Posted by: reganenosusd | January 13, 2016

December 2015

Abdullah, Ammara, Sane, Sanam, Freeling, Jessica L., Wang, Hongmin, Zhang, Dong, & Rezvani, Khosrow. (2015). Nucleocytoplasmic Translocation of UBXN2A Is Required for Apoptosis during DNA Damage Stresses in Colon Cancer Cells. Journal of Cancer, 6(11), 1066-1078.

The subcellular localization, expression level, and activity of anti-cancer proteins alter in response to intrinsic and extrinsic cellular stresses to reverse tumor progression. The purpose of this study is to determine whether UBXN2A, an activator of the p53 tumor suppressor protein, has different subcellular compartmentalization in response to the stress of DNA damage. We measured trafficking of the UBXN2A protein in response to two different DNA damage stresses, UVB irradiation and the genotoxic agent Etoposide, in colon cancer cell lines. Using a cytosol-nuclear fractionation technique followed by western blot and immunofluorescence staining, we monitored and quantitated UBXN2A and p53 proteins as well as p53’s downstream apoptotic pathway. We showed that the anti-cancer protein UBXN2A acts in the early phase of cell response to two different DNA damage stresses, being induced to translocate into the cytoplasm in a dose-and time-dependent manner. UVB-induced cytoplasmic UBXN2A binds to mortalin-2 (mot-2), a known oncoprotein in colon tumors. UVB-dependent upregulation of UBXN2A in the cytoplasm decreases p53 binding to mot-2 and activates apoptotic events in colon cancer cells. In contrast, the shRNA-mediated depletion of UBXN2A leads to significant reduction in apoptosis in colon cancer cells exposed to UVB and Etoposide. Leptomycin B (LMB), which was able to block UBXN2A nuclear export following Etoposide treatment, sustained p53-mot-2 interaction and had partially antagonistic effects with Etoposide on cell apoptosis. The present study shows that nucleocytoplasmic translocation of UBXN2A in response to stresses is necessary for its anti-cancer function in the cytoplasm. In addition, LMB-dependent suppression of UBXN2A’s translocation to the cytoplasm upon stress allows the presence of an active mot-2 oncoprotein in the cytoplasm, resulting in p53 sequestration as well as activation of other mot-2-dependent growth promoting pathways.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Barr, J. L., Rasmussen, B. A., Tallarida, C. S., Scholl, Jamie L., Forster, Gina L., Unterwald, E. M., & Rawls, S. M. (2015). Ceftriaxone attenuates acute cocaine-evoked dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens of the rat. British Journal of Pharmacology, 172(22), 5414-5424.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Ceftriaxone is a beta-lactam antibiotic and glutamate transporter activator that reduces the reinforcing effects of psychostimulants. Ceftriaxone also reduces locomotor activation following acute psychostimulant exposure, suggesting that alterations in dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens contribute to its mechanism of action. In the present studies we tested the hypothesis that pretreatment with ceftriaxone disrupts acute cocaine-evoked dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with saline or ceftriaxone (200 mg kg(-1), i.p. x 10 days) and then challenged with cocaine (15 mg kg(-1), i.p.). Motor activity, dopamine efflux (via in vivo microdialysis) and protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the dopamine transporter and organic cation transporter as well as alpha-synuclein, Akt and GSK3 beta were analysed in the nucleus accumbens. KEY RESULTS Ceftriaxone-pretreated rats challenged with cocaine displayed reduced locomotor activity and accumbal dopamine efflux compared with saline-pretreated controls challenged with cocaine. The reduction in cocaine-evoked dopamine levels was not counteracted by excitatory amino acid transporter 2 blockade in the nucleus accumbens. Pretreatment with ceftriaxone increased Akt/GSK3 beta signalling in the nucleus accumbens and reduced levels of dopamine transporter, TH and phosphorylated a-synuclein, indicating that ceftriaxone affects numerous proteins involved in dopaminergic transmission. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results are the first evidence that ceftriaxone affects cocaine-evoked dopaminergic transmission, in addition to its well-described effects on glutamate, and suggest that its ability to attenuate cocaine-induced behaviours, such as psychomotor activity, is due in part to reduced dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Mardones, Wladimir, Callegari, Eduardo, & Eyzaguirre, Jaime. (2015). Heterologous expression of a Penicillium purpurogenum exo-arabinanase in Pichia pastoris and its biochemical characterization. Fungal Biology, 119(12), 1267-1278.

Arabinan is a component of pectin, which is one of the polysaccharides present in lignocelluose. The enzymes degrading the main chain of arabinan are the endo- (EC 3.2.1.99) and exo-arabinanases (3.2.1.-). Only three exo-arabinanases have been biochemically characterized; they belong to glycosyl hydrolase family 93. In this work, the cDNA of an exo-arabinanase (Arap2) from Penicillium purpurogenum has been heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. The gene is 1310 bp long, has three introns and codes for a protein of 380 amino acid residues; the mature protein has a calculated molecular mass of 39 823 Da. The heterologously expressed Arap2 has a molecular mass in the range of 60–80 kDa due to heterogeneous glycosylation. The enzyme is active on debranched arabinan with optimum pH of 4–5.5 and optimal temperature of 40 °C, and has an exo-type action mode, releasing arabinobiose from its substrates. The expression profile of arap2 in corncob and sugar beet pulp follows a different pattern and is not related to the presence of arabinan. This is the first exo-arabinanase studied from P. purpurogenum and the first expressed in yeast. The availability of heterologous Arap2 may be useful for biotechnological applications requiring acidic conditions.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Ouellette, Scot P., Rueden, Kelsey J., AbdelRahman, Y. M., Cox, J. V., & Belland, R. J. (2015). Identification and Partial Characterization of Potential FtsL and FtsQ Homologs of Chlamydia. Frontiers in Microbiology, 6.

Chlamydia is amongst the rare bacteria that lack the critical cell division protein FtsZ. By annotation, Chlamydia also lacks several other essential cell division proteins including the FtsLBQ complex that links the early (e.g., FtsZ) and late (e.g., Ftsl/Pbp3) components of the division machinery. Here, we report chlamydial FtsL and FtsQ homologs. Ct271 aligned well with Escherichia coli FtsL and shared sequence homology with it, including a predicted leucine-zipper like motif. Based on in silico modeling, we show that Ct764 has structural homology to FtsQ in spite of little sequence similarity. Importantly, ct271/ftsL and ct764/ftsQ are present within all sequenced chlamydial genomes and are expressed during the replicative phase of the chlamydial developmental cycle, two key characteristics for a chlamydial cell division gene. GFP-Ct764 localized to the division septum of dividing transformed chlamydiae, and, importantly, over-expression inhibited chlamydial development. Using a bacterial two-hybrid approach, we show that Ct764 interacted with other components of the chlamydial division apparatus. However, Ct764 was not capable of complementing an E. coli FtsQ depletion strain in spite of its ability to interact with many of the same division proteins as E. coli FtsQ, suggesting that chlamydial FtsQ may function differently. We previously proposed that Chlamydia uses MreB and other rod-shape determining proteins as an alternative system for organizing the division site and its apparatus. Chlamydial FtsL and FtsQ homologs expand the number of identified chlamydial cell division proteins and suggest that Chlamydia has likely kept the late components of the division machinery while substituting the Mre system for the early components.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Qin, Q. Y., Qu, C., Niu, T., Zang, H. M., Qi, L., Lyu, L. M., Wang, Xuejun, Nagarkatti, M., Nagarkatti, P., Janicki, J. S., Wang, X. L., & Cui, T. X. (2016). Nrf2-Mediated Cardiac Maladaptive Remodeling and Dysfunction in a Setting of Autophagy Insufficiency. Hypertension, 67(1), 107-117.

Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) appears to exert either a protective or detrimental effect on the heart; however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Herein, we uncovered a novel mechanism for turning off the Nrf2-mediated cardioprotection and switching on Nrf2-mediated cardiac dysfunction. In a murine model of pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling and dysfunction via transverse aortic arch constriction, knockout of Nrf2 enhanced myocardial necrosis and death rate during an initial stage of cardiac adaptation when myocardial autophagy function is intact. However, knockout of Nrf2 turned out to be cardioprotective throughout the later stage of cardiac maladaptive remodeling when myocardial autophagy function became insufficient. Transverse aortic arch constriction -induced activation of Nrf2 was dramatically enhanced in the heart with impaired autophagy, which is induced by cardiomyocyte-specific knockout of autophagy-related gene (Atg)5. Notably, Nrf2 activation coincided with the upregulation of angiotensinogen (Agt) only in the autophagy-impaired heart after transverse aortic arch constriction. Agt5 and Nrf2 gene loss-of-function approaches in combination with Jak2 and Fyn kinase inhibitors revealed that suppression of autophagy inactivated Jak2 and Fyn and nuclear translocation of Fyn, while enhancing nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and Nrf2-driven Agt expression in cardiomyocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that the pathophysiological consequences of Nrf2 activation are closely linked with the functional integrity of myocardial autophagy during cardiac remodeling. When autophagy is intact, Nrf2 is required for cardiac adaptive responses; however, autophagy impairment most likely turns off Fyn-operated Nrf2 nuclear export thus activating Nrf2-driven Agt transcription, which exacerbates cardiac maladaptation leading to dysfunction.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Smith, Justin P., Prince, Melissa A., Achua, Justin K., Robertson, James M., Anderson, Raymond T., Ronan, Patrick J., & Summers, Cliff H. (2016). Intensity of anxiety is modified via complex integrative stress circuitries. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 63, 351-361.

Escalation of anxious behavior while environmentally and socially relevant contextual events amplify the intensity of emotional response produces a testable gradient of anxiety shaped by integrative circuitries. Apprehension of the Stress-Alternatives Model apparatus (SAM) oval open field (OF) is measured by the active latency to escape, and is delayed by unfamiliarity with the passageway. Familiar OF escape is the least anxious behavior along the continuum, which can be reduced by anxiolytics such as icv neuropeptide S (NPS). Social aggression increases anxiousness in the SAM, reducing the number of mice willing to escape by 50%. The apprehension accompanying escape during social aggression is diminished by anxiolytics, such as exercise and corticotropin releasing-factor receptor 1 (CRF 1 ) antagonism, but exacerbated by anxiogenic treatment, like antagonism of α 2 -adrenoreceptors. What is more, the anxiolytic CRF 1 and anxiogenic α 2 -adrenoreceptor antagonists also modify behavioral phenotypes, with CRF 1 antagonism allowing escape by previously submissive animals, and α 2 -adrenoreceptor antagonism hindering escape in mice that previously engaged in it. Gene expression of NPS and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the central amygdala (CeA), as well as corticosterone secretion, increased concomitantly with the escalating anxious content of the mouse-specific anxiety continuum. The general trend of CeA NPS and BDNF expression suggested that NPS production was promoted by increasing anxiousness, and that BDNF synthesis was associated with learning about ever-more anxious conditions. The intensity gradient for anxious behavior resulting from varying contextual conditions may yield an improved conceptualization of the complexity of mechanisms producing the natural continuum of human anxious conditions, and potential therapies that arise therefrom.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Hargreaves Heap, Shaun P., Ramalingam, Abhijit, Ramalingam, Siddharth, & Stoddard, Brock V. (2015). ‘Doggedness’ or ‘disengagement’? An experiment on the effect of inequality in endowment on behaviour in team competitions. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 120, 80-93.

Teams often suffer from a free rider problem with respect to individual contributions. That putting teams into competition with each other can mitigate this problem is an important recent insight. However, we know little about how inequality in endowment between teams might influence this beneficial effect from competition. We address this question with an experiment where teams contribute to a public good that then determines their chances of winning a Tullock contest with another team. The boost to efforts from competition disappears when inequality is high. This is mainly because the ‘rich’ ‘disengage’: they make no more contribution to a public good than they would when there is no competition. There is evidence that the ‘poor’ respond to moderate inequality ‘doggedly’, by expending more effort compared to competition with equality, but this ‘doggedness’ disappears too when inequality is high.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Vijayalakshmi, Akshaya, Muehling, Darrel D., & Laczniak, Russell N. (2015). An Investigation of Consumers’ Responses to Comparative “Attack” Ads. Journal of Promotion Management, 21(6), 760-775.

The current study contributes to the ever-expanding literature pertaining to comparative advertising by focusing specifically on comparative “attack” ads. Using the persuasion resistance process as a theoretical foundation, our findings indicate that users committed to the comparative referent are much more likely to resist persuasive attempts than are less-committed users, and hold brand attitudes with greater confidence. However, commitment of the consumers to the comparative referent has little impact on their reactions to positively- versus negatively-framed comparative ads. This pattern of effects was observed in both immediate and delayed (two-week) ad exposure conditions.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Daigh, A. L. M., Zhou, X. B., Helmers, M. J., Pederson, C. H., Horton, R., Jarchow, Meghann, & Liebman, M. (2015). Subsurface Drainage Nitrate and Total Reactive Phosphorus Losses in Bioenergy-Based Prairies and Corn Systems. Journal of Environmental Quality, 44(5), 1638-1646.

We compare subsurface-drainage NO3-N and total reactive phosphorus (TRP) concentrations and yields of select bioenergy cropping systems and their rotational phases. Cropping systems evaluated were grain-harvested corn-soybean rotations, grain- and stover-harvested continuous corn systems with and without a cover crop, and annually harvested reconstructed prairies with and without the addition of N fertilizer in an Iowa field. Drainage was monitored when soils were unfrozen during 2010 through 2013. The corn-soybean rotations without residue removal and continuous corn with residue removal produced similar mean annual flow-weighted NO3-N concentrations, ranging from 6 to 18.5 mg N L-1 during the 4-yr study. In contrast, continuous corn with residue removal and with a cover crop had significantly lower NO3-N concentrations of 5.6 mg N L-1 when mean annual flow-weighted values were averaged across the 4 yr. Prairies systems with or without N fertilization produced significantly lower concentrations below <1 mg NO3-N L-1 than all the row crop systems throughout the study. Mean annual flow-weighted TRP concentrations and annual yields were generally low, with values <0.04 mg TRP L-1 and <0.14 kg TRP ha(-1), and were not significantly affected by any cropping systems or their rotational phases. Bioenergy-based prairies with or without N fertilization and continuous corn with stover removal and a cover crop have the potential to supply bioenergy feedstocks while minimizing NO3-N losses to drainage waters. However, subsurface drainage TRP concentrations and yields in bioenergy systems will need further evaluation in areas prone to higher levels of P losses.

Biology Department.

 

Thessen, A. E., Bunkers, D. E., Buttigieg, P. L., Cooper, L. D., Dahdul, Wasila M., Domisch, S., Franz, N. M., Jaiswal, P., Lawrence-Dill, C. J., Midford, P. E., Mungall, C. J., Ramirez, M. J., Specht, C. D., Vogt, L., Vos, R. A., Walls, R. L., White, J. W., Zhang, G. Y., Deans, A. R., Huala, E., Lewis, S. E., & Mabee, P. M. (2015). Emerging semantics to link phenotype and environment. Peerj, 3.

Understanding the interplay between environmental conditions and phenotypes is a fundamental goal of biology. Unfortunately, data that include observations on phenotype and environment are highly heterogeneous and thus difficult to find and integrate. One approach that is likely to improve the status quo involves the use of ontologies to standardize and link data about phenotypes and environments. Specifying and linking data through ontologies will allow researchers to increase the scope and flexibility of large-scale analyses aided by modern computing methods. Investments in this area would advance diverse fields such as ecology, phylogenetics, and conservation biology. While several biological ontologies are well-developed, using them to link phenotypes and environments is rare because of gaps in ontological coverage and limits to interoperability among ontologies and disciplines. In this manuscript, we present (1) use cases from diverse disciplines to illustrate questions that could be answered more efficiently using a robust linkage between phenotypes and environments, (2) two proof-of-concept analyses that show the value of linking phenotypes to environments in fishes and amphibians, and (3) two proposed example data models for linking phenotypes and environments using the extensible observation ontology (OBOE) and the Biological Collections Ontology (BCO); these provide a starting point for the development of a data model linking phenotypes and environments.

Biology Department.

 

Waters, R. Parrish, Rivalan, Marion, Bangasser, D. A., …., & Summers, Cliff H. (2015). Evidence for the role of corticotropin-releasing factor in major depressive disorder. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 58, 63-78.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a devastating disease affecting over 300 million people worldwide, and costing an estimated 380 billion Euros in lost productivity and health care in the European Union alone. Although a wealth of research has been directed toward understanding and treating MDD, still no therapy has proved to be consistently and reliably effective in interrupting the symptoms of this disease. Recent clinical and preclinical studies, using genetic screening and transgenic rodents, respectively, suggest a major role of the CRF 1 gene, and the central expression of CRF 1 receptor protein in determining an individual’s risk of developing MDD. This gene is widely expressed in brain tissue, and regulates an organism’s immediate and long-term responses to social and environmental stressors, which are primary contributors to MDD. This review presents the current state of knowledge on CRF physiology, and how it may influence the occurrence of symptoms associated with MDD. Additionally, this review presents findings from multiple laboratories that were presented as part of a symposium on this topic at the annual 2014 meeting of the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society (IBNS). The ideas and data presented in this review demonstrate the great progress that has been made over the past few decades in our understanding of MDD, and provide a pathway forward toward developing novel treatments and detection methods for this disorder.

Biology Department.

 

Zhang, Yufeng, Carter, Travis, Eyster, Kathleen, & Swanson, David L. (2015). Acute cold and exercise training up-regulate similar aspects of fatty acid transport and catabolism in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Journal of Experimental Biology, 218(24), 3885-3893.

Summit maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate (Msum) and maximum exercise metabolic rate (MMR) both increase in response to acute cold or exercise training in birds. Because lipids are the main fuel supporting both thermogenesis and exercise in birds, adjustments to lipid transport and catabolic capacities may support elevated energy demands from cold and exercise training. To examine a potential mechanistic role for lipid transport and catabolism in organismal cross-training effects (exercise effects on both exercise and thermogenesis, and vice versa), we measured enzyme activities and mRNA and protein expression in pectoralis muscle for several key steps of lipid transport and catabolism pathways in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) during acute exercise and cold training. Both training protocols elevated pectoralis protein levels of fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), cytosolic fatty acid-binding protein, and citrate synthase (CS) activity. However, mRNA expression of FAT/CD36 and both mRNA and protein expression of plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein did not change for either training group. CS activities in supracoracoideus, leg and heart, and carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) and β-hydroxyacyl CoA-dehydrogenase activities in all muscles did not vary significantly with either training protocol. Both Msum and MMR were significantly positively correlated with CPT and CS activities. These data suggest that up-regulation of trans-sarcolemmal and intramyocyte lipid transport capacities and cellular metabolic intensities, along with previously documented increases in body and pectoralis muscle masses and pectoralis myostatin (a muscle growth inhibitor) levels, are common mechanisms underlying the training effects of both exercise and shivering in birds.

Biology Department.

 

Baride, A., Meruga, J. M., Douma, C., Langerman, D., Crawford, G., Kellar, J. J., Cross, W. M., & May, P. Stanley. (2015). A NIR-to-NIR upconversion luminescence system for security printing applications. Rsc Advances, 5(123), 101338-101346.

A covert print-and-read system is demonstrated based on NIR-to-NIR upconversion luminescence. Inks activated with Yb3+/Tm3+ doped beta-NaYF4 upconversion nanoparticles were used to print covert features on various substrates, including paper, epoxy resin, and circuit boards. The Yb3+/Tm3+ doping concentrations were optimized to maximize the brightness of 800 nm upconversion emission excited with 980 nm light, while simultaneously minimizing unwanted blue upconversion. Images printed with the NIR-optimized inks are invisible to the naked eye under ambient lighting or under 980 nm excitation. NIR-to-NIR images are easily captured, however, using an inexpensive, modified point-and-shoot CCD camera, even at modest excitation power densities (1.5 W cm(-2)). It is demonstrated that the latent images can also be read through select hard or soft coatings which are opaque to visible light, such as black inkjet print, or dyed epoxy resin, without significant attenuation of brightness. The ability to protect the printed images with durable, opaque coatings increases the tamper-resistance and the covertness of the system; removes the requirement that the print be invisible on the bare substrate; and blocks any visible emission that might be present, even under very high excitation power densities.

Chemistry Deaprtment.

 

Jia, L., Sun, H. L., & Wang, Zhenqiang. (2015). Crystal structures and luminescent properties of new lanthanide(III) complexes derived from 2-phenyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylate. Rsc Advances, 5(117), 96855-96861.

In this work, five novel lanthanide(III) coordination polymers derived from 2-phenylpyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid (Hppmc), namely, [Ln(ppmc)(3)(H2O)(2)]center dot 2H(2)O [Ln = Eu (1), Tb (2)] and [Ln(ppmc)(3)(H2O)(2)] [Ln = Eu (3), Gd (4), Tb (5)] were successfully synthesized by a facile solution method and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, power X-ray diffraction (PXRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that subtly different reaction conditions result in disparate structural characteristics. For example, by combining Hppmc with lanthanide(III) ions at room temperature, compounds 1 and 2 featuring a carboxylate-bridging chain structure, in which the carboxylates adopt both chelating and bridging modes, are isolated. However, the reaction at 35 degrees C generates three isostructural compounds 3-5 with a distinct chain structure, in which the lanthanide ions are connected by carboxylates via syn-syn and syn-anti modes. Photoluminescent studies of the Eu3+ and Tb3+ complexes reveal that the Hppmc ligand is a better sensitizer for Tb3+ ion than for Eu3+ ion. The investigation of the relationship between the crystal structures and the photoluminescence properties indicate that the coordination environments of lanthanide ions and the arrangement of the ligands are the dominating factors that affect the luminescence behaviors of the solid samples.

Chemistry Department.

 

Loc, W. S., Quan, Z. W., Lin, Cuikun, Pan, J. F., Wang, Y. X., Yang, K. K., Jian, W. B., Zhao, B., Wang, H., & Fang, J. Y. (2015). Facet-controlled facilitation of PbS nanoarchitectures by understanding nanocrystal growth. Nanoscale, 7(45), 19047-19052.

Nanostructured lead sulphide is a significant component in a number of energy-related sustainable applications such as photovoltaic cells and thermoelectric components. In many micro-packaging processes, dimensionality-controlled nano-architectures as building blocks with unique properties are required. This study investigates different facet-merging growth behaviors through a wet-chemical synthetic strategy to produce high-quality controlled nanostructures of lead sulphide in various dimensionalities. It was found that 1D nanowires or 2D nanosheets can be obtained by the merging of reactive {111}- or {110}-facets, respectively, while promoting {100} facets in the early stages after nucleation leads to the growth of 0D nanocubes. The influence of temperature, capping ligands and co-solvent in facilitating the crystal facet growth of each intermediate seed is also demonstrated. The novelty of this work is characterized by the delicate manipulation of various PbS nanoarchitectures based on the comprehension of the facet-merging evolution. The synthesis of facet-controlled PbS nanostructures could provide novel building blocks with desired properties for use in many applications.

Chemistry Department.

 

Mottishaw, Jeffrey D., Erck, Adam R., Kramer, Jordan H., Sun, Haorn, & Koppang, Miles. (2015). Electrostatic Potential Maps and Natural Bond Orbital Analysis: Visualization and Conceptualization of Reactivity in Sanger’s Reagent. Journal of Chemical Education, 92(11), 1846-1852.

Frederick Sanger’s early work on protein sequencing through the use of colorimetric labeling combined with liquid chromatography involves an important nudeophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) reaction in which the N-terminus of a protein is tagged with Sanger’s reagent. Understanding the inherent differences between this SNAr reaction and other nudeophilic substitution reactions (S(N)1 and S(N)2) can be challenging for students learning organic chemistry. Here, both electrostatic potential (ESP) maps and natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses are employed to visualize and conceptualize Sanger’s key observation of the difference in reactivity between 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene. The utility of this method is extended to compare the reactivity of a series of halobenzenes for SNAr fluorination, a widely used reaction in pharmaceutical and medicinal fields. In combination with experimental results from the literature, the ESP maps and NBO analyses are consistent with and provide excellent corroboration with the reactivity of different substrates toward SNAr reactions.

Chemistry Department.

 

Zhao, D., Wu, Q., Yang, C. F., & Koodali, Ranjit T. (2015). Visible light driven photocatalytic hydrogen evolution over CdS incorporated mesoporous silica derived from MCM-48. Applied Surface Science, 356, 308-316.

An attempt to synthesize CdS incorporated MCM-48 by ion-exchange method is reported in this work. The mesoporous structure, crystalline structure, morphology and optical properties of the prepared samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption isotherm, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic activities were tested for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible irradiation. The CdS incorporated mesoporous silica exhibited high photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution but the cubic phase of MCM-48 was destroyed by the ion-exchange reaction and sulfidation process. The influence of synthesis temperature and the presence of Pt co-catalyst were also examined in this work. The photocatalytic performance of CdS-mSiO(2) was also studied by recycling experiments and by comparing with the CdS-MCM-48 in our previous work. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

 

Balasubramanian, Vinothini, Srinivasan, Rekha, Miskimins, Robin, & Sykes, Andrew G. (2016). A simple aza-crown ether containing an anthraquinone fluorophore for the selective detection of Mg(II) in living cells. Tetrahedron, 72(1), 205-209.

A new aza-crown ether anthraquinone-coupled chemosensor ( 2 ) has been synthesized and employed for the selective fluorescence detection of Mg(II) in the nanomolar range with limited interference by Ca(II) ion. The binding stoichiometry for the chemosensor with Mg(II) is found to be 2:1, and the binding constant was determined to be 2.9×10 9 M −2 and 5.1×10 9 M −2 in acetonitrile and DMSO, respectively. The chemosensor also shows negligible fluorescence enhancement from other alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metals. Chemosensor 2 has been used in the bioimaging of Mg(II) in embryonic mouse fibroblast NIH3T3 cells at both native concentrations and cells incubated with excess Mg(II). The chemosensor can access Mg(II) ions in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of the cells. The corrected total cell fluorescence is also calculated to confirm the uptake of the chemosensor in living cells.

Chemistry Department.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Scarborough, Rebecca, Zellou, Georgia, Mirzayan, Armik, & Rood, David S. (2015). Phonetic and phonological patterns of nasality in Lakota vowels. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 45(3), 289-309.

Lakota (Siouan) has both contrastive and coarticulatory vowel nasality, and both nasal and oral vowels can occur before or after a nasal consonant. This study examines the timing and degree patterns of acoustic vowel nasality across contrastive and coarticulatory contexts in Lakota, based on data from six Lakota native speakers. There is clear evidence of both anticipatory and carryover nasal coarticulation across oral and nasal vowels, with a greater degree of carryover than anticipatory nasalization. Nasality in carryover contexts is nonetheless restricted: the oral-nasal contrast is neutralized for high back vowels in this context and realized for three of the six speakers in low vowels. In the absence of nasal consonant context, contrastive vowel nasalization is generally greatest late in the vowel. Low nasal vowels in carryover contexts parallel this pattern (despite the location of the nasal consonant BEFORE the vowel), and low nasal vowels in anticipatory contexts are most nasal at the start of the vowel. We relate the synchronic patterns of coarticulation in Lakota to both its system of contrast and diachronic processes in the evolution of nasality in Lakota. These data reflect that coarticulatory patterns, as well as contrastive patterns, are grammatical and controlled by speakers.

Modern Languages and Linguistics.

 

Boettger, T., Thiel, C. W., Sun, Y., Macfarlane, R. M., & Cone, R. L. (2016). Decoherence and absorption of Er3+:KTiOPO4 (KTP) at 1.5 mu m. Journal of Luminescence, 169, 466-471.

We present results of laser absorption spectroscopy and two-pulse photon echo decoherence measurements on the lowest I-4(15/2) to lowest I-4(13/2) transition in Er3+: KTiOPO4 (KTP-potassium titanyl phosphate) for the optical transition located at 1537.238 nm. This transition was found to have an inhomogeneous absorption linewidth of 950 MHz and pronounced polarization dependence. Two-pulse photon echo decay measurements as a function of applied magnetic field strength at 1.9 K revealed a narrow homogeneous linewidth of 2.5 kHz at 02 T that increased to 5.8 kHz at 1.2 T and then decreased to 1.6 kHz at 4.5 T. This behavior was successfully described by decoherence due to Er3+-Er3+ magnetic dipole interactions. Significant superhyperfine coupling of Er3+ spins to the nuclear moments of ions in the host lattice was observed, modulating the photon echo decay at low magnetic fields and limiting the effective homogenous linewidth at high fields. Combined with the well-established potential of KTP for fabrication of high-quality optical waveguides and integrated non-linear frequency conversion, our results suggest that Er3+:KTP is a promising material system for practical spectral hole burning, signal processing, and quantum information applications. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Physics Department.

