Mice fed HFD showed significantly greater body weight gains and visceral fat accumulation compared with RD mice. Under anesthetic condition, baseline arterial blood pressure and heart rate were not significantly different between RD and HFD groups. Although no spontaneous or atrial stimulation-induced atrial fibrillation was observed, this study revealed several alterations in the activities and protein levels in the atria in HFD mice. Surface electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed significantly shortened PR interval in HFD mice. In the atrial stimulation experiments, the sinoatrial (SA) node recovery time was significantly prolonged whereas the atrial effective refractory period was significantly reduced in HFD mice as compared with RD mice. Western blot showed protein levels of two major potassium channels, Kv1.5 and Kv4.2/3, were significantly increased in atria of HFD mice. These data indicate that HFD induces atrial electrophysiological remodeling in mice, which may be a potential mechanism underlying the increased risk for atrial arrhythmias in obesity and metabolic disorders.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Pan, Yaoqian, Ruizhu Liu, Erin TerpstraYanqing WangFangfang Qiao, Jin Wang, . . . Bo Pan. (2015). Dysregulation and diagnostic potential of microRNA in Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 49(1), 1-12.
 
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases and is considered to be the main cause of cognitive impairment in elderly people. The major symptom of AD is progressive dementia that eventually results in dysfunction of daily life. Due to the fact that AD has a long period of incubation before clinical symptoms emerge, the available therapeutic treatments can only improve the symptoms but not delay the progression of AD. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore effective diagnostic approaches to catch and better treat the disease before clinical symptoms appear. Recent research revealed that abnormal expression of certain miRNA could have a crucial role in the pathological process of neurodegenerative disease including AD. Furthermore, given that AD patients show increased level of miRNAs in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, miRNAs are considered promising non-invasive candidates for AD diagnosis and prognosis. Here, we reviewed the current research related to implications of miRNAs during the development of AD, summarized of actively used approaches to identifying potential miRNA biomarkers in body fluids, and discussed the diagnostic potential of microRNAs as biomarkers for AD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Elliott, Amy J.Emily R. W. HatJyoti AngalVictoria G. OwlSusan E. Puumala, & DanYelle B. Kenyon. (2016). Fostering Social Determinants of Health Transdisciplinary Research: The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13(1), 12.
 
The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health (CRCAIH) was established in September 2012 as a unifying structure to bring together tribal communities and health researchers across South Dakota, North Dakota and Minnesota to address American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) health disparities. CRCAIH is based on the core values of transdisciplinary research, sustainability and tribal sovereignty. All CRCAIH resources and activities revolve around the central aim of assisting tribes with establishing and advancing their own research infrastructures and agendas, as well as increasing AI/AN health research. CRCAIH is comprised of three divisions (administrative; community engagement and innovation; research projects), three technical cores (culture, science and bioethics; regulatory knowledge; and methodology), six tribal partners and supports numerous multi-year and one-year pilot research projects. Under the ultimate goal of improving health for AI/AN, this paper describes the overarching vision and structure of CRCAIH, highlighting lessons learned in the first three years.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Sapp, WendiRanjit Koodali, & Dmitri Kilin. (2016). Charge Transfer Mechanism in Titanium-Doped Microporous Silica for Photocatalytic Water-Splitting Applications. Catalysts, 6(3), 12.
 
Solar energy conversion into chemical form is possible using artificial means. One example of a highly-efficient fuel is solar energy used to split water into oxygen and hydrogen. Efficient photocatalytic water-splitting remains an open challenge for researchers across the globe. Despite significant progress, several aspects of the reaction, including the charge transfer mechanism, are not fully clear. Density functional theory combined with density matrix equations of motion were used to identify and characterize the charge transfer mechanism involved in the dissociation of water. A simulated porous silica substrate, using periodic boundary conditions, with Ti4+ ions embedded on the inner pore wall was found to contain electron and hole trap states that could facilitate a chemical reaction. A trap state was located within the silica substrate that lengthened relaxation time, which may favor a chemical reaction. A chemical reaction would have to occur within the window of photoexcitation; therefore, the existence of a trapping state may encourage a chemical reaction. This provides evidence that the silica substrate plays an integral part in the electron/hole dynamics of the system, leading to the conclusion that both components (photoactive materials and support) of heterogeneous catalytic systems are important in optimization of catalytic efficiency.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Stelloh, C., M. H. Reimer, …., Samuel Milanovich, G. C. Yuan, & S. Rao. (2016). The cohesin-associated protein Wapal is required for proper Polycomb-mediated gene silencing. Epigenetics & Chromatin, 9, 18.
 
Background: The cohesin complex consists of multiple core subunits that play critical roles in mitosis and transcriptional regulation. The cohesin-associated protein Wapal plays a central role in off-loading cohesin to facilitate sister chromatid separation, but its role in regulating mammalian gene expression is not understood. We used embryonic stem cells as a model, given that the well-defined transcriptional regulatory circuits were established through master transcription factors and epigenetic pathways that regulate their ability to maintain a pluripotent state. Results: RNAi-mediated depletion of Wapal causes a loss of pluripotency, phenocopying loss of core cohesin subunits. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq), we determine that Wapal occupies genomic sites distal to genes in combination with CTCF and core cohesin subunits such as Rad21. Interestingly, genomic sites occupied by Wapal appear enriched for cohesin, implying that Wapal does not off-load cohesin at regions it occupies. Wapal depletion induces derepression of Polycomb group (PcG) target genes without altering total levels of Polycomb-mediated histone modifications, implying that PcG enzymatic activity is preserved. By integrating ChIP-seq and gene expression changes data, we identify that Wapal binding is enriched at the promoters of PcG-silenced genes and is required for proper Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) recruitment. Lastly, we demonstrate that Wapal is required for the interaction of a distal cis-regulatory element (CRE) with the c-Fos promoter. Conclusions: Collectively, this work indicates that Wapal plays a critical role in silencing of PcG target genes through the interaction of distal CREs with promoters.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Rice, H. B., A. Bernasconi, K. C. Maki, William S. Harris, C. von Schacky, & P. C. Calder. (2016). Conducting omega-3 clinical trials with cardiovascular outcomes: Proceedings of a workshop held at ISSFAL 2014. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 107, 30-42.
 
In contrast to earlier long-chain (LC) omega-3 (i.e. EPA and DHA) investigations, some recent studies have not demonstrated significant effects of EPA and DHA on cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes. The neutral findings may have been due to experimental design issues, such as: maintenance on aggressive cardiovascular drug treatment overshadowing the benefits of LC omega-3s, high background LC omega-3 intake, too few subjects in the study, treatment duration too short, insufficient LC omega-3 dosage, increase in omega-6 fatty acid intake during the study, failure to assess the LC omega-3 status of the subjects prior to and during treatment and lack of clarity concerning which mechanisms were expected to produce benefits. At the 11th ISSFAL Congress, a workshop was held on conducting LC omega-3 clinical trials with cardiovascular outcomes, with the goal of gaining a better understanding concerning aspects of experimental design that should be considered when planning clinical studies related to EPA and DHA and potential cardiovascular benefits. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Darling, Warren G., Marc A. Pizzimenti, Diane L. Rotella, Stephanie M. Hynes, Jizhi GeKimberly Stilwell-Morecraft, & Robert J. Morecraft. (2016). Sensorimotor cortex injury effects on recovery of contralesional dexterous movements in Macaca mulatta. Experimental Neurology, 281, 37-52.
 
The effects of primary somatosensory cortex (S1) injury on recovery of contralateral upper limb reaching and grasping were studied by comparing the consequences of isolated lesions to the arm/hand region of primary motor cortex (M1) and lateral premotor cortex (LPMC) to lesions of these same areas plus anterior parietal cortex (S1 and rostral area PE). We used multiple linear regression to assess the effects of gray and white matter lesion volumes on deficits in reaching and fine motor performance during the first month after the lesion, and during recovery of function over 3, 6 and 12 months post-injury in 13 monkeys. Subjects with frontoparietal lesions exhibited larger deficits and poorer recovery as predicted, including one subject with extensive peri-Rolandic injury developing learned nonuse after showing signs of recovery. Regression analyses showed that total white matter lesion volume was strongly associated with initial post-lesion deficits in motor performance and with recovery of skill in reaching and manipulation. Multiple regression analyses using percent damage to caudal M1 (M1c), rostral S1 (S1r), LPMC and area PE as predictor variables showed that S1r lesion volumes were closely related to delayed post-lesion recovery of upper limb function, as well as lower skill level of recovery. In contrast, M1c lesion volume was related primarily to initial post-lesion deficits in hand motor performance. Overall, these findings demonstrate that frontoparietal injury impairs hand motor function more so than frontal motor injury alone, and results in slower and poorer recovery than lesions limited to frontal motor cortex.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Lonsdale, Damian J. (2016). The effects of leader–member exchange and the feedback environment on organizational citizenship and withdrawal. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 19(1), 41-59.
 
Although leader–member exchange (LMX) and the feedback environment both capture elements of the supervisor–subordinate social dynamic, their combined effects have never been explored. In this study, significant interactions were hypothesized and found for a sample of university employees in the prediction of organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), but were not found in the prediction of organizational withdrawal. Interactive effects of LMX and the feedback environment were also hypothesized to be stronger for jobs of greater complexity than for jobs of lesser complexity, and this was generally supported for OCBs, but not for organizational withdrawal. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)
 
Beacom School of Business.
 
 
Raizada, AmolNachiket Apte, & Scott Pham. (2016). Q Fever Endocarditis Presenting with Superior Mesenteric Artery Embolism and Renal Infarction. Texas Heart Institute Journal, 43(1), 91-93.
 
Q fever is a zoonotic disease with a reservoir in mammals, birds, and ticks. Acute cases in human beings can be asymptomatic, or they can present with a flu-like illness, pneumonia, or hepatitis. Approximately 5% of cases progress to chronic Q fever. Endocarditis, the most typical manifestation of chronic Q fever, is usually associated with small vegetations that occur in patients who have had prior valvular damage or who are immunocompromised. We present what we think is the first reported case of superior mesenteric artery embolism from Q fever endocarditis of the aortic valve, in a 39-year-old woman who needed surgical embolectomy and subsequent aortic valve replacement.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Jones, Nick, & Matthew Moffitt. (2016). Ethical Guidelines for Mobile App Development Within Health and Mental Health Fields. Professional Psychology-Research and Practice, 47(2), 155-162.
 
Currently there are no ethical guidelines for mobile health (mHealth) applications (apps) despite the rapid innovation and use of mobile technologies in the health care field. As such, we address existing policies from the federal government, development guidelines from the mobile industry, and ethical guidelines from the American Psychological Association that apply to the development of mHealth apps intended for psychological use. Privacy and confidentiality are of primary concerns when developing and using mHealth apps for the purpose of research, assessment, and ongoing therapy. Specifically, the use of app notifications and widgets can put app user’s privacy at risk unless used properly. Methods in which app developers and providers can safeguard against violations of privacy and confidentiality are examined. In addition, special considerations are made for the use of apps with inpatient and rural populations and for those with cognitive impairments. This discussion serves to inform those who develop and utilize mHealth apps of the ethical guidelines that should be followed when creating and using such apps.
 
Psychology Department.
 
 
Riley, Lynn, Mitchell E. McGlaughlin, & Kaius Helenurm. (2016). Narrow water barriers prevent multiple colonizations and limit gene flow among California Channel Island wild buckwheats ( Eriogonum: Polygonaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 181(2), 246-268.
 
The relative roles of chance colonization and subsequent gene flow in the development of insular endemic biotas have been extensively studied in remote oceanic archipelagos, but are less well characterized on nearshore island systems. The current study investigated patterns of colonization and divergence between and within two wild buckwheat species (Polygonaceae), Eriogonum arborescens and E. giganteum, endemic to the California Channel Islands to determine whether geographical isolation is driving diversification. Using plastid and nuclear sequence data and microsatellite allele frequencies, we determined that gene flow in these Eriogonum spp. is restricted by isolation. The data suggest that successful colonization of and gene flow among the islands are infrequent. Colonization appears to have followed a stepping-stone model that is consistent with a north-to-south pattern across the islands. This colonization pattern coupled with relatively little post-colonization inter-island gene flow, particularly among southern islands, has generated a pattern of more divergent lineages on the isolated southern islands. These results run counter to the general expectation that all islands close to a continental source should receive a high level of gene flow. Finally, management recommendations focused on protecting the lineages from loss of private alleles and the erosion of the remaining genetic diversity are offered.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Wilkerson, Rachel J.Theresa ElderOlivia SowinksiJade I. Fostvedt, & James D. Hoefelmeyer. (2016). Phase transfer of oleic acid stabilized rod-shaped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals. Surface Science, 648, 333-338.
 
Three methods were evaluated for phase transfer of oleic acid stabilized TiO2 nanorods from non-polar phase to an aqueous phase. Three alkyltrimethylammonium bromide (C-6, C-8, C-12) surfactants were tested and compared with an amphiphilic polymer as interdigitation agents. Ligand substitutions with catechol derivatives with polar functional groups para to the -enediol were evaluated as well. The molecular surfactants were ineffective compared to the amphiphilic polymer in the interdigitation phase transfer approach. Ligand substitution with catechols proceeded efficiently with phase transfer. The ligand substitution reactions were accompanied by gas evolution, which was found to result from decarboxylation of oleic acid in alkaline aqueous conditions. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Jensen, JamieDanYelle B. Kenyon, & Jessica D. Hanson. (2016). Preventing alcohol-exposed pregnancy among American-Indian youth. Sex Education-Sexuality Society and Learning, 16(4), 368-378.
 
Research has determined that the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur preconceptually, either by reducing alcohol intake in women planning pregnancy or at risk for becoming pregnant, or by preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One such AEP prevention programme with non-pregnant American-Indian (AI) women is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) Changing High-risk alcohOl use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness Study (CHOICES) Programme, which shows promise in reducing AEP risk in AI women aged 18 or older. A community needs assessment was conducted with key informant interviews and focus groups with an emphasis on how to expand OST CHOICES. To identify relevant inter-related themes, a content analysis was conducted on qualitative feedback from the focus groups and interviews. Altogether, key informant interviews were completed with 25 health and social service professionals. Eight focus groups were held with 58 AI participants, including adult women of child-bearing age, elder women, and adult men. Several sub-themes regarding the prevention of AEP with youth were identified, expanding the OST CHOICES curriculum into the schools, and the role of family and culture within AEP prevention.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Xu, R., G. D. Zhang, J. H. Mai, …., Yu Huang, J. Liu, . . . H. F. Shen. (2016). An injectable nanoparticle generator enhances delivery of cancer therapeutics. Nature Biotechnology, 34(4), 414-+.
 
The efficacy of cancer drugs is often limited because only a small fraction of the administered dose accumulates in tumors. Here we report an injectable nanoparticle generator (iNPG) that overcomes multiple biological barriers to cancer drug delivery. The iNPG is a discoidal micrometer-sized particle that can be loaded with chemotherapeutics. We conjugate doxorubicin to poly(l-glutamic acid) by means of a pH-sensitive cleavable linker, and load the polymeric drug (pDox) into iNPG to assemble iNPG-pDox. Once released from iNPG, pDox spontaneously forms nanometer-sized particles in aqueous solution. Intravenously injected iNPG-pDox accumulates at tumors due to natural tropism and enhanced vascular dynamics and releases pDox nanoparticles that are internalized by tumor cells. Intracellularly, pDox nanoparticles are transported to the perinuclear region and cleaved into Dox, thereby avoiding excretion by drug efflux pumps. Compared to its individual components or current therapeutic formulations, iNPG-pDox shows enhanced efficacy in MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 mouse models of metastatic breast cancer, including functional cures in 40-50% of treated mice.
 
Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, J. H. M., Megan L. Landsverk, N. Foulds, M. K. Kukolich, & et. al. (2016). Clinical Delineation of the PACS1-Related Syndrome-Report on 19 Patients. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 170(3), 670-675.
 
We report on 19 individuals with a recurrent de novo c.607C>T mutation in PACS1. This specific mutation gives rise to a recognizable intellectual disability syndrome. There is a distinctive facial appearance (19/19), characterized by full and arched eyebrows, hypertelorism with downslanting palpebral fissures, long eye lashes, ptosis, low set and simple ears, bulbous nasal tip, wide mouth with downturned corners and a thin upper lip with an unusual “wavy” profile, flat philtrum, and diastema of the teeth. Intellectual disability, ranging from mild to moderate, was present in all. Hypotonia is common in infancy (8/19). Seizures are frequent (12/19) and respond well to anticonvulsive medication. Structural malformations are common, including heart (10/19), brain (12/16), eye (10/19), kidney (3/19), and cryptorchidism (6/12 males). Feeding dysfunction is presenting in infancy with failure to thrive (5/19), gastroesophageal reflux (6/19), and gastrostomy tube placement (4/19). There is persistence of oral motor dysfunction. We provide suggestions for clinical work-up and management and hope that the present study will facilitate clinical recognition of further cases. (c) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Zook, Heather G., Anupam B. Kharbanda, Andrew Flood, Brian Harmon, Susan E. Puumala, & Nathaniel R. Payne. (2016). Racial Differences in Pediatric Emergency Department Triage Scores. Journal of Emergency Medicine (0736-4679), 50(5), 720-727.
 
<bold>Background: </bold>Racial disparities are frequently reported in emergency department (ED) care.<bold>Objectives: </bold>To examine racial differences in triage scores of pediatric ED patients. We hypothesized that racial differences existed but could be explained after adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors.<bold>Methods: </bold>We examined all visits to two urban, pediatric EDs between August 2009 and March 2010. Demographic and clinical data were electronically extracted from the medical record. We used logistic regression to analyze racial differences in triage scores, controlling for possible covariates.<bold>Results: </bold>There were 54,505 ED visits during the study period, with 7216 (13.2%) resulting in hospital admission. White patients accounted for 36.4% of visits, African Americans 28.5%, Hispanics 18.0%, Asians 4.1%, and American Indians 1.8%. After adjusting for potential confounders, African American (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.69-2.12), Hispanic (aOR 1.77, 95% CI 1.55-2.02), and American Indian (aOR 2.57, 95% CI 1.80-3.66) patients received lower-acuity triage scores than Whites. In three out of four subgroup analyses based on presenting complaints (breathing difficulty, abdominal pain, fever), African Americans and Hispanics had higher odds of receiving low-acuity triage scores. No racial differences were detected for patients with presenting complaints of laceration/head injury/arm injury. However, among patients admitted to the hospital, African Americans (aOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.13-1.90) and Hispanics (aOR 1.71, CI 1.22-2.39) received lower-acuity triage scores than Whites.<bold>Conclusion: </bold>After adjusting for available sociodemographic and clinical covariates, African American, Hispanic, and American Indian patients received lower-acuity triage scores than Whites.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Hersrud, Samantha L.Attila D. Kovács, & David A. Pearce. (2016). Antigen presenting cell abnormalities in the Cln3−/− mouse model of juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. BBA – Molecular Basis of Disease, 1862(7), 1324-1336.
 
Mutations of the CLN3 gene lead to juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL), an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder that causes progressive neurodegeneration in children and adolescents. There is evidence of immune system involvement in pathology that has been only minimally investigated. We characterized bone marrow stem cell-derived antigen presenting cells (APCs), peritoneal macrophages, and leukocytes from spleen and blood, harvested from the Cln3 −/− mouse model of JNCL. We detected dramatically elevated CD11c surface levels and increased total CD11c protein in Cln3 −/− cell samples compared to wild type. This phenotype was specific to APCs and also to a loss of CLN3, as surface levels did not differ from wild type in other leukocyte subtypes nor in cells from two other NCL mouse models. Subcellularly, CD11c was localized to lipid rafts, indicating that perturbation of surface levels is attributable to derangement of raft dynamics, which has previously been shown in Cln3 mutant cells. Interrogation of APC function revealed that Cln3 −/− cells have increased adhesiveness to CD11c ligands as well as an abnormal secretory pattern that closely mimics what has been previously reported for Cln3 mutant microglia. Our results show that CLN3 deficiency alters APCs, which can be a major contributor to the autoimmune response in JNCL.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Mariappan, KadarkaraisamyMadhubabu AlaparthiMariah HoffmanMyriam Alcantar RamaVinothini BalasubramanianDanielle M. John, & Andrew G. Sykes. (2015). Improved selectivity for Pb(ii) by sulfur, selenium and tellurium analogues of 1,8-anthraquinone-18-crown-5: synthesis, spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography and computational studies. Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, 44(26), 11774-11787.
 
We report here a series of heteroatom-substituted macrocycles containing an anthraquinone moiety as a fluorescent signaling unit and a cyclic polyheteroether chain as the receptor. Sulfur, selenium, and tellurium derivatives of 1,8-anthraquinone-18-crown-5 (1) were synthesized by reacting sodium sulfide (Na2S), sodium selenide (Na2Se) and sodium telluride (Na2Te) with 1,8-bis(2-bromoethylethyleneoxy)anthracene-9,10-dione in a 1:1 ratio. The optical properties of the new compounds are examined and the sulfur and selenium analogues produce an intense green emission enhancement upon association with Pb(ii) in acetonitrile. Selectivity for Pb(ii) is markedly improved as compared to the oxygen analogue 1 which was also competitive for Ca(ii) ion. UV-Visible and luminescence titrations reveal that 2 and 3 form 1:1 complexes with Pb(ii), confirmed by single-crystal X-ray studies where Pb(ii) is complexed within the macrocycle through coordinate covalent bonds to neighboring carbonyl, ether and heteroether donor atoms. Cyclic voltammetry of 2–8 showed classical, irreversible oxidation potentials for sulfur, selenium and tellurium heteroethers in addition to two one-electron reductions for the anthraquinone carbonyl groups. DFT calculations were also conducted on 1, 2, 3, 6, 6 + Pb(ii) and 6 + Mg(ii) to determine the trend in energies of the HOMO and the LUMO levels along the series.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Hammerquist, Rhonda J.Kimberly A. Messerschmidt, April A. Pottebaum, & Thaddaus R. Hellwig. (2016). Vaccinations in asplenic adults. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 73(9), e220-e228.
 
Purpose. The recommended immunizations for adult asplenic patients are reviewed. Summary. Patients without a spleen are at risk of developing overwhelming postsplenectomy infections due to encapsulated organisms, mainly pneumococcal, meningococcal, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Due to the high mortality rates associated with these infections, vaccinations are recommended as a preventive measure. It is challenging to ensure optimal immunizations in these high-risk patients due to the number of recommended vaccines, the availability of multiple formulations, and the inability to administer specific formulations at the same time, as well as differences in subsequent vaccine administration schedules. Pharmacists play a key role in recommending specific vaccines and timing for these patients in order to achieve the most robust immune response. This article reviews the specific recommendations for pneumococcal, meningococcal, Hib, and influenza vaccinations in asplenic patients. Conclusion. In order to prevent potentially life-threatening infections, asplenic individuals should be vaccinated against S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, Hib, and influenza. The optimal timing of vaccination in relation to splenectomy depends on the nature of the splenectomy.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Posted by: sarahhansenweb | June 7, 2016

May 2016

 

Geraets, Ryan D., Koh Seung yon, Michelle L. Hastings, Tammy Kielian, David A. Pearce, & Jill M. Weimer. (2016). Moving towards effective therapeutic strategies for Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, 11, 1-13.
 
The Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a family of autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorders that annually affect 1:100,000 live births worldwide. This family of diseases results from mutations in one of 14 different genes that share common clinical and pathological etiologies. Clinically, the diseases are subcategorized into infantile, late-infantile, juvenile and adult forms based on their age of onset. Though the disease phenotypes may vary in their age and order of presentation, all typically include progressive visual deterioration and blindness, cognitive impairment, motor deficits and seizures. Pathological hallmarks of NCLs include the accumulation of storage material or ceroid in the lysosome, progressive neuronal degeneration and massive glial activation. Advances have been made in genetic diagnosis and counseling for families. However, comprehensive treatment programs that delay or halt disease progression have been elusive. Current disease management is primarily targeted at controlling the symptoms rather than “curing” the disease. Recognizing the growing need for transparency and synergistic efforts to move the field forward, this review will provide an overview of the therapeutic approaches currently being pursued in preclinical and clinical trials to treat different forms of NCL as well as provide insight to novel therapeutic approaches in development for the NCLs.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Stelloh, Cary, Michael H. Reimer, Kirthi Pulakanti, …., Samuel Milanovich, Yuan Guo Cheng, & Sridhar Rao. (2016). The cohesin-associated protein Wapal is required for proper Polycomb-mediated gene silencing. Epigenetics & Chromatin, 9, 1-18.
 
Background: The cohesin complex consists of multiple core subunits that play critical roles in mitosis and transcriptional regulation. The cohesin-associated protein Wapal plays a central role in off-loading cohesin to facilitate sister chromatid separation, but its role in regulating mammalian gene expression is not understood. We used embryonic stem cells as a model, given that the well-defined transcriptional regulatory circuits were established through master transcription factors and epigenetic pathways that regulate their ability to maintain a pluripotent state. Results: RNAi-mediated depletion of Wapal causes a loss of pluripotency, phenocopying loss of core cohesin subunits. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq), we determine that Wapal occupies genomic sites distal to genes in combination with CTCF and core cohesin subunits such as Rad21. Interestingly, genomic sites occupied by Wapal appear enriched for cohesin, implying that Wapal does not off-load cohesin at regions it occupies. Wapal depletion induces derepression of Polycomb group (PcG) target genes without altering total levels of Polycomb-mediated histone modifications, implying that PcG enzymatic activity is preserved. By integrating ChIP-seq and gene expression changes data, we identify that Wapal binding is enriched at the promoters of PcG-silenced genes and is required for proper Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) recruitment. Lastly, we demonstrate that Wapal is required for the interaction of a distal cis-regulatory element (CRE) with the c-Fos promoter. Conclusions: Collectively, this work indicates that Wapal plays a critical role in silencing of PcG target genes through the interaction of distal CREs with promoters.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Chen, H. H., Lisa A. NewlandYi-Ching Liang, & Jarod T. Giger. (2016). Mother educational involvement as a mediator between beliefs, perceptions, attachment, and children’s school success in Taiwan. Journal of Family Studies, 22(1), 1-19.
 
This study was designed to examine possible direct and indirect pathways from mothers’ beliefs, mothers’ perceptions, mother-child attachment, and mothers’ involvement to children’s school success. Mothers and their 8- to 11-year-old children (n = 100) in urban central Taiwan participated in this study. Mothers completed questionnaires regarding their beliefs, perceptions, educational involvement, and their child’s school achievement. Children completed an attachment measure and standardized assessments of school adjustment and academic self-concept. Findings revealed that mother involvement was related to mother beliefs and perceptions, but not to efficacy or attachment. Children’s school success indicators were related to mothers’ motivation, beliefs about teachers, perceived invitations for involvement, mother-child avoidant attachment, and mothers’ involvement. Path analysis revealed that mothers’ involvement completely mediated pathways from mother beliefs and perceptions to child school success. Findings suggest that the model is useful within a Taiwanese population, but should be further tested.
 
School of Education.
School of Health Sciences.
 
 
Jordre, Becca D.William E. Schweinle, S. Oetjen, N. Dybsetter, & M. Braun. (2016). Fall History and Associated Physical Performance Measures in Competitive Senior Athletes. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, 32(1), 6.
 
Topic Investigated: Physical performance measure outcomes most associated with falls in senior athletes. Subjects: A total of 928 senior athletes. Variables: Fall history, Single Leg Stance Eyes Open, Single Leg Stance Eyes Closed, Single Leg Stance on Foam, Functional Reach, Usual and Fast Gait Speed, Five Times Sit-to-Stand Test, and Grip Strength. Data were analyzed with logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. Results and Conclusions: Combined failure, as determined by cut scores, on Single Leg Stance Eyes Closed and on Foam was most associated with a recent history of falls. Performance on the Five Times Sit-to-Stand Test was also highly associated.
 
School of Health Sciences.
 
 
Herrera, Andrea L.Victor C. Huber, & Michael S. Chaussee. (2016). The Association between Invasive Group A Streptococcal Diseases and Viral Respiratory Tract Infections. Frontiers in Microbiology, 7, 7.
 
Viral infections of the upper respiratory tract are associated with a variety of invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, the group A streptococcus, including pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, toxic shock syndrome, and bacteremia. While these polymicrobial infections, or superinfections, are complex, progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of disease. Areas of investigation have included the characterization of virus-induced changes in innate immunity, differences in bacterial adherence and internalization following viral infection, and the efficacy of vaccines in mitigating the morbidity and mortality of superinfections. Here, we briefly summarize viral-S. pyogenes superinfections with an emphasis on those affiliated with influenza viruses.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Liu, B. Q., C. Zhou, G. J. Li, H. Y. Zhang, Erliang Zeng, Q. Liu, & Q. Ma. (2016). Bacterial regulon modeling and prediction based on systematic cis regulatory motif analyses. Scientific Reports, 6, 11.
 
Regulons are the basic units of the response system in a bacterial cell, and each consists of a set of transcriptionally co-regulated operons. Regulon elucidation is the basis for studying the bacterial global transcriptional regulation network. In this study, we designed a novel co-regulation score between a pair of operons based on accurate operon identification and cis regulatory motif analyses, which can capture their co-regulation relationship much better than other scores. Taking full advantage of this discovery, we developed a new computational framework and built a novel graph model for regulon prediction. This model integrates the motif comparison and clustering and makes the regulon prediction problem substantially more solvable and accurate. To evaluate our prediction, a regulon coverage score was designed based on the documented regulons and their overlap with our prediction; and a modified Fisher Exact test was implemented to measure how well our predictions match the co-expressed modules derived from E. coli microarray gene-expression datasets collected under 466 conditions. The results indicate that our program consistently performed better than others in terms of the prediction accuracy. This suggests that our algorithms substantially improve the state-of-the-art, leading to a computational capability to reliably predict regulons for any bacteria.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Schlenker, Evelyn H. (2016). Muscimol microinjected in the arcuate nucleus affects metabolism, body temperature & ventilation. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 227, 34-40.
 
Effects of microinjection of 2 doses of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor agonist, muscimol (M), into the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus on oxygen consumption and control of ventilation over time and body temperature (BT) at the end of the experiment were compared in adult male and female rats. Relative to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, 0 nmol), BT was decreased only in male rats with both doses of M, while in female rats, the 5 nmol dose depressed oxygen consumption. Ventilation was depressed by 5 nmol M in male and 10 nmol M in female rats by decreasing tidal volume. M did not affect the ventilatory response of male or female rats to hypoxia, whereas in females 5 and 10 nmol M and in males 10 nmol M depressed the ventilatory response to hypercapnia. Thus, in rats GABA A receptors in the arcuate nucleus modulate BT, oxygen consumption, and ventilation in air and in response to hypercapnia in a sexually dimorphic manner.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Diamond-Welch, Bridget K., M. D. Hetzel-Riggin, & J. A. Hemingway. (2016). The Willingness of College Students to Intervene in Sexual Assault Situations: Attitude and Behavior Differences by Gender, Race, Age, and Community of Origin. Violence and Gender, 3(1), 49-54.
 