 

Fairholm, Matthew R., & Gronau, Taylor W. (2015). Spiritual leadership in the work of public administrators. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 12(4), 354-373.

This article focuses on the leadership practices of local public administrators that display elements of spiritual leadership in the workplace. It explores empirical research about municipal managers that suggests organizational leadership based on the notion of someone’s spirit, rather than merely someone’s bundle of workplace skills and abilities, is not only valid, but fairly common. The results illustrate that public administrators doing public administration admit that spiritual values, or a focus on the whole-soul of people, impact how they view leadership in their jobs and the public work they do every day. Potential elements of spiritual leadership culled from the research and leadership and Public Administration literature are shaped into a nascent model that serves to both describe and prescribe spiritual leadership perspectives, behaviors, and approaches to followers.

Political Science/Criminal Justice Department.

 

Gerrish, Ed. (2016). The Impact of Performance Management on Performance in Public Organizations: A Meta-Analysis. Public Administration Review, 76(1), 48-66.

Performance-based management is pervasive in public organizations; countless governments have implemented performance management systems with the hope that they will improve organizational effectiveness. However, there has been little comprehensive review of their impact. This article conducts a meta-analysis on the impact of performance management on performance in public organizations. It contributes to the current literature in three ways. First, it examines the effect of the ‘average’ performance management system. Second, it examines the influence of management: whether beneficial performance management practices moderate the average effect. Third, it examines the effect of ‘time’ on performance management. Using 2,188 effects from 49 studies, the analysis finds that performance management has a small average effect. However, the effect is substantially larger when indicators of best practices in high-quality studies are included, indicating that management practices have an important impact on the effectiveness of performance management systems. Evidence for the effect of time is mixed.

Political Science/Criminal Justice Department.

 

Eclov, J. A., Qian, Q. W., Redetzke, R., Chen, Q. H., Wu, S. C., Healy, C. L., Ortmeier, Steven B., Harmon, Erin, Shearer, G. C., & O’Connell, T. D. (2015). EPA, not DHA, prevents fibrosis in pressure overload-induced heart failure: potential role of free fatty acid receptor 4. Journal of Lipid Research, 56(12), 2297-2308.

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is half of all HF, but standard HF therapies are ineffective. Diastolic dysfunction, often secondary to interstitial fibrosis, is common in HFpEF. Previously, we found that supra-physiologic levels of omega 3-PUFAs produced by 12 weeks of omega 3-dietary supplementation prevented fibrosis and contractile dysfunction following pressure overload [transverse aortic constriction (TAC)], a model that resembles aspects of remodeling in HFpEF. This raised several questions regarding omega 3-concentration-dependent cardioprotection, the specific role of EPA and DHA, and the relationship between prevention of fibrosis and contractile dysfunction. To achieve more clinically relevant omega 3-levels and test individual omega 3-PUFAs, we shortened the omega 3-diet regimen and used EPA- and DHA-specific diets to examine remodeling following TAC. The shorter diet regimen produced omega 3-PUFA levels closer to Western clinics. Further, EPA, but not DHA, prevented fibrosis following TAC. However, neither omega 3-PUFA prevented contractile dysfunction, perhaps due to reduced uptake of omega 3-PUFA. Interestingly, EPA did not accumulate in cardiac fibroblasts. However, FFA receptor 4, a G protein-coupled receptor for omega 3-PUFAs, was sufficient and required to block transforming growth factor beta 1-fibrotic signaling in cultured cardiac fibroblasts, suggesting a novel mechanism for EPA. In summary, EPA-mediated prevention of fibrosis could represent a novel therapy for HFpEF.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Halaby, M. J., Harris, B. R. E., Miskimins, W. Keith, Cleary, M. P., & Yang, D. Q. (2015). Deregulation of Internal Ribosome Entry Site-Mediated p53 Translation in Cancer Cells with Defective p53 Response to DNA Damage. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 35(23), 4006-4017.

Synthesis of the p53 tumor suppressor and its subsequent activation following DNA damage are critical for its protection against tumorigenesis. We previously discovered an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) at the 5′ untranslated region of the p53 mRNA. However, the connection between IRES-mediated p53 translation and p53’s tumor suppressive function is unknown. In this study, we identified two p53 IRES trans-acting factors, translational control protein 80 (TCP80), and RNA helicase A (RHA), which positively regulate p53 IRES activity. Overexpression of TCP80 and RHA also leads to increased expression and synthesis of p53. Furthermore, we discovered two breast cancer cell lines that retain wild-type p53 but exhibit defective p53 induction and synthesis following DNA damage. The levels of TCP80 and RHA are extremely low in both cell lines, and expression of both proteins is required to significantly increase the p53 IRES activity in these cells. Moreover, we found cancer cells transfected with a shRNA against TCP80 not only exhibit decreased expression of TCP80 and RHA but also display defective p53 induction and diminished ability to induce senescence following DNA damage. Therefore, our findings reveal a novel mechanism of p53 inactivation that links deregulation of IRES-mediated p53 translation with tumorigenesis.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Kranzler, John H., Benson, Nicholas, & Floyd, Randy G. (2015). Using estimated factor scores from a bifactor analysis to examine the unique effects of the latent variables measured by the WAIS-IV on academic achievement. Psychological Assessment, 27(4), 1402-1416.

This study used estimated factor scores from a bifactor analysis of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) to examine the unique effects of its latent variables on academic achievement. In doing so, we addressed the potential limitation of multicollinearity in previous studies of the incremental validity of the WAIS-IV. First, factor scores representing psychometric g and 4 group factors representing the WAIS-IV index scales were computed from a bifactor model. Subtest and composite scores for the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition (WIAT-II) were then predicted from these estimated factor scores in simultaneous multiple regression. Results of this study only partially replicated the findings of previous research on the incremental validity of scores that can be derived from performance on the WAIS-IV. Although we found that psychometric g is the most important underlying construct measured by the WAIS-IV for the prediction of academic achievement in general, results indicated that the unique effect of Verbal Comprehension is also important for predicting achievement in reading, spelling, and oral communication skills. Based on these results, measures of both psychometric g and Verbal Comprehension could be cautiously interpreted when considering high school students’ performance in these areas of achievement.

School of Education [Former Faculty Member].

 

Amolins, Michael W., Ezrailson, Cathy M., Pearce, David A., Elliott, Amy J., & Vitiello, Peter F. (2015). Evaluating the effectiveness of a laboratory-based professional development program for science educators. Advances in Physiology Education, 39(4), 341-351.

The process of developing effective science educators has been a long-standing objective of the broader education community. Numerous studies have recommended not only depth in a teacher’s subject area but also a breadth of professional development grounded in constructivist principles, allowing for successful student-centered and inquiry-based instruction. Few programs, however, have addressed the integration of the scientific research laboratory into the science classroom as a viable approach to professional development. Additionally, while occasional laboratory training programs have emerged in recent years, many lack a component for translating acquired skills into reformed classroom instruction. Given the rapid development and demand for knowledgeable employees and an informed population from the biotech and medical industries in recent years, it would appear to be particularly advantageous for the physiology and broader science education communities to consider this issue. The goal of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a laboratory-based professional development program focused on the integration of reformed teaching principles into the classrooms of secondary teachers. This was measured through the program’s ability to instill in its participants elevated academic success while gaining fulfillment in the classroom. The findings demonstrated a significant improvement in the use of student-centered instruction and other reformed methods by program participants as well as improved self-efficacy, confidence, and job satisfaction. Also revealed was a reluctance to refashion established classroom protocols. The combination of these outcomes allowed for construction of an experiential framework for professional development in applied science education that supports an atmosphere of reformed teaching in the classroom.

School of Education.

 

Linn, Vicki, & Jacobs, Gera. (2015). Inquiry-Based Field Experiences: Transforming Early Childhood Teacher Candidates’ Effectiveness. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 36(4), 272-288.

Contemporary teacher preparation programs are challenged to provide transformational learning experiences that enhance the development of highly effective teachers. This mixed-methods case study explored the influence of inquiry-based field experiences as a pedagogical approach to teacher preparation. Four teacher candidates participated in a 15-week practicum hosted by four community-based early childhood classrooms. Research methods included peer discussions, self-assessments, coaching sessions facilitated by the instructor/researcher, and a survey. Triangulated content analysis indicated that inquiry-based field experiences positively contributed to the participants’ (a) understanding and application of core knowledge, (b) consciousness of teacher–child interactions, (c) appreciation of co-inquiry learning, and (d) utilization of reflective learning. Inquiry-based field experiences also positively contributed to the participants’ professional intentionality and discernment.

School of Education.

 

Posted by: reganenosusd | November 30, 2015

November 2015

Abdullah, Ammara, Sane, Sanam, Branick, Kate A., Freeling, Jessica L., Wang, Hongmin M., Zhang, D., & Rezvani, Khosrow. (2015). A plant alkaloid, veratridine, potentiates cancer chemosensitivity by UBXN2A-dependent inhibition of an oncoprotein, mortalin-2. Oncotarget, 6(27), 23561-23581.

Veratridine (VTD), an alkaloid derived from the Liliaceae plant shows anti-tumor effects; however, its molecular targets have not been thoroughly studied. Using a high-throughput drug screen, we found that VTD enhances transactivation of UBXN2A, resulting in upregulation of UBXN2A in the cytoplasm, where UBXN2A binds and inhibits the oncoprotein mortalin-2 (mot-2). VTD-treated cancer cells undergo cell death in UBXN2A- and mot-2-dependent manners. The cytotoxic function of VTD is grade-dependent, and the combined treatment with a sub-optimal dose of the standard chemotherapy, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and etoposide, demonstrated a synergistic effect, resulting in higher therapeutic efficacy. VTD influences the CD44+ stem cells, possibly through UBXN2A-dependent inhibition of mot-2. The VTD-dependent expression of UBXN2A is a potential candidate for designing novel strategies for colon cancer treatment because: 1) In 50% of colon cancer patients, UBXN2A protein levels in tumor tissues are significantly lower than those in the adjacent normal tissues. 2) Cytoplasmic expression of the mot-2 protein is very low in non-cancerous cells; thus, VTD can produce tumor-specific toxicity while normal cells remain intact. 3) Finally, VTD or its modified analogs offer a valuable adjuvant chemotherapy strategy to improve the efficacy of 5-FU-based chemotherapy for colon cancer patients harboring WT-p53.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Ambigapathy, Ganesh, Zheng, Zhaoqim, & Keifer, Joyce. (2015). Regulation of BDNF chromatin status and promoter accessibility in a neural correlate of associative learning. Epigenetics, 10(10), 981-993.

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression critically controls learning and its aberrant regulation is implicated in Alzheimer’s disease and a host of neurodevelopmental disorders. The BDNF gene is target of known DNA regulatory mechanisms but details of its activity-dependent regulation are not fully characterized. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the epigenetic regulation of the turtle BDNF gene (tBDNF) during a neural correlate of associative learning using an in vitro model of eye blink classical conditioning. Shortly after conditioning onset, the results from ChIP-qPCR show conditioning-dependent increases in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and repressor basic helix-loop-helix binding protein 2 (BHLHB2) binding to tBDNF promoter II that corresponds with transcriptional repression. In contrast, enhanced binding of ten-eleven translocation protein 1 (Tet1), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) to promoter III corresponds with transcriptional activation. These actions are accompanied by rapid modifications in histone methylation and phosphorylation status of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). Significantly, these remarkably coordinated changes in epigenetic factors for two alternatively regulated tBDNF promoters during conditioning are controlled by Tet1 and ERK1/2. Our findings indicate that Tet1 and ERK1/2 are critical partners that, through complementary functions, control learning-dependent tBDNF promoter accessibility required for rapid transcription and acquisition of classical conditioning.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Barr, Jeffrey L., Rassmussen, Bruce A., Tallarida, Christopher S., Scholl, Jamie L., Forster, Gina L., Unterwald, Ellen, & Rawls, Scott. (2015). Ceftriaxone attenuates acute cocaine evoked motor activity and dopaminergic neurotransmission in the dorsal and ventral striatum. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 156, e15-e15.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Lucas, Andrea L., Ouellette, Scot P., Kabeiseman, Emily J., Cichos, Kyle H., & Rucks, Elizabeth A. (2015). The trans-Golgi SNARE syntaxin 10 is required for optimal development of Chlamydia trachomatis. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 5.

Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular pathogen, grows inside of a vacuole, termed the inclusion. Within the inclusion, the organisms differentiate from the infectious elementary body (EB) into the reticulate body (RB). The RB communicates with the host cell through the inclusion membrane to obtain the nutrients necessary to divide, thus expanding the chlamydial population. At late time points within the developmental cycle, the RBs respond to unknown molecular signals to redifferentiate into infectious EBs to perpetuate the infection cycle. One strategy for Chlamydia to obtain necessary nutrients and metabolites from the host is to intercept host vesicular trafficking pathways. In this study we demonstrate that a trans -Golgi soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein (SNARE), syntaxin 10, and/or syntaxin 10 associated Golgi elements colocalize with the chlamydial inclusion. We hypothesized that Chlamydia utilizes the molecular machinery of syntaxin 10 at the inclusion membrane to intercept specific vesicular trafficking pathways in order to create and maintain an optimal intra-inclusion environment. To test this hypothesis, we used siRNA knockdown of syntaxin 10 to examine the impact of the loss of syntaxin 10 on chlamydial growth and development. Our results demonstrate that loss of syntaxin 10 leads to defects in normal chlamydial maturation including: variable inclusion size with fewer chlamydial organisms per inclusion, fewer infectious progeny, and delayed or halted RB-EB differentiation. These defects in chlamydial development correlate with an overabundance of NBD-lipid retained by inclusions cultured in syntaxin 10 knockdown cells. Overall, loss of syntaxin 10 at the inclusion membrane negatively affects Chlamydia. Understanding host machinery involved in maintaining an optimal inclusion environment to support chlamydial growth and development is critical toward understanding the molecular signals involved in successful progression through the chlamydial developmental cycle.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Morecraft, Robert J., Stilwell-Morecraft, Kimberly S., Ge, J., Cipolloni, P. B., & Pandya, D. N. (2015). Cytoarchitecture and cortical connections of the anterior insula and adjacent frontal motor fields in the rhesus monkey. Brain Research Bulletin, 119, 52-72.

The cytoarchitecture and cortical connections of the ventral motor region are investigated using Nissl, and NeuN staining methods and the fluorescent retrograde tract tracing technique in the rhesus monkey. On the basis of gradual laminar differentiation, it is shown that the ventral motor region stems from the ventral proisocortical area (anterior insula and dorsal Sylvian opercular region). The cytoarchitecture of the ventral motor region is shown to progress in three lines, as we have recently shown for the dorsal motor region. Namely, root (anterior insular and dorsal Sylvian opercular area ProM), belt (ventral premotor cortex) and core (precentral motor cortex) lines. This stepwise architectonic organization is supported by the overall patterns of corticocortical connections. Areas in each line are sequentially interconnected (intralineal connections) and all lines are interconnected (interlinear connections). Moreover, root areas, as well as some of the belt areas of the ventral and dorsal trend are interconnected. The ventral motor region is also connected with the ventral somatosensory areas in a topographic manner. The root and belt areas of ventral motor region are connected with paralimbic, multimodal and prefrontal (outer belt) areas. In contrast, the core area has a comparatively more restricted pattern of corticocortical connections. This architectonic and connectional organization is consistent in part, with the functional organization of the ventral motor region as reported in behavioral and neuroimaging studies which include the mediation of facial expression and emotion, communication, phonic articulation, and language in human.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Sathyanesan, Monica, Girgenti, Matthew J., Warner-Schmidt, Jennifer, & Newton, Samuel S. (2015). Indomethacin induced gene regulation in the rat hippocampus. Molecular Brain, 8.

Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as indomethacin are widely used to treat inflammatory diseases and manage pain, fever and inflammation in several conditions, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Although they predominantly function by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, important COX-independent actions also occur. These actions could be responsible for the adverse side effects associated with chronic and/or high dose usage of this popular drug class. Results: We examined gene regulation in the hippocampus after peripheral administration of indomethacin by employing a microarray approach. Secondary confirmation and the brain expression pattern of regulated genes was examined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Transglutaminase 2, serum glucocorticoid inducible kinase, Inhibitor of NF-kappa B and vascular endothelial growth factor were among genes that were prominently upregulated, while G-protein coupled receptor 56 and neuropeptide Y were among genes that were downregulated by indomethacin. Co-localization studies using blood vessel markers revealed that transglutaminase 2 was induced specifically in brain vasculature. Conclusions: The data demonstrate that COX-inhibitors can differentially regulate gene transcription in multiple, functionally distinctly cell types in the brain. The results provide additional insight into the molecular actions of COX-inhibitors and indicate that their effects on vasculature could influence cerebral blood flow mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Schlenker, Evelyn H., Del Rio, R., & Schultz, H. D. (2015). In adult female hamsters hypothyroidism stimulates D1 receptor-mediated breathing without altering D1 receptor expression. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 218, 32-39.

Hypothyroidism affects cardiopulmonary regulation and function of dopaminergic receptors. Here we evaluated effects of 5 months of hypothyroidism on dopamine D1 receptor modulation of breathing in female hamsters using a D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390. Euthyroid hamsters (EH) served as controls. Results indicated that hypothyroid female hamsters (HH) exhibited decreased body weights and minute ventilation (V-E) following hypoxia due to decreased frequency of breathing (F). Moreover, SCH 23390 administration in HH increased V-E by increasing tidal volume during exposure to air, hypoxia and following hypoxia. Relative to vehicle, SCH 23390 treatment decreased body temperature and hypoxic V-E responsiveness in both groups. In EH, SCH 23390 decreased Fin air, hypoxia and post hypoxia, and V-E during hypoxia trended to decrease (P=0.053). Finally, expression of Ell receptor protein was not different between the two groups in any region evaluated. Thus, hypothyroidism in older female hamsters affected D1 receptor modulation of ventilation differently relative to euthyroid animals, but not expression of D1 receptors. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Summers, Torrie, Wang, Yanqing, Hanten, Brandon, & Burrell, Brandon D. (2015). Physiological, pharmacological and behavioral evidence for a TRPA1 channel that can elicit defensive responses in the medicinal leech. Journal of Experimental Biology, 218(19), 3023-3031.

Transient receptor potential ankyrin subtype 1 (TRPA1) channels are chemosensitive to compounds such as allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, the active component of mustard oil) and other reactive electrophiles and may also be thermodetectors in many animal phyla. In this study, we provide the first pharmacological evidence of a putative TRPA1-like channel in the medicinal leech. The leech’s polymodal nociceptive neuron was activated by both peripheral and central application of the TRPA1 agonist AITC in a concentration-dependent manner. Responses to AITC were inhibited by the selective TRPA1 antagonist HC030031, but also by the TRPV1 antagonist SB366791. Other TRPA1 activators – N-methylmaleimide (NMM) and cinnamaldehyde (CIN) – also activated this nociceptive neuron, although HC030031 only inhibited the effects of NMM. The polymodal nociceptive neurons responded to moderately cold thermal stimuli (< 17 degrees C) and these responses were blocked by HC030031. AITC sensitivity was also found in the pressure-sensitive sensory neurons and was blocked by HC030031, but not by SB366791. AITC elicited a nocifensive withdrawal of the posterior sucker in a concentration-dependent manner that could be attenuated with HC030031. Peripheral application of AITC in vivo also produced swimming-like behavior that was attenuated by HC030031. These results suggest the presence of a TRPA1-like channel in the medicinal leech nervous system that responds to cold temperatures and may interact with the leech TRPV-like channel.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Teng, Y. F., Rezvani, Khosrow, & De Biasi, M. (2015). UBXN2A regulates nicotinic receptor degradation by modulating the E3 ligase activity of CHIP. Biochemical Pharmacology, 97(4), 518-530.

Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the alpha 3 subunit are known for their prominent role in normal ganglionic transmission while their involvement in the mechanisms underlying nicotine addiction and smoking-related disease has been emerging only in recent years. The amount of information available on the maturation and trafficking of alpha 3-containing nAChRs is limited. We previously showed that UBXN2A is a p97 adaptor protein that facilitates the maturation and trafficking of alpha 3-containing nAChRs. Further investigation of the mechanisms of UBXN2A actions revealed that the protein interacts with CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsc70 interacting protein), whose ubiquitin E3 ligase activity regulates the degradation of several disease-related proteins. We show that CHIP displays E3 ligase activity toward the alpha 3 nAChR subunit and contributes to its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. UBXN2A interferes with CHIP-mediated ubiquitination of a3 and protects the nicotinic receptor subunit from endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD). UBXN2A also cross-talks with VCP/p97 and HSC70/HSP70 proteins in a complex where 3 is likely to be targeted by CHIP. Overall,we identify CHIP as an E3 ligase for alpha 3 and UBXN2A as a protein that may efficiently regulate the stability of CHIP’s client substrates. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Yaoqian, Pan, Ruizhu, Liu, Terpstra, Erin, Wang, Yanqing, Qiao, Fangfang, Jin, Wang, Yigang, Tong, & Bo, Pan. (2016). Dysregulation and Diagnostic Potential of microRNA in Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 49(1), 1-12.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases and is considered to be the main cause of cognitive impairment in elderly people. The major symptom of AD is progressive dementia that eventually results in dysfunction of daily life. Due to the fact that AD has a long period of incubation before clinical symptoms emerge, the available therapeutic treatments can only improve the symptoms but not delay the progression of AD. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore effective diagnostic approaches to catch and better treat the disease before clinical symptoms appear. Recent research revealed that abnormal expression of certain miRNA could have a crucial role in the pathological process of neurodegenerative disease including AD. Furthermore, given that AD patients show increased level of miRNAs in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, miRNAs are considered promising non-invasive candidates for AD diagnosis and prognosis. Here, we reviewed the current research related to implications of miRNAs during the development of AD, summarized of actively used approaches to identifying potential miRNA biomarkers in body fluids, and discussed the diagnostic potential of microRNAs as biomarkers for AD.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Dececchi, T. Alexander, Balhoff, J. P., Lapp, H., & Mabee, Paula M. (2015). Toward Synthesizing Our Knowledge of Morphology: Using Ontologies and Machine Reasoning to Extract Presence/Absence Evolutionary Phenotypes across Studies. Systematic Biology, 64(6), 936-952.

The reality of larger and larger molecular databases and the need to integrate data scalably have presented a major challenge for the use of phenotypic data. Morphology is currently primarily described in discrete publications, entrenched in noncomputer readable text, and requires enormous investments of time and resources to integrate across large numbers of taxa and studies. Here we present a new methodology, using ontology-based reasoning systems working with the Phenoscape Knowledgebase (KB; kb.phenoscape.org), to automatically integrate large amounts of evolutionary character state descriptions into a synthetic character matrix of neomorphic (presence/absence) data. Using the KB, which includes more than 55 studies of sarcopterygian taxa, we generated a synthetic supermatrix of 639 variable characters scored for 1051 taxa, resulting in over 145,000 populated cells. Of these characters, over 76% were made variable through the addition of inferred presence/absence states derived by machine reasoning over the formal semantics of the source ontologies. Inferred data reduced the missing data in the variable character-subset from 98.5% to 78.2%. Machine reasoning also enables the isolation of conflicts in the data, that is, cells where both presence and absence are indicated; reports regarding conflicting data provenance can be generated automatically. Further, reasoning enables quantification and new visualizations of the data, here for example, allowing identification of character space that has been undersampled across the fin-to-limb transition. The approach and methods demonstrated here to compute synthetic presence/absence supermatrices are applicable to any taxonomic and phenotypic slice across the tree of life, providing the data are semantically annotated. Because such data can also be linked to model organism genetics through computational scoring of phenotypic similarity, they open a rich set of future research questions into phenotype-to-genome relationships.

Biology Department.

Liu, Ming, & Swanson, David L. (2015). Stopover duration, movement patterns and temporary home ranges of fall migrant yellow-rumped warblers Setophaga coronata in native and anthropogenic woodlands of the Northern Prairie region, USA. Journal of Avian Biology, 46(5), 452-461.

Stopover behavior of migrant birds is influenced by their energetic condition, but also by extrinsic factors, including weather conditions and habitat attributes such as vegetation structure, microclimates, predation pressure, competition, and food availability. Anthropogenic habitats may differ from natural habitats in these attributes, which could promote differing stopover behaviors for migrants in the two habitat types and affect overall habitat suitability. We used radio-telemetry to measure stopover behaviors of fall migrant yellow-rumped warblers Setophaga coronata in native riparian corridor woodlands (corridors) and anthropogenic woodlots (woodlots) in the Northern Prairie region. We measured stopover duration, movement rate, and temporary home range size for birds in both habitat types by attaching radio-transmitters and relocating birds to either corridor (n = 17) or woodlot (n = 16) study sites. We used AIC(C) to rank null, global, and reduced models, which included habitat type, energetic condition, habitat size, year, date, and movement rate (for stopover duration analyses only) as explanatory variables. Model rankings showed that habitat type was not included in any of the top models (Delta AIC(C) < 2) for movement behavior, temporary home range size, or stopover duration, which suggests similar functional habitat quality between the two habitat types. These data add similar behavioral responses for birds in the two habitat types to similar fattening rates and stress physiology, further confirming similar suitability of native and anthropogenic woodland habitats in this region as stopover habitat. We also applied logistic regression with a model selection approach, including cloud cover, tail wind component, temperature, and barometric pressure as independent variables, and departure decision as the dependent variable, to evaluate the effects of weather variables on departure. Model selection suggested that cloud cover is a prominent factor affecting departure decisions and the other variables may also influence departure decisions of yellow-rumped warblers from inland stopover sites.

Biology Department.

Budhi, S., Wu, Chia-Ming, Zhao, D., & Koodali, Ranjit T. (2015). Investigation of Room Temperature Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide Nanoclusters Dispersed on Cubic MCM-48 Mesoporous Materials. Catalysts, 5(3), 1603-1621.

Titania containing cubic MCM-48 mesoporous materials were synthesized successfully at room temperature by a modified Stober method. The integrity of the cubic mesoporous phase was retained even at relatively high loadings of titania. The TiO2-MCM-48 materials were extensively characterized by a variety of physico-chemical techniques. The physico-chemical characterization indicate that Ti4+ ions can be substituted in framework tetrahedral positions. The relative amount of Ti4+ ions in tetrahedral position was dependent on the order of addition of the precursor. Even at relatively high loadings of titania, no distinct bulk phase of titania could be observed indicating that the titania nanoclusters are well dispersed on the high surface area mesoporous material and probably exist as amorphous nanoclusters. The TiO2-MCM-48 materials were found to exhibit 100% selectivity in the cyclohexene oxidation at room temperature in the presence of tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP) as the oxidant. The results suggest that room temperature synthesis is an attractive option for the preparation of TiO2-MCM-48 materials with interesting catalytic properties.

Chemistry Department.

Yulun, Han, Qingguo, Meng, Bakhtiyor, Rasulev, May, P. Stanley, Mary, T. Berry, & Dmitri, S. Kilin. (2015). Photofragmentation of the Gas-Phase Lanthanum IsopropylcyclopentadienylComplex: Computational Modeling vs Experiment. Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 119(44), 10838-10848.

Photofragmentationof the lanthanum isopropylcyclopentadienyl complex,La(iCp), was explored through time-dependent excited-state moleculardynamics (TDESMD), excited-state molecular dynamics (ESMD), and thermalmolecular dynamics (MD). Simulated mass spectra were extracted from ab initiomolecular dynamics simulations through a new andsimple method and compared to experimental photoionization time-of-flight(PI–TOF) mass spectra. The computational results indicate thatthe value of excitation energy and mechanism of excitation determinethe dissociation process.

Chemistry Department.

Santosh, K. (2015). g-DICE: graph mining-based document information content exploitation. International Journal on Document Analysis & Recognition, 18(4), 337-355.

In this paper, we present document information content (i.e. text fields) extraction technique via graph mining. Real-world users first provide a set of key text fields from the document image which they think are important. These fields are used to initialise a graph where nodes are labelled with the field names in addition to other features such as size, type and number of words, and edges are attributed with relative positioning between them. Such an attributed relational graph is then used to mine similar graphs from document images which are used to update the initial graph iteratively each time we extract them, to produce a graph model. Graph models, therefore, are employed in the absence of users. We have validated the proposed technique and evaluated its scientific impact on real-world industrial problem with the performance of 86.64 % precision and 90.80 % recall by considering all zones, viz. header, body and footer. More specifically, the proposed technique is well suited for table processing (i.e. extracting repeated patterns from the table) and it outperforms the state-of-the-art method by approximately more than 3 %.