Recent research has examined how university students’ characteristics affect their bystander intervention attitudes in sexual assault situations. This article examines how gender, age, and race interact to affect violence myths acceptance, empathy, bystander efficacy, intention to intervene, and bystander behaviors. We add to this literature a consideration of the effect of a student’s community of origin-either rural or urban. Similar to previous research, we found a direct effect of gender on violence myths and empathy as well as bystander attitudes. Unlike previous research, we found that older students (over age 21 years) endorsed fewer rape myths, had more empathy, perceived benefits to intervention outweighing the costs, and had better bystander attitudes. Although there was no direct effect of race and community of origin on these outcomes, there were several interesting interactions. Age and gender interacted such that traditional-aged female students reported more bystander behaviors than traditional-aged male students. However, this pattern flipped for older group males reporting more behaviors than female students. It could be because older males were significantly more likely to believe that bystander methods are effective than older female students. Although older males had better attitudes toward intervention, males from both age groups lagged behind in positive attitudes compared with women. Race further complicated this picture. White men, both older and traditional-aged, had the lowest empathy among all groups. Traditional-aged white males had the lowest belief in the efficacy of bystander methods. Interestingly, older white males endorsed fewer rape myths than younger white males, but older minority males accepted more myths than traditional-aged students. The most interesting patterns develop when community of origin is added to the mix. Traditional-aged minority females from rural areas had the lowest rape myth acceptance and the best bystander attitudes. Meanwhile, traditional-aged white males from urban areas had the highest rape myth acceptance and, while all traditional-aged men had poor bystander attitudes, these male students had the poorest attitudes. Community background also impacted actual bystander behaviors, with traditional-aged minorities from rural areas reporting significantly more than comparative whites and, interestingly, more than older minority students from rural areas.
 
Political Science and Criminal Justice Department.
 
 
Bardhoshi, G., Becca D. JordreWilliam E. Schweinle, & Sarah Wollersheim-Shervey. (2016). Understanding Exercise Practices and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Senior Games Athletes A Mixed-Methods Exploration. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, 32(1), 63-71.
 
This mixed-methods study investigated depression, anxiety, and stress rates, measured by the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21), and exercise practices in a national sample of Senior Games Athletes (N = 383). Results demonstrated significantly lower DASS-21 scores for Senior Games Athletes compared with nonclinical normative data and no strong relationships between DASS-21 scores and demographic variables, exercise practices, and comorbidity. Senior Games Athletes reported high exercise volume and notably low comorbidity rates. Qualitative analysis of written responses revealed that participants related a healthy lifestyle with practicing healthy behaviors, experiencing optimal physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being, living life to the fullest, and social engagement.
 
School of Health Sciences.
School of Education.
 
 
Cho, Chan Ho, & T. Mooney. (2015). Stock return comovement and Korean business groups. Review of Development Finance, 5(2), 71-81.
 
This paper explores whether business group affiliations affect the covariance structure of stock returns in Korea. We find that the stock returns of firms belonging to the same business group show positive and significant comovement. The strong comovement between group returns and firm returns is explained by correlated fundamentals. We find strong comovement among business group affiliate earnings. Moreover, variance decomposition of returns shows that cash flow news plays a relatively more important role in explaining group comovement than discount rate news, suggesting a link between stock return comovement and the “tunneling” and “propping” behaviors of business groups. Finally, return comovement increases when a firm joins a business group. 
 
IBeacom School of Business.
 
 
Munson, Patrick D. (2016). Recurrent croup and persistent laryngomalacia: Clinical resolution after supraglottoplasty. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 84, 94-96.
 
Objectives To determine if children with recurrent croup (RC) and persistent laryngomalacia (LM) clinically improve after supraglottoplasty (SGP). Material and methods Retrospective chart review cohort at tertiary care children’s hospital consisting of patients diagnosed with LM and RC that underwent SGP from July 2011 to August 2014. Clinical history, demographics, clinical outcomes, and operative complications were reviewed. Specifically, the episodes of croup requiring systemic steroids were compared pre- and post-SGP with statistical analysis. Results Out of 107 patients undergoing SGP for LM, 6 patients (5.6%) were diagnosed with RC. Mean age at first croup episode was 11.5 months. Mean age at SGP was 4.3 years. Mean number of emergency department visits was 3.2 (range 2–6 visits) prior to SGP. Mean number of episodes of croup requiring systemic steroids before and after SGP was 9.8 vs. 0.2 ( p = 0.003). Mean length of followup after SGP was 30.5 months (range 18–46 months). There were no surgical postoperative complications. Conclusions This is the first series to describe the clinical resolution of croup episodes in children with LM corrected by SGP. Recurrent croup should be added among other conditions associated with late-onset or persistent laryngomalacia.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Villagómez, Amanda A., Donald Easton-Brooks, Karyn Gomez, Tawnya Lubbes, & Kristin Johnson. (2016). Oregon Teacher Pathway: Responding to National Trends. Equity & Excellence in Education, 49(1), 100-114.
 
National population trends demonstrate a shift in the U.S. ethnic population, similar to changes in the ethnic landscape of U.S. public schools. However, the teaching landscape has not adjusted to align with student demographics. Research highlights the academic and social/emotional benefit for students of color who experience having a teacher of color during their education. Therefore, it is valuable to consider frameworks for increasing the number of teachers of color in the educational landscape. Although there are initiatives for supporting these efforts in urban communities, rural communities often are not seen as having much need in this area. The authors of this article present literature and findings on the impact and needs for diversifying teacher education, and then outline a self-study of the Oregon Teacher Pathway (OTP) as a framework that takes into consideration promising practices for recruiting and supporting preservice teachers of color in rural eastern Oregon and other rural and urban communities.
 
 
 
Ikiugu, Moses N., & Ranelle M. Nissen. (2016). Intervention Strategies Used by Occupational Therapists Working in Mental Health and Their Theoretical Basis. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 32(2), 109-129.
 
The article focuses on a study based on theoretical basis of occupational therapy interventions, investigated in two mental health facilities in the Midwestern U.S. Topics discussed include behavioural/cognitive-behavioural model, client-centered models, and the model of human occupation as most frequently used theories; implications related to lack of documentation on value accorded to occupational therapy skills in health care; and clinical practice by occupational therapists.
 
School of Health Sciences.
 
 
Jones, Nick, & Matthew Moffitt. (2016). Ethical Guidelines for Mobile App Development Within Health and Mental Health Fields. Professional Psychology-Research and Practice, 47(2), 155-162.
 
Currently there are no ethical guidelines for mobile health (mHealth) applications (apps) despite the rapid innovation and use of mobile technologies in the health care field. As such, we address existing policies from the federal government, development guidelines from the mobile industry, and ethical guidelines from the American Psychological Association that apply to the development of mHealth apps intended for psychological use. Privacy and confidentiality are of primary concerns when developing and using mHealth apps for the purpose of research, assessment, and ongoing therapy. Specifically, the use of app notifications and widgets can put app user’s privacy at risk unless used properly. Methods in which app developers and providers can safeguard against violations of privacy and confidentiality are examined. In addition, special considerations are made for the use of apps with inpatient and rural populations and for those with cognitive impairments. This discussion serves to inform those who develop and utilize mHealth apps of the ethical guidelines that should be followed when creating and using such apps.
 
Psychology Department.
 
 
Wesner, Jeff S., & Mark C. Belk. (2015). Variation in the trophic position of common stream fishes and its relationship to the presence of a rare fish, northern leatherside chub ( Lepidomeda copei). Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 24(2), 234-241.
 
Variation in trophic position can be caused by structural changes in food webs that may affect the presence of, or be affected by the presence of, individual species. We examined variation in the trophic position of fishes across 14 stream sites in the Bear River drainage, WY, USA. This drainage is the focus of ongoing conservation of northern leatherside chub ( Lepidomeda copei). Our goals were (i) to describe variation in trophic position of individual species and (ii) to determine whether these measures differed between sites with and without northern leatherside chub. Mean trophic position of individual fish species varied between 0 and 3 trophic positions across sites. For two of these species, trophic position declined at sites without northern leatherside chub. Importantly, habitat surveys from a previous study at 10 of these sites revealed no differences in habitat suitability for northern leatherside chub. This suggests that trophic position revealed systematic differences among sites that were not apparent based on traditional species-habitat modelling. We outline possible mechanisms behind these patterns and argue that monitoring variation in trophic position can complement traditional, habitat-based methods for understanding species distributions.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Kryjevski, Andrei, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2016). Enhanced multiple exciton generation in amorphous silicon nanowires and films. Molecular Physics, 114(3-4), 365-379.
 
Multiple exciton generation (MEG) in nanometer-sized hydrogen-passivated silicon nanowires (NWs), and quasi two-dimensional nanofilms depends strongly on the degree of the core structural disorder as shown by the perturbative many-body quantum mechanics calculations based on the density functional theory simulations. Working to the second order in the electron-photon coupling and in the screened Coulomb interaction, we calculate quantum efficiency (QE), the average number of excitons created by a single absorbed photon, in the Si29H36 quantum dots (QDs) with crystalline and amorphous core structures, simple cubic three-dimensional arrays constructed from these QDs, crystalline and amorphous NWs, and quasi two-dimensional silicon nanofilms, also both crystalline and amorphous. Efficient MEG with QE ranging from 1.3 up to 1.8 at the photon energy of about 3E(g), where E-g is the electronic gap, is predicted in these nanoparticles except for the crystalline NW and crystalline film where QE similar or equal to 1. MEG in the amorphous nanoparticles is enhanced by the electron localisation due to structural disorder. Combined with the lower gaps, the nanometer-sized amorphous silicon NWs and films are predicted to have effective carrier multiplication within the solar spectrum range.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Li, L., K. B. Grausam, J. Wang, M. P. Lun, J. Ohli, H. G. W. Lidov, . . . H. T. Zhao. (2016). Sonic Hedgehog promotes proliferation of Notch-dependent monociliated choroid plexus tumour cells. Nature Cell Biology, 18(4), 418-+.
 
Aberrant Notch signalling has been linked to many cancers including choroid plexus (CP) tumours, a group of rare and predominantly paediatric brain neoplasms. We developed animal models of CP tumours, by inducing sustained expression of Notch1, that recapitulate properties of human CP tumours with aberrant NOTCH signalling. Whole-transcriptome and functional analyses showed that tumour cell proliferation is associated with Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) in the tumour microenvironment. Unlike CP epithelial cells, which have multiple primary cilia, tumour cells possess a solitary primary cilium as a result of Notch-mediated suppression of multiciliate differentiation. A Shh-driven signalling cascade in the primary cilium occurs in tumour cells but not in epithelial cells. Lineage studies show that CP tumours arise from monociliated progenitors in the roof plate characterized by elevated Notch signalling. Abnormal SHH signalling and distinct ciliogenesis are detected in human CP tumours, suggesting the SHH pathway and cilia differentiation as potential therapeutic avenues.
 
Biology Department.
Computer Sciences Department.
 
 
Allen, D. C., & Jeffrey S. Wesner. (2016). Synthesis: comparing effects of resource and consumer fluxes into recipient food webs using meta-analysis. Ecology, 97(3), 594-604.
 
Here we synthesize empirical research using meta-analysis to compare how consumer and resource fluxes affect recipient food webs. We tested the following hypotheses: (H-1) The direct effects of resource fluxes (bottom-up) should be stronger than the direct effects of consumer fluxes (top-down), because resource fluxes are permanent (do not return to the food web in which they were produced) but consumer fluxes may not be (consumers can leave). (H-2) Following H-1, the indirect effects should attenuate (weaken) more quickly for consumer fluxes than for resource fluxes due to their direct effects being weaker. (H-3) The effects of resource fluxes should be stronger when recipient food webs are in different ecosystems than donor food webs due to differences in elevation that accompany cross-ecosystem food web interfaces, often increasing flux quantity due to gravity, while the effects of consumer fluxes should be stronger when donor and recipient food webs are in the same ecosystem as they should more easily assimilate into the recipient food web. We found no differences in the magnitude of bottom-up and top-down direct effects for resource and consumer fluxes, but top-down direct effects were 122% stronger than top-down indirect effects. Indirect effects of prey and predator fluxes quickly attenuated while indirect effects of non-prey resource and herbivore fluxes did not, as the overall direct effects of prey and predator fluxes were 123% and 163% stronger than their indirect effects, respectively. This result suggests that the magnitude of indirect effects decrease as the trophic level of resource and consumer fluxes increases, and also contrasts with results from studies showing in situ top-down indirect effects are stronger than in situ bottom-up indirect effects. We found that resource and consumer flux effect sizes were similar when they occurred between ecosystems, but when they occurred within ecosystems predator flux effects were 107% stronger than nutrient flux effects. Finally, we found that observational studies had higher effect sizes than manipulative studies. Future research should focus on how resource and consumer fluxes might interact and generate feedbacks in empirical studies of natural food webs, and what ecological factors might affect their relative strength.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Roh, SoonheeKathleen Brown-Rice, Natalie D. Pope, Kyoung Hag Lee, Yeon-Shim Lee, & Lisa A. Newland. (2015). Depression Literacy Among American Indian Older Adults. Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work, 12(6), 614-627.
 
Older American Indians experience high rates of depression and other psychological disorders, yet little research exist on the depression literacy of this group. Depression literacy is fundamental for individuals seeking help for depression in a timely and appropriate manner. In the present study the authors examine levels and predictors of knowledge of depression symptoms in a sample of rural older American Indians (N = 227) living in the Midwestern United States. Data from self-administered questionnaires indicate limited knowledge of depression and negative attitudes toward seeking help for mental health problems. Additional findings and implications for social work practice and policy are discussed.
 
School of Health Sciences
School of Education
 
 
Bigornia, S. J., William S. Harris, L. M. Falcon, J. M. Ordovas, C. Q. Lai, & K. L. Tucker. (2016). The Omega-3 Index Is Inversely Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Individuals with Elevated Oxidative Stress Biomarkers. Journal of Nutrition, 146(4), 758-766.
 
Background: Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) consumption is thought to improve depressive symptoms. However, current evidence is limited, and whether this association exists among Puerto Ricans, a population burdened by depression, remains uncertain. Objectives: We examined the association between omega-3 FA biomarkers and depressive symptoms as well as the potential influence of oxidative stress. Methods: Baseline and longitudinal analyses were conducted in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (n = 787; participants aged 57 +/- 0.52 y, 73% women). Urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentration, a measure of oxidative stress, and erythrocyte FA composition were collected at baseline. We calculated the omega-3 index as the sum of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, expressed as a percentage of total FAs. Baseline and 2-y depressive symptoms were characterized by using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Statistical analyses included linear and logistic regression. Results: Urinary 8-OHdG concentration tended to modify the relation between the erythrocyte omega-3 index and baseline CES-D score (P-interaction = 0.10). In stratified analyses, the omega-3 index was inversely associated with CES-D score (beta = -1.74, SE = 0.88; P = 0.02) among those in the top quartile of 8-OHdG concentration but not among those in the lower quartiles. The relation between the omega-3 index and CES-D at 2 y was more clearly modified by 8-OHdG concentration (P-interaction = 0.04), where the omega-3 index was inversely associated with CES-D at 2 y, adjusted for baseline (beta = -1.66, SE = 0.66; P = 0.02), only among those with elevated 8-OHdG concentrations. Among individuals not taking antidepressant medications and in the top tertile of urinary 8-OHdG concentration, the omega-3 index was associated with significantly lower odds of a CES-D score >= 16 at baseline (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.96) but not at 2 y (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.60, 1.15). Conclusions: An inverse association between the omega-3 index and depressive symptoms was observed among participants with elevated oxidative stress biomarkers. These data suggest that oxidative stress status may identify those who might benefit from omega-3 FA consumption to improve depressive symptoms.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Sweeney, Mark R., H. Y. Lu, M. C. Cui, J. A. Mason, H. Feng, & Z. W. Xu. (2016). Sand dunes as potential sources of dust in northern China. Science China-Earth Sciences, 59(4), 760-769.
 