Computer Science Department.

Newswander, Chad B. (2015). Administrative Character. American Review of Public Administration, 45(6), 746-759.

Managerial competence expressed in the promise of science provides administrators with a set of dispositions. In attempting to achieve such a character, the Supreme Court set up a hard look orientation that used rational means to justify the substance of administrative power. Even though this mode of operation grants legitimacy resulting from meeting a high threshold, it also began to cripple administrative reasoning and movement. When problems are multifaceted, administrative character must be given room to explore. Taking this into consideration, the court also established an alternative space rooted in a soft look that encouraged a different type of administrative character. It has done this by establishing the foundations of a legal framework that privileges deference, which allows for prudence to emerge. Rooted in classical origin and updated in modern parlance, prudence can be leveraged as a way to not only deal with questions of law but also with substance.

Political Science and Criminal Justice Department.

Pirog, Maureen, & Gerrish, Ed. (2015). Impact of the Child Support Performance and Incentive Act on child support order establishment. Children & Youth Services Review, 58, 104-117.

This paper examines the impact of the Child Support Performance and Incentive Act (CSPIA) of 1998 on the establishment of child support orders for never-married mothers who receive welfare assistance compared to those that do not. We primarily focus on the first year of motherhood after the birth of the first child. Using Survey on Income and Program Participation (SIPP) data, we find that CSPIA changed the provision of service by 12 percentage points between these two groups, largely due to a significant increase in child support orders for non-welfare families; CSPIA did not substantially alter the order establishment rate for families receiving welfare.

Political Science and Criminal Justice Department.

Hahn, Austin M., Tirabassi, Christine K., Simons, Raluca M., & Simons, Jeffrey S. (2015). Military sexual trauma, combat exposure, and negative urgency as independent predictors of PTSD and subsequent alcohol problems among OEF/OIF veterans. Psychological Services, 12(4), 378-383.

This study tested a path model of relationships between military sexual trauma (MST), combat exposure, negative urgency, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and alcohol use and related problems. The sample consisted of 86 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans who reported drinking at least one alcoholic beverage per week. PTSD mediated the relationships between MST and alcohol-related problems, negative urgency and alcohol-related problems, and combat exposure and alcohol-related problems. In addition, negative urgency had a direct effect on alcohol problems. These results indicate that MST, combat exposure, and negative urgency independently predict PTSD symptoms and PTSD symptoms mediate their relationship with alcohol-related problems. Findings support previous literature on the effect of combat exposure and negative urgency on PTSD and subsequent alcohol-related problems. The current study also contributes to the limited research regarding the relationship between MST, PSTD, and alcohol use and related problems. Clinical interventions aimed at reducing emotional dysregulation and posttraumatic stress symptomology may subsequently improve alcohol-related outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Rivera, P. M., Gonzales-Backen, M. A., Yedlin, J., Brown, E. J., Schwartz, S. J., Caraway, S. Jean, Weisskirch, R. S., Kim, S. Y., & Ham, L. S. (2015). Family Violence Exposure and Sexual Risk-Taking Among Latino Emerging Adults: The Role of Posttraumatic Stress Symptomology and Acculturative Stress. Journal of Family Violence, 30(8), 967-976.

This study proposes that posttraumatic stress symptomology and acculturative stress may further explain the relationship between family violence exposure and sexual risk-taking behaviors among Latino emerging adults (N = 1,100). A moderated mediation analysis indicated that lifetime rates of family violence exposure were positively associated with sexual risk-taking via posttraumatic stress symptomology, and this mediation significantly varied as a function of acculturative stress. Overall, the findings of the current study underscore a need for a better understanding of how family violence exposure puts Latino emerging adults at risk for aversive health outcomes and suggest the use of an ecological systemic framework that examines the interactions between family, individual, and cultural systems in relation to health risk-taking behaviors.

Psychology Department.

Simons, Jeffrey S., Joseph Clarke, C., Simons, Raluca M., & Spelman, Philip J. (2016). Marijuana consequences in a motivational context: Goal congruence reduces likelihood of taking steps toward change. Addictive Behaviors, 52, 83-90.

This study tested a model of marijuana use, problems, and motivation and barriers to change among a sample of 422 undergraduate students ages 18-25 (M=19.68, SD=1.60) who used marijuana at least once in the past 6months. We tested a structural equation model (SEM) with use motives (i.e., coping, enhancement, and expansion), perceived use utility, and gender as exogenous variables predicting marijuana use behavior (i.e., use and problems), motivation to change (i.e., problem recognition and perceived costs and benefits of change), and the ultimate outcome, taking steps to reduce marijuana use. Controlling for level of use and problems, expansion motives had a direct effect on increased perceived costs of change and enhancement motives had direct inverse effects on problem recognition and perceived benefits of change. However, the total effect of expansion motives on taking steps was not significant. The perceived role of marijuana in achieving personal strivings (i.e., use utility) was inversely associated with problem recognition, perceived benefits of change, and taking steps toward change. In contrast, coping motives, despite being associated with greater perceived costs of change, were positively associated with taking steps. Problem recognition was positively associated with both increased perceived costs and benefits of reducing marijuana use, reflecting individuals’ ambivalence about change. As expected, perceived benefits and costs of reducing use were positively and negatively associated with taking steps toward changing marijuana use, respectively. The results identify individual difference factors that contribute to motivation for change and are consistent with motivational models of change readiness. These results highlight the extent to which integration of marijuana use with personal goal achievement may interfere with taking steps to change use patterns despite associated negative consequences.

Psychology Department.

Wang, X. T., Ong, L. S., & Tan, J. (2015). Sense and sensibility of ownership: Type of ownership experience and valuation of goods. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, 58, 171-177.

This study examined how the type of ownership experience affects the valuation of a good. We hypothesized that the sense of ownership is a psychological derivative of resource acquisition and allocation. We predicted a valuation order of stable ownership or no-ownership < alternating (interchanging) ownership < sudden reversals in ownership. One hundred and sixty-six participants played an object-acquisition “game”, a computer simulation of gaining or losing the ownership of an object (e.g., a pen, a mug, or a flashlight) with different outcome sequences, preprogramed but unbeknownst to the participants. After each game, the participant valued the target object by indicating their willingness-to-pay price, if the last outcome was a loss, or willingness-to-accept price, if the last outcome was a gain. The valuation of an object was highest after experiencing a final reversal in ownership from losses to a final gain or from gains to a final loss, followed by alternating ownership and stable (patrimonial) ownership or constant non-ownership. Wins or losses are not created equal due to different trajectories in how people come to own (lose) objects. The results also suggest that loss aversion is better understood as a specific result of ownership experience. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Psychology Department.

Belcher, Harolyn, Stone, Jacqueline, McFadden, Jenese, Hemmingson, Tyler, Kreutzer, Cary, Harris, Lisa, Wheeler, Barbara, Osdel, Joanne, Avila, Margaret, Yorker, Beatrice, Hoffman, Beth, & Turner-Musa, Jocelyn. (2015). Evaluating Maternal and Child Health and Leadership Competencies of Emerging MCH Leaders: The MCHC/RISE-UP Experience. Maternal & Child Health Journal, 19(12), 2560-2567.

Purpose: This study examines maternal and child health core competencies and leadership characteristics of undergraduate students following participation in the Maternal and Child Health Careers/Research Initiatives for Student Enhancement-Undergraduate Program (MCHC/RISE-UP). MCHC/RISE-UP is a 10-week public health leadership program designed to promote diversity in public health workforce through mentored research, community engagement and advocacy, and clinical experiences for undergraduate students. Description: The MCHC/RISE-UP is a national consortium of University Centers for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities including, (1) Kennedy Krieger Institute (Kennedy Krieger, lead institution) partnering with Morgan State University, a Historically Black University, (2) the University of South Dakota partnering with Tribal Serving Institutions; and (3) the University of Southern California Children’s Hospital-Los Angeles and their partner institution, California State University Los Angeles, a Hispanic Serving Institution. Assessment: Eighty-four junior and senior undergraduates and recent baccalaureate degree students who participated in the MCHC/RISE-UP worked on 48 maternal and child health projects. Following the MCHC/RISE-UP, students demonstrated statistically significant improvements in all maternal and child health core competencies. Transformational leadership characteristics also increased (mean increase 9.4, 95 % CI 7.2-11.8; p < 0.001). At closing interview, over twice as many students endorsed a public health career goal compared to program admission (17.9 vs 57.7 %; p = 0.022). Conclusion: Multi-institutional collaborative public health leadership programs may extend the reach and recruitment of diverse students into the maternal and child health field. Experiential, didactic, and mentored learning opportunities may enhance student integration of maternal and child health competencies and transformational leadership characteristics.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

Brudvig, Jon J., & Weimer, Jill M. (2015). X MARCKS the spot: myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate in neuronal function and disease. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 9.

Intracellular protein-protein interactions are dynamic events requiring tightly regulated spatial and temporal checkpoints. But how are these spatial and temporal cues integrated to produce highly specific molecular response patterns? A helpful analogy to this process is that of a cellular map, one based on the fleeting localization and activity of various coordinating proteins that direct a wide array of interactions between key molecules. One such protein, myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) has recently emerged as an important component of this cellular map, governing a wide variety of protein interactions in every cell type within the brain. In addition to its well-documented interactions with the actin cytoskeleton, MARCKS has been found to interact with a number of other proteins involved in processes ranging from intracellular signaling to process outgrowth. Here, we will explore these diverse interactions and their role in an array of brain-specific functions that have important implications for many neurological conditions.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Gawecka, Joanna E., Boaz, Segal, Kasperson, Kay, Hieu, Nguyen, Evenson, Donald P., Ward, W. Steven, & Nguyen, Hieu. (2015). Luminal fluid of epididymis and vas deferens contributes to sperm chromatin fragmentation. Human Reproduction, 30(12), 2725-2736.

Study Question: </bold>Do the luminal fluids of the epididymis and the vas deferens contribute to sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF) in mice?<bold>Summary Answer: </bold>The luminal fluids of both organs are required for activating SCF in mice, but the vas deferens luminal fluid does this more efficiently than that of the epididymis.<bold>What Is Known Already: </bold>Mice sperm have the ability to degrade their DNA in an apoptotic-like fashion when treated with divalent cations in a process termed SCF. SCF has two steps: the induction of reversible double-strand DNA breaks at the nuclear matrix attachment sites, followed by the irreversible degradation of DNA by nuclease. Single stranded DNA breaks accompany SCF.<bold>Study Design, Size, Duration: </bold>Luminal fluids from two reproductive organs of the mouse (B6D2F1 strain), the epididymis and vas deferens, were extracted and tested for SCF activation with divalent cations using four different combinations of the sperm and the surrounding luminal fluids: (i) in situ-sperm were kept in their luminal fluid and activated directly; (ii) reconstituted-sperm were centrifuged and resuspended in their luminal fluid before SCF activation; (iii) mixed-sperm were centrifuged and resuspended in the luminal fluid of the other organ; (iv) no luminal fluid-sperm were centrifuged and reconstituted in buffer. All four experiments were performed without (controls) and with divalent cations (resulting in SCF). For each experimental condition, two different mice were used and the analyses averaged.<bold>Participants/materials, Setting, Methods: </bold>DNA damage by SCF was analyzed by three different methods, the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis and field inversion gel electrophoresis.<bold>Main Results and the Role Of Chance: </bold>In all three assays that we used, the vas deferens luminal fluid was much more efficient in stimulating SCF in the sperm from either source than that of the epididymis (P < 0.0001). Vas deferens sperm were capable of initiating lower levels of SCF in the absence of luminal fluid (P < 0.0001).<bold>Limitations, Reasons For Caution: </bold>Analyses were performed in only one species, the mouse, but we used three separate assays in our analysis.<bold>Wider Implications Of the Findings: </bold>The data suggest that the luminal fluid of the male reproductive tract interacts with sperm during their transit providing a mechanism to degrade the DNA. We hypothesize that this is part of an apoptotic-like mechanism that allows the reproductive tract to eliminate defective sperm. The SCF model also allowed us to identify differences in the types of DNA lesions that the three tests can identify, providing important background information for the use of these tests clinically.<bold>Study Funding/competing Interests: </bold>Funding was obtained from the National Institutes of Health, USA Grant HD060722 to W.S.W. and SCSA Diagnostics, Brookings, SD, USA.Two of the authors work for SCSA Diagnostics, and one owns the company and the patents.<bold>Trial Registration Number: </bold>Trial registration number is only required for clinical trials.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Kovács, Attila D., Hof, Caitlin, & Pearce, David A. (2015). Abnormally increased surface expression of AMPA receptors in the cerebellum, cortex and striatum of Cln3−/− mice. Neuroscience Letters, 607, 29-34.

Mutations in the CLN3 gene cause a fatal neurodegenerative disorder, juvenile CLN3 disease. Exploring the cause of the motor coordination deficit in the Cln3 −/− mouse model of the disease we have previously found that attenuation of AMPA receptor activity in 1-month-old Cln3 −/− mice significantly improves their motor coordination [20] . To elucidate the mechanism of the abnormally increased AMPA receptor function in Cln3 −/− mice, we examined the surface expression of AMPA receptors using surface cross-linking in brain slices from 1-month-old wild type (WT) and Cln3 −/− mice. In surface cross-linked brain samples, Western blotting for AMPA receptor subunits revealed significantly increased surface levels of GluA1 and GluA2 in the cerebellum, and of GluA2 in the cortex and striatum of Cln3 −/− mice as compared to WT mice. Expression levels of the GluA4 subunit were similar in the cerebellum of WT and Cln3 −/− mice. While intracellular GluA1 levels in the WT and Cln3 −/− cerebellum or cortex were similar, the intracellular expression of GluA1 in the Cln3 −/− striatum was decreased to 56% of the WT level. Our results show a prominent increase in AMPA receptor surface expression in the brain of Cln3 −/− mice and suggest that CLN3 is involved in the regulation of AMPA receptor surface expression.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Larson, Eric A., & Wilke, R. A. (2015). Integration of Genomics in Primary Care. American Journal of Medicine, 128(11).

Primary care is changing rapidly. The wide-scale expansion of electronic medical records is redefining the way we approach chronic disease management, and automated decision support is increasingly being leveraged to reduce risk and optimize quality. Many of these interventions are now beginning to integrate genomic data. We explore the convergence of these 2 forces (expansion of clinical informatics and integration of translational genomics), and we highlight several applications where these forces are helping our patients avoid potentially preventable events. Because gene-environment interactions are dynamic, the utility of gene-based decision support varies over time. Primary care providers will serve a key role as our patients navigate these changes. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

May, Philip A., Keaster, C., Bozeman, R., Goodover, J., Blankenship, J., …., & Hoyme, H. Eugene. (2015). Prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome and partial fetal alcohol syndrome in a Rocky Mountain Region City. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 155, 118-127.

Background: The prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) in the United States (US) are not well known. Methods: This active case ascertainment study in a Rocky Mountain Region City assessed the prevalence and traits of children with FAS and PFAS and linked them to maternal risk factors. Diagnoses made by expert clinical dysmorphologists in multidisciplinary case conferences utilized all components of the study: dysmorphology and physical growth, neurobehavior, and maternal risk interviews. Results: Direct parental (active) consent was obtained for 1278 children. Averages for key physical diagnostic traits and several other minor anomalies were significantly different among FAS, PFAS, and randomly-selected, normal controls. Cognitive tests and behavioral checklists discriminated the diagnostic groups from controls on 12 of 14 instruments. Mothers of children with FAS and PFAS were significantly lower in educational attainment, shorter, later in pregnancy recognition, and suffered more depression, and used marijuana and methamphetamine during their pregnancy. Most pre-pregnancy and pregnancy drinking measures were worse for mothers of FAS and PFAS. Excluding a significant difference in simply admitting drinking during the index pregnancy (FAS and PFAS = 75% vs. 39.4% for controls), most quantitative intergroup differences merely approached significance. This community’s prevalence of FAS is 2.9-7.5 per 1000, PFAS is 7.9-17.7 per 1000, and combined prevalence is 10.9-25.2 per 1000 or 1.1-15%. Conclusions: Comprehensive, active case ascertainment methods produced rates of FAS and PFAS higher than predicted by long-standing, popular estimates. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Miller, Ross A., Mody, Dina R., Tams, Kimberlee C., & Thrall, Michael J. (2015). Glandular Lesions of the Cervix in Clinical Practice. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 139(11), 1431-1436.

Context.–The Papanicolaou (Pap) test has indisputably decreased cervical cancer mortality, as rates have declined by up to 80% in the United States since its implementation. However, the Pap test is considered less sensitive for detecting glandular lesions than for detecting those of squamous origin. Some studies have even suggested an increasing incidence of cervical adenocarcinoma, which may be a consequence of a relatively reduced ability to detect glandular lesions with cervical cancer screening techniques. Objective.–To evaluate the detection rate of glandular lesions with screening techniques currently used for cervical cancer screening and to provide insight as to which techniques are most efficacious in our study population. Design.–We retrospectively reviewed any available cytology, human papillomavirus (HPV), and histologic malignancy data in patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma in situ and adenocarcinoma from 2 geographically and socioeconomically disparate hospital systems. Identified patients having had a negative/unsatisfactory Pap test within 5 years of adenocarcinoma in situ or adenocarcinoma tissue diagnosis were considered Pap test screening failures. Patients with negative HPV tests on cytology samples were considered HPV screening failures. Results.–One hundred thirty cases were identified (age range, 22-93 years); 39 (30%) had no Pap history in our files. Eight of 91 remaining cases (8.8%) were screening failures. The detected sensitivity for identifying adenocarcinoma in situ/adenocarcinoma in this study was 91.2% by cytology alone and 92.3% when incorporating HPV testing. The most common cytologic diagnosis was atypical glandular cells (25 cases), and those diagnosed with adenocarcinoma were 7.4 years older than those diagnosed with adenocarcinoma in situ (50.3 versus 42.9 years). Nine of 24 HPV-tested cases (37.5%) were called atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance on cytology. Conclusions.–Our results highlight the importance of combined Pap and HPV cotesting. Although the number of cases identified is relatively small, our data suggest screening for squamous lesions facilitates the recognition of glandular lesions in the cervix. Additionally, increased use of combined Pap and HPV cotesting may decrease detection failure rates with regard to glandular lesions.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Song, Xue, Posgai, Amanda, Wasserfall, Clive, Myhr, Courtney, …., Rabinovitch, Alex, Savinov, Alexei, Battaglia, Manuela, Schatz, Desmond, Haller, Michael, Atkinson, Mark A., & Xue, Song. (2015). Combination Therapy Reverses Hyperglycemia in NOD Mice With Established Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes, 64(11), 3873-3884.

An increasing number of therapies have proven effective at reversing hyperglycemia in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes (T1D), yet situations of successful translation to human T1D are limited. This may be partly due to evaluating the effect of treating immediately at diagnosis in mice, which may not be reflective of the advanced disease state in humans at disease onset. In this study, we treated NOD mice with new-onset as well as established disease using various combinations of four drugs: antithymocyte globulin (ATG), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor (DPP-4i), and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). Therapy with all four drugs induced remission in 83% of new-onset mice and, remarkably, in 50% of NOD mice with established disease. Also noteworthy, disease remission occurred irrespective of initial blood glucose values and mechanistically was characterized by enhanced immunoregulation involving alterations in CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, and natural killer cells. This combination therapy also allowed for effective treatment at reduced drug doses (compared with effective monotherapy), thereby minimizing potential adverse effects while retaining efficacy. This combination of approved drugs demonstrates a novel ability to reverse T1D, thereby warranting translational consideration.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Xue, S., Posgai, A., Wasserfall, C., Myhr, C., Campbell-Thompson, M., Mathews, C. E., Brusko, T., Rabinovitch, Alex, Sayinov, Alexi, Battaglia, M., Schatz, D., Haller, M., & Atkinson, M. A. (2015). Combination Therapy Reverses Hyperglycemia in NOD Mice With Established Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes, 64(11), 3873-3884.

An increasing number of therapies have proven effective at reversing hyperglycemia in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes (T1D), yet situations of successful translation to human T1D are limited. This may be partly due to evaluating the effect of treating immediately at diagnosis in mice, which may not be reflective of the advanced disease state in humans at disease onset. In this study, we treated NOD mice with new-onset as well as established disease using various combinations of four drugs: antithymocyte globulin (ATG), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor (DPP-4i), and a proton pump inhibitor (PP. Therapy with all four drugs induced remission in 83% of new-onset mice and, remarkably, in 50% of NOD mice with established disease. Also noteworthy, disease remission occurred irrespective of initial blood glucose values and mechanistically was characterized by enhanced immunoregulation involving alterations in CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, and natural killer cells. This combination therapy also allowed for effective treatment at reduced drug doses (compared with effective monotherapy), thereby minimizing potential adverse effects while retaining efficacy. This combination of approved drugs demonstrates a novel ability to reverse T1D, thereby warranting translational consideration.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Roh, Soonhee, Brown-Rice, Kathleen A., Lee, K. H., Lee, Y. S., Yee-Melichar, D., & Talbot, E. P. (2015). Attitudes Toward Mental Health Services Among American Indians by Two Age Groups. Community Mental Health Journal, 51(8), 970-977.

This study examined determinants of attitudes toward mental health services with a sample of American Indian younger-old-adults (aged 50-64, n = 158) and American Indian older-old adults (aged 65 and older, n = 69). Adapting Andersen’s behavioral model of healthcare utilization, predisposing factors, mental health needs, and enabling factors were considered as potential predictors. Female and those with higher levels of social support tend to report more positive attitudes toward mental health services. Culture-influenced personal belief was associated with negative attitudes toward mental health services among American Indian younger-old -adults. Age and higher chronic medical conditions were significantly related to negative attitudes toward mental health services. Health insurance was positively associated with positive attitudes toward mental health services in the American Indian older-old adults. Findings indicate that practitioners should engage how culture, social support, and chronic conditions influence the response to mental health needs when working with older American Indians.

School of Health Sciences

School of Education

Cross, S. L., Drywater-Whitekiller, V., Holder, L. A., Norris, Debra, Caringi, J., & Trautman, A. (2015). NCWWI Tribal Traineeship Programs: Promoting Diversity in the Child Welfare Workforce. Journal of Social Work Education, 51, S225-S238.

Twelve universities and one American Indian (AI) tribal college were selected for the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute’s 5-year stipend traineeship program. These tribal traineeships were designed to provide social work child welfare education for tribal and nontribal students. Twenty-two AI students and 58 nontribal students completed a bachelor or master’s of social work degree. The students’ field placements were in tribal agencies or public agencies that served a segment of the AI population. These programs were enhanced through the use of valuable relationships (i.e., partnerships, mentorships, allies), and cultural competence was a key aspect of the students’ education. The students’ education was enriched with a specific child welfare curriculum, cultural teachings, tribal traineeship collaborations, and tribal community events.

School of Health Sciences.

Isaacson, Mary, Karel, Beth, Varilek, Brandon M., Steenstra, Whitney J., Tanis-Heyenga, Jordan P., & Wagner, Amanda. (2015). Insights From Health Care Professionals Regarding Palliative Care Options on South Dakota Reservations. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 26(5), 473-479.

Purpose: Palliative care options are limited for Native Americans (NA) in South Dakota (SD). This exploratory study offers the perspectives of Native and non-Native health care professionals regarding palliative care specific to NAs. Design: Semi-structured interviews were conducted (N = 7) with participants representing NA (4) and non-Native (3) ethnicities. NonNative participants were practicing health care professionals in palliative medicine, whereas the NA health care professionals had experience with palliative care. Findings: Concept analysis revealed two main themes and five subthemes: (a) barriers to palliative care, for example, insufficient funding, lack of infrastructure, and misconceptions; and (b) implementation strategies, for example, openness and listening and creating the right team. Discussion: Genuine interest and concern exists for the provision of palliative care to NA communities using collaborative and innovative approaches. Implications: To address the health disparities of the NA population specific to palliative care, public health policy reform and education for health professionals are necessary.

School of Health Sciences.

Louw, Adriaan, Puentedura, Emilio J., & Zimney, Kory. (2015). A clinical contrast: physical therapists with low back pain treating patients with low back pain. Physiotherapy Theory & Practice, 31(8), 562-567.

Patients with low back pain (LBP) often display faulty beliefs and cognitions regarding their pain experience. Pain neuroscience education (PNE) aims to alter the pain experience by targeting these faulty beliefs and cognitions. One PNE strategy aims specifically to reframe commonly held beliefs about tissues by patients with LBP as the single source of pain. In line with this reasoning, it is hypothesized that physical therapists (PT) treating patients with LBP may indeed experience similar, if not worse, pain experiences while treating a patient with LBP. To date, this assumption has never been studied. A PT LBP questionnaire was developed, validated and distributed to a convenience sample of attendees of an international PT conference. One-hundred and ten PTs completed the questionnaire for a 71% response rate. Ninety percent of the PTs reported having experienced LBP, with 27% at the conference experiencing LBP at the time. Of the PTs that have experienced LBP 75% reported not having received any imaging; 81% no formal diagnoses, 58% no treatment and 86% not having missed work due to LBP. Eighty-six percent of therapists reported having experienced LBP while treating a patient with LBP, with 50% convinced their LBP was higher than the LBP experienced by the patient they were treating. The results from this study indicate PTs often treat patients with LBP while suffering LBP. It is suggested that this knowledge may potentially help patients with LBP reconceptualize their LBP experience leading to expedited recovery.

School of Health Sciences.

Riebschleger, J., Norris, Debra, Pierce, B., Pond, D. L., & Cummings, C. (2015). Preparing Social Work Students for Rural Child Welfare Practice: Emerging Curriculum Competencies. Journal of Social Work Education, 51, S209-S224.

Multiple issues that are unique to child welfare social work practice in rural areas markedly affect workforce recruitment and retention, yet little attention is given to the proficiencies needed to equip emerging social workers for this growing area of the field. Curriculum content is needed that provides students with the opportunity to master the skills needed to thrive as child welfare social workers in rural areas. Using an evidence-based practice critical thinking model as a guide, a systematic review of literature and documents addresses many of the competencies needed to prepare social work students for child welfare practice in rural areas. These competencies are identified. Suggestions for integration into the social work curriculum are offered.

School of Health Sciences.

Roh, Soonhee, Kim, Youseung, Lee, Kyoung Hag, Lee, Yeon-Shim, Burnette, Catherine E., & Lawler, Michael J. (2015). Religion, Social Support, and Life Satisfaction Among American Indian Older Adults. Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work, 34(4), 414-434.

This study examined the associations among religion, social support, and life satisfaction with 233 older American Indians in the Northern Plains region. Hierarchical regression indicated that those with higher religiousness and greater social support were found to have greater life satisfaction. Findings suggest that religion and social support provide promising pathways to build upon existing strengths to ameliorate mental health disparities. Health professionals must be sensitive to the complexities of religion and social support, and consider ways to incorporate cultural practices into health education and interventions to promote the quality of life for older American Indians.

School of Health Sciences.

 

 

 

 

 

Posted by: reganenosusd | October 15, 2015

October 2015

Baack, Michelle L., Susan E. Puumala, Stephen E. Messier, Deborah K. Pritchett, & William S. Harris. (2015). What is the relationship between gestational age and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) levels? Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 100, 5-11.

Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are increasingly transferred from mother to fetus late in pregnancy. Infants born before this transfer is complete are at risk for deficiency. This study determines the relationship between gestational age (GA) and circulating LCPUFA levels to better understand the unique needs of premature infants born at various GAs. Whole blood was collected within the first 7 days of life from 60 preterm ( 34 weeks GA) and 30 term infants (<= 38 weeks GA) and FA levels were analyzed. Since concurrent intravenous lipid emulsion can skew composition data, blood LCPUFA concentrations were also measured. Levels were compared among groups, and linear regression models were used to examine the association between FA composition and GA. Preterm infants had significantly lower DHA and ARA levels than term peers, and whether assessed as concentrations or compositions, both directly correlated with GA (p < 0.0001). Moreover, FA comparisons suggest that premature infants have impaired synthesis of LCPUFAs from precursors and may require preformed DHA and ARA. This study confirms that essential FA status is strongly related to GA, and that those babies born the earliest are at the greatest risk of LCPUFA deficiency. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Dahdul, Wasila, T. Alexander Dececchi, N. Ibrahim, H. Lapp, & Paula Mabee. (2015). Moving the mountain: analysis of the effort required to transform comparative anatomy into computable anatomy. Database-the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation, 7.