While saltation bombardment of sand grains on a fine substrate can produce considerable dust, the well-sorted nature of sand dunes tends to preclude them from consideration as major dust sources. Recent research, however, has revealed that sand dunes can, in some cases, be large sources of dust. We used the PI-SWERL (Portable In-Situ Wind Erosion Laboratory) to measure in the field the potential of sand dunes and other desert landforms to emit particulate matter < 10 mu m (PM-10) dust in the Tengger, Ulan Buh, and Mu Us deserts of northern China. Combined with high resolution particle size measurements of the dune sand, an assessment of sand dunes as a dust source can be made. Large active transverse dunes tend to contain little to no stored PM-10, yet they produce a low dust flux. Coppice dunes stabilized by vegetation contain appreciable PM-10 and have very high dust emission potential. There is a positive correlation between the amount of PM-10 stored in a dune and its potential dust flux. Saltation liberates loose fines stored in dunes, making them very efficient dust emitters compared to landforms such as dry lake beds and washes where dust particles are unavailable for aeolian transport due to protective crusts or sediment cohesion. In cases where large dunes do not store PM-10 yet emit dust when active, two hypotheses can be considered: (1) iron-oxide grain coatings are removed during saltation, creating dust, and (2) sand grains collide during saltation, abrading grains to create dust. Observations reveal that iron oxide coatings are present on some dune sands. PI-SWERL data suggests that low dust fluxes from dunes containing no stored dust may represent an estimate for the amount of PM-10 dust produced by removal of iron oxide coatings. These results are similar to results from dunes in the United States. In addition, PI-SWERL results suggest that dust-bearing coppice dunes, which cover vast areas of China’s sandy deserts, may become major sources of dust in the future if overgrazing, depletion of groundwater, or drought destabilizes the vegetation that now partially covers these dunes.
 
Earth Sciences Department.
 
 
Wesner, Jeff. (2016). Contrasting effects of fish predation on benthic versus emerging prey: a meta-analysis. Oecologia, 180(4), 1205-1211.
 
Predator-prey interactions are often studied entirely within the ecosystem of the predator. However, many prey transition between ecosystems during development, expanding the effects of predators across ecosystems. Prey are often vulnerable to predation during this transition, facing a predator gauntlet as they leave their source ecosystem. As a result of predation during this transition, predators may have stronger effects on prey fluxes to the neighboring ecosystem than on prey densities in the predator’s own ecosystem. I used meta-analysis of predator (fish) and prey (invertebrate) interactions in freshwater ecosystems to test the hypothesis that fish have stronger effects on prey flux to the terrestrial ecosystem, by reducing insect emergence biomass, than on prey densities in the aquatic ecosystem, by reducing benthic insect/invertebrate biomass. Fish reduced insect emergence by 39 % on average, more than twice as strong as their reductions of benthic prey (16 % reduction; averages are variance-weighted). In fact, fish effects on benthic prey were not significantly different from zero, but were significant for emergence. These results indicate that predator effects can not only cascade from one ecosystem to another but also that effects can be stronger outside than within the ecosystem of the predator. Failure to account for this may underestimate the effects of predators on prey.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
BaniKhaled, Mohammad O.John D. BeckerMiles Koppang, & Haoran Sun. (2016). Perfluoroalkylation of Square-Planar Transition Metal Complexes: A Strategy To Assemble Them into Solid State Materials with a pi-pi Stacked Lamellar Structure. Crystal Growth & Design, 16(4), 1869-1878.
 
Formation of pi-pi stacked lamellar structure is important for high performance organic semiconductor materials. We previously demonstrated that perfluoroalkylation of aromatics and heteroaromatics was one of the strategies to design organic crystalline materials with pi-pi stacked lamellar structures while improving air stability as a result of the strong electron withdrawing ability of perfluoroalkyl substituents. Square-planar transition metal complexes with large pi-conjugated ligands are also an important category of semiconductor materials. We have perfluoroalkylated square-planar transition metal complexes, leading to the formation of a pi-pi stacked lamellar crystal packing motif in the solid state. Here we report six crystal structures of Pd and Pt complexes with bis-perfluorobutylated catechol ligand as one of the two ligands that bonds to the metal centers. This structural design possesses similar molecular topology when compared to perfluoroalkylated aromatics and heteroaromatics we have reported previously, again, demonstrating the steering power of the perfluoroalkyl substituents in engineering organic and organometallic ( solid state materials.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Jensen, Stephanie J.Talgat M. Inerbaev, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2016). Spin Unrestricted Excited State Relaxation Study of Vanadium(IV)-Doped Anatase. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 120(11), 5890-5905.
 
Atomistic modeling of light driven electron dynamics are important in studies of photoactive materials. Spin-resolved electronic structure calculations become necessary when dealing with transition metal, magnetic, and even some carbon materials, intermediates, and radicals. An approximate treatment can be pursued in the basis of spin-collinear density functional theory. Most transition-metal compounds exhibit open shell nonsinglet configurations, necessitating special treatment of electrons with alpha/beta spin projections. By separate treatment of electronic states with the alpha/beta spin components one is able to describe a broader range of materials, identify new channels of relaxation and charge transfer, and provide knowledge for rational design of new materials in solar energy harvesting and information storage. For this methodology, named spin-resolved electron dynamics, spin-polarized DFT is used as the basis to implement nonadiabatic molecular dynamics. At ambient temperatures, the thermal lattice vibrations results in orbital and energy fluctuations with time. Nonadiabatic couplings, are then calculated, which control the dissipative dynamics of the spin resolved density matrix. Different initial excitations are then analyzed and used to calculate relaxation dynamics. Spin-resolved electronic dynamics approach (SREDA) is applied to study vanadium(IV) substitutionally doped bulk anatase in a doublet ground state. The results show that a difference in the electronic structure for alpha and beta spin components determines consequences in optical excitations and electronic dynamics pathways experienced by electrons with alpha and beta spin projections. Specifically, the lone occupied V 3d alpha-orbital increases the range of absorption and defines the rates and pathways of relaxation for both holes and electrons with alpha-spin projection. Optical excitations involving occupied V 3d alpha-orbital are responsible for IR-range absorption, followed by nonradiative relaxation. Certain transitions involving orbitals of alpha-spin component occur in the visible range and induce localization of a negative charge on the V ion for an extended time period. The slower nonradiative relaxation rate of alpha-excitations is rationally explained as a consequence of difference of electronic structure for alpha and beta spin projections and specific pattern of energy levels contributed by doping. Specifically, excitations involving orbitals with alpha-projection of spin experience transitions through larger subgaps in the conduction band compared to the ones experienced by similar excitations involving orbitals with beta-projection of spin. It is anticipated that this methodology can be broadly implemented on multiple applications of transition metal based materials, including optoelectronics, information storage, laser crystals, dyes, photovoltaic materials, and metal oxides for photoelectrochemical water splitting.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Sharma, S., Chia-Ming WuRanjit T. Koodali, & N. Rajesh. (2016). An ionic liquid-mesoporous silica blend as a novel adsorbent for the adsorption and recovery of palladium ions, and its applications in continuous flow study and as an industrial catalyst. Rsc Advances, 6(32), 26668-26678.
 
In this work, we report the synthesis of Aliquat-336 (ionic liquid) impregnated SBA-15 mesoporous silica, showing its effective interaction and high adsorption capacity for palladium(II) ions. The physicochemical properties of the adsorbent prior to and after adsorption of palladium(II) ions were characterized extensively using FT-IR, XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX, surface area (BET), and pore size analysis. The plausible interaction envisaged between Aliquat-336 impregnated SBA-15 and Pd(II) could be charge and ion-pair interactions. Different isotherm models were utilized to obtain the sorption parameters and the experimental data fitted adequately with the Langmuir isotherm model, with an adsorption capacity of 212.76 mg g(-1). The kinetics of the adsorption process agreed well with the pseudo-second order kinetic model, and the exothermic nature of the adsorption process was revealed through thermodynamic parameters. The Aliquat-336 impregnated SBA-15 adsorbent was regenerated using thiourea. The continuous flow studies were carried out using the Thomas model and this gave an adsorption capacity of 453.89 mg g(-1) and 376.38 mg g(-1) at flow rates of 4 and 6 mL min(-1) respectively. Furthermore, the present scheme was tested for the adsorption of palladium recovered from a spent catalyst containing 5% Pd on activated carbon.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Mdaki, K. S., T. D. Larsen, A. L. Wachal, Michelle D. SchimelpfenigLucinda J. Weaver, …., & Michelle. L. Baack. (2016). Maternal high-fat diet impairs cardiac function in offspring of diabetic pregnancy through metabolic stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 310(6), H681-H692.
 
Offspring of diabetic pregnancies are at risk of cardiovascular disease at birth and throughout life, purportedly through fuel-mediated influences on the developing heart. Preventative measures focus on glycemic control, but the contribution of additional offenders, including lipids, is not understood. Cellular bioenergetics can be influenced by both diabetes and hyperlipidemia and play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of adult cardiovascular disease. This study investigated whether a maternal high-fat diet, independently or additively with diabetes, could impair fuel metabolism, mitochondrial function, and cardiac physiology in the developing offspring’s heart. Sprague-Dawley rats fed a control or high-fat diet were administered placebo or streptozotocin to induce diabetes during pregnancy and then delivered offspring from four groups: control, diabetes exposed, diet exposed, and combination exposed. Cardiac function, cellular bioenergetics (mitochondrial stress test, glycolytic stress test, and palmitate oxidation assay), lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial histology, and copy number were determined. Diabetes-exposed offspring had impaired glycolytic and respiratory capacity and a reduced proton leak. High-fat diet-exposed offspring had increased mitochondrial copy number, increased lipid peroxidation, and evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction. Combination- exposed pups were most severely affected and demonstrated cardiac lipid droplet accumulation and diastolic/systolic cardiac dysfunction that mimics that of adult diabetic cardiomyopathy. This study is the first to demonstrate that a maternal high-fat diet impairs cardiac function in offspring of diabetic pregnancies through metabolic stress and serves as a critical step in understanding the role of cellular bioenergetics in developmentally programmed cardiac disease.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Riebschleger, Joanne, Debra Norris, Barbara Pierce, Debora L. Pond, & Cristy Cummings. (2015). Preparing social work students for rural child welfare practice: Emerging curriculum competencies. Journal of Social Work Education, 51(Suppl 2), S209-S224.
 
Multiple issues that are unique to child welfare social work practice in rural areas markedly affect workforce recruitment and retention, yet little attention is given to the proficiencies needed to equip emerging social workers for this growing area of the field. Curriculum content is needed that provides students with the opportunity to master the skills needed to thrive as child welfare social workers in rural areas. Using an evidence-based practice critical thinking model as a guide, a systematic review of literature and documents addresses many of the competencies needed to prepare social work students for child welfare practice in rural areas. These competencies are identified. Suggestions for integration into the social work curriculum are offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)
 
School of Health Sciences.
 
 
Cross, Suzanne L., Virginia Drywater-Whitekiller, Lea Ann Holder, Debra Norris, James Caringi, & Ashley Trautman. (2015). NCWWI tribal traineeship programs: Promoting diversity in the child welfare workforce. Journal of Social Work Education, 51(Suppl 2), S225-S238.
 
Twelve universities and one American Indian (AI) tribal college were selected for the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute’s 5-year stipend traineeship program. These tribal traineeships were designed to provide social work child welfare education for tribal and nontribal students. Twenty-two AI students and 58 nontribal students completed a bachelor or master’s of social work degree. The students’ field placements were in tribal agencies or public agencies that served a segment of the AI population. These programs were enhanced through the use of valuable relationships (i.e., partnerships, mentorships, allies), and cultural competence was a key aspect of the students’ education. The students’ education was enriched with a specific child welfare curriculum, cultural teachings, tribal traineeship collaborations, and tribal community events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)
 
School of Health Sciences.
Posted by: reganenosusd | March 21, 2016

February – March 2016

Garelik, Steven, & X. T. Wang. (2016). Multiple framing: Verbal, facial, and vocal cues in risky choice. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making.

Verbal framing effects have been widely studied, but little is known about how people react to multiple framing cues in risk communication, where verbal messages are often accompanied by facial and vocal cues. We examined joint and differential effects of verbal, facial, and vocal framing on risk preference in hypothetical monetary and life–death situations. In the multiple framing condition with the factorial design (2 verbal frames × 2 vocal tones × 4 basic facial expressions × 2 task domains), each scenario was presented auditorily with a written message on a photo of the messenger’s face. Compared with verbal framing effects resulting in preference reversal, multiple frames made risky choice more consistent and shifted risk preference without reversal. Moreover, a positive tone of voice increased risk‐seeking preference in women. When the valence of facial and vocal cues was incongruent with verbal frame, verbal framing effects were significant. In contrast, when the affect cues were congruent with verbal frame, framing effects disappeared. These results suggest that verbal framing is given higher priority when other affect cues are incongruent. Further analysis revealed that participants were more risk‐averse when positive affect cues (positive tone or facial expressions) were congruently paired with a positive verbal frame whereas participants were more risk‐seeking when positive affect cues were incongruent with the verbal frame. In contrast, for negative affect cues, congruency promoted risk‐seeking tendency whereas incongruency increased risk‐aversion. Overall, the results show that facial and vocal cues interact with verbal framing and significantly affect risk communication. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Pan, Y. Q., R. Z. Liu, Erin Terpstra, Yanqing Wang, Fangfang Qiao, J. Wang, . . . Bo Pan. (2016). Dysregulation and Diagnostic Potential of microRNA in Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Alzheimers Disease, 49(1), 1-12.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases and is considered to be the main cause of cognitive impairment in elderly people. The major symptom of AD is progressive dementia that eventually results in dysfunction of daily life. Due to the fact that AD has a long period of incubation before clinical symptoms emerge, the available therapeutic treatments can only improve the symptoms but not delay the progression of AD. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore effective diagnostic approaches to catch and better treat the disease before clinical symptoms appear. Recent research revealed that abnormal expression of certain miRNA could have a crucial role in the pathological process of neurodegenerative disease including AD. Furthermore, given that AD patients show increased level of miRNAs in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, miRNAs are considered promising non-invasive candidates for AD diagnosis and prognosis. Here, we reviewed the current research related to implications of miRNAs during the development of AD, summarized of actively used approaches to identifying potential miRNA biomarkers in body fluids, and discussed the diagnostic potential of microRNAs as biomarkers for AD.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Mdaki, Kennedy S., Tricia D. Larsen, Lucinda J. Weaver, & Michelle L. Baack. (2016). Age Related Bioenergetics Profiles in Isolated Rat Cardiomyocytes Using Extracellular Flux Analyses. PLoS ONE, 11(2), 1-16.

Mitochondrial dysfunction is increasingly recognized and studied as a mediator of heart disease. Extracellular flux analysis (XF) has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate cellular bioenergetics in the context of cardiac health and disease, however its use and interpretation requires improved understanding of the normal metabolic differences in cardiomyocytes (CM) at various stages of maturation. This study standardized XF analyses methods (mitochondrial stress test, glycolytic stress test and palmitate oxidation test) and established age related differences in bioenergetics profiles of healthy CMs at newborn (NB1), weaning (3WK), adult (10WK) and aged (12–18MO) time points. Findings show that immature CMs demonstrate a more robust and sustained glycolytic capacity and a relative inability to oxidize fatty acids when compared to older CMs. The study also highlights the need to recognize the contribution of CO2 from the Krebs cycle as well as lactate from anaerobic glycolysis to the proton production rate before interpreting glycolytic capacity in CMs. Overall, this study demonstrates that caution should be taken to assure that translatable developmental time points are used to investigate mitochondrial dysfunction as a cause of cardiac disease. Specifically, XF analysis of newborn CMs should be reserved to study fetal/neonatal disease and older CMs (≥10 weeks) should be used to investigate adult disease pathogenesis. Knowledge gained will aid in improved investigation of developmentally programmed heart disease and stress the importance of discerning maturational differences in bioenergetics when developing mitochondrial targeted preventative and therapeutic strategies for cardiac disease.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Harris, William S., Juhua Luo, James V. Pottala, Karen L. Margolis, Mark A. Espeland, & Jennifer G. Robinson. (2016). Red Blood Cell Fatty Acids and Incident Diabetes Mellitus in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study. PLoS ONE, 11(2), 1-17.