The diverse phenotypes of living organisms have been described for centuries, and though they may be digitized, they are not readily available in a computable form. Using over 100 morphological studies, the Phenoscape project has demonstrated that by annotating characters with community ontology terms, links between novel species anatomy and the genes that may underlie them can be made. But given the enormity of the legacy literature, how can this largely unexploited wealth of descriptive data be rendered amenable to large-scale computation? To identify the bottlenecks, we quantified the time involved in the major aspects of phenotype curation as we annotated characters from the vertebrate phylogenetic systematics literature. This involves attaching fully computable logical expressions consisting of ontology terms to the descriptions in character-bytaxon matrices. The workflow consists of: (i) data preparation, (ii) phenotype annotation, (iii) ontology development and (iv) curation team discussions and software development feedback. Our results showed that the completion of this work required two person-years by a team of two post-docs, a lead data curator, and students. Manual data preparation required close to 13% of the effort. This part in particular could be reduced substantially with better community data practices, such as depositing fully populated matrices in public repositories. Phenotype annotation required similar to 40% of the effort. We are working to make this more efficient with Natural Language Processing tools. Ontology development (40%), however, remains a highly manual task requiring domain (anatomical) expertise and use of specialized software. The large overhead required for data preparation and ontology development contributed to a low annotation rate of approximately two characters per hour, compared with 14 characters per hour when activity was restricted to character annotation. Unlocking the potential of the vast stores of morphological descriptions requires better tools for efficiently processing natural language, and better community practices towards a born-digital morphology.

Biology Department.

Wang, Guojian, Mark Amman, Hao Mei, Dongming Mei, Klaus Irmscher, Yutong Guan, & Gang Yang. (2015). Crystal growth and detector performance of large size High-purity Ge crystals. Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 39, 54-60.

High-purity germanium crystals approximately 12 cm in diameter were grown in a hydrogen atmosphere using the Czochralski method. The dislocation density of the crystals was determined to be in the range of 2000–4200 cm −2 , which meets a requirement for use as a radiation detector. The axial and radial distributions of impurities in the crystals were measured and are discussed. A planar detector was also fabricated from one of the crystals and then evaluated for electrical and spectral performance. Measurements of gamma-ray spectra from Cs-137 and Am-241 sources demonstrate that the detector has excellent energy resolution.

Physics Department.

Balasanthiran, Choumini, Bo Zhao, Cuikon Lin, P. Stanley May, Mary T. Berry, & James D. Hoefelmeyer. (2015). Self-limiting adsorption of Eu3+ on the surface of rod-shape anatase TiO2 nanocrystals and post-synthetic sensitization of the europium-based emission. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 459, 63-69.

The surface of oleic acid stabilized rod-shape anatase TiO2 nanocrystals was modified by adsorption of Eu3+ ions. The Eu3+ attachment showed Langmuir adsorption behavior, thus the loading of Eu3+ could be controlled precisely up to surface saturation coverage. The Eu3+-TiO2 nanorods show weak Eu3+ based luminescence. However, addition of thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA) leads to coordination of the ligand to the Eu3+ centers and the TTFA-Eu3+-TiO2 materials exhibit strong Eu3+ fluorescence sensitized by the TTFA ligand. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

Richardson, Maurine V., Margaret B. Miller, James A. Richardson, & Mary Kathleen Sacks. (2015). LITERARY BAGS TO ENCOURAGE FAMILY INVOLVEMENT. Reading Improvement, 52(3), 126-131.

The article focuses on the use of literacy bags by the parents for early child’s language and literacy development. It mentions the use of several literacy bags according to different grade levels which include Book Bags, which are like a writing briefcase, Family Literacy Bags, which have a parent letter attached to it and Bluebird Baggage, which could be used by second and third graders.

School of Education [all 3 USD authors are emeritus faculty members]

Horton, Thomas J. (2015). Efficiencies and Antitrust Reconsidered: An Evolutionary Perspective. Antitrust Bulletin, 60(2), 168-187.

The author reconsiders the issue of efficiencies and antitrust from the perspectives of evolutionary biology and the growing field of evolutionary economics. He begins by discussing how the term efficiency as currently used in antitrust today is more of a term of social science and economic ideology than a meaningful scientific concept. He then moves on to address how the lessons of evolutionary biology and economics, including the need for systemic diversity and unremitting competition at all systemic levels, can be applied to structural antitrust and efficiencies analyses. The author concludes that it is time to bring fresh perspectives to the study of efficiencies and antitrust. He recommends a series of reforms, including increased and more aggressive enforcement against horizontal mergers between competitors; renewed interest in vertical mergers and agreements; and more aggressive guarding of competitive diversity and opportunity against unfair predatory conduct by dominant firms, monopolies, and oligopolies.

School of Law.

Brown-Rice, Kathleen, & Susan Furr. (2015). Gatekeeping Ourselves: Counselor Educators’ Knowledge of Colleagues’ Problematic Behaviors. Counselor Education & Supervision, 54(3), 176-188.

Counselor educators in programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs ( N = 335) were surveyed about their knowledge of colleagues’ problems of professional competency (PPC). Findings suggest most participants are aware of colleagues with PPC. Professional behavior standards must be developed for those entrusted with counselor preparation.

School of Education.

Battaglia, Agatino, J. C. Carey, & S. T. South. (2015). Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome: A review and update. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C-Seminars in Medical Genetics, 169(3), 216-223.

Since 4p- was first described in 1961, significant progress has been made in our understanding of this classic deletion disorder. We have been able to establish a more complete picture of the WHS phenotype associated with distal 4p monosomy, and we are working to delineate the phenotypic effects when each gene on distal 4p is hemizygous. Our aim is to provide genotype-specific anticipatory guidance and recommendations to families of individuals with a diagnosis of WHS. In addition, establishing the molecular underpinnings of the disorder will potentially suggest targets for molecular treatments. Thus, the next step is to determine the precise effects of specific gene deletions. As we look forward to deepening our understanding of distal 4p deletion, our focus will continue to be on the establishment of robust genotype-phenotype correlations and the penetrance of these phenotypes. We will continue to follow our WHS cohort closely as they age to determine the presence or absence of some of these comorbidities, including hepatic neoplasms, hematopoietic dysfunction, and recurrence of seizures. We will also continue to refine the critical regions for other phenotypes as we enroll additional (hopefully informative) participants into the research study and as the mechanisms of the genes in these regions are elucidated. New animal models will also be developed to further our understanding of the effects of hemizygosity as well as to serve as models for treatment development. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Davis, Dona L., A. Maurstad, & S. Dean. (2015). My Horse Is My Therapist: The Medicalization of Pleasure among Women Equestrians. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 29(3), 298-315.

Pink t-shirts that proclaim My horse is my therapist are for sale in a wide variety of horse-sport catalogues. Literature on the healing power of human-nonhuman animal encounters and the practice of a variety of animal-assisted therapy programs, such as hippotherapy and equine-facilitated therapy, show dramatic growth over the last 30 years. Less attention is paid to the role that horse-human interactions may play in more popular accountings of well-being and impairment among a sample of everyday riders. Analysis of 50 lifecycle narratives, collected from accomplished but nonprofessional equestriennes, demonstrates the complex and ambiguous ways in which women draw from their experience of human-horse relationships as they challenge and transgress the borderlands between pleasure and impairment. Combining the perspectives of multispecies ethnography and medical anthropology that engages the complexities of well-being, analysis is informed by and contributes to recent controversies concerning the medicalization of normality and pleasure in DSM 5.

Anthropology and Sociology Department [Emeritus].

Davis, Drew R., J. L. Watters, G. Kohler, C. Whitsett, N. A. Huron, R. M. Brown, . . . C. D. Siler. (2015). Redescription of the rare Philippine false gecko Pseudogekko brevipes (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) and description of a new species. Zootaxa, 4020(2), 357-374.

Recent investigations into the species diversity of false geckos (genus Pseudogekko Taylor) have revealed several cryptic species, highlighting the need for a more thorough understanding of diversity within this enigmatic genus of endemic Philippine geckos. Newly available genetic data reveal that two of the four currently recognized species are complexes of multiple deeply divergent evolutionary lineages. In this paper we evaluate species diversity in one of these complexes, P. brevipes Boettger, and describe one additional new species. For nearly a century, P. brevipes has been recognized as a single, “widespread” species with a geographic range spanning two major faunal regions and several island groups. Poor understanding of this species has persisted due to both limited sampling and its apparent rarity. We evaluate both morphological and genetic data to define species limits in P. brevipes, and find character-based evidence to justify the recognition of two unique evolutionary lineages, one of which we describe as a new species (P. atiorum sp. nov.). The species included in this study have allopatric distributions and differ from congeners by numerous diagnostic characters of external morphology, and therefore should be recognized as full species in accordance with lineage-based species concepts. This newly described species increases the total number of species of Pseudogekko to seven.

Biology Department.

Foss, Berit L., Niranjan Ghimire, Ruogu Tang, Yuyu Sun, & Ying Deng. (2015). Bacteria and osteoblast adhesion to chitosan immobilized titanium surface: A race for the surface. Colloids & Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 134, 370-376.

In order to evaluate the anti-infective efficacy of the titanium implant materials, two co-culture systems, a low-bacteria/osteoblast (L-B) and a high-bacteria/osteoblast system (H-B), were established. Untreated (UN-Ti), sulfuric acid-treated (SA-Ti), and chitosan immobilized titanium (SA-CS-Ti) materials were developed and evaluated. Bacteria and osteoblast behaviors, including initial attachment (evaluated at 30 mins), adhesion (evaluated at 4 h), and osteoblast spreading on each material surface were evaluated using quantification assays, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and confocal microscopy. Quantification analysis at 30 mins showed significantly higher number of osteoblast present on SA-CS-Ti in both L-B (10,083 ± 2626) and H-B (23,592 ± 2233) than those on the UN-Ti ( p < 0.05). SEM observation and confocal microscopy results showed more surface area was occupied by adhered osteoblasts on SA-CS-Ti than UN-Ti and SA-Ti in both co-culture systems at 30 mins. At all time points, SA-CS-Ti had the lowest level of bacterial adhesion compared to UN-Ti and SA-Ti in both co-culture systems. A significantly ( p < 0.05) lower number of bacteria were recovered from SA-CS-Ti (2233 ± 681) in the H-B system compared to UN-Ti (5367 ± 1662) and SA-Ti (4533 ± 680) at 4 h. Quantitative and qualitative co-culture results show the great potential of chitosan immobilization onto implant materials to prevent implant-associated infections.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

Simons, Raluca M., Austin M. Hahn, Jeffrey S. Simons, & Sam Gaster. (2015). Control and Alcohol-Problem Recognition Among College Students. Journal of American College Health, 63(6), 373-379.

Objective: This study examined negative control (ie, perceived lack of control over life outcomes) and need for control as predictors of alcohol-problem recognition, evaluations (good/ bad), and expectancies (likely/unlikely) among college students. The study also explored the interaction between the need for control and alcohol consumption in alcohol-related outcomes. Participants: Participants were a convenience sample of 500 college students from a rural Midwest university. Data were collected during the 2009-2010 academic year. Methods: Participants completed a survey assessing control and alcohol-problem recognition, evaluations, and expectancies. Results: Negative control demonstrated a significant positive association with alcohol-problem recognition, evaluations, and expectancies after controlling for gender and alcohol consumption. Need for control did not have a main effect. However, the interaction was significant in that the association between need for control and negative evaluation of alcohol problems was strongest among participants with the highest levels of alcohol consumption. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that individuals’ differences in sense of control are associated with alcohol-problem recognition, evaluations, and expectancies in young adults.

Psychology Department.

Larson, Katie E., & Maria Carrillo-Marquez. (2015). Endogenous methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus endophthalmitis after leg trauma. Journal of Aapos, 19(4), 387-389.

We present a case of endogenous endophthalmitis in a 13-year-old boy with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sepsis. The patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain after intermittent anisocoria was noted on examination, leading to a diagnosis of endophthalmitis with a chorodial abscess.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Roh, Soonhee, Lee Yeon-Shim, Kim Youseung, Park So-Young, & Chaudhuri Anoshua. (2015). Gender Differences in the Roles of Religious Support and Social Network Support in Reducing Depressive Symptoms Among Older Korean Americans. Journal of Social Service Research, 41(4), 484-497.

This study examined gender differences in the interaction effects of religious support and social network support on depressive symptoms among older Korean Americans. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 85 Korean American women and 115 Korean American men aged 65 years or older living in New York City. A 2-step hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that the associations between religious support, social network support, and depressive symptoms were different for older Korean men and women. Among men, social network support was identified as a strong predictor for depressive symptoms. Conversely, religious support was identified as a predictor for depressive symptoms among women. The interaction between social network support and religious support was found to be statistically significant only for women. Additionally, the association of social networks with fewer depressive symptoms was stronger for women with high religious support. Our findings highlight the importance of gender differences in understanding psychological effects of social network support within a religious-cultural context and the need for geriatric practitioners to assess carefully the quality and types of social support systems. Further studies are needed to identify common and gender-specific risk/protective factors among older Korean Americans to develop gender-targeted preventions and interventions to improve their psychological well-being.

School of Health Sciences.

Bubak, Andrew N., Nathaniel S. Rieger, Michael J. Watt, Kenneth J. Renner, & John G. Swallow. (2015). David vs. Goliath: Serotonin modulates opponent perception between smaller and larger rivals. Behavioural Brain Research, 292, 521-527.

During agonistic encounters, the perception of a larger opponent through morphological signaling typically suppresses aggression in the smaller individual, preventing contest intensity escalation. However, non-morphological factors such as central serotonin (5-HT) activity can influence individual aggression, potentially altering contest intensity despite initial size discrepancies. When male stalk-eyed flies ( Teleopsis dalmanni ) fight, contest escalation is directly proportional to similarity in body size, with escalation being lower in size-mismatched contests. We have shown that both high-intensity aggression and the probability of winning are increased in males with pharmacologically elevated 5-HT relative to size-matched non-treated opponents. Here, we hypothesized that, in size-mismatched contests, increasing brain 5-HT in the smaller opponent could similarly increase aggression and counteract the low contest intensity normally driven by size discrepancy. Size-mismatched male pairs (greater than 5% difference in eyestalk length) engaged in a forced fight paradigm, with the smaller fly either untreated or with pharmacologically elevated 5-HT levels. The expression of high-intensity aggressive behaviors was significantly increased in smaller treated opponents, but the probability of winning was not altered. This suggests that while elevated serotonergic activity can increase aggression and intensity despite perception of a larger opponent, this is not sufficient to overcome size biases with respect to contest outcome. However, the fact that larger opponents continued to win against smaller treated flies was not simply a function of size. Instead, untreated larger males adjusted their fighting strategy to match the increased aggression of their smaller treated opponent, suggesting contextual flexibility in behavior based on individual opponent assessment.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Manda, P., J. P. Balhoff, H. Lapp, Paula Mabee, & T. J. Vision. (2015). Using the phenoscape knowledgebase to relate genetic perturbations to phenotypic evolution. Genesis, 53(8), 561-571.

The abundance of phenotypic diversity among species can enrich our knowledge of development and genetics beyond the limits of variation that can be observed in model organisms. The Phenoscape Knowledgebase (KB) is designed to enable exploration and discovery of phenotypic variation among species. Because phenotypes in the KB are annotated using standard ontologies, evolutionary phenotypes can be compared with phenotypes from genetic perturbations in model organisms. To illustrate the power of this approach, we review the use of the KB to find taxa showing evolutionary variation similar to that of a query gene. Matches are made between the full set of phenotypes described for a gene and an evolutionary profile, the latter of which is defined as the set of phenotypes that are variable among the daughters of any node on the taxonomic tree. Phenoscape’s semantic similarity interface allows the user to assess the statistical significance of each match and flags matches that may only result from differences in annotation coverage between genetic and evolutionary studies. Tools such as this will help meet the challenge of relating the growing volume of genetic knowledge in model organisms to the diversity of phenotypes in nature. The Phenoscape KB is available at . genesis 53:561-571, 2015. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Biology Department.

Muthusamy, N., L. J. Sommerville, …., Jill M. Weimer, & H. T. Ghashghaei. (2015). MARCKS-dependent mucin clearance and lipid metabolism in ependymal cells are required for maintenance of forebrain homeostasis during aging. Aging Cell, 14(5), 764-773.

Ependymal cells (ECs) form a barrier responsible for selective movement of fluids and molecules between the cerebrospinal fluid and the central nervous system. Here, we demonstrate that metabolic and barrier functions in ECs decline significantly during aging in mice. The longevity of these functions in part requires the expression of the myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate (MARCKS). Both the expression levels and subcellular localization of MARCKS in ECs are markedly transformed during aging. Conditional deletion of MARCKS in ECs induces intracellular accumulation of mucins, elevated oxidative stress, and lipid droplet buildup. These alterations are concomitant with precocious disruption of ependymal barrier function, which results in the elevation of reactive astrocytes, microglia, and macrophages in the interstitial brain tissue of young mutant mice. Interestingly, similar alterations are observed during normal aging in ECs and the forebrain interstitium. Our findings constitute a conceptually new paradigm in the potential role of ECs in the initiation of various conditions and diseases in the aging brain.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Zhang, Yufeng, Marisa O. King, Erin Harmon, Kathleen Eyster, & David L. Swanson. (2015). Migration-induced variation of fatty acid transporters and cellular metabolic intensity in passerine birds. Journal of Comparative Physiology B-Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology, 185(7), 797-810.

Because lipids are the main fuel supporting avian endurance activity, lipid transport and oxidation capacities may increase during migration. We measured enzyme activities, mRNA expression and protein levels in pectoralis and heart for several key steps of lipid transport and catabolism pathways to investigate whether these pathways were upregulated during migration. We used yellow-rumped (Setophaga coronata) and yellow (S. petechia) warblers and warbling vireos (Vireo gilvus) as study species because they all show migration-induced increases in organismal metabolic capacities. For yellow-rumped warblers, beta-hydroxyacyl CoA-dehydrogenase (HOAD) activities and fatty acid transporter mRNA and/or protein levels were higher during spring than fall in pectoralis and heart, except that fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) protein levels showed the opposite pattern in heart. Lipid transporter protein levels, but not mRNA expression, in pectoralis and heart of warbling vireos were higher either during spring or fall than summer, but this was not true for HOAD activities. For yellow warblers, pectoralis, but not heart, protein levels of lipid transporters were upregulated during migration relative to summer, but this pattern was not evident for mRNA expression or HOAD activity. Finally, muscle and heart citrate synthase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase activities showed little seasonal variation for any species. These data suggest that pectoralis and heart lipid transport and catabolism capacities are often, but not universally, important correlates of elevated organismal metabolic capacity during migration. In contrast, migration-induced variation in cellular metabolic intensity and mitochondrial membrane transport are apparently not common correlates of the migratory phenotype in passerines.

Biology Department.

Fu, Y. Y., D. M. Zhao, Bo Pan, J. H. Wang, Y. Y. Cui, F. S. Shi, . . . L. F. Yang. (2015). Proteomic Analysis of Protein Expression Throughout Disease Progression in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Alzheimers Disease, 47(4), 915-926.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Mice in the transgenic A beta PPswe/PS1dE9 mouse line express a chimeric mouse/human amyloid-beta protein precursor (Mo/HuA beta PP695swe) and mutant human presenilin 1 (PS1-dE9) associated with early-onset AD. Knowing the protein expression in these mice may offer better understanding of the pathological changes in AD. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry techniques to compare protein expression in A beta PPswe/PS1dE9 mice with age-matched wild-type mice throughout the disease progression. We identified 15 proteins that were significantly different between the A beta PPswe/PS1dE9 mice and age-matched controls and also changed with disease development. Among those, the expression levels of the following proteins in A beta PPswe/PS1dE9 mice were at least 1.5 times higher than those in normal mice: DCC-interacting protein 13-beta, serum albumin, creatine kinase B-type, heat shock 70 kDa protein 1A, T-complex protein 1 subunit beta, adenylate kinase isoenzyme 1, pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit beta mitochondrial, and V-type proton ATPase catalytic subunit A. Levels of the following proteins in A beta PPswe/PS1dE9 mice were at least 1.5 times lower than those in normal mice: dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2, actin cytoplasmic 2, isoform 1 of V-type proton ATPase catalytic subunit, tubulin alpha-1C chain, F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-2, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1, and actin cytoplasmic 1. These proteins are involved in regulating various cellular functions, including cytoskeletal structure, energy metabolism, synaptic components, and protein degradation. These findings indicate altered protein expression in the pathogenesis of AD and illuminate novel therapeutic avenues for treatment in AD.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Lio, Yuhlong, J. C. Lu, & L. Y. Ruan. (2015). Robust Parameter Design for Quality and Reliability Issues Based on Accelerated Degradation Measurements. Ieee Transactions on Reliability, 64(3), 949-959.

Manufacturing quality and lifetime testing conditions may affect product reliability measurements. The literature for the design of experiments (DOE) and robust product optimization considering both quality and reliability issues is scarce. This article develops a model to include both manufacturing variables and accelerated degradation test (ADT) conditions. A simple algorithm provides calculations of the maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of these model parameters and percentile lifetimes. Variances of these estimates are derived based on large sample theory. Our DOE plans focus on deciding replication sizes and proportions of the test-units allocated at three stress levels for various manufacturing and ADT conditions. This work also explores robust parameter design (RPD) optimizations for selected controllable manufacturing variables to achieve the longest product lifetime and smallest variation in lifetime distributions.

Mathematics Department.

Pauli, Jonathan N., Wynne E. Moss, …., & Timothy H. Heaton. (2015). Examining the uncertain origin and management role of martens on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. Conservation Biology, 29(5), 1257-1267.

Conservation biologists are generally united in efforts to curtail the spread of non-native species globally. However, the colonization history of a species is not always certain, and whether a species is considered non-native or native depends on the conservation benchmark. Such ambiguities have led to inconsistent management. Within the Tongass National Forest of Alaska, the status of American marten ( Martes americana) on the largest, most biologically diverse and deforested island, Prince of Wales (POW), is unclear. Ten martens were released to POW in the early 1930s, and it was generally believed to be the founding event, although this has been questioned. The uncertainty surrounding when and how martens colonized POW complicates management, especially because martens were selected as a design species for the Tongass. To explore the history of martens of POW we reviewed other plausible routes of colonization; genetically and isotopically analyzed putative marten fossils deposited in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene to verify marten occupancy of POW; and used contemporary genetic data from martens on POW and the mainland in coalescent simulations to identify the probable source of the present-day marten population on POW. We found evidence for multiple routes of colonization by forest-associated mammals beginning in the Holocene, which were likely used by American martens to naturally colonize POW. Although we cannot rule out human-assisted movement of martens by Alaskan Natives or fur trappers, we suggest that martens be managed for persistence on POW. More generally, our findings illustrate the difficulty of labeling species as non-native or native, even when genetic and paleo-ecological data are available, and support the notion that community resilience or species invasiveness should be prioritized when making management decisions rather than more subjective and less certain conservation benchmarks.

Earth Sciences Department.

Tsai, T. R., Yuhlong Lio, N. Jiang, Y. J. Lin, & Y. Y. Fan. (2015). Economical sampling plans with warranty based on truncated data from Burr type XII distribution. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 66(9), 1511-1518.

Economical sampling plans to ensure the qualities of Burr type XII distributed lifetimes were established using a truncated life test. The Bayesian inference method was used to address the lot-to-lot variation of products. The sampling plan was characterized by the sample size and the acceptance number to minimize the expected total cost. A simple empirical Bayesian estimation method was provided to estimate the hyperparameters of prior distribution, and simulation studies were conducted to validate the proposed empirical Bayesian estimation method. Lastly, the application of this proposed method was illustrated using two examples.

Mathematics Department.

Cárcel-Trullols, Jaime, Attila D. Kovács, & David A. Pearce. (2015). Cell biology of the NCL proteins: What they do and don’t do. BBA – Molecular Basis of Disease, 1852(10), 2242-2255.

The fatal, primarily childhood neurodegenerative disorders, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), are currently associated with mutations in 13 genes. The protein products of these genes (CLN1 to CLN14) differ in their function and their intracellular localization. NCL-associated proteins have been localized mostly in lysosomes (CLN1, CLN2, CLN3, CLN5, CLN7, CLN10, CLN12 and CLN13) but also in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (CLN6 and CLN8), or in the cytosol associated to vesicular membranes (CLN4 and CLN14). Some of them such as CLN1 (palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1), CLN2 (tripeptidyl-peptidase 1), CLN5, CLN10 (cathepsin D), and CLN13 (cathepsin F), are lysosomal soluble proteins; others like CLN3, CLN7, and CLN12, have been proposed to be lysosomal transmembrane proteins. In this review, we give our views and attempt to summarize the proposed and confirmed functions of each NCL protein and describe and discuss research results published since the last review on NCL proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: “Current Research on the Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (Batten Disease)”.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Hooper, D. R., L. L. Dulkis, P. J. Secola, …., Brett A. Comstock, T. K. Szivak, . . . W. J. Kraemer. (2015). Roles of an Upper-Body Compression Garment on Athletic Performances. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29(9), 2655-2660.

Hooper, DR, Dulkis, LL, Secola, PJ, Holtzum, G, Harper, SP, Kalkowski, RJ, Comstock, BA, Szivak, TK, Flanagan, SD, Looney, DP, DuPont, WH, Maresh, CM, Volek, JS, Culley, KP, and Kraemer, WJ. Roles of an upper-body compression garment on athletic performances. J Strength Cond Res 29(9): 2655-2660, 2015-Compression garments (CGs) have been previously shown to enhance proprioception; however, this benefit has not been previously shown to transfer to improved performance in sports skills. The purpose of this study was to assess whether enhanced proprioception and comfort can be manifested in improved sports performance of high-level athletes. Eleven Division I collegiate pitchers (age: 21.0 +/- 2.9 years; height: 181.0 +/- 4.6 cm; weight: 89.0 +/- 13.0 kg; body fat: 12.0 +/- 4.1%) and 10 Division I collegiate golfers (age: 20.0 +/- 1.3 years; height: 178.1 +/- 3.9 cm; weight: 76.4 +/- 8.3 kg; body fat: 11.8 +/- 2.6%) participated in the study. A counterbalanced within-group design was used. Subjects performed the respective baseball or golf protocol wearing either typical noncompressive (NC) or the experimental CG. Golfers participated in an assessment of driving distance and accuracy, as well as approach shot, chipping, and putting accuracy. Pitchers were assessed for fastball accuracy and velocity. In pitchers, there was a significant (p <= 0.05) improvement in fastball accuracy (NC: 0.30 +/- 0.04 vs. CG: 0.21 +/- 0.07 cm). There were no differences in pitching velocity. In golfers, there were significant (p <= 0.05) improvements in driving accuracy (NC: 86.7 +/- 30.6 vs. CG: 68.9 +/- 18.5 feet), as well as approach shot accuracy (NC: 26.6 +/- 11.9 vs. CG: 22.1 +/- 8.2 feet) and chipping accuracy (NC: 2.9 +/- 0.6 vs. CG: 2.3 +/- 0.6 inch). There was also a significant (p <= 0.05) increase in comfort for the golfers (NC: 3.7 +/- 0.8 vs. CG: 4.5 +/- 1.0). These results demonstrate that comfort and performance can be improved with the use of CGs in high-level athletes being most likely mediated by improved proprioceptive cues during upper-body movements.

School of Education.

Shan, L. L., Ming Liu, C. Wu, L. Zhao, S. W. Li, L. S. Xu, . . . Y. Q. Gu. (2015). Multi-small molecule conjugations as new targeted delivery carriers for tumor therapy. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 10, 5571-5591.

In response to the challenges of cancer chemotherapeutics, including poor physicochemical properties, low tumor targeting ability, and harmful side effects, we developed a new tumor-targeted multi-small molecule drug delivery platform. Using paclitaxel (PTX) as a model therapeutic, we prepared two prodrugs, ie, folic acid-fluorescein-5(6)-isothiocyanate-arginine-paclitaxel (FA-FITC-Arg-PTX) and folic acid-5-aminofluorescein-glutamic-paclitaxel (FA-5AF-Glu-PTX), composed of folic acid (FA, target), amino acids (Arg or Glu, linker), and fluorescent dye (fluorescein in vitro or near-infrared fluorescent dye in vivo) in order to better understand the mechanism of PTX prodrug targeting. In vitro and acute toxicity studies demonstrated the low toxicity of the prodrug formulations compared with the free drug. In vitro and in vivo studies indicated that folate receptor-mediated uptake of PTX-conjugated multi-small molecule carriers induced high antitumor activity. Notably, compared with free PTX and with PTX-loaded macromolecular carriers from our previous study, this multi-small molecule-conjugated strategy improved the water solubility, loading rate, targeting ability, antitumor activity, and toxicity profile of PTX. These results support the use of multi-small molecules as tumor-targeting drug delivery systems.

Biology Department.

Skulas-Ray, A. C., M. R. Flock, C. K. Richter, William S. Harris, S. G. West, & P. M. Kris-Etherton. (2015). Red Blood Cell Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA n-3) is Inversely Associated with Triglycerides and C-reactive Protein (CRP) in Healthy Adults and Dose-Dependently Increases Following n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation. Nutrients, 7(8), 6390-6404.

The role of the long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in lipid metabolism and inflammation has been extensively studied; however, little is known about the relationship between docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3) and inflammation and triglycerides (TG). We evaluated whether n-3 DPA content of red blood cells (RBC) was associated with markers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting TG prior to n-3 supplementation in two studies (Study 1: n = 115, aged 20-44 years, body mass index (BMI) 20-30 kg/m(2), TG = 34-176 mg/dL; Study 2: n = 28, aged 22-65 years, BMI 24-37 kg/m(2), TG = 141-339 mg/dL). We also characterized the dose-response effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on RBC n-3 DPA after five months of supplementation with fish oil (Study 1: 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1800 mg/day EPA + DHA) and eight weeks of prescription n-3 ethyl esters (Study 2: 0, 850, and 3400 mg/day EPA + DHA). In Study 1, RBC n-3 DPA was inversely correlated with CRP (R-2 = 36%, p < 0.001) and with fasting TG (r = -0.30, p = 0.001). The latter finding was replicated in Study 2 (r = -0.33, p = 0.04). In both studies, n-3 supplementation significantly increased RBC n-3 DPA dose-dependently. Relative increases were greater for Study 1, with increases of 29%-61% vs. 14%-26% for Study 2. The associations between RBC n-3 DPA, CRP, and fasting TG may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis and chronic inflammatory diseases and warrant further study.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Hanlon, S. M., K. J. Lynch, Jacob L. Kerby, & M. J. Parris. (2015). The effects of a fungicide and chytrid fungus on anuran larvae in aquatic mesocosms. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(17), 12929-12940.

The amphibian disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has been linked to significant amphibian declines over the past three decades. The most severe effects of the pathogen have been primarily observed in relatively pristine areas that are not affected by many anthropogenic factors. One hypothesis concerning improved amphibian persistence with Bd in disturbed landscapes is that contaminants may abate the effects of Bd on amphibians. Recent laboratory studies have shown that pesticides, specifically the fungicide thiophanate-methyl (TM), can kill Bd outside of hosts and clear Bd infections within hosts. Using aquatic mesocosms, we tested the hypothesis that TM (0.43 mg/L) would alter growth and development of Lithobates sphenocephalus (southern leopard frog) tadpoles and Bd-infection loads in infected individuals. We hypothesized that the scope of such alterations and infection clearing would be affected by aquatic community variables, specifically zooplankton. TM altered zooplankton diversity (reduced cladoceran and increased copepod and ostracod abundances) and caused mortality to all tadpoles in TM-exposed tanks. In TM-free tanks, Bd-exposed tadpoles in high-density treatments metamorphosed smaller than Bd-unexposed, effects that were reversed in low-density treatments. Our study demonstrates the potential adverse effects of a fungicide and Bd on tadpoles and aquatic systems.

Biology Department.

Gonzalez-Olivares, E., & Jose D. Flores. (2015). CONSEQUENCES OF MULTIPLE ALLEE EFFECT IN AN OPEN ACCESS FISHERY MODEL. Journal of Biological Systems, 23, S101-S121.

This work deals with the dynamics of a bioeconomic continuous time model, where the combined action of the fishing effort exerted by men (as a predator) and multiple Allee effect or depensation on the growth rate of a self-regenerating resource (the prey) are considered. It has been recently established that a depensation phenomenon appears by diverse causes and new functions have been proposed to describe multiple Allee effects. One of these formalizations is here incorporated in the well-known Smith’s model, one of the simplest models to open access fisheries. We prove that this new and complex expression is topologically equivalent to a simpler form. Then, we postulate that the parsimony principle must be used to describe this phenomenon. It is also shown that in the phase plane of biomass-effort on the proposed model, the origin is an attractor equilibrium for all parameters values as a consequence of the Allee effect. Moreover, there is a subset of the parameter values, for which two limit cycles exist surrounding the unique positive equilibrium point of the system, one of them being asymptotically stable (the non damped oscillatory tragedy of the commons); hence, multiestability exists, particularly three-stability.

Mathematics Department.

Hahn, Austin M.Raluca M. Simons, & Jeffrey S. Simons. (2015). Childhood maltreatment and sexual risk taking: The mediating role of alexithymia. Archives of Sexual Behavior.

Childhood maltreatment is a significant predictor of sexual risk taking. The nature of this relationship is not fully understood; however, emotion dysregulation may play an important role. We tested the role of difficulty identifying and describing feelings (i.e., alexithymia) on the relationship between childhood maltreatment and sexual risk taking. Specifically, we hypothesized two mechanisms, one in which alexithymia is related to sexual risk taking via negative urgency and alcohol use and a second one in which alexithymia is related to sexual risk taking via neediness. The participants for this study were 425 sexually active college undergraduates (303 females, 122 males) between the ages of 18 and 25 years. The results of a structural equation model indicated that alexithymia accounted for a significant part of the relationship between child maltreatment and sexual risk behavior. Moreover, the relationship between alexithymia and sexual risk taking was fully accounted for by two separate paths. First, negative urgency and subsequent alcohol use partially mediated the relationship, and the second effect was accounted for by needy interpersonal style. Adverse experiences during childhood can impair emotional functioning and contribute to behavioral and interpersonal dysregulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

 Kindle, Karen J. (2015). Selecting Words for Instruction During Primary Read-alouds. Reading Horizons, 54(1), 48-77.

Reading aloud is a wide-spread practice in early childhood and primary classrooms that is purported to develop a range of literacy skills, including vocabulary. Since it is not feasible to teach all of the words in a given text, efforts to maximize the instructional power of read-aloud events have included research regarding word selection. This study explores the extent to which research-based practices for selecting words for instruction have been incorporated into the practices of four primary grade teachers. Findings indicate that teachers may rely more on intuition and personal experience to select words rather than following expert’s recommendations. Implications for practice, teacher preparation programs, and further research are discussed.

School of Education.

Monroe, Emy M., & Hugh B. Britten. (2015). Single-sample estimation of effective population size in several populations of the endangered Hine’s emerald dragonfly. Freshwater Science, 34(3), 1058-1064.

Hine’s emerald dragonfly (Somatochlora hineana) is the only odonate on the US Endangered Species list. It prefers discrete fen-and-wet-meadow habitat from Ontario, Canada, to Missouri, USA. This habitat has been destroyed across much of S. hineana’s range. Its conservation genetics were assessed by microsatellite analysis in a previous study. We applied 2 common single-sample estimators to the same data set to estimate effective population size (Ne), or effective number of breeders, in 5 populations (separated into adult and naiad stage classes) across the species’ range in 2008 and 2010-2011. Populations of the species in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, the Door Peninsula of Wisconsin, and along the Des Plaines River Valley in Illinois are made up of individuals collected from multiple sites, but the other 2 populations, at Cedarburg Bog, Wisconsin, and along the Lower Wisconsin River, consist of samples from single habitats disjunct from other known sites. Ne for S. hineana were similar to those for other endangered insects and ranged from 22 adults in the Des Plaines River Valley population in 2010 to 200 adults in the Door Peninsula population in 2010 based on approximate Bayesian estimation in ONeSAMP and from 8 naiads in the Door Peninsula population to 419 adults in the Des Plaines River Valley population based on the linkage disequilibrium method in NeEstimator. These Ne values confirm the endangered status of this species and indicate that efforts to maintain current habitats and connectivity to suitable habitat are essential to maintaining genetic diversity.

Biology Department.

Jungho, SonSem Raj Tamang, & James D. Hoefelmeyer. (2015). Crystal structure of bis(3-bromomesityl)(quinolin-1 ‘ium-8-yl)boron(lll) tribromide. Acta Crystallographica: Section E (International Union of Crystallography – IUCr), 71(9), 1114-1116.

The title compound, C27H26.82BBr2.18N+·Br3-, is a cationic triarylborane isolated as its tribromide salt. The aryl substituents include a protonated 8-quinolyl group and two 3-bromomesityl groups. The molecule was prepared on combination of 3:1 Br2 and dimesityl(quinolin-8-yl)borane in hexanes. The refinement of the structure indicated a degree of ‘over-bromination’ (beyond two bromine atoms) for the cation. There are two tribromide ions in the asymmetric unit, both completed by crystallographic inversion symmetry.

Chemistry Department.

Emery, Noah N., & Jeffrey S. Simons. (2015). Mood & alcohol-related attentional biases: New considerations for gender differences and reliability of the visual-probe task. Addictive Behaviors, 50, 1-5.

Introduction: Alcohol-related attentional biases are positively associated with drinking history and may represent a mechanism by which alcohol use behavior is maintained over time. This study was designed to address two unresolved issues regarding alcohol-related attention biases. Specifically, this study tested whether acute changes in positive and negative mood increase attentional biases toward alcohol cues and whether coping and enhancement drinking motives moderate these effects. Methods: Participants were 100 college students aged 18–25, who drank alcohol at least once in the last 90days. In a 2×3 mixed design, participants were randomized to one of three mood conditions (neutral, negative, or positive) and completed visual-probe tasks pre- and post-mood-induction. Results: Attentional biases toward alcohol cues were significantly associated with alcohol consumption among men, but not women. Although the mood manipulation was highly successful, attentional biases did not vary as a function of mood condition and hypothesized moderating effects of drinking motives were not significant. Conclusions: The largely null findings of the experiment are discussed in light of the fact that the visual probe task had poor reliability. Issues related to the reliability of visual-probe task are discussed, as more research is needed to evaluate and improve the psychometrics of this method. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Novick, Andrew M., Gina L. Forster, James E. Hassell, Daniel R. Davies, Jamie L. Scholl, Kenneth J. Renner, & Michael J. Watt. (2015). Increased dopamine transporter function as a mechanism for dopamine hypoactivity in the adult infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex following adolescent social stress. Neuropharmacology, 97(x), 194-200.

Being bullied during adolescence is associated with later mental illnesses characterized by deficits in cognitive tasks mediated by prefrontal cortex (PFC) dopamine (DA). Social defeat of adolescent male rats, as a model of teenage bullying victimization, results in medial PFC (mPFC) dopamine (DA) hypofunction in adulthood that is associated with increased drug seeking and working memory deficits. Increased expression of the DA transporter (DAT) is also seen in the adult infralimbic mPFC following adolescent defeat. We propose the functional consequence of this increased DAT expression is enhanced DA clearance and subsequently decreased infralimbic mPFC DA availability. To test this, in vivo chronoamperometry was used to measure changes in accumulation of the DA signal following DAT blockade, with increased DAT-mediated clearance being reflected by lower DA signal accumulation. Previously defeated rats and controls were pre-treated with the norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor desipramine (20 mg/kg, ip.) to isolate infralimbic mPFC DA clearance to DAT, then administered the selective DAT inhibitor GBR-12909 (20 or 40 mg/kg, sc.). Sole NET inhibition with desipramine produced no differences in DA signal accumulation between defeated rats and controls. However, rats exposed to adolescent social defeat demonstrated decreased DA signal accumulation compared to controls in response to both doses of GBR-12909, indicating greater DAT-mediated clearance of infralimbic mPFC DA. These results suggest that protracted increases in infralimbic mPFC DAT function represent a mechanism by which adolescent social defeat stress produces deficits in adult mPFC DA activity and corresponding behavioral and cognitive dysfunction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Simons, Jeffrey S., Thomas A. Wills, Noah N. Emery, & Russell M. Marks. (2015). Quantifying alcohol consumption: Self-report, transdermal assessment, and prediction of dependence symptoms. Addictive Behaviors, 50, 205-212.

Research on alcohol use depends heavily on the validity of self-reported drinking. The present paper presents data from 647days of self-monitoring with a transdermal alcohol sensor by 60 young adults. We utilized a biochemical measure, transdermal alcohol assessment with the WrisTAS, to examine the convergent validity of three approaches to collecting daily self-report drinking data: experience sampling, daily morning reports of the previous night, and 1-week timeline follow-back (TLFB) assessments. We tested associations between three pharmacokinetic indices (peak concentration, area under the curve (AUC), and time to reach peak concentration) derived from the transdermal alcohol signal and within- and between- person variation in alcohol dependence symptoms. The WrisTAS data corroborated 85.74% of self-reported drinking days based on the experience sampling data. The TLFB assessment and combined experience sampling and morning reports agreed on 87.27% of drinking days. Drinks per drinking day did not vary as a function of wearing or not wearing the sensor; this indicates that participants provided consistent reports of their drinking regardless of biochemical verification. In respect to self-reported alcohol dependence symptoms, the AUC of the WrisTAS alcohol signal was associated with dependence symptoms at both the within- and between- person level. Furthermore, alcohol dependence symptoms at baseline predicted drinking episodes characterized in biochemical data by both higher peak alcohol concentration and faster time to reach peak concentration. The results support the validity of self-report alcohol data, provide empirical data useful for optimal design of daily process sampling, and provide an initial demonstration of the use of transdermal alcohol assessment to characterize drinking dynamics associated with risk for alcohol dependence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Anderson, Carla, & Karen Card. (2015). Effective practices of financial education for college students: Students’ perceptions of credit card use and financial responsibility. College Student Journal, 49(2), 271-279.

The purpose of this quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group study was to determine the influence that a financial education intervention administered in First Year Experience courses had on students’ perceptions of their financial behavior such as compulsive spending and credit card use. This study utilized the five-point Likert-type scales: Compulsive Buying Scale (d’Astous, Maltais, & Roberge, 1990) and the Degree of Irrational Credit Use Scale (d’Astous, 1990) to assess a student’s predisposition to spend compulsively and to make unwise decisions with credit cards. This study included 502 students who were enrolled in a First Year Experience course at a mid-sized land-grant Great Plains university. The data were analyzed using t tests and analysis of covariance to determine if a significant difference existed between the groups. There were significant differences in the Compulsive Buying Scale pretest scores between the men and women, indicating that women may have a higher propensity to compulsively spend than men. Analysis of covariance found significant differences between the control group and both treatment groups for many individual questions on the Compulsive Buying Scale posttest as well as the composite posttest score (p <. 05). This revealed that the inclusion of financial education in first-year seminars makes a positive difference on the student’s perception of their financial behavior regarding compulsive spending decisions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

School of Education.  Anderson graduated from EDAD/AHED program with doctorate and remains with SDSU.

Maisto, Stephen A., & Jeffrey S. Simons. (2015). Research on the effects of alcohol and sexual arousal on sexual risk in men who have sex with men: Implications for hiv prevention interventions. AIDS and Behavior, x(x), xcxxxxxxx.

The purpose of this paper was to describe and appraise the research evidence on the effects of acute alcohol intoxication and sexual arousal on sexual risk behaviors in men who have sex with men (MSM) and to examine its implications for design of HIV prevention interventions that target MSM. Toward that end, the paper begins with a discussion of research on sexual arousal in men and alcohol and their acute effects on sexual behaviors. This is followed by a review of empirical evidence on the combined acute effects of alcohol and sexual arousal in heterosexual men (the large majority of studies) and then in MSM. The empirical evidence and related theoretical developments then are integrated to derive implications for developing effective HIV prevention interventions that target MSM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Dou, Wei-Dong, Shu-Ping Huang, & Chun-Sing Lee. (2015). Graphene-enhanced intermolecular interaction at interface between copper- and cobalt-phthalocyanines. Journal of Chemical Physics, 143(13), 1-7.

Interfacial electronic structures of copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc), cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPc), and graphene were investigated experimentally by using photoelectron spectroscopy. While the CuPc/graphene interface shows flat band structure and negligible interfacial dipole indicating quite weak molecule-substrate interaction, the CuPc/CoPc/graphene interface shows a large interfacial dipole and obvious energy level bending. Controlled experiments ruled out possible influences from the change in film structure of CuPc and pure π-π interaction between CoPc and CuPc. Analysis based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory reveals that the decrease in the work function for the CuPc/CoPc/graphene system is induced by the intermolecular interaction between CuPc and CoPc which is enhanced owning to the peculiar electronic properties at the CoPc-graphene interface.

Chemistry Department.

Goyeneche, Alicia A., Michael Koch, Maria C. Bell, & Carlos M. Telleria. (2015). Long-term primary culture of a clear cell ovarian carcinoma reveals an epithelial-mesenchymal cooperative interaction. Cancer Cell International, 15(1), 1-9.

Background: We studied a primary culture developed from a biopsy of a clear cell carcinoma of the ovary (O-CCC) by (a) assessing its capacity to retain in vitro pathological features of the tumor of origin; (b) characterizing the main cells released from the complex mass without forced purification of any particular cellular entity; and (c) investigating its long-term proliferative capacity. Methods: A primary cell culture was developed from a pelvic mass diagnosed as an O-CCC. The morphological analysis of the cell culture was carried out by phase contrast microscopy. Markers of epithelial, mesenchymal, and tumor initiating cells were evaluated by immunocytochemistry. Cell proliferation was studied by detection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporated into newly synthesized DNA. As a biomarker of O-CCC, we assessed the expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 1β. Results: We show that cells with epithelial morphological features express E-cadherin and expand with time in culture, a fact that the incorporation of BrdU confirms. Cells with mesenchymal-like characteristics that express the mesenchymal marker vimentin, however, allocate to the edges of the epithelial compartment. Moreover, we found that some cells with epithelial features also expressed vimentin. At the beginning of incubation, over 60 % of primary cells expressed the O-CCC marker HNF1β; such percentage declined upon passaging. We show that epithelial not mesenchymal cells undergo DNA replication, and that few cells in both epithelial and mesenchymal compartments express the stem-like tumor antigen CD133. Conclusions: We provide proof-of-principle that cells separated in bulk from a biopsy of an O-CCC can be maintained in culture for several months, and that two consistent cellular compartments–one epithelial that retains the O-CCC marker HNF1β, and another mesenchymal–persist, and seem to have a cooperative interaction leading to the multiplication of epithelial cells within a mesenchymal cellular environment.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Sathyanesan, Monica, M. J. Girgenti, J. Warner-Schmidt, & Samuel S. Newton. (2015). Indomethacin induced gene regulation in the rat hippocampus. Molecular Brain, 8, 12.

Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as indomethacin are widely used to treat inflammatory diseases and manage pain, fever and inflammation in several conditions, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Although they predominantly function by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, important COX-independent actions also occur. These actions could be responsible for the adverse side effects associated with chronic and/or high dose usage of this popular drug class. Results: We examined gene regulation in the hippocampus after peripheral administration of indomethacin by employing a microarray approach. Secondary confirmation and the brain expression pattern of regulated genes was examined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Transglutaminase 2, serum glucocorticoid inducible kinase, Inhibitor of NF-kappa B and vascular endothelial growth factor were among genes that were prominently upregulated, while G-protein coupled receptor 56 and neuropeptide Y were among genes that were downregulated by indomethacin. Co-localization studies using blood vessel markers revealed that transglutaminase 2 was induced specifically in brain vasculature. Conclusions: The data demonstrate that COX-inhibitors can differentially regulate gene transcription in multiple, functionally distinctly cell types in the brain. The results provide additional insight into the molecular actions of COX-inhibitors and indicate that their effects on vasculature could influence cerebral blood flow mechanisms.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Hall, P., Heather A. Love, & S. Uesugi. (2015). 21CW: Norbert Wiener in the 21st Century. Ieee Technology and Society Magazine, 34(3), 33-34.

English Department

Hopkins, Paul N., James V. Pottala, & M. Nazeem Nanjee. (2015). A comparative study of four independent methods to measure LDL particle concentration. Atherosclerosis (00219150), 243(1), 99-106.

Background Low-density lipoprotein particle concentration (LDL-P) is generally more predictive of clinical cardiovascular endpoints than LDL cholesterol (LDL-C). Few studies have directly compared multiple LDL-P methods, particularly with ultracentrifugation. Objective Examine comparability and precision of 4 LDL-P methods. Methods We divided serum from 48 subjects into blinded triplicates and measured LDL-P in 3 separate laboratories by 4 methods: ultracentrifugation (reference method), a novel electrophoretic method, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) by 2 independent methods: a 400 MHz Vantera ® instrument supplied by Liposcience (LS-NMR) and operated at ARUP Laboratories, and a 600 MHz Bruker instrument (ASCEND 600) operated at Health Diagnostic Laboratory (HD-NMR). Results Of the 4 methods, ultracentrifugation was the most precise and LS-NMR the least; the latter had a significantly greater CV (p < 0.0001) as compared with all 3 of the other methods, although all CVs were clinically acceptable. The electrophoretic method showed similar precision to ultracentrifugation, while HD-NMR was intermediate. The HD-NMR had the slope closest to 1 (0.90, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.09) and the intercept closest to 0 (−48, −353 to 256) compared to the ultracentrifugation method in Deming regression models. While the two NMR methods correlated well (r = 0.95) with each other and had a slope equivalent to 1 (1.08, 0.98 to 1.19), their intercept in Deming regression excluded 0 (194, 53 to 335) indicating a vertical shift between the two methods. Conclusions This LDL-P method comparison may prove useful for future research and clinical applications. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Atherosclerosis (00219150) is the property of Elsevier Science and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Shalowitz, David I., Allison G. Smith, Maria C. Bell, & Randall K. Gibb. (2015). Teleoncology for gynecologic cancers. Gynecologic Oncology, 139(1), 172-177.

Teleoncology describes cancer care provided remotely to improve access to care in rural or underserved areas. In the United States, 14.8 million women live more than 50 miles away from the closest gynecologic oncologist; 4.3 million women live more than 100 miles distant. Teleoncology may therefore partially relieve the geographic barriers to high-quality gynecologic cancer care these women experience. Little has been published on the feasibility of remote provision of high-quality care for gynecologic cancers, perhaps owing to the particular difficulties inherent in remote management of patients who may require both medical and surgical intervention. In this article, we review the data supporting the use of telemedicine in the treatment of cancer patients with a specific focus on applicability to management of gynecologic malignancies. We further add our group’s experience with the treatment of rural, underserved gynecologic cancer patients. We believe that development of teleoncologic systems is critical to ensure that all women have access to high-quality gynecologic cancer care, regardless of where they reside.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

Gaher, Raluca M., Ashley M. Arens, & Hanako Shishido. (2015). Alexithymia as a Mediator Between Childhood Maltreatment and Impulsivity. Stress & Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 31(4), 274-280.

The article discusses the study regarding the association between childhood maltreatment (CM), negative urgency, and alexithymia. The method for the analysis on the role of alexithymia as mediator between impulsivity and childhood maltreatment was developed considering the examination on the effects of maltreatment and alexithymia subscales. It mentions that the analyses indicates that children growing in a punishing environment was indirectly associated with negative urgency.

Psychology Department.

Teng, Yanfen, Khosrow Rezvani, & Mariella De Biasi. (2015). UBXN2A regulates nicotinic receptor degradation by modulating the E3 ligase activity of CHIP. Biochemical Pharmacology, 97(4), 518-530.

Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the α3 subunit are known for their prominent role in normal ganglionic transmission while their involvement in the mechanisms underlying nicotine addiction and smoking-related disease has been emerging only in recent years. The amount of information available on the maturation and trafficking of α3-containing nAChRs is limited. We previously showed that UBXN2A is a p97 adaptor protein that facilitates the maturation and trafficking of α3-containing nAChRs. Further investigation of the mechanisms of UBXN2A actions revealed that the protein interacts with CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsc70 interacting protein), whose ubiquitin E3 ligase activity regulates the degradation of several disease-related proteins. We show that CHIP displays E3 ligase activity toward the α3 nAChR subunit and contributes to its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. UBXN2A interferes with CHIP-mediated ubiquitination of α3 and protects the nicotinic receptor subunit from endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD). UBXN2A also cross-talks with VCP/p97 and HSC70/HSP70 proteins in a complex where α3 is likely to be targeted by CHIP. Overall,we identify CHIP as an E3 ligase for α3 and UBXN2A as a protein that may efficiently regulate the stability of CHIP’s client substrates.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Newswander, Chad B. (2015). Administrative Character: Hard and Soft Look Considerations. American Review of Public Administration, 45(6), 746-759.

Managerial competence expressed in the promise of science provides administrators with a set of dispositions. In attempting to achieve such a character, the Supreme Court set up a hard look orientation that used rational means to justify the substance of administrative power. Even though this mode of operation grants legitimacy resulting from meeting a high threshold, it also began to cripple administrative reasoning and movement. When problems are multifaceted, administrative character must be given room to explore. Taking this into consideration, the court also established an alternative space rooted in a soft look that encouraged a different type of administrative character. It has done this by establishing the foundations of a legal framework that privileges deference, which allows for prudence to emerge. Rooted in classical origin and updated in modern parlance, prudence can be leveraged as a way to not only deal with questions of law but also with substance.

Political Science and Criminal Justice Department.

Yampolsky, Lev Y., Erliang Zeng, Jacqueline Lopez, Patricia J. Williams, Kenneth B. Dick, John K. Colbourne, & Michael E. Pfrender. (2014). Functional genomics of acclimation and adaptation in response to thermal stress in Daphnia. BMC Genomics, 15(1), 859-870.

Background: Gene expression regulation is one of the fundamental mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity and is expected to respond to selection in conditions favoring phenotypic response. The observation that many organisms increase their stress tolerance after acclimation to moderate levels of stress is an example of plasticity which has been long hypothesized to be based on adaptive changes in gene expression. We report genome-wide patterns of gene expression in two heat-tolerant and two heat-sensitive parthenogenetic clones of the zooplankton crustacean Daphnia pulex exposed for three generations to either optimal (18°C) or substressful (28°C) temperature. Results: A large number of genes responded to temperature and many demonstrated a significant genotype-by-environment (GxE) interaction. Among genes with a significant GxE there were approximately equally frequent instances of canalization, i.e. stronger plasticity in heat-sensitive than in heat-tolerant clones, and of enhancement of plasticity along the evolutionary vector toward heat tolerance. The strongest response observed is the across-the-board down-regulation of a variety of genes occurring in heat-tolerant, but not in heat-sensitive clones. This response is particularly obvious among genes involved in core metabolic pathways and those responsible for transcription, translation and DNA repair. Conclusions: The observed down-regulation of metabolism, consistent with previous findings in yeast and Drosophila, may reflect a general compensatory stress response. The associated down-regulation of DNA repair pathways potentially creates a trade-off between short-term benefits of survival at high temperature and long-term costs of accelerated mutation accumulation.

Computer Science Department.

Rivera, Peter, Melinda Gonzales-Backen, …., S. Jean Caraway, Robert Weisskirch, Su Kim, & Lindsay Ham. (2015). Family Violence Exposure and Sexual Risk-Taking Among Latino Emerging Adults: The Role of Posttraumatic Stress Symptomology and Acculturative Stress. Journal of Family Violence, 30(8), 967-976.

This study proposes that posttraumatic stress symptomology and acculturative stress may further explain the relationship between family violence exposure and sexual risk-taking behaviors among Latino emerging adults ( N = 1,100). A moderated mediation analysis indicated that lifetime rates of family violence exposure were positively associated with sexual risk-taking via posttraumatic stress symptomology, and this mediation significantly varied as a function of acculturative stress. Overall, the findings of the current study underscore a need for a better understanding of how family violence exposure puts Latino emerging adults at risk for aversive health outcomes and suggest the use of an ecological systemic framework that examines the interactions between family, individual, and cultural systems in relation to health risk-taking behaviors.

Psychology Department.

Fercho, Kelene, Lee A. Baugh, & Elizabeth K. Hanson. (2015). Effects of Alphabet-Supplemented Speech on Brain Activity of Listeners: An fMRI Study. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, 58(5), 1452-1463.

Purpose: The purpose of this article was to examine the neural mechanisms associated with increases in speech intelligibility brought about through alphabet supplementation. Method: Neurotypical participants listened to dysarthric speech while watching an accompanying video of a hand pointing to the 1st letter spoken of each word on an alphabet display (treatment condition) or a scrambled display (control condition). Their hemodynamic response was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging, using a sparse sampling event-related paradigm. Speech intelligibility was assessed via a forced-choice auditory identification task throughout the scanning session. Results: Alphabet supplementation was associated with significant increases in speech intelligibility. Further, alphabet supplementation increased activation in brain regions known to be involved in both auditory speech and visual letter perception above that seen with the scrambled display. Significant increases in functional activity were observed within the posterior to mid superior temporal sulcus/superior temporal gyrus during alphabet supplementation, regions known to be involved in speech processing and audiovisual integration. Conclusion: Alphabet supplementation is an effective tool for increasing the intelligibility of degraded speech and is associated with changes in activity within audiovisual integration sites. Changes in activity within the superior temporal sulcus/superior temporal gyrus may be related to the behavioral increases in intelligibility brought about by this augmented communication method.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus AND Communication Disorders Department

Specker, B., N. W. Thiex, & Ramu G. Sudhagoni. (2015). Does Exercise Influence Pediatric Bone? A Systematic Review. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 473(11), 3658-3672.