Context: The relations between dietary and/or circulating levels of fatty acids and the development of type 2 diabetes is unclear. Protective associations with the marine omega-3 fatty acids and linoleic acid, and with a marker of fatty acid desaturase activity delta-5 desaturase (D5D ratio) have been reported, as have adverse relations with saturated fatty acids and D6D ratio. Objective: To determine the associations between red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid distributions and incident type 2 diabetes. Design: Prospective observational cohort study nested in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study. Setting: General population. Subjects: Postmenopausal women. Main Outcome Measures: Self-reported incident type 2 diabetes. Results: There were 703 new cases of type 2 diabetes over 11 years of follow up among 6379 postmenopausal women. In the fully adjusted models, baseline RBC D5D ratio was inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes [Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81–0.95) per 1 SD increase. Similarly, baseline RBC D6D ratio and palmitic acid were directly associated with incident type 2 diabetes (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04–1.25; and HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.14–1.35, respectively). None of these relations were materially altered by excluding incident cases in the first two years of follow-up. There were no significant relations with eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic or linoleic acids. Conclusions: Whether altered fatty acid desaturase activities or palmitic acid levels are causally related to the development of type 2 diabetes cannot be determined from this study, but our findings suggest that proportions of certain fatty acids in RBC membranes are associated with risk for type 2 diabetes.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Druzinsky, Robert E., James P. Balhoff, Alfred W. Crompton, …., Paula M. Mabee, Hans-Michael Muller, . . . Christine E. Wall. (2016). Muscle Logic: New Knowledge Resource for Anatomy Enables Comprehensive Searches of the Literature on the Feeding Muscles of Mammals. PLoS ONE, 11(2), 1-19.

Background: In recent years large bibliographic databases have made much of the published literature of biology available for searches. However, the capabilities of the search engines integrated into these databases for text-based bibliographic searches are limited. To enable searches that deliver the results expected by comparative anatomists, an underlying logical structure known as an ontology is required. Development and Testing of the Ontology: Here we present the Mammalian Feeding Muscle Ontology (MFMO), a multi-species ontology focused on anatomical structures that participate in feeding and other oral/pharyngeal behaviors. A unique feature of the MFMO is that a simple, computable, definition of each muscle, which includes its attachments and innervation, is true across mammals. This construction mirrors the logical foundation of comparative anatomy and permits searches using language familiar to biologists. Further, it provides a template for muscles that will be useful in extending any anatomy ontology. The MFMO is developed to support the Feeding Experiments End-User Database Project (FEED, ), a publicly-available, online repository for physiological data collected from in vivo studies of feeding (e.g., mastication, biting, swallowing) in mammals. Currently the MFMO is integrated into FEED and also into two literature-specific implementations of Textpresso, a text-mining system that facilitates powerful searches of a corpus of scientific publications. We evaluate the MFMO by asking questions that test the ability of the ontology to return appropriate answers (competency questions). We compare the results of queries of the MFMO to results from similar searches in PubMed and Google Scholar. Results and Significance: Our tests demonstrate that the MFMO is competent to answer queries formed in the common language of comparative anatomy, but PubMed and Google Scholar are not. Overall, our results show that by incorporating anatomical ontologies into searches, an expanded and anatomically comprehensive set of results can be obtained. The broader scientific and publishing communities should consider taking up the challenge of semantically enabled search capabilities.

Biology Department.

Jackson, K. H., J. Polreis, L. Sanborn, D. Chaima, & William S. Harris. (2016). Analysis of breast milk fatty acid composition using dried milk samples. International Breastfeeding Journal, 11, 7.

Background: The effect of breast milk fatty acid (FA) composition, particularly levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on infant health outcomes is unclear. Part of the reason for this is difficulties in collecting, storing and shipping milk samples to the laboratory. Here we report the validation of a dried milk spot (DMS) system to measure FA composition to help overcome these obstacles. Milk FA were measured by gas chromatography and reported as percent of total FA; the FA of primary interest in this study were DHA and industrially produced trans FA (iTFA). Experiments were carried out using pooled milk samples from US (n = 5) and Malawian women (n = 50). Experiments compared liquid vs. DMS samples (n = 55), assessed stability of FA composition under different storage conditions (n = 5), and compared the results from two different labs using the same methods (n = 5). Results: Both % DHA and % iTFA levels in liquid and DMS samples were strongly correlated (R-2 = 0.99 and 0.99, respectively, P < 0.0001). The % DHA in DMS samples was stable for up to four weeks at room temperature and up to three years at -80 degrees C; only slight deviations from the acceptable range of variability (+/- 15 %) occurred in the 4 degrees C and -20 degrees C conditions for % DHA. The % iTFA was stable under all conditions. All % DHA and % iTFA were within 15 % of the referent when analyzed in two laboratories. Conclusions: Valid FA composition values can be obtained from DMS samples using this robust collection and transport system which should facilitate studies of the role of milk FA composition in infant development.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Ujvari, G., T. Stevens, A. Svensson, …., Mark R. Sweeney, M. Gocke, . . . M. Zech. (2015). Two possible source regions for central Greenland last glacial dust. Geophysical Research Letters, 42(23), 10.

Dust in Greenland ice cores is used to reconstruct the activity of dust-emitting regions and atmospheric circulation. However, the source of dust material to Greenland over the last glacial period is the subject of considerable uncertainty. Here we use new clay mineral and < 10 mu m Sr-Nd isotopic data from a range of Northern Hemisphere loess deposits in possible source regions alongside existing isotopic data to show that these methods cannot discriminate between two competing hypothetical origins for Greenland dust: an East Asian and/or central European source. In contrast, Hf isotopes (< 10 mu m fraction) of loess samples show considerable differences between the potential source regions. We attribute this to a first-order clay mineralogy dependence of Hf isotopic signatures in the finest silt/clay fractions, due to absence of zircons. As zircons would also be absent in Greenland dust, this provides a new way to discriminate between hypotheses for Greenland dust sources.

Earth Sciences Department.

Jiang, L. L., D. Zang, S. G. Yi, …., Xuejun Wang, & J. B. Liu. (2016). A microRNA-mediated decrease in eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha promotes cell survival during PS-341 treatment. Scientific Reports, 6, 12.

MicroRNAs (miRs) play pivotal roles in carcinogenesis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that performs the folding, modification and trafficking of proteins targeted to the secretory pathway. Cancer cells often endure ER stress during tumor progression but use the adaptive ER stress response to gain survival advantage. Here we report: (i) A group of miRs, including miR-30b-5p and miR-30c-5p, are upregulated by proteasome inhibitor PS-341 treatment, in HepG2 and MDA-MB-453 cells. (ii) Two representative PS-341-induced miRs: miR-30b-5p and miR-30c-5p are found to promote cell proliferation and antiapoptosis in both tumor cells. (iii) eIF2 alpha is confirmed as the congenerous target of miR-30b-5p and miR-30c-5p, essential to the anti-apoptotic function of these miRs. (iv) Upregulation of miR-30b-5p or miR-30c-5p, which occurs latter than the increase of phosphorylated eIF2 alpha (p-eIF2 alpha) in the cell under ER stress, suppresses the p-eIF2 alpha/ATF4/CHOP pro-apoptotic pathway. (v) Inhibition of the miR-30b-5p or miR-30c-5p sensitizes the cancer cells to the cytotoxicity of proteasome inhibition. In conclusion, we unravels a new miRs-based mechanism that helps maintain intracellular proteostasis and promote cell survival during ER stress through upregulation of miR-30b-5p and miR-30c-5p which target eIF2 alpha and thereby inhibit the p-eIF2 alpha/ATF4/CHOP pro-apoptotic pathway, identifying miR-30b-5p and miR-30c-5p as potentially new targets for anti-cancer therapies.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Savinov, Alexi Y., Maryam Salehi, M. C. Yadav, I. Radichev, J. L. Millan, & O. V. Savinova. (2015). Transgenic Overexpression of Tissue-Nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase (TNAP) in Vascular Endothelium Results in Generalized Arterial Calcification. Journal of the American Heart Association, 4(12), 13.

Background-Ectopic vascular calcification is a common condition associated with aging, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and/or chronic kidney disease. Smooth muscle cells are the best characterized source of osteogenic progenitors in the vasculature; however, recent studies suggest that cells of endothelial origin can also promote calcification. To test this, we sought to increase the osteogenic potential of endothelial cells by overexpressing tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), a key enzyme that regulates biomineralization, and to determine the pathophysiological effect of endothelial TNAP on vascular calcification and cardiovascular function. Methods and Results-We demonstrated previously that mice transgenic for ALPL (gene encoding human TNAP) develop severe arterial medial calcification and reduced viability when TNAP is overexpressed in smooth muscle cells. In this study, we expressed the ALPL transgene in endothelial cells following endothelial-specific Tie2-Cre recombination. Mice with endothelial TNAP overexpression survived well into adulthood and displayed generalized arterial calcification. Genes associated with osteochondrogenesis (Runx2, Bglap, Spp1, Opg, and Col2a1) were upregulated in the aortas of endothelial TNAP animals compared with controls. Lesions in coronary arteries of endothelial TNAP mice showed immunoreactivity to Runx2, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and collagen II as well as increased deposition of sialoproteins revealed by lectin staining. By 23 weeks of age, endothelial TNAP mice developed elevated blood pressure and compensatory left ventricular hypertrophy with preserved ejection fraction. Conclusions-This study presented a novel genetic model demonstrating the osteogenic potential of TNAP-positive endothelial cells in promoting pathophysiological vascular calcification.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Edmunds, R. C., B. F. Su, J. P. Balhoff, B. F. Eames, Waslia M. Dahdul, …., . . . M. Westerfield. (2016). Phenoscape: Identifying Candidate Genes for Evolutionary Phenotypes. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 33(1), 13-24.

Phenotypes resulting from mutations in genetic model organisms can help reveal candidate genes for evolutionarily important phenotypic changes in related taxa. Although testing candidate gene hypotheses experimentally in nonmodel organisms is typically difficult, ontology-driven information systems can help generate testable hypotheses about developmental processes in experimentally tractable organisms. Here, we tested candidate gene hypotheses suggested by expert use of the Phenoscape Knowledgebase, specifically looking for genes that are candidates responsible for evolutionarily interesting phenotypes in the ostariophysan fishes that bear resemblance to mutant phenotypes in zebrafish. For this, we searched ZFIN for genetic perturbations that result in either loss of basihyal element or loss of scales phenotypes, because these are the ancestral phenotypes observed in catfishes (Siluriformes). We tested the identified candidate genes by examining their endogenous expression patterns in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. The experimental results were consistent with the hypotheses that these features evolved through disruption in developmental pathways at, or upstream of, brpf1 and eda/edar for the ancestral losses of basihyal element and scales, respectively. These results demonstrate that ontological annotations of the phenotypic effects of genetic alterations in model organisms, when aggregated within a knowledgebase, can be used effectively to generate testable, and useful, hypotheses about evolutionary changes in morphology.

Biology Department.

Raynie, Douglas E. (2016). Surfactant-Mediated Extractions, Part I: Cloud-Point Extraction. Lc Gc North America, 34(1), 14-+.

Chemistry Department.

Dixon, Mark D., & J. C. Stella. (2016). Temporal variability in hydrology modifies the influence of geomorphology on wetland distribution along a desert stream: a commentary on Dong et al. (2016). Journal of Ecology, 104(1), 31-32.

Biology Department.

Geske, Savannah, Randal Quevillon, Cindy Struckman-Johnson, & Keith Hansen. (2016). Comparisons of Contraceptive Use between Rural and Urban Teens. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 29(1), 33-41.

Study Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine if barriers in rural areas might decrease an adolescent’s likelihood of obtaining effective contraception. Previous studies have reported mixed results in comparisons of rural and urban contraception use. Design: Electronic survey. Setting: Midwestern Public University. Participants: Undergraduate and graduate women. Interventions: Questionnaire. Main Outcome Measures: Participants retrospectively recalled their contraceptive use and barriers to contraceptive use between the 9th and 12th grades. Results: A Barriers to Contraception Use Scale was created using exploratory factor analysis and yielded 31 questions with 1 underlying factor: barriers. Participants were identified as rural or urban using the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) definition and the participant’s self-identification. Overall, rural participants endorsed more barriers to accessing contraceptives than urban participants using the OMB definition (chi(2) (2; n = 388) = 2.04; P < .05), and self-identification (chi(2) (2; n = 398) = 2.37; P < .05). However, no differences were found in contraception use according to the OMB definition, t (380) = -1.90; P = .06, or self-identification, t (380) = -2.11; P > .05. The Barriers to Contraception Use Scale total score predicted whether an individual would have a prescription for contraceptives 70.5% of the time compared to the base rate of 54.1%. Conclusion: Although no rural-urban differences in actual contraception use were found, rural participants reported more barriers to accessing contraception, and those who endorsed more barriers were less likely to obtain contraceptives while in high school. Pregnancy prevention programs should thus take these barriers into account when developing future interventions.

Psychology Department.

Deitsch, E., E. M. Hibbard, & Jason L. Petersen. (2016). The UVS9 gene of Chlamydomonas encodes an XPG homolog with a new conserved domain. DNA Repair, 37, 33-42.

Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a key pathway for removing DNA damage that destabilizes the DNA double helix. During NER a protein complex coordinates to cleave the damaged DNA strand on both sides of the damage. The resulting lesion-containing oligonucleotide is displaced from the DNA and a replacement strand is synthesized using the undamaged strand as template. Ultraviolet (UV) light is known to induce two primary forms of DNA damage, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer and the 64 photoproduct, both of which destabilize the DNA double helix. The uvs9 strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was isolated based on its sensitivity to UV light and was subsequently shown to have a defect in NER. In this work, the UVS9 gene was cloned through molecular mapping and shown to encode a homolog of XPG, the structure-specific nuclease responsible for cleaving damaged DNA strands 3′ to sites of damage during NER. 3′ RACE revealed that the UVS9 transcript is alternatively polyadenylated. The predicted UVS9 protein is nearly twice as long as other XPG homologs, primarily due to an unusually long spacer region. Despite this difference, amino acid sequence alignment of UVS9p with XPG homologs revealed a new conserved domain involved in TFIIH interaction. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Gaher, Raluca M., C. O’Brien, P. Smiley, & Austin M. Hahn. (2016). Alexithymia, Coping Styles and Traumatic Stress Symptoms in a Sample of Veterans Who Experienced Military Sexual Trauma. Stress and Health, 32(1), 55-62.

The current study examined the association between alexithymia and coping styles (planning, positive reinterpretation and growth, social-emotion coping, and denial), and trauma symptoms in a clinical sample of 170 male and female veterans who experienced sexual trauma during military service. Denial was the only coping style positively associated with trauma symptoms, and it mediated the relationship between alexithymia and trauma symptoms. Alexithymia was negatively associated with planning. Likewise, alexithymia was negatively associated with social-emotional coping and with positive reinterpretation and growth. The results speak to the significant role that alexithymia has in predicting individual coping styles. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Psychology Department.

Harris, William S., K. F. Kennedy, T. M. Maddox, S. Kutty, & J. A. Spertus. (2016). Multiple differences between patients who initiate fish oil supplementation post-myocardial infarction and those who do not: the TRIUMPH Study. Nutrition Research, 36(1), 65-71.