Periods of growth are thought to be the best time to increase bone mineral content, bone area, and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) through increased loading owing to high rates of bone modeling and remodeling. However, questions remain regarding whether a benefit of exercise is seen at all bone sites, is dependent on pubertal status or sex of the child, or whether other factors such as diet modify the response to exercise. We asked: (1) Does bone-loading exercise in childhood consistently increase bone mineral content, bone area, or aBMD? (2) Do effects of exercise differ depending on pubertal status or sex? (3) Does calcium intake modify the bone response to exercise? A literature search identified 22 unique trials for inclusion in this meta-analysis of the effect of exercise on bone changes by bone site, pubertal status, and sex. Sample sizes ranged from 16 to 410 subjects 3 to 18 years old with length of intervention ranging from 3 to 36 months. Fifteen of 22 trials were randomized (child randomized in nine, classroom/school randomized in six) and seven were observational trials. Ten trials were Level 2 and 11 were Level 3 based on the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine criteria. Random effects models tested the difference (intervention mean effect-control mean effect) in percent change in bone mineral content, bone area, and aBMD. Meta-regression was used to identify sources of heterogeneity and funnel plots were used to assess publication bias. Children assigned to exercise had greater mean percent changes in bone mineral content and aBMD than children assigned to the control groups. Mean differences (95% CI) in bone mineral content percent change between intervention and control groups at total body (0.8; 95% CI, 0.3-1.3; p = 0.003), femoral neck (1.5; 95% CI, 0.5-2.5; p = 0.003), and spine (1.7; 95% CI, 0.4-3.1; p = 0.01) were significant with no differences in bone area (all p > 0.05). There were greater percent changes in aBMD in intervention than control groups at the femoral neck (0.6; 95% CI, 0.2-1.1; p = 0.006) and spine (1.2; 95% CI, 0.6-1.8; p < 0.001). Benefit of exercise was limited to children who were prepubertal (bone mineral content: total body [0.9; 95% CI, 0.2-1.7; p = 0.01], femoral neck [1.8; 95% CI, 0.0-3.5; p = 0.047], spine [3.7; 95% CI, 0.8-6.6; p = 0.01], and aBMD: femoral neck [0.6; 95% CI, -0.1-1.2; p = 0.07], spine [1.5; 95% CI, 0.7-2.3; p < 0.001]), with no differences among children who were pubertal (all p > 0.05). Changes in aBMD did not differ by sex (all p > 0.05), although the number of studies providing male-specific results was small (six of 22 eligible studies included boys). There was significant heterogeneity in bone mineral content and bone area for which a source could not be identified. Heterogeneity in spine aBMD was reduced by including calcium intake and intervention length as covariates. Three trials designed to determine whether calcium intake modified the bone response to exercise all reported a greater effect of exercise on leg bone mineral content in children randomized to receive supplemental calcium than those receiving placebo. Exercise interventions during childhood led to 0.6% to 1.7% greater annual increase in bone accrual, with effects predominantly among children who were prepubertal. If this effect were to persist into adulthood, it would have substantial implications for osteoporosis prevention. It is important to identify sources of heterogeneity among studies to determine factors that might influence the bone response to increased exercise during growth. Level II, therapeutic study.

School of Health Sciences.

Berry, Mary T., & P. Stanley May. (2015). Disputed Mechanism for NIR-to-Red Upconversion Luminescence in NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+. Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 119(38), 9805-9811.

The most commonly proposed mechanisms for NIR-to-red upconversion in the well-studied material beta-NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ are evaluated in order to resolve inconsistencies that persist in the literature. Each of four possible mechanisms is evaluated in terms of the direct analysis of spectroscopic data. It is shown that there are no important mechanisms that involve the first excited state of Er3+, I-4(13/2), as an intermediate state. A large body of evidence overwhelmingly supports the proposed mechanism of Anderson et al., which suggests an intimate connection between NIR-to-red and NIR-to-blue upconversion. Namely, both red and blue upconversion are produced primarily by a three-photon excitation process that proceeds through the green emitting state to a dense manifold of states, (4)G/K-2, above the blue emitting state, H-2(9/2). Competing relaxation mechanisms out of (4)G/K-2 determine the relative amounts of blue and red upconversion produced. Multiphonon relaxation from (4)G/K-2 results in blue upconversion, whereas back energy transfer from Er3+ ((4)G/K-2) to Yb3+ (F-2(7/2)) results in red emission.

Chemistry Department.

Li, J., W. X. Ma, H. Z. Li, N. Hou, Xuejun Wang, I. M. Kim, . . . H. B. Su. (2015). NEDD8 Ultimate Buster 1 Long (NUB1L) Protein Suppresses Atypical Neddylation and Promotes the Proteasomal Degradation of Misfolded Proteins. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 290(39), 23850-23862.

Neddylation is a posttranslational modification that controls diverse biological processes by covalently conjugating the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 to specific targets. Neddylation is commonly mediated by NEDD8-specific enzymes (typical neddylation) and, sometimes, by ubiquitin enzymes (atypical neddylation). Although typical neddylation is known to regulate protein function in many ways, the regulatory mechanisms and biological consequence of atypical neddylation remain largely unexplored. Here we report that NEDD8 conjugates were accumulated in the diseased hearts from mouse models and human patients. Proteotoxic stresses induced typical and atypical neddylation in cardiomyocytes. Loss of NUB1L exaggerated atypical neddylation, whereas NUB1L overexpression repressed atypical neddylation through promoting the degradation of NEDD8. Activation of atypical neddylation accumulated a surrogate misfolded protein, GFPu. In contrast, suppression of atypical neddylation by NUB1L overexpression enhanced GFPu degradation. Moreover, NUB1L depletion accumulated a cardiomyopathy-linked misfolded protein, CryAB(R120G), whereas NUB1L overexpression promoted its degradation through suppressing neddylation of ubiquitinated proteins in cardiomyocytes. Consequently, NUB1L protected cells from proteotoxic stress-induced cell injury. In summary, these data indicate that NUB1L suppresses atypical neddylation and promotes the degradation of misfolded proteins by the proteasome. Our findings also suggest that induction of NUB1L could potentially become a novel therapeutic strategy for diseases with increased proteotoxic stress.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Posted by: reganenosusd | August 31, 2015

Fall 2015

Ghersa, F., J. Burdisso, S. S. Vallcaneras, …., Carlos M. Telleria, & M. Casais. (2015). Neuromodulation of the luteal regression: presence of progesterone receptors in coeliac ganglion. Experimental Physiology, 100(8), 935-946.

New Findings What is the central question of this study? The processes involved in luteal involution have not yet been clarified and, in general, have been studied only from a hormonal point of view. We investigated whether progesterone, from the coeliac ganglion through the superior ovarian nerve, is able to modify the luteal regression of late pregnancy in the rat. What is the main finding and its importance? We showed that the luteal regression might be reversed by the neural effect of progesterone and demonstrated the presence of its receptors in the coeliac ganglion. This suggests that the peripheral neural pathway, through neuron-hormone interaction, represents an additional mechanism to control luteal function in addition to the classical endocrine regulation. The corpus luteum (CL) is a transitory endocrine gland that produces progesterone (P). At the end of its useful life, it suffers a process of functional and structural regression until its complete disappearance from the ovary. To investigate whether P is able to regulate the process of luteal regression through the peripheral neural pathway, we used the coeliac ganglion (CG)-superior ovarian nerve-ovary system from rats on day21 of pregnancy. We stimulated the CG with P and analysed the functional regression through ovarian P release measured by radioimmunoassay, expression by RT-PCR and activity of luteal 3- and 20-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (anabolic and catabolic P enzymes, respectively). The luteal structural regression was evaluated through a study of apoptosis measured by TUNEL assay and the expression of apoptotic factors, such as Bcl-2, Bax, Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) by RT-PCR. To explore whether the effects mediated by P on the CL may be associated with P receptors, their presence in the CG was investigated by immunohistochemistry. In the group stimulated with P in the CG, the ovarian P release and the 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity increased, whereas the expression and activity of 20-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase decreased. In addition, a decrease in the number of apoptotic nuclei and a decrease of the expression of FasL were observed. We demonstrated the presence of P receptors in the CG. Overall, our results suggest that the regression of the CL of late pregnancy may be reprogrammed through the peripheral neural pathway, and this effect might be mediated by P bound to its receptor in the CG.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Halaby, M. J., Y. Li, B. R. Harris, S. X. Jiang, W. Keith Miskimins, M. P. Cleary, & D. Q. Yang. (2015). Translational Control Protein 80 Stimulates IRES-Mediated Translation of p53 mRNA in Response to DNA Damage. Biomed Research International, 9.

Synthesis of the p53 tumor suppressor increases following DNA damage. This increase and subsequent activation of p53 are essential for the protection of normal cells against tumorigenesis. We previously discovered an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that is located at the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of p53 mRNA and found that the IRES activity increases following DNA damage. However, the mechanism underlying IRES-mediated p53 translation in response to DNA damage is still poorly understood. In this study, we discovered that translational control protein 80 (TCP80) has increased binding to the p53 mRNA in vivo following DNA damage. Overexpression of TCP80 also leads to increased p53 IRES activity in response to DNA damage. TCP80 has increased association with RNA helicase A (RHA) following DNA damage and overexpression of TCP80, along with RHA, leads to enhanced expression of p53. Moreover, we found that MCF-7 breast cancer cells with decreased expression of TCP80 and RHA exhibit defective p53 induction following DNA damage and diminished expression of its downstream target PUMA, a proapoptotic protein. Taken together, our discovery of the function of TCP80 and RHA in regulating p53 IRES and p53 induction following DNA damage provides a better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate IRES-mediated p53 translation in response to genotoxic stress.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Novick, Andrew M., Gina L. Forster, James E. Hassell, Daniel R. Davies, Jamie L. Scholl, Kenneth J. Renner,& Michael J. Watt. (2015). Increased dopamine transporter function as a mechanism for dopamine hypoactivity in the adult infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex following adolescent social stress. Neuropharmacology, 97, 194-200.

Being bullied during adolescence is associated with later mental illnesses characterized by deficits in cognitive tasks mediated by prefrontal cortex (PFC) dopamine (DA). Social defeat of adolescent male rats, as a model of teenage bullying victimization, results in medial PFC (mPFC) dopamine (DA) hypofunction in adulthood that is associated with increased drug seeking and working memory deficits. Increased expression of the DA transporter (DAT) is also seen in the adult infralimbic mPFC following adolescent defeat. We propose the functional consequence of this increased DAT expression is enhanced DA clearance and subsequently decreased infralimbic mPFC DA availability. To test this, in vivo chronoamperometry was used to measure changes in accumulation of the DA signal following DAT blockade, with increased DAT-mediated clearance being reflected by lower DA signal accumulation. Previously defeated rats and controls were pre-treated with the norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor desipramine (20 mg/kg, ip.) to isolate infralimbic mPFC DA clearance to DAT, then administered the selective DAT inhibitor GBR-12909 (20 or 40 mg/kg, sc.). Sole NET inhibition with desipramine produced no differences in DA signal accumulation between defeated rats and controls. However, rats exposed to adolescent social defeat demonstrated decreased DA signal accumulation compared to controls in response to both doses of GBR-12909, indicating greater DAT-mediated clearance of infralimbic mPFC DA. These results suggest that protracted increases in infralimbic mPFC DAT function represent a mechanism by which adolescent social defeat stress produces deficits in adult mPFC DA activity and corresponding behavioral and cognitive dysfunction.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Ranek, Mark J., Hanqiao Zheng, Wei Huang, Asangi R. Kumarapeli, Jie Li, Jinbao Liu, & Xuejun Wang. (2015). Genetically induced moderate inhibition of 20S proteasomes in cardiomyocytes facilitates heart failure in mice during systolic overload. Journal of Molecular & Cellular Cardiology, 85, 273-281.

The in vivo function status of the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) in pressure overloaded hearts remains undefined. Cardiotoxicity was observed during proteasome inhibitor chemotherapy, especially in those with preexisting cardiovascular conditions; however, proteasome inhibition (PsmI) was also suggested by some experimental studies as a potential therapeutic strategy to curtail cardiac hypertrophy. Here we used genetic approaches to probe cardiac UPS performance and determine the impact of cardiomyocyte-restricted PsmI (CR-PsmI) on cardiac responses to systolic overload. Transgenic mice expressing an inverse reporter of the UPS (GFPdgn) were subject to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to probe myocardial UPS performance during systolic overload. Mice with or without moderate CR-PsmI were subject to TAC and temporally characterized for cardiac responses to moderate and severe systolic overload. After moderate TAC (pressure gradient: ~ 40 mm Hg), cardiac UPS function was upregulated during the first two weeks but turned to functional insufficiency between 6 and 12 weeks as evidenced by the dynamic changes in GFPdgn protein levels, proteasome peptidase activities, and total ubiquitin conjugates. Severe TAC (pressure gradients > 60 mm Hg) led to UPS functional insufficiency within a week. Moderate TAC elicited comparable hypertrophic responses between mice with and without genetic CR-PsmI but caused cardiac malfunction in CR-PsmI mice significantly earlier than those without CR-PsmI. In mice subject to severe TAC, CR-PsmI inhibited cardiac hypertrophy but led to rapidly progressed heart failure and premature death, associated with a pronounced increase in cardiomyocyte death. It is concluded that cardiac UPS function is dynamically altered, with the initial brief upregulation of proteasome function being adaptive; and CR-PsmI facilitates cardiac malfunction during systolic overload.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Broadbent, C. D., D. S. Brookshire, Mark D. Dixon, & …. (2015). Valuing preservation and restoration alternatives for ecosystem services in the southwestern USA. Ecohydrology, 8(5), 851-862.

Conservation of freshwater ecosystems in the semi-arid southwestern USA is a critical issue as these systems support habitat for wildlife and provide consumptive use for humankind. Economists have utilized stated preference techniques to value non-marketed goods and services such as freshwater ecosystems for much of the last four decades. Recently, Boyd and Banzhaf (2007) have advocated for ecosystem accounting units to be created in valuing ecosystem services such as freshwater ecosystems. Working collectively, a team of physical and social scientists developed a set of ecological endpoints for two river regions in the southwestern USA and used these ecological endpoints in a contingent valuation survey to obtain willingness to pay values for restoration and preservation alternatives. The results demonstrate statistically significant preservation and restoration estimates for the Upper San Pedro and restoration estimates for the Middle Rio Grande ecosystems. Copyright (c) 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Biology Department.

Dixon, Mark D., Christopher J. Boever, Victoria L. Danzeisen, Christopher L. Merkord, Eszter C. Munes, Michael L. Scott, . . . Tim C. Cowman. (2015). Effects of a “natural’ flood event on the riparian ecosystem of a regulated large-river system: the 2011 flood on the Missouri River, USA. Ecohydrology, 8(5), 812-824.

Flow regulation has significantly altered hydrological, geomorphic, and ecological processes on the Missouri River. Cumulative effects are evident in declines in cottonwood (Populus deltoides) recruitment and in altered forest age structure and composition. Record runoff in 2011 exceeded reservoir capacity on the Upper and Middle Missouri, leading to a 500-year recurrence interval flood in terms of volume, with the highest peak discharge in 59years and flood durations of up to 3months. We assessed the effects of this large infrequent disturbance’ by comparing pre-flood (2006-2009) to post-flood (2012) changes in riparian forests along two unchannelized segments of the Missouri River. Live shrub and tree density declined sharply within young forest stands (<30years). Higher proportions of non-native (Elaeagnus angustifolia) and upland (Juniperus virginiana) trees showed evidence of recent mortality than did the native cottonwood. Sandbar area increased sharply from 2006 to 2012 and area of young forests declined, with particularly sharp declines in sapling stands that had established following the previous post-dam record flow releases in 1997. Cottonwood recruitment was widespread in 2012, but nearly all seedling patches occurred on sandbars in the active channel rather than on overbank sites, with moderately high (61-77%) seedling mortality over 2012-2013. Physical and operational constraints within the regulated Missouri River limited the restorative effects of the 2011 flood and will likely limit future forest recovery. Process-based riparian restoration would require restoring flow and sediment regimes that more closely mimic historical conditions, as well as overcoming the physical legacies of decades of flow regulation. Copyright (c) 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Biology Department.

Harmon, Erin, Marisa O. King, Zhang Yufeng,& David L. Swanson. (2015). Summer-to-Winter Phenotypic Flexibility of Fatty Acid Transport and Catabolism in Skeletal Muscle and Heart of Small Birds. Physiological& Biochemical Zoology, 88(5), 535-549.

Prolonged shivering in birds is mainly fueled by lipids. Consequently, lipid transport and catabolism are vital for thermogenic performance and could be upregulated along with thermogenic capacity as part of the winter phenotype. We investigated summer-to-winter variation in lipid transport and catabolism by measuring mRNA expression, protein levels, and enzyme activities for several key steps of lipid transport and catabolic pathways in pectoralis muscle and heart in two small temperate-zone resident birds, American goldfinches (Spinus tristis) and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Cytosolic fatty acid binding protein (FABPc; a key component of intramyocyte lipid transport) mRNA and/or protein levels were generally higher in winter for pectoralis muscle and heart for both species. However, seasonal variation in plasma membrane lipid transporters, fatty acyl translocase, and plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein in pectoralis and heart differed between the two species, with winter increases for chickadees and seasonal stability or summer increases for goldfinches. Catabolic enzyme activities generally showed limited seasonal differences for both tissues and both species. These data suggest that FABPc is an important target of upregulation for the winter phenotype in pectoralis and heart of both species. Plasma membrane lipid transporters and lipid catabolic capacity were also elevated in winter for chickadees but not for goldfinches. Because the two species show differential regulation of distinct aspects of lipid transport and catabolism, these data are consistent with other recent studies documenting that different bird species or populations employ a variety of strategies to promote elevated winter thermogenic capacity.

Biology Department.

Johnson, W. C., M. A. Volke, Michael L. Scott, & Mark D. Dixon. (2015). The dammed Missouri: prospects for recovering Lewis and Clark’s River. Ecohydrology, 8(5), 765-771.

The world’s dams and reservoirs are aging. The ecological effects of a half-century or more of flow regulation and sediment alteration are becoming apparent. What remains of the highly dynamic channel and riparian ecosystem of the Missouri River described by Lewis and Clark has become static. Recent long-term studies have determined that some of the impacts on the Missouri River ecosystem turned out as predicted, such as the failure of cottonwood-dominated riparian forests to successfully establish and survive on a broad scale. Other changes were surprises, such as the effect of disease eliminating a formerly dominant tree species and the appearance of mainstem and tributary deltas affecting channel slope, floodplain hydrology, and vegetation. Restoration of the river’s hydrologic and sediment regime has been delayed long enough that the chances of functional ecosystem restoration have been greatly reduced and complicated. Two phases are now needed to attempt to restore the riparian ecosystem: one to repair the effects of post-dam changes (channel incision, bank stabilization) and another to reestablish pre-dam flow and sediment regimes. The prospects for restoration of this valuable ecosystem, rich in history and in goods and services provided to the public, are dim. Time has diminished the chances that restoration or even rehabilitation can be achieved. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Biology Department.

Zhang, Yufeng F., Kathy Eyster, J. S. Liu, & David L. Swanson. (2015). Cross-training in birds: cold and exercise training produce similar changes in maximal metabolic output, muscle masses and myostatin expression in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Journal of Experimental Biology, 218(14), 2190-2200.

Maximal metabolic outputs for exercise and thermogenesis in birds presumably influence fitness through effects on flight and shivering performance. Because both summit (M-sum, maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate) and maximum (MMR, maximum exercise metabolic rate) metabolic rates are functions of skeletal muscle activity, correlations between these measurements and their mechanistic underpinnings might occur. To examine whether such correlations occur, we measured the effects of experimental cold and exercise training protocols for 3 weeks on body (M-b) and muscle (M-pec) masses, basalmetabolic rate(BMR), M-sum, MMR, pectoralism RNA and protein expression for myostatin, and mRNA expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2 (metalloproteinase activators of myostatin) in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Both training protocols increased M-sum, MMR, M-b and M-pec, but BMR increased with cold training and decreased with exercise training. No significant differences occurred for pectoralis myostatin mRNA expression, but cold and exercise increased the expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2. Pectoralis myostatin protein levels were generally reduced for both training groups. These data clearly demonstrate cross-training effects of cold and exercise in birds, and are consistent with a role for myostatin in increasing pectoralis muscle mass and driving organismal increases in metabolic capacities.

Biology Department.

Zhang, Yufeng F., Marissa O. King, Erin Harmon, & David L. Swanson. (2015). Summer-to-Winter Phenotypic Flexibility of Fatty Acid Transport and Catabolism in Skeletal Muscle and Heart of Small Birds. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 88(5), 535-549.

Prolonged shivering in birds is mainly fueled by lipids. Consequently, lipid transport and catabolism are vital for thermogenic performance and could be upregulated along with thermogenic capacity as part of the winter phenotype. We investigated summer-to-winter variation in lipid transport and catabolism by measuring mRNA expression, protein levels, and enzyme activities for several key steps of lipid transport and catabolic pathways in pectoralis muscle and heart in two small temperate-zone resident birds, American goldfinches (Spinus tristis) and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Cytosolic fatty acid binding protein (FABP(c); a key component of intramyocyte lipid transport) mRNA and/or protein levels were generally higher in winter for pectoralis muscle and heart for both species. However, seasonal variation in plasma membrane lipid transporters, fatty acyl translocase, and plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein in pectoralis and heart differed between the two species, with winter increases for chickadees and seasonal stability or summer increases for goldfinches. Catabolic enzyme activities generally showed limited seasonal differences for both tissues and both species. These data suggest that FABP(c) is an important target of upregulation for the winter phenotype in pectoralis and heart of both species. Plasma membrane lipid transporters and lipid catabolic capacity were also elevated in winter for chickadees but not for goldfinches. Because the two species show differential regulation of distinct aspects of lipid transport and catabolism, these data are consistent with other recent studies documenting that different bird species or populations employ a variety of strategies to promote elevated winter thermogenic capacity.

Biology Department.

Eichler, B., J. Erickson, J. Keppen, Andrew Sykes, & Grigoriy Sereda. (2015). A non-planar crystal polymorph of 1,2-bis(9-anthracenyl)ethyne. Tetrahedron Letters, 56(31), 4574-4577.

1,2-Bis(9-anthracenyl)ethyne was synthesized and a new crystal polymorph was discovered. The previously reported structure was completely planar with a torsional angle between the two anthracenyl rings of 0.0 degrees, whereas the new polymorph had a torsional angle of 66.6 degrees. The new polymorph also stacks differently between molecules and has greater pi-electron overlap. In solution, the spectroscopic characteristics of both polymorphs were identical, but in the solid-state, results of red-shifted spectra for the co-planar polymorph indicate a strikingly simple example of the effect on UV-vis and fluorescence spectra of extending pi-conjugation wrapped up in one molecule with two polymorphs. It was also determined that the co-planar polymorph is favored with rapid crystallization, whereas the twisted polymorph prefers slow crystallization. This may indicate that the co-planar polymorph is kinetically favored and the twisted polymorph is thermodynamically favored. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

Kilina, Svetlana, Dmitri Kilin, & Sergei Tretiak. (2015). Light-Driven and Phonon-Assisted Dynamics in Organic and Semiconductor Nanostructures. Chemical Reviews, 115(12), 5929-5978.

The article discusses photophysical properties, sensitivity to the structural disorder and surface effects of semiconductor colloidal quantum dots (QD), single-walled carbon nanotubes and conjugated polymers also called organic semiconductors. It highlights the role of computational modeling to elucidate structure-function relationship in nanostructured materials and talks about geometry optimization and electronic structure calculation along with QD-ligand interactions.

Chemistry Department.

Mahoney, Luther, Rui Peng, Chia-Ming Wu, Jonas Baltrusaitis, & Ranjit T. Koodali. (2015). Solar simulated hydrogen evolution using cobalt oxide nanoclusters deposited on titanium dioxide mesoporous materials prepared by evaporation induced self-assembly process. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 40(34), 10795-10806.

Cobalt containing TiO 2 mesoporous materials were prepared by Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly (EISA) process. The resulting mesoporous materials were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen physisorption, Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The photocatalytic activities of the mesoporous materials were investigated for hydrogen production under solar simulated conditions. The non-modified TiO 2 sample produced only 4 μmole H 2 /g catalyst after 4 h of irradiation. In contrast, the Co containing mesoporous materials produced significantly higher amounts of hydrogen under identical conditions. The highest solar hydrogen evolution (634 μmole H 2 /g catalyst after 4 h of irradiation) was from the Co-TiO 2 -0.5 material. The physico-chemical characterization results indicate that the Co 2+ ions are dispersed as oxide species on the surface of the mesoporous titania. These cobalt surface species act as trap sites preventing recombination of the charge carriers as shown by PL measurements. The addition of Co 2+ ions to the synthesis mixture prevents the formation of anatase-to-rutile which favorably permits more solar hydrogen production.

Chemistry Department.

Chiang, Jyun-You, Tzong-Ru Tsai, Y. Lio Lio, Wanbo Lu, & Daimin Shi. (2015). An integrated approach for the optimization of tolerance design and quality cost. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 87, 186-192.

Different normality-based optimization strategy (NBOS) methods have been developed and used to perform quality improvement in the past few decays. Improving the quality of a production process using a NBOS method possibly incurs misleading results if the quality measurements follow a skewed distribution. An integrated model, with components of a tolerance cost model for the determinations of optimal tolerance limits and a quality investment model for the identification of optimal investment level, is applied to establish a new optimization strategy method for the skew normal distribution (SND), named SNDOS method. The SND generalizes the normal distribution to include skewed distributions as members, and hence the SNDOS method is applicable for quality improvement either the distribution of quality measurements follow a symmetric or skewed distribution. Two examples about car seat production process are used to illustrate the application of the SNDOS method. The sensitivity of the SNDOS method to the loss coefficient of the integrated model is evaluated for different inputs of the skewness parameter of the SND through a numerical study.

Mathematics Department.

Tsai, Tzong-Ru, Yuhlong Lio, Nan Jiang, Yu-Jau Lin, & Ya-Yen Fan. (2015). Economical sampling plans with warranty based on truncated data from Burr type XII distribution. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 66(9), 1511-1518.

Economical sampling plans to ensure the qualities of Burr type XII distributed lifetimes were established using a truncated life test. The Bayesian inference method was used to address the lot-to-lot variation of products. The sampling plan was characterized by the sample size and the acceptance number to minimize the expected total cost. A simple empirical Bayesian estimation method was provided to estimate the hyperparameters of prior distribution, and simulation studies were conducted to validate the proposed empirical Bayesian estimation method. Lastly, the application of this proposed method was illustrated using two examples.

Mathematics Department.

Bahar, A. N., S. Waheed, & Nazir Hossain. (2015). A new approach of presenting reversible logic gate in nanoscale. Springerplus, 4, 7.

Conventional lithography-based VLSI design technology deployed to optimize low-powered-computing and higher scale integration of semiconductor components. However, this downscaling trend confronts serious challenges of tunneling and leakage current increment to the Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology on nanoscale regimes. To resolve the physical restriction of the CMOS, Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) technology dedicates for the nanoscale technology that embrace a new information transformation technique. However, QCA is limited to the design of the sequential and combinational circuits only. This paper presents some highly scalable features reversible logic gate for the QCA technology. In addition, proposed layout compared with CMOS technology, offer a better reduction in size up to 233 times.

Physics Department.

Miller, Ross A., L. L. Waters, D. R. Mody, & Kimberlee C. Tams. (2015). Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix A Cytology-Histology-Human Papillomavirus Correlation in Clinical Practice. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 139(6), 776-781.

Context.-Cervical cancer mortality has declined by 74% in the United States since the implementation of the Papanicolaou (Pap) test. Nevertheless, more than 12 000 US women annually develop cervical cancer, and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCa) remains the predominant cervical malignancy. Objective.-To evaluate screening techniques used in the detection of SqCa of the cervix and provide insights regarding which technique(s) is (are) most efficacious in our study population. Design.-We retrospectively reviewed all available cytologic, human papillomavirus (HPV), and histologic malignancy burden data from patients diagnosed with SqCa. The clinical data were collected from 2 geographically and socioeconomically diverse hospital systems. Cases in which identified patients had a Pap test with a negative result/unsatisfactory specimen within 5 years of SqCa tissue diagnosis were considered Pap test screening failures. Cases in which patients were diagnosed with HPV-negative SqCa were considered HPV screening failures. Results.-Eighty-eight cases (patients’ ages ranging from 19 to 73 years) were identified. Of those, cytologic history was available for 64 cases present in our electronic medical history record. Three cases were cytology screening failures (one being an unsatisfactory specimen) and 3 cases were HPV screening failures (one being the cytologic unsatisfactory case). Although measuring sensitivity in practice has limitations, we calculated the SqCa detection sensitivity at 95.3% by Pap test alone and 97% when HPV DNA testing was incorporated. Conclusions.-Our results highlight the necessity of combining Pap and HPV testing. Although the number of cases identified is relatively small, our data suggest detection failures will decrease as the practice of combining HPV and Pap testing increases.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Posted by: reganenosusd | August 28, 2015

Summer 2015

Niemonen, Jack. (2015). Whither the White Working Class? A Comment on Khanna and Harris, “Discovering Race in a “Post-Racial’ World: Teaching Race through Primetime Television”.Teaching Sociology, 43(3), 236-241. 

Even though I recognize the value of using the mass media to teach sociological concepts and reveal racial biases, I caution against the use of classroom exercises that are developed solely in the context of whiteness studies. Overarching statements of white privilege mask complex race-class interactions generally and the mass media’s stereotypical depictions of the white working class specifically. In this conversation, I explain why the use of the concept white privilege in and of itself obfuscates more than it reveals complex race-class interactions today.

Anthropology and Sociology.

McCormick, Kara, Jiang, Z., Zhu, L. C., Lawson, S. R., Langenhorst, R., Ransburgh, R., Brunick, ColinTracy, Miranda C.Hurtig, Heather R.Mabee, Leah M.Mingo, Mark, Li, Y. H., Webby, R. J., Huber, Victor C., & Fang, Y. (2015). Construction and Immunogenicity Evaluation of Recombinant Influenza A Viruses Containing Chimeric Hemagglutinin Genes Derived from Genetically Divergent Influenza A H1N1 Subtype Viruses. Plos One, 10(6).

Background and Objectives Influenza A viruses cause highly contagious diseases in a variety of hosts, including humans and pigs. To develop a vaccine that can be broadly effective against genetically divergent strains of the virus, in this study we employed molecular breeding (DNA shuffling) technology to create a panel of chimeric HA genes. Methods and Results Each chimeric HA gene contained genetic elements from parental swine influenza A viruses that had a history of zoonotic transmission, and also from a 2009 pandemic virus. Each parental virus represents a major phylogenetic clade of influenza A H1N1 viruses. Nine shuffled HA constructs were initially screened for immunogenicity in mice by DNA immunization, and one chimeric HA (HA-129) was expressed on both a A/Puerto Rico/8/34 backbone with mutations associated with a live, attenuated phenotype (PR8(LAIV)-129) and a A/swine/Texas/4199-2/98 backbone (TX98-129). When delivered to mice, the PR8(LAIV)-129 induced antibodies against all four parental viruses, which was similar to the breadth of immunity observed when HA-129 was delivered as a DNA vaccine. This chimeric HA was then tested as a candidate vaccine in a nursery pig model, using inactivated TX98-129 virus as the backbone. The results demonstrate that pigs immunized with HA-129 developed antibodies against all four parental viruses, as well as additional primary swine H1N1 influenza virus field isolates. Conclusion This study established a platform for creating novel genes of influenza viruses using a molecular breeding approach, which will have important applications toward future development of broadly protective influenza virus vaccines.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Rajkowska, Grazyna, Mahajan, Gouri, Maciag, Dorota, Sathyanesan, Monica, Iyo, Abiye H., Moulana, Mohadetheh, Kyle, Patrick B., Woolverton, William L., Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose Javier, Stockmeier, Craig A., & Newton, Samuel S. (2015). Oligodendrocyte morphometry and expression of myelin – Related mRNA in ventral prefrontal white matter in major depressive disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 65, 53-62.

White matter disturbance in the ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) in major depressive disorder (MDD) has been noted with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). However, the cellular and molecular pathology of prefrontal white matter in MDD and potential influence of antidepressant medications is not fully understood. Oligodendrocyte morphometry and myelin-related mRNA and protein expression was examined in the white matter of the vPFC in MDD. Sections of deep and gyral white matter from the vPFC were collected from 20 subjects with MDD and 16 control subjects. Density and size of CNPase-immunoreactive (-IR) oligodendrocytes were estimated using 3-dimensional cell counting. While neither density nor soma size of oligodendrocytes was significantly affected in deep white matter, soma size was significantly decreased in the gyral white matter in MDD. In rhesus monkeys treated chronically with fluoxetine there was no significant effect on oligodendrocyte morphometry. Using quantitative RT-PCR to measure oligodendrocyte-related mRNA for CNPase, PLP1, MBP, MOG, MOBP, Olig1 and Olig2, in MDD there was a significantly reduced expression of PLP1 mRNA (which positively correlated with smaller sizes) and increased expression of mRNA for CNPase, OLIG1 and MOG. The expression of CNPase protein was significantly decreased in MDD. Altered expression of four myelin genes and CNPase protein suggests a mechanism for the degeneration of cortical axons and dysfunctional maturation of oligodendrocytes in MDD. The change in oligodendrocyte morphology in gyral white matter may parallel altered axonal integrity as revealed by DTI.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Yuan, Sharleen, & Burrell, Brian D. (2013). Nonnociceptive afferent activity depresses nocifensive behavior and nociceptive synapses via an endocannabinoid-dependent mechanism. Journal of Neurophysiology, 110(11), 2607-2616.

Previously, low-frequency stimulation (LFS) of a nonnociceptive touch-sensitive neuron has been found to elicit endocannabinoid-dependent long-term depression (eCB-LTD) in nociceptive synapses in the leech central nervous system (CNS) that requires activation of a presynaptic transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)-like receptor by postsynaptically synthesized 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). This capacity of nonnociceptive afferent activity to reduce nociceptive signaling resembles gate control of pain, albeit longer lasting in these synaptic experiments. Since eCB-LTD has been observed at a single sensory-motor synapse, this study examines the functional relevance of this mechanism, specifically whether this form of synaptic plasticity has similar effects at the behavioral level in which additional, intersegmental neural circuits are engaged. Experiments were carried out using a semi-intact preparation that permitted both synaptic recordings and monitoring of the leech whole body shortening, a defensive withdrawal reflex that was elicited via intracellular stimulation of a single nociceptive neuron (the N cell). The same LFS of a nonnociceptive afferent that induced eCB-LTD in single synapses also produced an attenuation of the shortening reflex. Similar attenuation of behavior was also observed when 2-AG was applied. LFS-induced behavioral and synaptic depression was blocked by tetrahydrolipstatin (THL), a diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor, and by SB366791, a TRPV1 antagonist. The effects of both THL and SB366791 were observed following either bath application of the drug or intracellular injection into the presynaptic (SB366791) or postsynaptic (THL) neuron. These findings demonstrate a novel, endocannabinoid-based mechanism by which nonnociceptive afferent activity may modulate nocifensive behaviors via action on primary afferent synapses.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Cyr, Tim, Windels, Steve K., Moen, Ron, & Warmbold, Jerry W. (2014). DIVERSITY AND ABUNDANCE OF TERRESTRIAL GASTROPODS IN VOYAGEURS NATIONAL PARK, MN: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE RISK OF MOOSE BECOMING INFECTED WITH PARELAPHOSTRONGYLUS TENUIS. Alces, 50, 121-132.

Voyageurs National Park (VNP) has a stable population of about 40-50 moose (AIces alces). Recent declines in moose abundance in adjacent areas in northern Minnesota raise concerns about the long-term viability of moose in VNP. The parasitic nematode Parelaphostrongylus tenuis has been documented in moose in VNP and has been implicated in moose declines in other populations. Terrestrial gastropods are the intennediate hosts for P. tenuis, and describing spatial and temporal differences in their abundance should increase understanding about the risk of P. tenuis infection for VNP moose at the individual and population levels. We used cardboard sheets to estimate species composition and abundance of terrestrial gastropods in representative vegetation communities in VNP. We collected a total of 6,595 gastropods representing 25 species, 22 terrestrial snails and 3 slugs; 8 are known vectors of P. tenuis, including the slug Deroceras laeve, the most common species found. Gastropods were more abundant in September than July, and in upland forests (maximum = 555 gastropods/ m2) more than in wetter lowlands (20 gastropods/m2). We used location data from GPScollared moose in VNP to estimate the relative exposure of moose to gastropods that could be infected with P. tenuis larvae. The boreal hardwood forest and northern spruce-fir forest ecotypes had the highest use by moose and high abundance of P. tenuis vectors in summer, and may pose the greatest risk for infection. Habitat use and the related risk of ingesting gastropod vectors varied by individual moose. Our method can be extended in moose range to estimate the relative risk of P. tenuis infection.

Biology Department [Student]

Furness, Ambur N., & Soluk, Daniel A. (2015). The potential of diversion structures to reduce roadway mortality of the endangered Hine’s emerald dragonfly (Somatochlora hineana). Journal of Insect Conservation, 19(3), 449-455.

Roadways near wetlands and ponds inflict high roadkill rates on a wide variety of taxa. For threatened or endangered species that typically do not have large adult populations, fast reproduction rates, and/or rapid recolonization rates, such mortality is likely to have significant population consequences. Thus, exploring ways to reduce roadkill rates will have considerable conservation benefits. In this study, we evaluate whether a diversion structure can be used to modify flight behavior of the endangered Hine’s emerald dragonfly (Somatochlora hineana) in ways that would reduce roadway mortality. Flight behavior of adult S. hineana was observed with and without two 3 m high nets spaced at 6 and 12 m to simulate a small and a larger roadway. The netting significantly deterred (p < 0.0001) S. hineana adults from crossing the simulated roadway. Flight height was also influenced significantly (p = 0.0025) with flight heights over the 6 m net spacing being higher than those over the 12 m spacing. This study suggests that the use of diversion netting in areas where sensitive dragonfly species interact with motor vehicles might aid in reducing roadway mortality and might help reduce the overall impact of roadways on wetland ecosystems.

Biology Department.

Eichler, Barrett, Erickson, Jeremy, Keppen, Joseph, Sykes, Andrew, & Sereda, Grigoriy. (2015). A non-planar crystal polymorph of 1,2-bis(9-anthracenyl)ethyne. Tetrahedron Letters: International Organ for the Rapid Publication of Preliminary Communications in Organic Chemistry, 56(31), 4574-4577.

1,2-Bis(9-anthracenyl)ethyne was synthesized and a new crystal polymorph was discovered. The previously reported structure was completely planar with a torsional angle between the two anthracenyl rings of 0.0°, whereas the new polymorph had a torsional angle of 66.6°. The new polymorph also stacks differently between molecules and has greater π–electron overlap. In solution, the spectroscopic characteristics of both polymorphs were identical, but in the solid-state, results of red-shifted spectra for the co-planar polymorph indicate a strikingly simple example of the effect on UV–vis and fluorescence spectra of extending π-conjugation wrapped up in one molecule with two polymorphs. It was also determined that the co-planar polymorph is favored with rapid crystallization, whereas the twisted polymorph prefers slow crystallization. This may indicate that the co-planar polymorph is kinetically favored and the twisted polymorph is thermodynamically favored.

Chemistry Department.

Mariappan, KadarkaraisamyAlaparthi, MadhubabuHoffman, MariahRama, Myriam AlcantarBalasubramanian, VinothiniJohn, Danielle M., & Sykes, Andrew G. (2015). Improved selectivity for Pb(II) by sulfur, selenium and tellurium analogues of 1,8-anthraquinone-18-crown-5: synthesis, spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography and computational studies. Dalton Transactions, 44(26), 11774-11787.

We report here a series of heteroatom-substituted macrocycles containing an anthraquinone moiety as a fluorescent signaling unit and a cyclic polyheteroether chain as the receptor. Sulfur, selenium, and tellurium derivatives of 1,8-anthraquinone-18-crown-5 (1) were synthesized by reacting sodium sulfide (Na2S), sodium selenide (Na2Se) and sodium telluride (Na2Te) with 1,8-bis(2-bromoethylethyleneoxy) anthracene-9,10-dione in a 1 : 1 ratio. The optical properties of the new compounds are examined and the sulfur and selenium analogues produce an intense green emission enhancement upon association with Pb(II) in acetonitrile. Selectivity for Pb(II) is markedly improved as compared to the oxygen analogue 1 which was also competitive for Ca(II) ion. UV-Visible and luminescence titrations reveal that 2 and 3 form 1 : 1 complexes with Pb(II), confirmed by single-crystal X-ray studies where Pb(II) is complexed within the macrocycle through coordinate covalent bonds to neighboring carbonyl, ether and heteroether donor atoms. Cyclic voltammetry of 2-8 showed classical, irreversible oxidation potentials for sulfur, selenium and tellurium heteroethers in addition to two one-electron reductions for the anthraquinone carbonyl groups. DFT calculations were also conducted on 1, 2, 3, 6, 6 + Pb(II) and 6 + Mg(II) to determine the trend in energies of the HOMO and the LUMO levels along the series.

Chemistry Department.

Shen, W., Lin, X., Jiang, Chaoyang, Li, C. Y., Lin, H. X., Huang, J. T., Wang, S., Liu, G. K., Yan, X. M., Zhong, Q. L., & Ren, B. (2015). Reliable Quantitative SERS Analysis Facilitated by Core-Shell Nanoparticles with Embedded Internal Standards. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, 54(25), 7308-7312.

Quantitative analysis is a great challenge in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Core-molecule-shell nanoparticles with two components in the molecular layer, a framework molecule to form the shell, and a probe molecule as a Raman internal standard, were rationally designed for quantitative SERS analysis. The signal of the embedded Raman probe provides effective feedback to correct the fluctuation of samples and measuring conditions. Meanwhile, target molecules with different affinities can be adsorbed onto the shell. The quantitative analysis of target molecules over a large concentration range has been demonstrated with a linear response of the relative SERS intensity versus the surface coverage, which has not been achieved by conventional SERS methods.

Chemistry Department.

Jorgensen, Lindsey E., & Messersmith, Jessica J. (2015). Impact of Aging and Cognition on Hearing Assistive Technology Use. Seminars in Hearing, 36(3), 162-174.

Many factors go into appropriate recommendation and use of hearing assistive technology (HAT). The aging auditory system presents with its own complications and intricacies; there are many types of age-related hearing loss, and it is possible that the underlying cause of hearing loss can significantly impact the recommendations and performance with HATs. The audiologist should take into consideration peripheral and central auditory function when selecting HATs for the aging adult population as well as when selecting appropriate types of technology including personal sound amplification products, hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other assistive technology. The cognitive ability of the patient plays a central role in the recommendations of HAT. It is possible that the use of HATs could mitigate some of the effects of cognitive decline and thus should be considered as early as possible. Assessment of ability and appropriate recommendations are crucial to consistent use of HAT devices.

Communication Disorders Department.

Emery, Noah N., & Simons, Jeffrey S. (2015). Mood & alcohol-related attentional biases: New considerations for gender differences and reliability of the visual-probe task. Addictive Behaviors, 50, 1-5.

Introduction Alcohol-related attentional biases are positively associated with drinking history and may represent a mechanism by which alcohol use behavior is maintained over time. This study was designed to address two unresolved issues regarding alcohol-related attention biases. Specifically, this study tested whether acute changes in positive and negative mood increase attentional biases toward alcohol cues and whether coping and enhancement drinking motives moderate these effects. Methods Participants were 100 college students aged 18–25, who drank alcohol at least once in the last 90 days. In a 2 × 3 mixed design, participants were randomized to one of three mood conditions (neutral, negative, or positive) and completed visual-probe tasks pre- and post-mood-induction. Results Attentional biases toward alcohol cues were significantly associated with alcohol consumption among men, but not women. Although the mood manipulation was highly successful, attentional biases did not vary as a function of mood condition and hypothesized moderating effects of drinking motives were not significant. Conclusions The largely null findings of the experiment are discussed in light of the fact that the visual probe task had poor reliability. Issues related to the reliability of visual-probe task are discussed, as more research is needed to evaluate and improve the psychometrics of this method.

Psychology Department.

Simons, Jeffrey S., Wills, Thomas A., Emery, Noah N., & Marks, Russell M. (2015). Quantifying alcohol consumption: Self-report, transdermal assessment, and prediction of dependence symptoms. Addictive Behaviors, 50, 205-212.

Research on alcohol use depends heavily on the validity of self-reported drinking. The present paper presents data from 647 days of self-monitoring with a transdermal alcohol sensor by 60 young adults. We utilized a biochemical measure, transdermal alcohol assessment with the WrisTAS, to examine the convergent validity of three approaches to collecting daily self-report drinking data: experience sampling, daily morning reports of the previous night, and 1-week timeline follow-back (TLFB) assessments. We tested associations between three pharmacokinetic indices (peak concentration, area under the curve (AUC), and time to reach peak concentration) derived from the transdermal alcohol signal and within- and between- person variation in alcohol dependence symptoms. The WrisTAS data corroborated 85.74% of self-reported drinking days based on the experience sampling data. The TLFB assessment and combined experience sampling and morning reports agreed on 87.27% of drinking days. Drinks per drinking day did not vary as a function of wearing or not wearing the sensor; this indicates that participants provided consistent reports of their drinking regardless of biochemical verification. In respect to self-reported alcohol dependence symptoms, the AUC of the WrisTAS alcohol signal was associated with dependence symptoms at both the within- and between- person level. Furthermore, alcohol dependence symptoms at baseline predicted drinking episodes characterized in biochemical data by both higher peak alcohol concentration and faster time to reach peak concentration. The results support the validity of self-report alcohol data, provide empirical data useful for optimal design of daily process sampling, and provide an initial demonstration of the use of transdermal alcohol assessment to characterize drinking dynamics associated with risk for alcohol dependence.

Psychology Department.

Barta, Ashley L., Nutescu, Edith A., Thompson, Paul A., Bussey, Henry I., & Gulseth, Michael P. (2015). Relationship between time spent at extreme International Normalized Ratios and time in therapeutic range with bleeding and thrombosis in warfarin-treated patients. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 72(14), 1188-1194.

Purpose. The relationship between the time spent at extreme International Normalized Ratios (INRs) and the time in the therapeutic range (TTR) with bleeding and thrombosis in warfarin-treated patients was examined. Methods. Consecutive patients treated with warfarin for atrial fibrillation or for venous thrombosis who were managed by the anticoagulation management service or adult internal medicine clinic of a large, tertiary care, integrated health system between June 1, 2011, and October 9, 2012, were eligible for study inclusion. Data collected for the outcomes analysis included INRs and dates; current use of aspirin, clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticagrelor, ticlopidine, or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs; and any clinically significant bleeding or thrombosis events identified. Results. In the 837 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 636.5 patient-years of therapy were provided, of which 14.4 patient-years (2.26% of time) were spent at INRs of <1.5; 2.9 patient-years of therapy (0.45% of time) were spent at INRs of >4.5. The patient population had a mean individual TTR of 65%. The percentage of time at an INR of >4.5 was positively associated with an increased risk of major bleeding (p = 0.0085). The percentage of time spent with an INR of <1.5 was not associated with a significant increase in the risk of thrombosis. Conclusion. The percentage of time spent with an INR of >4.5 was associated with an increased risk of major bleeding in patients receiving warfarin for atrial fibrillation or for venous thrombosis at two outpatient clinics. The relationships between thrombosis risk and the TTR or the time spent at an INR of <1.5 were not significant, but the thromboembolic event rate was unusually low, as was the time spent at an INR of <1.5.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Belcher, Harolyn M. E., Stone, Jacqueline D., McFadden, Jenese A., Hemmingson, Tyler A., …., Osdel, Joanne, Avila, Margaret, Yorker, Beatrice, Hoffman, Beth R., & Turner-Musa, Jocelyn O. (2015). Evaluating maternal and child health and leadership competencies of emerging mch leaders: The mchc/rise-up experience. Maternal and Child Health Journal.

Purpose: This study examines maternal and child health core competencies and leadership characteristics of undergraduate students following participation in the Maternal and Child Health Careers/Research Initiatives for Student Enhancement-Undergraduate Program (MCHC/RISE-UP). MCHC/RISE-UP is a 10-week public health leadership program designed to promote diversity in public health workforce through mentored research, community engagement and advocacy, and clinical experiences for undergraduate students.Description: The MCHC/RISE-UP is a national consortium of University Centers for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities including, (1) Kennedy Krieger Institute (Kennedy Krieger, lead institution) partnering with Morgan State University, a Historically Black University, (2) the University of South Dakota partnering with Tribal Serving Institutions; and (3) the University of Southern California Children’s Hospital-Los Angeles and their partner institution, California State University Los Angeles, a Hispanic Serving Institution.Assessment: Eighty-four junior and senior undergraduates and recent baccalaureate degree students who participated in the MCHC/RISE-UP worked on 48 maternal and child health projects. Following the MCHC/RISE-UP, students demonstrated statistically significant improvements in all maternal and child health core competencies. Transformational leadership characteristics also increased (mean increase 9.4, 95 % CI 7.2–11.8; p < 0.001). At closing interview, over twice as many students endorsed a public health career goal compared to program admission (17.9 vs 57.7 %; p = 0.022).Conclusion: Multi-institutional collaborative public health leadership programs may extend the reach and recruitment of diverse students into the maternal and child health field. Experiential, didactic, and mentored learning opportunities may enhance student integration of maternal and child health competencies and transformational leadership characteristics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Dey, NandinaWilliams, CaseyLeyland-Jones, Brian, & De, Pradip. (2015). A critical role for HER3 in HER2-amplified and non-amplified breast cancers: function of a kinase-dead RTK. American Journal of Translational Research, 7(4), 733-750.

ERBB3/HER3 is the most intriguing RTK by virtue of its ability to transduce multiple cytosolic signals for the proliferation and growth of tumor cells in spite of being a “kinase dead” receptor that binds to its true ligand, heregulin. Although other members of the HER3 family like EGFR and HER2 have long been recognized to be associated with breast tumorigenesis and studied because of their predictive and prognostic value, the significance of HER3 as an irrefutable component of HER family signalosome is a relatively new development. The recent understanding of signals originating from the oncogenic partnership of HER3 with HER2 in the context of HER2 amplification/overexpression showed the critical clinical value for the treatment of HER2+BC. The downstream signaling cascade (included but not limited to the PI3K signaling) associated with signals originating from HER2:HER3 dimers play a vital role in the tumorigenesis, drug-resistance and tumor progression of HER2+BC. The upregulation of HER3 activity provides an alternate “escape route” via which tumor cells bypass either the inhibition of the HER family RTKs or the inhibition of the downstream PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway. By understanding the signaling that provides this “escape route” for these tumor cells treated with a targeted therapy (HER2 inhibitors or inhibitors of downstream PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway), we are just beginning to appreciate the prognostic value of HER3 in breast cancer. In this review, we will discuss the relevance of HER3 signaling in the context of, (1) downstream oncogenic signals and (2) therapeutic options in HER2 amplified BC.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Ferley, Derek D., & Vukovich, Marshall D. (2015). TIME-TO-FATIGUE DURING INCLINE TREADMILL RUNNING: IMPLICATIONS FOR INDIVIDUALIZED TRAINING PRESCRIPTION. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29(7), 1855-1862.

Ferley, DD and Vukovich, MD. Time-to-fatigue during incline treadmill running: Implications for individualized training prescription. J Strength Cond Res 29(7): 1855-1862, 2015Uphill running has been touted as a key interval training tactic for distance runners despite few scientifically derived recommendations for individualized training prescription. To date, a majority of uphill training research has focused on shorter, faster training bouts; however, longer, slower bouts based on an individual’s velocity at maximum oxygen consumption (Vmax) may prove more effective. One potential longer bout length may be associated with the time Vmax can be maintained (Tmax), an approach proven effective in level-grade interval training. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation included examining the Tmax, heart rate, and test-retest reliability of incline treadmill running (INC) on a 10% grade at 65, 70, 75, 80, and 85%Vmax compared with level-grade running at Vmax. Twelve moderately trained distance runners (age, 26.4 +/- 4.8; body mass, 64.3 +/- 12.9 kg; height, 171.2 +/- 9.3 cm; and V.o(2)max, 56.6 +/- 7.6 mlmin(-1)kg(-1)) completed 2 Tmax INC trials at each submaximal Vmax and a level-grade Tmax at Vmax. The dependent variables were Tmax, heart rate plateau (HRPlateau), and half-time to heart rate plateau (1/2HR(Plateau)) of each condition. Statistical significance was set to p 0.05. Student’s t-test revealed no significant differences in Tmax, HRPlateau, and 1/2HR(Plateau) between trials 1 and 2 at any INC condition. One-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences in (a) Tmax during INC at 75, 80, and 85%Vmax and level-grade at Vmax and (b) 1/2HR(Plateau) during INC at 80 and 85%Vmax and all other conditions. In conclusion, Tmax and heart rate dynamics during INC proved reliable, and simple regression analysis revealed approximate to 68%Vmax during INC yields the same level-grade Tmax at Vmax.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Hanson, Jessica D., Nothwehr, F., Yang, J. G., & Romitti, P. (2015). Indirect and Direct Perceived Behavioral Control and the Role of Intention in the Context of Birth Control Behavior. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19(7), 1535-1542.

Unintended pregnancies can have negative consequences for both mother and child. The focus of this study was to utilize perceived behavioral control measures (PBC; part of the theory of planned behavior) to identify relevant behavioral determinants of birth control use. This study also tested associations between direct and indirect PBC measures and intention of birth control use and between intention and birth control use. The methods included a randomly selected sample of patients at a health care system in the Upper Midwest who were sent a self-administered survey, with 190 non-pregnant women returning completed surveys. Participants indicated a high level of control over using birth control, and a significant positive correlation was observed between direct and indirect PBC measures. Participants also reported high intentions to use birth control, and a significant positive correlation was observed between intention and PBC. Additionally, both PBC measures and intention were independently and significantly associated with behavior, and PBC remained significantly associated with behavior when intention was added into the model. In conclusion, compared to the previous literature, this study is unique in that it examines indirect PBC measures and also the important role that PBC plays with actual birth control behavior.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Maher, Diane M., Khan, Sheema, Nordquist, Jordan L.Ebeling, Mara C.Bauer, Nichole A., Kopel, Lucas, Singh, Man Mohan, Halaweish, Fathi, Bell, Maria C., Jaggi, Meena, & Chauhan, Subhash C. (2015). Ormeloxifene efficiently inhibits ovarian cancer growth. Cancer Letters, 356(2), 606-612.

Ovarian cancer continues to be a leading cause of cancer related deaths for women. Anticancer agents effective against chemo-resistant cells are greatly needed for ovarian cancer treatment. Repurposing drugs currently in human use is an attractive strategy for developing novel cancer treatments with expedited translation into clinical trials. Therefore, we examined whether ormeloxifene (ORM), a non-steroidal Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM) currently used for contraception, is therapeutically effective at inhibiting ovarian cancer growth. We report that ORM treatment inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cell lines, including cell lines resistant to cisplatin. Furthermore, ORM treatment decreases Akt phosphorylation, increases p53 phosphorylation, and modulates the expression and localization patterns of p27, cyclin E, cyclin D1, and CDK2. In a pre-clinical xenograft mouse ORM treatment significantly reduces tumorigenesis and metastasis. These results indicate that ORM effectively inhibits the growth of cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. ORM is currently in human use and has an established record of patient safety. Our encouraging in vitro and pre-clinical in vivo findings indicate that ORM is a promising candidate for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Munce, Thayne A.Dorman, Jason C.Thompson, Paul A.Valentine, Verle D., & Bergeron, Michael F.(2015). Head Impact Exposure and Neurologic Function of Youth Football Players. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 47(8), 1567-1576.