The utility of fish oil supplements (FOS) in patients who survive an acute myocardial infarction (MI) remains controversial, with randomized trials showing less benefit than observational studies would suggest. The differences in the characteristics of MI patients who use FOS in routine clinical care are unknown but may help explain this discrepancy. We used data from a 24-site registry study in which extensive information was available on 4340 MI patients at admission and 1, 6, and 12 months postdischarge. After excluding those using FOS at admission (n = 651), those who died before the 1-month follow-up visit (n = 63), and those with missing data at 1 month (n = 1228), 2398 remained. Of them, 377 (16%) started FOS within 1 month of their MI. We analyzed 53 patient characteristics associated with FOS use. We observed differences (P < .001) in 20 demographic, socioeconomic, treatment, disease severity, and health status domains. The FOS users were more likely than nonusers to be white, married, financially secure, highly educated, and eating fish. They also had a higher ejection fraction at discharge, were more likely to have had in hospital percutaneous coronary interventions, and were more likely to have participated in cardiac rehabilitation programs. The FOS users were less likely to have a history of diabetes, alcohol abuse, stroke, MI, and angina. In conclusion, post-MI patients who initiate FOS within 1 month of discharge in routine clinical practice differ substantially from those who do not. These differences are strongly associated with a better post-MI prognosis and may illuminate several sources of unmeasured confounding in observational studies. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Allgrunn, Michael, & Christopher C. Douglas. (2015). The Impact of Smoking Bans on Bar and Restaurant Values. Journal of Economics (03616576), 41(2), 67-81.

The state of Florida implemented an indoor smoking ban in 2003 that exempted bars. Using a data set containing the sales price of bars and restaurants in Florida that spans 1999-2011, we utilize a difference-in-difference framework to examine whether or not a smoking ban impacts the value of bars and restaurants and in what direction. We find that the value of restaurants decreased following the smoking ban, while the value of bars increased. These results suggest that a smoking ban has a negative impact on a business’ value.

Beacom School of Business.

Wilson, Kevin. (2015). A Visit. Missouri Review, 38(4), 74-92.

English Department.

Clark, Brent B., C. Robert, & S. A. Hampton. (2016). The Technology Effect: How Perceptions of Technology Drive Excessive Optimism. Journal of Business and Psychology, 31(1), 87-102.

We propose that constant exposure to advances in technology has resulted in an implicit association between technology and success that has conditioned decision makers to be overly optimistic about the potential for technology to drive successful outcomes. Three studies examine this phenomenon and explore the boundaries of this “technology effect.” In Study 1, participants (N = 147) made simulated investment decisions where the information about technology was systematically varied. In Study 2 (N = 143), participants made decisions in a resource dilemma where technology was implicated in determining the amount of a resource available for harvest. Study 3 (N = 53 and N = 60) used two implicit association tests to examine the assumption that people associate technology with success. Results supported our assumption about an implicit association between technology and success, as well as a “technology effect” bias in decision making. Signals of high performance trigger the effect, and the effect is more likely when the technology invoked is unfamiliar. Excessive optimism that technology will result in success can have negative consequences. Individual investment decisions, organizational decisions to invest in R&D, and societal decisions to explore energy and climate change solutions might all be impacted by biased beliefs about the promise of technology. We are the first to systematically examine the optimistic bias in the technology effect, its scope, and boundaries. This research raises decision makers’ awareness and initiates research examining how the abstract notion of technology can influence perceptions of technological advances.

Beacom School of Business.

Love, Heather A. (2016). Cybernetic Modernism and the Feedback Loop: Ezra Pound’s Poetics of Transmission. Modernism-Modernity, 23(1), 89-111.

English Department.

Raizada, Amol, Nachiket Apte, & Scott Pham. (2016). Q Fever Endocarditis. Texas Heart Institute Journal, 43(1), 91-93.

Q fever is a zoonotic disease with a reservoir in mammals, birds, and ticks. Acute cases in human beings can be asymptomatic, or they can present with a flu-like illness, pneumonia, or hepatitis. Approximately 5% of cases progress to chronic Q fever. Endocarditis, the most typical manifestation of chronic Q fever, is usually associated with small vegetations that occur in patients who have had prior valvular damage or who are immunocompromised. We present what we think is the first reported case of superior mesenteric artery embolism from Q fever endocarditis of the aortic valve, in a 39-year-old woman who needed surgical embolectomy and subsequent aortic valve replacement.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Davies, Thomas L., Angeline M. Lavin, & David H. Moen. (2015). THE EFFECT OF RECENT INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE MISSTEPS ON TAXPAYER PERCEPTIONS. Journal of Business & Accounting, 8(1), 102-116.

The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is responsible for enforcing federal tax laws as well as collecting taxes owed by millions of taxpayers each year. As a result, the fiscal health of the country is impacted by the agency’s effectiveness in fulfilling its responsibilities. In recent years, most discretionary programs and related agencies, including the IRS, have experienced budget cuts in order to keep the national deficit from becoming larger. Less funding has caused the IRS to reduce its workforce as well as cut back on training those who remain. During this same time, well-publicized alleged missteps by the agency have raised concerns about its ability to accomplish its mission of collecting revenue when a significant tax gap already exists. This study reports on how the recent scandals within the IRS have impacted taxpayer perceptions of its overall performance, which can ultimately influence taxpayer compliance and likely add to the tax gap.

Beacom School of Business.

Witek, M., Miles D. Koppang, & G. M. Swain. (2016). Aliphatic Polyamine Oxidation Reaction Mechanism at Boron-doped Microcrystalline and Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Electrodes. Electroanalysis, 28(1), 151-160.

The oxidation reaction mechanism of several aliphatic polyamines was studied using diamond electrodes with different doping levels and non-diamond carbon impurity content. The important roles of surface boron and localized non-diamond carbon sites in the polyamine oxidation reaction mechanism were confirmed. A well defined oxidation peak was seen for all the amines that was dependent on the onset potential for water discharge. E-p(ox) shifted negative and the i(p)(ox) increased with increasing solution pH. i(p)(ox) also increased with increasing boron doping level or surface boron site density. FIA-EC analysis revealed a reproducible response for the aliphatic polyamines in a binary solvent (7/93%) acetonitrile/borate buffer, pH11.2. Optimum signal-to-background ratios for the aliphatic polyamines were seen at potentials between 650 and 670mV.

Chemistry Department.

Jones, Lindsey, Peter A. Kindle, Natasha Auch, Jessica Graupmann, Alicia Ray, Stephanie Utech, & Jenna Visser. (2013). Advice for BSW Students from Alumni of Rural Programs. Journal of Baccalaureate Social Work, 18, 157-172.

Students enrolled or interested in baccalaureate social work programs with a rural focus have access to scant research-based resources to consult for career and educational advice. This study explores open-ended advice provided by a nonprobability sample of BSW alumni (N=120). Online surveys were solicited from alumni from four different colleges with a rural emphasis. Major themes included the advice to examine areas of the social work field, to obtain a graduate social work degree, to take personal responsibility to assess individual suitability for social work, to expect poor pay and work stressors, and to develop strong self-care defenses.

School of Health Sciences.

Wang, X. T., Lay See Ong, & Jolene H. Tan. (2015). Sense and sensibility of ownership: Type of ownership experience and valuation of goods. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, 58, 171-177.

This study examined how the type of ownership experience affects the valuation of a good. We hypothesized that the sense of ownership is a psychological derivative of resource acquisition and allocation. We predicted a valuation order of stable ownership or no-ownership < alternating (interchanging) ownership < sudden reversals in ownership. One hundred and sixty-six participants played an object-acquisition “game”, a computer simulation of gaining or losing the ownership of an object (e.g., a pen, a mug, or a flashlight) with different outcome sequences, preprogramed but unbeknownst to the participants. After each game, the participant valued the target object by indicating their willingness-to-pay price, if the last outcome was a loss, or willingness-to-accept price, if the last outcome was a gain. The valuation of an object was highest after experiencing a final reversal in ownership from losses to a final gain or from gains to a final loss, followed by alternating ownership and stable (patrimonial) ownership or constant non-ownership. Wins or losses are not created equal due to different trajectories in how people come to own (lose) objects. The results also suggest that loss aversion is better understood as a specific result of ownership experience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Messler, Erick C., Aaron A. Lee, Randal P. Quevillon, & Raluca M. Simons. (2016). Parents do matter, but why? Examining two mediators of the association between parental approval and negative consequences of alcohol use. Journal of Substance Use, 21(2), 179-184.

College student drinking is a public health concern with potentially serious consequences. A growing body of literature indicates perceived parental approval of alcohol use is associated with drinking outcomes in college populations, and that parent-based interventions may be a viable way to reduce alcohol use on campus. However, researchers have not yet identified the mechanism responsible for this relationship. In this study, a path model was used to look at the relationship between perceived parental approval of drinking and negative consequences of alcohol use among undergraduate students (N = 632)viatwo mechanisms: perceived friends’ approval of drinking and perceived parental monitoring. The path model specified in this study indicated that perceived parental approval of drinking is associated with negative consequences of alcohol use, and that this effect is not fully attributed to perceived parental monitoring, injunctive norms of friends, gender or weekly alcohol consumption. As hypothesized, perceived friends’ approval of drinking partially mediated the relationship between perceived parental approval of drinking and negative consequences of alcohol use. Contrary to hypothesis, the path model did not provide support to the mediating role of perceived parental monitoring.

Psychology Department.

Cui, T. X., Y. M. Lai, J. S. Janicki, & Xuejun Wang. (2016). Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated protein quality control in cardiomyocytes. Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark, 21, 192-202.

Protein quality control (PQC) acts to minimize the level and toxicity of malfolded proteins in the cell. It is performed by an elaborate network of molecular chaperones and targeted protein degradation pathways. PQC monitors and maintains protein homeostasis or proteostasis in the cells. Whilst chaperones may actively promote refolding of malfolded proteins, the malfolded proteins which cannot be correctly refolded are degraded by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagic-lysosome pathway (ALP). The UPS degrades individual misfolded protein molecules, whereas the ALP removes large and less soluble protein aggregates and organelles. Emerging evidence indicates that dysregulated and inadequate PQC play an important role in the pathogenesis of not only classic conformational disease but more common forms of cardiac pathology such as cardiac pathological hypertrophy and heart failure. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master transcription factor of cellular defense, appears to regulate the USP and the ALP by directly controlling the expression of UPS- and ALP- related genes. This article highlights an emerging role of Nrf2 in the regulation of intracellular PQC as well as its potential involvement in cardiac pathology.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Cho, Chanhoo, J. T. Halford, S. Hsu, & L. L. Ng. (2016). Do managers matter for corporate innovation? Journal of Corporate Finance, 36, 206-229.

This paper examines the ability of latent firm and manager characteristics to explain variation in innovation productivity. Evidence suggests that latent, but not observable, firm and manager characteristics explain a large portion of the variation in a firm’s innovation productivity. Our tests mostly show that latent firm characteristics explain slightly more of the variation relative to latent manager characteristics. For robustness, our analysis shows no significant difference in the average change in innovation productivity and in abnormal returns following two different samples of manager-firm separations: one where managers’ expected innovation abilities are high and the other a random sample. Overall, the results suggest that compared to firm characteristics, managers matter moderately less for corporate innovation. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Beacom School of Business.

May, P. A., M. M. de Vries, A. S. Marais, W. O. Kalberg, …., & H. Eugene Hoyme. (2016). The continuum of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in four rural communities in south africa: Prevalence and characteristics. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 159, 207-218.

Background: Prevalence and characteristics of the continuum of diagnoses within fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were researched in previously unstudied rural, agricultural, lower socioeconomic populations in South Africa (ZA). Methods: Using an active case ascertainment approach among first grade learners, 1354 (72.6%) were consented into the study via: height, weight, and/or head circumference <= 25th centile and/or random selection as normal control candidates. Final diagnoses were made following: examination by pediatric dysmorphologists/geneticists, cognitive/behavioral testing, and maternal risk factor interviews. Results: FASD children were significantly growth deficient and dysmorphic: physical measurements, cardinal facial features of FAS, and total dysmorphology scores clearly differentiated diagnostic categories from severe to mild to normal in a consistent, linear fashion. Neurodevelopmental delays were also significantly worse for each of the FASD diagnostic categories, although not as consistently linear across groups. Alcohol use is well documented as the proximal maternal risk factor for each diagnostic group. Significant distal maternal risk factors in this population are: low body weight, body mass, education, and income; and high gravidity, parity, and age at birth of the index child. In this low SES, highly rural region, FAS occurs in 93-128 per 1000 children, PFAS in 58-86, and, ARND in 32-46 per 1000. Total FASD affect 182-259 per 1000 children or 18-26%. Conclusions: Very high rates of FASD exist in these rural areas and isolated towns where entrenched practices of regular binge drinking co-exist with challenging conditions for childbearing and child development. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Downs, C. J., J. L. Brown, Bernard W. M. Wone, E. R. Donovan, & J. P. Hayes. (2016). Speeding up Growth: Selection for Mass-Independent Maximal Metabolic Rate Alters Growth Rates. American Naturalist, 187(3), 295-307.

Investigations into relationships between life-history traits, such as growth rate and energy metabolism, typically focus on basal metabolic rate (BMR). In contrast, investigators rarely examine maximal metabolic rate (MMR) as a relevant metric of energy metabolism, even though it indicates the maximal capacity to metabolize energy aerobically, and hence it might also be important in trade-offs. We studied the relationship between energy metabolism and growth in mice (Mus musculus domesticus Linnaeus) selected for high mass-independent metabolic rates. Selection for high mass-independent MMR increased maximal growth rate, increased body mass at 20 weeks of age, and generally altered growth patterns in both male and female mice. In contrast, there was little evidence that the correlated response in mass-adjusted BMR altered growth patterns. The relationship between mass-adjusted MMR and growth rate indicates that MMR is an important mediator of life histories. Studies investigating associations between energy metabolism and life histories should consider MMR because it is potentially as important in understanding life history as BMR.

Biology Department.

Santosh, K. C. (2015). g-DICE: graph mining-based document information content exploitation. International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition, 18(4), 337-355.

In this paper, we present document information content (i.e. text fields) extraction technique via graph mining. Real-world users first provide a set of key text fields from the document image which they think are important. These fields are used to initialise a graph where nodes are labelled with the field names in addition to other features such as size, type and number of words, and edges are attributed with relative positioning between them. Such an attributed relational graph is then used to mine similar graphs from document images which are used to update the initial graph iteratively each time we extract them, to produce a graph model. Graph models, therefore, are employed in the absence of users. We have validated the proposed technique and evaluated its scientific impact on real-world industrial problem with the performance of 86.64% precision and 90.80% recall by considering all zones, viz. header, body and footer. More specifically, the proposed technique is well suited for table processing (i.e. extracting repeated patterns from the table) and it outperforms the state-of-the-art method by approximately more than 3%.

Computer Science Department.

Samra, Haifa, J. Dutcher, J. M. McGrath, M. Foster, L. Klein, G. Djira, . . . D. Wallenburg. (2015). Effect of Skin-to-Skin Holding on Stress in Mothers of Late-Preterm Infants A Randomized Controlled Trial. Advances in Neonatal Care, 15(5), 354-364.

Purpose: To examine the effect of skin-to-skin care (SSC) on stress perception between mothers who provided SSC to their late-preterm born infants and mothers who provided blanket holding. Design and Methods: This was a longitudinal 2-group randomized controlled trial of 40 infant-mother dyads recruited from a level 3 neonatal intensive care unit in the upper Midwest. Outcome Measure: Maternal stress was measured using the Parental Stressor : Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS : NICU) scale pre-and post-SSC intervention. Demographic and other mother and infant covariates were extracted from medical records. Physiologic stability was measured by the Stability of the Cardiorespiratory System in Preterm Infants (SCRIP) score. Study personnel used daily logs to track frequency and duration of SSC and holding sessions. Results: The intervention and the control groups had similar pre-(mean +/- standard deviation, 2.34 +/- 0.86 for SSC and 2.94 +/- 0.87 for holding) and post-intervention (mean +/- standard deviation, 2.55 +/- 0.95 for SSC and 2.78 +/- 0.90 for holding) overall stress scores. Hours of SSC holding positively correlated with the change in stress scores for the entire scale (r = 0.58; P =.001), and for infant appearance (r = 0.58; P =.001) and parent role alteration (r = 0.48; P =.02) subscales. This relationship remained significant after controlling for the infant’s length of stay and SCRIP score. Implications for Practice: Mothers who provide SSC may experience more stress related to a more facilitated progression in the mother and infant relationship. Implications for Research: The relationship between increased stress and the number of hours of SSC holding warrants further investigation.

School of Health Sciences.

Thada, Vaughn, Jake N. Miller, Attila D. Kovacs, & David A. Pearce. (2016). Tissue-specific variation in nonsense mutant transcript level and drug-induced read-through efficiency in the Cln1(R151X) mouse model of INCL. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 20(2), 381-385.

About 10% of inherited diseases are caused by nonsense mutations [Trends Mol Med 18 (2012) 688], and nonsense suppression drug therapy promoting translation through premature stop codons is an emerging therapeutic approach. Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL), a childhood neurodegenerative disease, results from mutations in the CLN1 gene encoding the lysosomal enzyme, palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1) [Biochim Biophys Acta 1832 (2013) 1806, Hum Mutat (2012) 63, Biochim Biophys Acta 1832 (2013) 1881]. The nonsense mutation p.R151X is the most common disease-causing CLN1 mutation Hum Mutat (2012) 63. In the novel Cln1(R151X) mouse model of INCL, we found large, tissue-specific variations in Cln1(R151X) mRNA level and PPT1 residual enzyme activity. These tissue-specific differences strongly influenced the read-through efficiency of ataluren (PTC124), a well-known nonsense suppression drug. A two-day treatment with ataluren (10 mg/kg) increased PPT1 enzyme activity in the liver and muscle, but not in any other tissue examined. Our study identifies a new challenge/hurdle for read-through drug therapy: variable efficiency of read-through therapy in the different tissues/organs because of tissue-specific variations in nonsense mutant transcript levels.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Kamble, P., H. Chen, M. L. Johnson, Vinod Bhatara, & R. R. Aparasu. (2015). Concurrent Use of Stimulants and Second-Generation Antipsychotics Among Children With ADHD Enrolled in Medicaid. Psychiatric Services, 66(4), 404-410.

Objective: This study examined the prevalence of and factors associated with concurrent use of long-acting stimulants (LAS) and second-generation antipsychotic agents among children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: The study involved retrospective longitudinal analysis of 2003-2007 Medicaid data from four states for children and adolescents between the ages of six and 17 years who were diagnosed as having ADHD and initiated LAS treatment. Concurrent use of LAS and second-generation antipsychotic medications was defined as simultaneous receipt of both medications for at least 14 days. On the basis of the conceptual framework of the Andersen behavioral model, multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with concurrent use. Results: Among the 61,793 children who initiated LAS treatment for ADHD, 11,866 (19.2%) received LAS and second-generation antipsychotics concurrently for at least 14 days. Overall, the average length of concurrent use was 130 +/- 98 days. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that concurrent use was higher among boys, blacks, and foster care children compared with their respective counterparts. Comorbid psychiatric conditions, including disorders that are not approved indications for second-generation antipsychotic use, were associated with concurrent use of LAS and second-generation antipsychotics. Conclusions: Almost one in five children and adolescents who initiated LAS also received second-generation antipsychotics concurrently for at least 14 days. Approved and nonapproved indications of second-generation antipsychotics influenced concurrent use in pediatric ADHD.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Allingham, Liesl. (2015). Gender and Narrative Crisis in Christoph Martin Wieland’s “Novella without a Title”. Eighteenth Century-Theory and Interpretation, 56(4), 427-444.

Languages, Linguistics and Philosophy Department.

Tsai, Tzong-Ru, Wen-Yun Sung, Y. L. Lio, Shing I. Chang, & Jye-Chyi Lu. (2016). Optimal Two-Variable Accelerated Degradation Test Plan for Gamma Degradation Processes. IEEE Transactions on Reliability, 65(1), 459-468.

An accelerated degradation test (ADT) can be used to assess the reliability of highly reliable products by using degradation information. In this study, to exhibit a monotone increasing pattern, the gamma process is used to model the degradation of a product subject to a constant-stress ADT of two loadings. Maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of the parameters of the ADT model were obtained. Given a budget for the total cost, an optimal ADT procedure was established to minimize the asymptotic variance of the MLE of the mean time to failure of a product, and the sample size and termination time of each run of the ADT at a constant measurement frequency were determined. An algorithm is provided to achieve an optimal ADT plan. An extensive Monte Carlo simulation was implemented to evaluate the sensitivity of the MLE variations to the sample size. A lumen degradation data set of light emitting diodes is presented to illustrate the proposed method.

Mathematics Department.

Hersrud, Samantha L., Ryan D. Geraets, K. L. Weber, C. H. Chan, & David A. Pearce. (2016). Plasma biomarkers for neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Febs Journal, 283(3), 459-471.

The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a group of neurodegenerative genetic diseases that primarily affect children and have no known cure. A unified clinical rating scale for the juvenile form of NCL has been developed, although it has not been validated in other subtypes and does not give a true measure of the pathophysiological changes occurring during disease progression. In the present study, we have identified candidate biomarkers in blood plasma of NCL disease using multiple proteomic approaches, with the aim of developing a panel of biomarkers that could serve as a metric for therapeutic response. Candidate biomarkers were identified as proteins with levels that significantly differed between patients and controls in both sample sets. The seven candidates identified have previously been associated with neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases. Multiplex immunoassay based testing was the most efficient and effective evaluation technique and could be employed on a broad scale to track patient response to treatment.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Wang, Keliang, Yuhe Cao, Xiaomin Wang, …., James D. Hoefelmeyer, & Qihua Fan. (2016). Rod-shape porous carbon derived from aniline modified lignin for symmetric supercapacitors. Journal of Power Sources, 307, 462-467.

Rod-shape porous carbon was prepared from aniline modified lignin via KOH activation and used as electrode materials for supercapacitors. The specific surface area, pore size and shape could be modulated by the carbonization temperature, which significantly affected the electrochemical performance. Unique rod-shape carbon with massive pores and a high BET surface area of 2265 m 2 g −1 were obtained at 700 °C in contrast to irregular morphology created at other carbonization temperatures. In 6 mol L −1 KOH electrolyte, a specific capacitance of 336 F g −1 , small resistance of 0.9 Ω and stable charge/discharge at current density of 1 A g −1 after 1, 000 cycles were achieved using rod-shape porous carbon as electrodes in an electrical double layer capacitor.

Chemistry Department.

Roh, Soonhee, Y. S. Lee, Y. Kim, S. Y. Park, & A. Chaudhuri. (2015). Gender Differences in the Roles of Religious Support and Social Network Support in Reducing Depressive Symptoms Among Older Korean Americans. Journal of Social Service Research, 41(4), 484-497.

This study examined gender differences in the interaction effects of religious support and social network support on depressive symptoms among older Korean Americans. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 85 Korean American women and 115 Korean American men aged 65 years or older living in New York City. A 2-step hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that the associations between religious support, social network support, and depressive symptoms were different for older Korean men and women. Among men, social network support was identified as a strong predictor for depressive symptoms. Conversely, religious support was identified as a predictor for depressive symptoms among women. The interaction between social network support and religious support was found to be statistically significant only for women. Additionally, the association of social networks with fewer depressive symptoms was stronger for women with high religious support. Our findings highlight the importance of gender differences in understanding psychological effects of social network support within a religious-cultural context and the need for geriatric practitioners to assess carefully the quality and types of social support systems. Further studies are needed to identify common and gender-specific risk/protective factors among older Korean Americans to develop gender-targeted preventions and interventions to improve their psychological well-being.

School of Health Sciences.

Raisanen, Samuel R., & Kathryn F. Birkeland. (2016). State appropriations and undergraduate borrowing: more debt, less money. Applied Economics Letters, 23(8), 566-570.

When state appropriations decrease, public universities respond by raising tuition. Students borrow more in response to both tuition increases and appropriation cuts. This article investigates the feedback of how borrowing and tuition influence state appropriations. Using a panel data set of 450 four-year public universities from 1999 to 2012, we employ three-stage least squares techniques to control for the endogeneity between state appropriations, tuition and student borrowing. There is evidence that state policy-makers respond to increases in university tuition and student borrowing by decreasing future appropriation levels. After controlling for the effect of appropriations on tuition and borrowing, a one-dollar increase in student borrowing reduces state appropriations per student by $0.06, and a one-dollar increase in tuition results in a decrease of $0.45 in state appropriations per student. When universities increase tuition for reasons other than a reduction in state appropriations, policy-makers respond with a significant cut in future appropriations which could signal an incentive strategy.

Beacom School of Business.

Sterczala, A. J., W. H. DuPont, Brent A. Comstock, S. D. Flanagan, T. K. Szivak, D. R. Hooper, . . . W. J. Kraemer. (2016). PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF NUCLEOTIDE SUPPLEMENTATION ON RESISTANCE EXERCISE STRESS IN MEN AND WOMEN. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(2), 569-578.

School of Education.

Ghimire, Niranjan, Brent L. Foss, Y. Y. Sun, & Ying Deng. (2016). Interactions among osteoblastic cells, Staphylococcus aureus, and chitosan-immobilized titanium implants in a postoperative coculture system: An in vitro study. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 104(3), 586-594.

Biomaterial-related infections (BRIs) have become a major challenge in the field of orthopedic implants. In this study, we delved into the problem of BRI and attempted to reduce the possibility of BRI incidence via surface modification of titanium (Ti) with chitosan (SA-CS-Ti). To comprehensively evaluate the anti-infection potential of SA-CS-Ti, we first constructed a postoperative infection (POI) model with varying concentrations of bacteria (10(2)CFU/sample and 10(4)CFU/sample) and a constant number of SaOS-2 cells (10(5)/sample). Then, we biologically characterized the interactions between the SaOS-2 cells, bacteria, and different Ti implants using the POI model. The results from the osteoblastic cell and bacterial attachment tests demonstrated that the SA-CS-Ti surfaces exhibit superior osteogenic behavior relative to other Ti surfaces studied while showing significant anti-infective activities in the POI model with a low infection ratio (bacteria: cell ratio of 0.001:1) 30min after infection. Additionally, the SA-CS-Ti surfaces showed significantly reduced (p<0.05) bacteria proliferation compared to the control Ti surfaces (UN-Ti), demonstrating their antifouling property. The significantly increased (p<0.05) sensitivity of Staphylococcus. aureus adhered to the SA-CS-Ti surfaces against cefazolin (1mg/L treatment) and gentamicin (10mg/L and 100mg/L treatment) in the coculture system augmented potential of SA-CS-Ti to be used as orthopedic implants. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 586-594, 2016.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

Dietzel, Ranae, Matt Liebman, …., Meghann Jarchow, & Sotirios Archontoulis. (2016). How efficiently do corn- and soybean-based cropping systems use water? A systems modeling analysis. Global Change Biology, 22(2), 666-681.

Agricultural systems are being challenged to decrease water use and increase production while climate becomes more variable and the world’s population grows. Low water use efficiency is traditionally characterized by high water use relative to low grain production and usually occurs under dry conditions. However, when a cropping system fails to take advantage of available water during wet conditions, this is also an inefficiency and is often detrimental to the environment. Here, we provide a systems-level definition of water use efficiency ( sWUE) that addresses both production and environmental quality goals through incorporating all major system water losses (evapotranspiration, drainage, and runoff). We extensively calibrated and tested the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator ( APSIM) using 6 years of continuous crop and soil measurements in corn- and soybean-based cropping systems in central Iowa, USA. We then used the model to determine water use, loss, and grain production in each system and calculated sWUE in years that experienced drought, flood, or historically average precipitation. Systems water use efficiency was found to be greatest during years with average precipitation. Simulation analysis using 28 years of historical precipitation data, plus the same dataset with ± 15% variation in daily precipitation, showed that in this region, 430 mm of seasonal (planting to harvesting) rainfall resulted in the optimum sWUE for corn, and 317 mm for soybean. Above these precipitation levels, the corn and soybean yields did not increase further, but the water loss from the system via runoff and drainage increased substantially, leading to a high likelihood of soil, nutrient, and pesticide movement from the field to waterways. As the Midwestern United States is predicted to experience more frequent drought and flood, inefficiency of cropping systems water use will also increase. This work provides a framework to concurrently evaluate production and environmental performance of cropping systems.

Biology Department.

Viboud, Cécile, Lone Simonsen, Rodrigo Fuentes, Jose Flores, Mark A. Miller, & Gerardo Chowell. (2016). Global Mortality Impact of the 1957-1959 Influenza Pandemic. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 213(5), 738-745.

<bold>Background: </bold>Quantitative estimates of the global burden of the 1957 influenza pandemic are lacking. Here we fill this gap by modeling historical mortality statistics.<bold>Methods: </bold>We used annual rates of age- and cause-specific deaths to estimate pandemic-related mortality in excess of background levels in 39 countries in Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, and the Americas. We modeled the relationship between excess mortality and development indicators to extrapolate the global burden of the pandemic.<bold>Results: </bold>The pandemic-associated excess respiratory mortality rate was 1.9/10 000 population (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.6 cases/10 000 population) on average during 1957-1959. Excess mortality rates varied 70-fold across countries; Europe and Latin America experienced the lowest and highest rates, respectively. Excess mortality was delayed by 1-2 years in 18 countries (46%). Increases in the mortality rate relative to baseline were greatest in school-aged children and young adults, with no evidence that elderly population was spared from excess mortality. Development indicators were moderate predictors of excess mortality, explaining 35%-77% of the variance. Overall, we attribute 1.1 million excess deaths (95% CI, .7 million-1.5 million excess deaths) globally to the 1957-1959 pandemic.<bold>Conclusions: </bold>The global mortality rate of the 1957-1959 influenza pandemic was moderate relative to that of the 1918 pandemic but was approximately 10-fold greater than that of the 2009 pandemic. The impact of the pandemic on mortality was delayed in several countries, pointing to a window of opportunity for vaccination in a future pandemic.

Mathematics Department.

Rasalingama, Shivatharsiny, & Ranjit T. Koodali. (2016). Visible-light driven oxygen evolution over CoTiO3 perovskites via a modified Pechini method: impact of humidity on their phase composition. Crystengcomm, 18(6), 868-871.

A set of CoTiO3 materials were synthesized using a modified Pechini method under different relative humidity conditions. Humidity alters the structural composition of the final materials via changing the coordination and/or oxidation state of the cobalt ion (Co2+) in the precursor solution. The amount of CoTiO3 present in the composite material was found to be the key factor for the variation in the amount of oxygen evolved.

Chemistry Department.

Ghosh, Suvankar, & O. Felix Offodile. (2016). A real options model of phased migration to cellular manufacturing. International Journal of Production Research, 54(3), 894-906.

The literature is replete with models that examine various aspects of cellular manufacturing (CM), such as optimisation of cell layouts. However, many firms may realise zero to marginal returns from CM. Given this uncertainty, the manager should first determine the value of CM to the firm before deploying it. Although traditional valuation models employing discounted cash flow analysis allow for uncertainty, they treat future investments as fixed when computing the investment’s present value. The real options (RO) logic of valuation allows the manager to exercise the option to invest in or abandon a project based on expected outcomes. Future investments are thus options. This paper presents an RO model for CM migration that addresses whether a firm should migrate to CM; and it prescribes thesequenceof cell deployment, which has not been addressed in the literature. Our model is also much more transparent and accessible to practitioners, with an accompanying software tool for prospective users. Finally, we use simulation extensively to discover the drivers of the optimal cell deployment sequence. Our results show that there is a complex interplay between net present value, speed of cellularisation, inter-cell learning and volatility in terms of their influence on the cell sequence.

Beacom School of Business.

Son, Jung Ho, Sem Raj Tamang, & James D. Hoefelmeyer. (2015). Crystal structure of bis(3-bromomesityl)(quinolin-1-ium-8-yl) boron(III) tribromide. Acta Crystallographica Section E-Crystallographic Communications, 71, 1114-+.

The title compound, C27H26.82BBr2.18N+center dot Br-3(-), is a cationic triarylborane isolated as its tribromide salt. The aryl substituents include a protonated 8-quinolyl group and two 3-bromomesityl groups. The molecule was prepared on combination of 3: 1 Br-2 and dimesityl(quinolin-8-yl) borane in hexanes. The refinement of the structure indicated a degree of ‘over-bromination’ (beyond two bromine atoms) for the cation. There are two tribromide ions in the asymmetric unit, both completed by crystallographic inversion symmetry.

Chemistry Department.

Miller, Ross A., D. R. Mody, Kimberly C. Tams, & M. J. Thrall. (2015). Glandular Lesions of the Cervix in Clinical Practice A Cytology, Histology, and Human Papillomavirus Correlation Study From 2 Institutions. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 139(11), 1431-1436.

Context.-The Papanicolaou (Pap) test has indisputably decreased cervical cancer mortality, as rates have declined by up to 80% in the United States since its implementation. However, the Pap test is considered less sensitive for detecting glandular lesions than for detecting those of squamous origin. Some studies have even suggested an increasing incidence of cervical adenocarcinoma, which may be a consequence of a relatively reduced ability to detect glandular lesions with cervical cancer screening techniques. Objective.-To evaluate the detection rate of glandular lesions with screening techniques currently used for cervical cancer screening and to provide insight as to which techniques are most efficacious in our study population. Design.-We retrospectively reviewed any available cytology, human papillomavirus (HPV), and histologic malignancy data in patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma in situ and adenocarcinoma from 2 geographically and socioeconomically disparate hospital systems. Identified patients having had a negative/unsatisfactory Pap test within 5 years of adenocarcinoma in situ or adenocarcinoma tissue diagnosis were considered Pap test screening failures. Patients with negative HPV tests on cytology samples were considered HPV screening failures. Results.-One hundred thirty cases were identified (age range, 22-93 years); 39 (30%) had no Pap history in our files. Eight of 91 remaining cases (8.8%) were screening failures. The detected sensitivity for identifying adenocarcinoma in situ/adenocarcinoma in this study was 91.2% by cytology alone and 92.3% when incorporating HPV testing. The most common cytologic diagnosis was atypical glandular cells (25 cases), and those diagnosed with adenocarcinoma were 7.4 years older than those diagnosed with adenocarcinoma in situ (50.3 versus 42.9 years). Nine of 24 HPV-tested cases (37.5%) were called atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance on cytology. Conclusions.-Our results highlight the importance of combined Pap and HPV cotesting. Although the number of cases identified is relatively small, our data suggest screening for squamous lesions facilitates the recognition of glandular lesions in the cervix. Additionally, increased use of combined Pap and HPV cotesting may decrease detection failure rates with regard to glandular lesions.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Xu, Tao, J. M. Miszuk, Yong Zhao, H. L. Sun, & Hao Fong. (2015). Electrospun Polycaprolactone 3D Nanofibrous Scaffold with Interconnected and Hierarchically Structured Pores for Bone Tissue Engineering. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 4(15), 2238-2246.

For the first time, electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) 3D nanofibrous scaffold has been developed by an innovative and convenient approach (i.e., thermally induced nanofiber self-agglomeration followed by freeze drying), and the scaffold possesses interconnected and hierarchically structured pores including macropores with sizes up to approximate to 300 mu m. The novel PCL 3D scaffold is soft and elastic with very high porosity of approximate to 96.4%, thus it is morphologically/structurally similar to natural extracellular matrix and well suited for cell functions and tissue formation. The in vitro studies reveal that the scaffold can lead to high cell viability; more importantly, it is able to promote more potent BMP2-induced chondrogenic than osteogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Consistent to the in vitro findings, the in vivo results indicate that the electrospun PCL 3D scaffold acts as a favorable synthetic extracellular matrix for functional bone regeneration through the physiological endochondral ossification process.

Biomedical Engineering Department, Sioux Falls Campus.

Gawecka, J. E., S. Boaz, K. Kasperson, H. Nguyen, Donald P. Evenson, & W. S. Ward. (2015). Luminal fluid of epididymis and vas deferens contributes to sperm chromatin fragmentation. Human Reproduction, 30(12), 2725-2736.

STUDY QUESTION: Do the luminal fluids of the epididymis and the vas deferens contribute to sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF) in mice? SUMMARY ANSWER: The luminal fluids of both organs are required for activating SCF in mice, but the vas deferens luminal fluid does this more efficiently than that of the epididymis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Mice sperm have the ability to degrade their DNA in an apoptotic-like fashion when treated with divalent cations in a process termed SCF. SCF has two steps: the induction of reversible double-strand DNA breaks at the nuclear matrix attachment sites, followed by the irreversible degradation of DNA by nuclease. Single stranded DNA breaks accompany SCF. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Luminal fluids from two reproductive organs of the mouse (B6D2F1 strain), the epididymis and vas deferens, were extracted and tested for SCF activation with divalent cations using four different combinations of the sperm and the surrounding luminal fluids: (i) in situ-sperm were kept in their luminal fluid and activated directly; (ii) reconstituted-sperm were centrifuged and resuspended in their luminal fluid before SCF activation; (iii) mixed-sperm were centrifuged and resuspended in the luminal fluid of the other organ; (iv) no luminal fluid-sperm were centrifuged and reconstituted in buffer. All four experiments were performed without (controls) and with divalent cations (resulting in SCF). For each experimental condition, two different mice were used and the analyses averaged. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: DNA damage by SCF was analyzed by three different methods, the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis and field inversion gel electrophoresis. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: In all three assays that we used, the vas deferens luminal fluid was much more efficient in stimulating SCF in the sperm from either source than that of the epididymis (P < 0.0001). Vas deferens sperm were capable of initiating lower levels of SCF in the absence of luminal fluid (P < 0.0001). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Analyses were performed in only one species, the mouse, but we used three separate assays in our analysis. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The data suggest that the luminal fluid of the male reproductive tract interacts with sperm during their transit providing a mechanism to degrade the DNA. We hypothesize that this is part of an apoptotic-like mechanism that allows the reproductive tract to eliminate defective sperm. The SCF model also allowed us to identify differences in the types of DNA lesions that the three tests can identify, providing important background information for the use of these tests clinically.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Huang, H. B., Y. N. Liao, N. N. Liu, …., Xuejun Wang, & J. B. Liu. (2016). Two clinical drugs deubiquitinase inhibitor auranofin and aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor disulfiram trigger synergistic anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo. Oncotarget, 7(3), 2796-2808.

Inhibition of proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (DUBs) is emerging as a novel strategy for cancer therapy. It was recently reported that auranofin (Aur), a gold (I)-containing compound used clinically to treat rheumatoid arthritis, is a proteasome-associated DUB inhibitor. Disulfiram (DSF), an inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase, is currently in clinical use for treating alcoholism. Recent studies have indicated that DSF can also act as an antitumor agent. We investigated the effect of combining DSF and Aur on apoptosis induction and tumor growth in hepatoma cancer cells. Here we report that (i) the combined treatment of Aur and DSF results in synergistic cytotoxicity to hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo; (ii) Aur and DSF in combination induces caspase activation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; (iii) pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK could efficiently block apoptosis but not proteasome inhibition induced by Aur and DSF combined treatment, and ROS is not required for Aur+DSF to induce apoptosis. Collectively, we demonstrate a model of synergism between DSF and proteasomeassociated DUB inhibitor Aur in the induction of apoptosis in hepatoma cancer cells, identifying a potential novel anticancer strategy for clinical use in the future.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Han, Yulun, Qingguo Meng, Bakhtiyor Rasulev, P. Stanley May, Mary T. Berry, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2015). Photofragmentation of the Gas-Phase Lanthanum Isopropylcyclopentadienyl Complex: Computational Modeling vs Experiment. Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 119(44), 10838-10848.

Photofragmentation of the lanthanum isopropylcyclopentadienyl complex, La(iCp), was explored through time-dependent excited-state molecular dynamics (TDESMD), excited-state molecular dynamics (ESMD), and thermal molecular dynamics (MD). Simulated mass spectra were extracted from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations through a new and simple method and compared to experimental photoionization time-of-flight (PI-TOF) mass spectra. The computational results indicate that the value of excitation energy and mechanism of excitation determine the dissociation process.

Chemistry Department.

Alaparthi, Madhubabu, Kadarkaraisamy Mariappan, E. Dufek, Mariah Hoffman, & Andrew G. Sykes. (2016). A new detection mechanism involving keto-enol tautomerization: selective fluorescence detection of Al(III) by dehydration of secondary alcohols in mixed DMSO/aqueous media. Rsc Advances, 6(14), 11295-11302.

A newmechanismfor the fluorescence detection of metal cations in solution is introduced involving a unique keto-enol tautomerization. Reduction of 1,8-anthraquinone-18-crown-5 yields the doubly reduced secondary alcohol, 2. Compound 2 acts as a chemodosimeter for Al(III) ions producing a strong blue emission due to the formation of the anthracene fluorophore, 3, via dehydration of the internal secondary alcohol in DMSO/aqueous solution. The enol form is not the most thermodynamically stable form under these conditions however and slowly converts to the keto form 4. Reduction of 1 with Fe/AcOH or the reaction of 2 with HCl directly yields compound 4, the keto tautomer of 3, which also produces the same blue emission in more polar solvents. Competition studies reveal that compound 2 produces a blue emission exclusively in the presence of the strong Lewis acidic Al(III) ion and at relatively low pH.

Chemistry Department.

Tamang, Sem Raj, & James D. Hoefelmeyer. (2015). Chloro({2- mesityl(quinolin-8-yl-kappa N)boryl -3,5-dimethyl-phenyl}methyl-kappa C)palladium(II) as a Catalyst for Heck Reactions. Molecules, 20(7), 12979-12991.

We recently reported an air and moisture stable 16-electron borapalladacycle formed upon combination of 8-quinolyldimesitylborane with bis(benzonitrile) dichloropalladium(II). The complex features a tucked mesityl group formed upon metalation of an ortho-methyl group on a mesityl; however it is unusually stable due to contribution of the boron p(z) orbital in delocalizing the carbanion that gives rise to an eta(4)-boratabutadiene fragment coordinated to Pd(II), as evidenced from crystallographic data. This complex was observed to be a highly active catalyst for the Heck reaction. Data of the catalyst activity are presented alongside data found in the literature, and initial comparison reveals that the borapalladacycle is quite active. The observed catalysis suggests the borapalladacycle readily undergoes reductive elimination; however the Pd(0) complex has not yet been isolated. Nevertheless, the ambiphilic ligand 8-quinolyldimesitylborane may be able to support palladium in different redox states.

Chemistry Department.

Onserio, Bernard O., Sem Raj Tamang, & James D. Hoefelmeyer. (2015). Crystal structure of 8-iodoquinolinium tetrachloridoaurate(III). Acta Crystallographica Section E-Crystallographic Communications, 71, M261-+.

The structure of the title salt, (C9H7IN)[AuCl4], is comprised of planar 8-iodoquinolinium cations (r.m.s. deviation = 0.05 angstrom) and square -planar tetrachloridoaurate(III) anions. The asymmetric unit contains one 8-iodoquinolinium cation and two halfs of [AuCl4](-) anions, in each case with the central Au-III atom located on an inversion center. Intermolecular halogen-halogen contacts were found between centrosymmetric pairs of I [3.6178 (4) angstrom] and Cl atoms [3.1484 (11), 3.3762 (13), and 3.4935 (12) angstrom]. Intermolecular N-H center dot center dot center dot Cl and C-H center dot center dot center dot Cl hydrogen bonding is also found in the structure. These interactions lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network. Additionally, there is an intramolecular N-H center dot center dot center dot I hydrogen bond between the aromatic iminium and iodine. There are no aurophilic interactions or short contacts between I and Au atoms, and there are no notable pi-stacking interactions between the aromatic cations.

Chemistry Department.

Maisto, S. A., & Jeffrey S. Simons. (2016). Research on the Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Arousal on Sexual Risk in Men who have Sex with Men: Implications for HIV Prevention Interventions. Aids and Behavior, 20, S158-S172.

The purpose of this paper was to describe and appraise the research evidence on the effects of acute alcohol intoxication and sexual arousal on sexual risk behaviors in men who have sex with men (MSM) and to examine its implications for design of HIV prevention interventions that target MSM. Toward that end, the paper begins with a discussion of research on sexual arousal in men and alcohol and their acute effects on sexual behaviors. This is followed by a review of empirical evidence on the combined acute effects of alcohol and sexual arousal in heterosexual men (the large majority of studies) and then in MSM. The empirical evidence and related theoretical developments then are integrated to derive implications for developing effective HIV prevention interventions that target MSM.

Psychology Department.

Hofman, Nicole L., Austin M. Hahn, Christine K. Tirabassi, & Raluca M. Gaher. (2016). Social support, emotional intelligence, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: A mediation analysis. Journal of Individual Differences, 37(1), 31-39.

Exposure to traumatic events and the associated risk of developing Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms is a significant and overlooked concern in the college population. It is important for current research to identify potential protective factors associated with the development and maintenance of PTSD symptoms unique to this population. Emotional intelligence and perceived social support are two identified protective factors that influence the association between exposure to traumatic events and PTSD symptomology. The current study examined the mediating role of social support in the relationship between emotional intelligence and PTSD symptoms. Participants included 443 trauma-exposed university students who completed online questionnaires. The results of this study indicated that social support mediates the relationship between emotional intelligence and reported PTSD symptoms. Thus, emotional intelligence is significantly associated with PTSD symptoms and social support may play an integral role in the relationship between emotional intelligence and PTSD. The current study is the first to investigate the role of social support in the relationship between emotional intelligence and PTSD symptoms. These findings have important treatment and prevention implications with regard to PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Messler, Erick C., Aaron A. Lee, Randal P. Quevillon, & Raluca M. Simons. (2016). Parents do matter, but why? Examining two mediators of the association between parental approval and negative consequences of alcohol use. Journal of Substance Use, 21(2), 179-184.

College student drinking is a public health concern with potentially serious consequences. A growing body of literature indicates perceived parental approval of alcohol use is associated with drinking outcomes in college populations, and that parent-based interventions may be a viable way to reduce alcohol use on campus. However, researchers have not yet identified the mechanism responsible for this relationship. In this study, a path model was used to look at the relationship between perceived parental approval of drinking and negative consequences of alcohol use among undergraduate students (N = 632) via two mechanisms: perceived friends’ approval of drinking and perceived parental monitoring. The path model specified in this study indicated that perceived parental approval of drinking is associated with negative consequences of alcohol use, and that this effect is not fully attributed to perceived parental monitoring, injunctive norms of friends, gender or weekly alcohol consumption. As hypothesized, perceived friends’ approval of drinking partially mediated the relationship between perceived parental approval of drinking and negative consequences of alcohol use. Contrary to hypothesis, the path model did not provide support to the mediating role of perceived parental monitoring. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Roh, Soonhee, Youseung Kim, Kyoung Hag Lee, Yeon-Shim Lee, Catherine E. Burnette, & Michael J. Lawler. (2015). Religion, social support, and life satisfaction among American Indian older adults. Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought, 34(4), 414-434.

This study examined the associations among religion, social support, and life satisfaction with 233 older American Indians in the Northern Plains region. Hierarchical regression indicated that those with higher religiousness and greater social support were found to have greater life satisfaction. Findings suggest that religion and social support provide promising pathways to build upon existing strengths to ameliorate mental health disparities. Health professionals must be sensitive to the complexities of religion and social support, and consider ways to incorporate cultural practices into health education and interventions to promote the quality of life for older American Indians. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

School of Health Sciences.

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