Football players are subjected to repetitive impacts that may lead to brain injury and neurologic dysfunction. Knowledge about head impact exposure (HIE) and consequent neurologic function among youth football players is limited. Purpose: This study aimed to measure and characterize HIE of youth football players throughout one season and explore associations between HIE and changes in selected clinical measures of neurologic function. Methods: Twenty-two youth football players (11-13 yr) wore helmets outfitted with a head impact telemetry (HIT) system to quantify head impact frequency, magnitude, duration, and location. Impact data were collected for each practice (27) and game (9) in a single season. Selected clinical measures of balance, oculomotor performance, reaction time, and self-reported symptoms were assessed before and after the season. Results: The median individual head impacts per practice, per game, and throughout the entire season were 9, 12, and 252, respectively. Approximately 50% of all head impacts (6183) had a linear acceleration between 10g and 20g, but nearly 2% were greater than 80g. Overall, the head impact frequency distributions in this study population were similar in magnitude and location as in high school and collegiate football, but total impact frequency was lower. Individual changes in neurologic function were not associated with cumulative HIE. Conclusion: This study provides a novel examination of HIE and associations with short-term neurologic function in youth football and notably contributes to the limited HIE data currently available for this population. Whereas youth football players can experience remarkably similar head impact forces as high school players, cumulative subconcussive HIE throughout one youth football season may not be detrimental to short-term clinical measures of neurologic function.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Benson, Nicholas, Beaujean, A. Alexander, & Taub, Gordon E. (2015). Using Score Equating and Measurement Invariance to Examine the Flynn Effect in the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 50(4), 398-415.

The Flynn effect (FE; i.e., increase in mean IQ scores over time) is commonly viewed as reflecting population shifts in intelligence, despite the fact that most FE studies have not investigated the assumption of score comparability. Consequently, the extent to which these mean differences in IQ scores reflect population shifts in cognitive abilities versus changes in the instruments used to measure these abilities is unclear. In this study, we used modern psychometric tools to examine the FE. First, we equated raw scores for each common subtest to be on the same scale across instruments. This enabled the combination of scores from all three instruments into one of 13 age groups before converting raw scores into Z scores. Second, using age-based standardized scores for standardization samples, we examined measurement invariance across the second (revised), third, and fourth editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Results indicate that while scores were equivalent across the third and fourth editions, they were not equivalent across the second and third editions. Results suggest that there is some evidence for an increase in intelligence, but also call into question many published FE findings as presuming the instruments’ scores are invariant when this assumption is not warranted.

School of Education.

Brown-Rice, Kathleen A., Furr, Susan, & Jorgensen, Maribeth. (2015). Analyzing Greek Members Alcohol Consumption by Gender and the Impact of Alcohol Education Interventions. Journal of Alcohol & Drug Education, 59(1), 19-38.

Members of the Greek community have been found to engage in riskier alcohol drinking behaviors and have higher alcohol-related negative consequences. A sample of Greek members were surveyed in Spring of 2013 (n = 372). It was found that The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) scores were significantly higher for male respondents than female respondents. During the fall semester, alcohol education sessions were offered to all members of the Greek community. Of the respondents who attended alcohol education sessions (n = 334), 55% reported these sessions changed their perception of high risk drinking. Implications for alcohol education programming are discussed.

School of Education.

Roh, Soonhee, Lee, Yeon-Shim, Lee, Kyoung, Shibusawa, Tazuko, & Yoo, Grace. (2015). Friends, Depressive Symptoms, and Life Satisfaction Among Older Korean Americans. Journal of Immigrant & Minority Health, 17(4), 1091-1097.

This study examined the interactive effects of social network support and depressive symptoms on life satisfaction among older Korean Americans (KAs). Using data from a sample of 200 elders in a large metropolitan area ( M = 72.50, SD = 5.15), hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the interaction between social network support and depressive symptoms on life satisfaction among older KAs. After controlling for demographic variables, both social network support and depressive symptoms were identified as predictors for life satisfaction. Interaction effects indicated strong associations between higher social network support specifically from friends and lower depressive symptoms with higher levels of life satisfaction. Findings highlight the important role that friends play in terms of social network support for the mental health of older KAs, and the need for geriatric practitioners to monitor and assess the quality of social network support-including friendships-when working with older KAs.

School of Health Sciences.

Posted by: reganenosusd | April 20, 2015

February – April 2015

Moran III, James D., Marilyn J. Wells, & Angela Smith-Aumen. (2015). Making Undergraduate Research a Central Strategy in High-Impact Practice Reform: The PASSHE Journey. New Directions for Higher Education, 2015(169), 61-71.

This chapter describes undergraduate research expansion in the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education (PASSHE) in the context of both fiscal and student enrollment challenges.

Academic Affairs.

King, Marisa, Yufeng Zhang, Travis Carter, Jake Johnson, Erin Harmon, & David Swanson. (2015). Phenotypic flexibility of skeletal muscle and heart masses and expression of myostatin and tolloid-like proteinases in migrating passerine birds. Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic & Environmental Physiology, 185(3), 333-342.

Migrant birds require large flight muscles and hearts to enhance aerobic capacity and support sustained flight. A potential mechanism for increasing muscle and heart masses during migration in birds is the muscle growth inhibitor myostatin and its metalloproteinase activators, tolloid-like proteinases (TLL-1 and TLL-2). We hypothesized that myostatin, TLL-1 and TLL-2 are downregulated during migration in pectoralis and hearts of migratory passerines to promote hypertrophy. We measured seasonal variation of tissue masses, mRNA expression of myostatin, TLL- 1, and TLL- 2, and myostatin protein levels in pectoralis muscle and heart for yellow warblers ( Setophaga petechia), warbling vireos ( Vireo gilvus), and yellow-rumped warblers ( Setophaga coronata). Pectoralis mass was greatest in spring for warbling vireos and yellow warblers, but was stable between spring and fall for yellow-rumped warblers. Heart mass was higher in spring than in fall for yellow-rumped warblers, lowest in fall for warbling vireos, and seasonally stable for yellow warblers. Pectoralis and heart mRNA expression of myostatin and the TLLs did not differ significantly for any of the three species, offering little support for our hypothesis for a prominent role for myostatin in regulating migration-induced variation in pectoralis and heart masses. In contrast, pectoralis myostatin protein levels were lowest in spring for all three species, consistent with our hypothesis. Myostatin protein levels in heart, however, were seasonally stable for warbling vireos and yellow warblers, and increased in spring relative to fall for yellow-rumped warblers. These data offer mixed support for our hypothesis for the pectoralis, but suggest that myostatin is not a prominent regulator of migration-induced heart hypertrophy. Moreover, the different seasonal patterns for pectoralis mRNA and protein expression suggest that post-transcriptional modification of myostatin may contribute to pectoralis mass regulation during migration.

Biology Department.

Kim, Dae In, K.C. Birendra, & Kyle J. Roux. (2015). Making the LINC: SUN and KASH protein interactions. Biological Chemistry, 396(4), 295-310.

Cell nuclei are physically integrated with the cytoskeleton through the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex, a structure that spans the nuclear envelope to link the nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton. Outer nuclear membrane KASH domain proteins and inner nuclear membrane SUN domain proteins interact to form the core of the LINC complex. In this review, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the reported protein-protein interactions for KASH and SUN domain proteins. This critical structure, directly connecting the genome with the rest of the cell, contributes to a myriad of cellular functions and, when perturbed, is associated with human disease.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Jorgensen, Maribeth F., & Kelly Duncan. (2015). A Grounded Theory of Master’s-Level Counselor Research Identity. Counselor Education & Supervision, 54(1), 17-31.

A grounded theory approach was used to examine the research identity of 17 master’s-level counseling trainees and practitioners. The emergent theory gave an understanding to sources of variation in the process and outcome of research identity. The authors provide recommendations for counselor educators to use with current and former students.

School of Education.

Kindle, Peter A., & Mary A. Caplan. (2015). Understanding Fringe Economic Behavior: A Bourdieusian-informed Meta-ethnography. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 42(1), 49-71.

This paper is a meta-ethnography of four low-income communities in order to explore fringe economic behaviors. Rejecting the interpretation of fringe economic behaviors as irrational, we affirm these behaviors as viable alternatives for people marginalized in the mainstream economy. Using a meta-ethnographic method and employing the concepts of sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, we identify the habitus and social capital values of each community as distinct Bourdieusian fields and conclude that an awareness of the localized development of a fringe economic cluster with distinct goals and rules undermines one-size-its-all social welfare programs.

School of Health Sciences.

Jehl, J. R., A. E. Henry, & David L. Swanson. (2015). Ratios, adaptations, and the differential metabolic capability of avian flight muscles. Journal of Avian Biology, 46(2), 119-124.

The eared grebe Podiceps nigricollis shows seasonal variation in the relative size of the major flight muscles that lift and lower the wing: respectively, supracoracoideus (s) and pectoralis (p). S/p ratios are low (approximate to 0.07-0.12) when grebes are in flying condition, higher (approximate to 0.11-0.15) when staging and flightless, and extreme (to 0.29) when starving. Shifts were driven by changes in the protein content in the pectoralis; intramuscular fat had little effect. S/p ratios also vary seasonally in the red knot Calidris canutus and are higher in birds newly arrived in breeding areas than at other times. If that increase was an adaptive response to promote wing-lifting in association with various breeding behaviors as suggested, one would expect it to result from an absolute increase in the post-arrival size of the supracoracoideus, which was not observed. Instead, we propose that it is unrelated to enhancing the upstroke but results from a decrease in the size of the pectoralis, which is a consequence of the greater rate at which this muscle is catabolized in times of exertion and stress, as at the end of a long migration or during starvation. Fuller data on the size, morphology and physiology of individual muscles at various stages of the annual cycle and migration will help to clarify how ratio changes are achieved, and evaluate potential adaptive significance.

Biology Department.

King, Marrisa O., Yufeng Zhang, Travis Carter, Jake Johnson, Erin Harmon, & David L. Swanson. (2015). Phenotypic flexibility of skeletal muscle and heart masses and expression of myostatin and tolloid-like proteinases in migrating passerine birds. Journal of Comparative Physiology B-Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology, 185(3), 333-342.

Migrant birds require large flight muscles and hearts to enhance aerobic capacity and support sustained flight. A potential mechanism for increasing muscle and heart masses during migration in birds is the muscle growth inhibitor myostatin and its metalloproteinase activators, tolloid-like proteinases (TLL-1 and TLL-2). We hypothesized that myostatin, TLL-1 and TLL-2 are downregulated during migration in pectoralis and hearts of migratory passerines to promote hypertrophy. We measured seasonal variation of tissue masses, mRNA expression of myostatin, TLL-1, and TLL-2, and myostatin protein levels in pectoralis muscle and heart for yellow warblers (Setophaga petechia), warbling vireos (Vireo gilvus), and yellow-rumped warblers (Setophaga coronata). Pectoralis mass was greatest in spring for warbling vireos and yellow warblers, but was stable between spring and fall for yellow-rumped warblers. Heart mass was higher in spring than in fall for yellow-rumped warblers, lowest in fall for warbling vireos, and seasonally stable for yellow warblers. Pectoralis and heart mRNA expression of myostatin and the TLLs did not differ significantly for any of the three species, offering little support for our hypothesis for a prominent role for myostatin in regulating migration-induced variation in pectoralis and heart masses. In contrast, pectoralis myostatin protein levels were lowest in spring for all three species, consistent with our hypothesis. Myostatin protein levels in heart, however, were seasonally stable for warbling vireos and yellow warblers, and increased in spring relative to fall for yellow-rumped warblers. These data offer mixed support for our hypothesis for the pectoralis, but suggest that myostatin is not a prominent regulator of migration-induced heart hypertrophy. Moreover, the different seasonal patterns for pectoralis mRNA and protein expression suggest that post-transcriptional modification of myostatin may contribute to pectoralis mass regulation during migration.

Biology Department.

Wesner, Jeff S., & M. C. Belk. (2015). Variation in the trophic position of common stream fishes and its relationship to the presence of a rare fish, northern leatherside chub (Lepidomeda copei). Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 24(2), 234-241.

Variation in trophic position can be caused by structural changes in food webs that may affect the presence of, or be affected by the presence of, individual species. We examined variation in the trophic position of fishes across 14 stream sites in the Bear River drainage, WY, USA. This drainage is the focus of ongoing conservation of northern leatherside chub (Lepidomeda copei). Our goals were (i) to describe variation in trophic position of individual species and (ii) to determine whether these measures differed between sites with and without northern leatherside chub. Mean trophic position of individual fish species varied between 0 and 3 trophic positions across sites. For two of these species, trophic position declined at sites without northern leatherside chub. Importantly, habitat surveys from a previous study at 10 of these sites revealed no differences in habitat suitability for northern leatherside chub. This suggests that trophic position revealed systematic differences among sites that were not apparent based on traditional species-habitat modelling. We outline possible mechanisms behind these patterns and argue that monitoring variation in trophic position can complement traditional, habitat-based methods for understanding species distributions.

Biology Department.

Jensen, Stephanie, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2015). Electronic properties of nickel-doped TiO2 anatase. Journal of Physics-Condensed Matter, 27(13), 14.

Atomistic details of electron transfer in semiconductor materials are characterized for TiO2 thin film surfaces doped with nickel. A periodic slab model of eight atomic layers exposes the (1 0 0) crystallographic surface and is covered with a monolayer of water. The density of states, absorption spectra, partial charge densities, molecular dynamics, and non-adiabatic couplings are compared between doped and undoped models. Our results show that Ni doping improves several electronic properties including lowering the band gap, increasing visible light absorption, and shortening the relaxation time of holes rather than electrons, which maximizes charge separation. The different mechanisms of electron and hole dynamics are discussed. The computed characteristics of a doped semiconductor material have practical potential for increasing efficiency of a photo-electrochemical cells.

Chemistry Department.

Vazhappilly, Tijo, Dmitri S. Kilin, & David A. Micha. (2015). Modeling the surface photovoltage of silicon slabs with varying thickness. Journal of Physics-Condensed Matter, 27(13), 9.

The variation with thickness of the energy band gap and photovoltage at the surface of a thin semiconductor film are of great interest in connection with their surface electronic structure and optical properties. In this work, the change of a surface photovoltage (SPV) with the number of layers of a crystalline silicon slab is extracted from models based on their atomic structure. Electronic properties of photoexcited slabs are investigated using generalized gradient and hybrid density functionals, and plane wave basis sets. Si(1 1 1) surfaces have been terminated by hydrogen atoms to compensate for dangling bonds and have been described by large supercells with periodic boundary conditions. Calculations of the SPV of the Si slabs have been done in terms of the reduced density matrix of the photoactive electrons including dissipative effects due to their interaction with medium phonons and excitons. Surface photovoltages have been calculated for model Si slabs with 4-12, and 16 layers, to determine convergence trends versus slab thickness. Band gaps and the inverse of the SPVs have been found to scale nearly linearly with the inverse thickness of the slab, while the electronic density of states increases quadratically with thickness. Our calculations show the same trends as experimental values indicating band gap reduction and absorption enhancement for Si films of increasing thickness. Simple arguments on confined electronic structures have been used to explain the main effects of changes with slab thickness. A procedure involving shifted electron excitation energies is described to improve results from generalized gradient functionals so they can be in better agreement with the more accurate but also more computer intensive values from screened exchange hybrid functionals.

Chemistry Department.

Jimenez, E. Y., C. Mangani, R. Ashorn, William S. Harris, K. Maleta, & K. G. Dewey. (2015). Breast milk from women living near Lake Malawi is high in docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 95, 71-78.

Adequate long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) intake is critical during the fetal and infant periods. We quantified fatty acid content of breast milk (n=718) and plasma from six month old infants (n=412) in southern Malawi, and in usipa (n=3), a small dried fish from Lake Malawi. Compared to global norms, Malawian breast milk fatty acid content (% of total fatty acids) was well above average levels of arachidonic acid [ARA] (0.69% vs. 0.47%) and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] (0.73% vs. 0.32%). Average Malawian infant plasma ARA (7.5%) and DHA (3.8%) levels were comparable to those reported in infants consuming breast milk with similar fatty acid content. The amounts (mg) of DHA, EPA and ARA provided by a 3 oz (85 g) portion of dried usipa (1439, 659 and 360, respectively) are considerably higher than those for dried salmon. Usipa may be an important source of LCPUFA for populations in this region. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Pickens, C. A., L. M. Sordillo, S. S. Comstock, William S. Harris, K. Hortos, B. Kovan, & J. I. Fenton. (2015). Plasma phospholipids, non-esterified plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and oxylipids are associated with BMI. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 95, 31-40.

The obese lipid profile is associated with increased free fatty acids and triacylglycerides. Currently, little is known about the plasma lipid species associated with obesity. In this study, we compared plasma lipid fatty acid (FA) profiles as a function of BMI. Profiling phospholipid (PL) FAs and their respective oxylipids could predict which obese individuals are more likely to suffer from diseases associated with chronic inflammation or oxidative stress. We investigated the relationship between BMI and plasma PL (PPL) FA composition in 126 men using a quantitative gas chromatography analysis. BMI was inversely associated with both PPL nervonic and linoleic acid (LA) but was positively associated with both dihomo-gamma-linolenic and palmitoleic acid. Compared to lean individuals, obese participants were more likely to have omega-6 FAs, except arachidonic acid and LA, incorporated into PPLs. Obese participants were less likely to have EPA and DHA incorporated into PPLs compared to lean participants. Non-esterified plasma PUFA and oxylipid analysis showed omega-6 oxylipids were more abundant in the obese plasma pool. These omega-6 oxylipids are associated with increased angiogenesis (i.e. epoxyeicosatrienoates), reactive oxygen species (i.e. 9-hydroxyeicosatetraenoate), and inflammation resolution (i.e. Lipoxin A4). In summary, BMI is directly associated with specific PPL FA and increased omega-6 oxylipids. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Miller, Jake N., Attila D. Kovacs, & David A. Pearce. (2015). The novel Cln1(R151X) mouse model of infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL) for testing nonsense suppression therapy. Human Molecular Genetics, 24(1), 185-196.

The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), also known as Batten disease, are a group of autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorders in children characterized by the progressive onset of seizures, blindness, motor and cognitive decline and premature death. Patients with mutations in CLN1 primarily manifest with infantile NCL (INCL or Haltia-Santavuori disease), which is second only to congenital NCL for its age of onset and devastating progression. CLN1 encodes a lysosomal enzyme, palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1). Nonsense mutations in CLN1 account for 52.3% of all disease causing alleles in infantile NCL, the most common of which worldwide is the p.R151X mutation. Previously, we have shown how nonsense-mediated decay is involved in the degradation of CLN1 mRNA transcripts containing the p. R151X mutation in human lymphoblast cell lines. We have also shown how the read-through drugs gentamicin and ataluren (PTC124) increase CLN1 (PPT1) enzyme activity. Here, we provide the initial characterization of the novel Cln1(R151X) mouse model of infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis that we have generated. This nonsense mutation model recapitulates the molecular, histological and behavioral phenotypes of the human disease. Cln1(R151X) mice showed a significant decrease in Cln1 mRNA level and PPT1 enzyme activity, accumulation of autofluorescent storage material, astrocytosis and microglial activation in the brain. Behavioral characterization of Cln1(R151X) mice at 3 and 5 months of age revealed significant motor deficits as measured by the vertical pole and rotarod tests. We also show how the read-through compound ataluren (PTC124) increases PPT1 enzyme activity and protein level in Cln1(R151X) mice in a proof-of-principle study.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Morecraft, Robert J., Jizhi Ge, Kimberly S. Stilwell-Morecraft, D. W. McNeal, S. M. Hynes, M. A. Pizzimenti, . . . W. G. Darling. (2015). Vulnerability of the Medial Frontal Corticospinal Projection Accompanies Combined Lateral Frontal and Parietal Cortex Injury in Rhesus Monkey. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 523(4), 669-697.

Concurrent damage to the lateral frontal and parietal cortex is common following middle cerebral artery infarction, leading to upper extremity paresis, paresthesia, and sensory loss. Motor recovery is often poor, and the mechanisms that support or impede this process are unclear. Since the medial wall of the cerebral hemisphere is commonly spared following stroke, we investigated the spontaneous long-term (6 and 12 month) effects of lateral frontoparietal injury (F2P2 lesion) on the terminal distribution of the corticospinal projection (CSP) from intact, ipsilesional supplementary motor cortex (M2) at spinal levels C5 to T1. Isolated injury to the frontoparietal arm/hand region resulted in a significant loss of contralateral corticospinal boutons from M2 compared with controls. Specifically, reductions occurred in the medial and lateral parts of lamina VII and the dorsal quadrants of lamina IX. There were no statistical differences in the ipsilateral CSP. Contrary to isolated lateral frontal motor injury (F2 lesion), which results in substantial increases in contralateral M2 labeling in laminae VII and IX (McNeal et al. [2010] J. Comp. Neurol. 518:586-621), the added effect of adjacent parietal cortex injury to the frontal motor lesion (F2P2 lesion) not only impedes a favorable compensatory neuroplastic response but results in a substantial loss of M2 CSP terminals. This dramatic reversal of the CSP response suggests a critical trophic role for cortical somatosensory influence on spared ipsilesional frontal corticospinal projections, and that restoration of a favorable compensatory response will require therapeutic intervention. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:669-697, 2015. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Reinbold, Emily D., Jamie L. Scholl, Kathryn M. Oliver, Michael J. Watt, & Gina L. Forster. (2014). Central CRF2 receptor antagonism reduces anxiety states during amphetamine withdrawal. Neuroscience Research, 89, 37-43.

Increased depressive and anxiety-like behaviors are exhibited by rats and humans during withdrawal from psychostimulants. Anxiety-like behaviors observed during amphetamine withdrawal are mediated by increased expression and activity of corticotropin releasing factor type 2 (CRF2) receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus (dRN). Anxiety-like behavior of rats during withdrawal can be reversed by CRF2 receptor antagonism in the dRN, but the efficacy of global central CRF2 receptor antagonism is unknown. Rats were treated with amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, ip.) or saline daily for 2 weeks, and were tested for anxiety-like behaviors during withdrawal. Rats undergoing withdrawal showed increased anxiety-like behavior, which was reduced by ventricular infusion of the CRF2 antagonist antisauvagine-30 (ASV 2 mu g/2 mu I). Surprisingly, ventricular ASV increased anxiety-like behavior in rats pre-treated with saline, but had an anxiolytic effect in un-treated rats. Western blots were performed to determine whether differences in CRF receptor densities could explain ASV-induced behavioral results. Saline pre-treated rats showed reduced CRF1 receptor expression in the lateral septum compared to amphetamine pre-treated and untreated rats. Overall, these results suggest that central CRF2 antagonism reduces anxiety states during amphetamine withdrawal, and that behavioral effects may be dependent upon the balance of CRF1 and CRF2 receptor activity in anxiety-related regions. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Zutkis, A. A., Srivishnupriya Anbalagan, Michael S. Chaussee, & A. V. Dmitriev. (2014). Inactivation of the Rgg2 Transcriptional Regulator Ablates the Virulence of Streptococcus pyogenes. Plos One, 9(12), 21.

Streptococcus pyogenes adapts to different niches encountered in the human host via the activity of numerous regulatory proteins including the Rgg family of transcriptional regulators. The S. pyogenes chromosome encodes four Rgg paralogues designated Rgg1 (RopB), Rgg2 (MutR), Rgg3, and Rgg4 (ComR). In order to understand the role of the Rgg2 protein in the regulation of metabolic and virulence-associated properties of S. pyogenes, the rgg2 gene was inactivated in the M1 serotype strain SF370. Inactivation of rgg2 increased the growth yield of S. pyogenes in THY broth, increased biofilm formation, and increased production of SIC, which is an important virulence factor that inhibits complement mediated lysis. To identify Rgg2-regulated genes, the transcriptomes of SF370 and the rgg2 mutant strains were compared in the middle-exponential and post-exponential phases of growth. Rgg2 was found to control the expression of dozens of genes primarily in the exponential phase of growth, including genes associated with virulence (sse, scpA, slo, nga, mf-3), DNA transformation, and nucleotide metabolism. Inactivation of rgg2 decreased the ability of S. pyogenes to adhere to epithelial cells. In addition, the mutant strain was more sensitive to killing when incubated with human blood and avirulent in a murine bacteremia model. Finally, inoculation of mice with the avirulent rgg2 mutant of S. pyogenes SF370 conferred complete protection to mice subsequently challenged with the wild-type strain. Restoration of an intact rgg2 gene in mutant strain restored the wild-type phenotypes. Overall, the results demonstrate that Rgg2 is an important regulatory protein in S. pyogenes involved in controlling genes associated with both metabolism and virulence.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Shewchuk, R. M., Greg L. Carlson, M. Klosterman, S. Cullen, & H. Y. Qu. (2014). Frictions as Barriers to Perioperative Alignment: Results From a Latent Class Analysis. Quality Management in Health Care, 23(3), 188-200.

The quality of the relationship between the sterile processing department (SPD) and the operating room (OR) is an important determinant of OR safety and performance. In this article, the concept of “friction” refers to the SPD behaviors and attributes that can negatively affect OR performance. Panels of SPD professionals initially were asked to identify and operationally define different ways in which behaviors of a hospital’s SPD could compromise OR performance. A national convenience sample of OR nurses (N = 291) rated 14 frictions in terms of their agreement or disagreement that each had a negative effect on OR performance in their hospital. Overall, more than 50% of the entire sample agreed that 2 frictions, “SPD does not communicate effectively with the OR” (55%) and “SPD inventories are insufficient for surgical volume” (52%), had negative effect on OR performance. However, a latent class analysis revealed 3 distinct classes of nurses who varied with respect to their level of agreement that SPD-OR frictions negatively affected OR performance. The observed heterogeneity in how different groups of nurses viewed different frictions suggests that effective efforts aimed at reducing performance-limiting frictions should be customized so that resources can be used where they are most needed.

Beacom School of Business.

Nguyen, H. T., H. Park, Karen L. Koster, R. E. Cahoon, H. T. M. Nguyen, J. Shanklin, . . . E. B. Cahoon. (2015). Redirection of metabolic flux for high levels of omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acid accumulation in camelina seeds. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 13(1), 38-50.

Seed oils enriched in omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids, including palmitoleic acid (16:19) and cis-vaccenic acid (18:111), have nutraceutical and industrial value for polyethylene production and biofuels. Existing oilseed crops accumulate only small amounts (<2%) of these novel fatty acids in their seed oils. We demonstrate a strategy for enhanced production of omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids in camelina (Camelina sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) that is dependent on redirection of metabolic flux from the typical 9 desaturation of stearoyl (18:0)-acyl carrier protein (ACP) to 9 desaturation of palmitoyl (16:0)-acyl carrier protein (ACP) and coenzyme A (CoA). This was achieved by seed-specific co-expression of a mutant 9-acyl-ACP and an acyl-CoA desaturase with high specificity for 16:0-ACP and CoA substrates, respectively. This strategy was most effective in camelina where seed oils with similar to 17% omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids were obtained. Further increases in omega-7 fatty acid accumulation to 60-65% of the total fatty acids in camelina seeds were achieved by inclusion of seed-specific suppression of 3-keto-acyl-ACP synthase II and the FatB 16:0-ACP thioesterase genes to increase substrate pool sizes of 16:0-ACP for the 9-acyl-ACP desaturase and by blocking C18 fatty acid elongation. Seeds from these lines also had total saturated fatty acids reduced to similar to 5% of the seed oil versus similar to 12% in seeds of nontransformed plants. Consistent with accumulation of triacylglycerol species with shorter fatty acid chain lengths and increased monounsaturation, seed oils from engineered lines had marked shifts in thermotropic properties that may be of value for biofuel applications.

Biology Department.

Siler, C. D., L. J. Welton, Drew R. Davis, J. L. Watters, C. S. Davey, A. C. Diesmos, . . . R. M. Brown. (2014). TAXONOMIC REVISION OF THE PSEUDOGEKKO COMPRESICORPUS COMPLEX (REPTILIA: SQUAMATA: GEKKONIDAE), WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF THREE NEW SPECIES. Herpetological Monographs, 28, 110-139.

Recent phylogenetic analysis of false geckos, genus Pseudogekko, revealed unrecognized diversity within these exceedingly rare and enigmatic Philippine forest geckos. Newly available genetic datasets revealed that two of the four currently recognized species are complexes of multiple, deeply divergent evolutionary lineages. In this paper we evaluate species diversity in the Pseudogekko compresicorpus Complex and describe three new species in this unique clade of endemic Philippine geckos. For nearly a century, P. compresicorpus has been recognized as a single, “widespread” species with a geographic range spanning three major faunal regions and several isolated islands. This perception of the species’ wide geographic range has persisted due to the rarity of this species. We evaluate morphological data, in light of a recent phylogenetic study on the genus, to define species limits in P. compresicorpus, finding character-based evidence that unambiguously supports the recognition of four unique evolutionary lineages within the complex, three of which we describe as new species. These evolutionary species correspond to monophyletic lineages supported in recent molecular studies. We also address the historically controversial generic affiliation of Pseudogekko labialis and conclude that this poorly known species is a member of the genus Lepidodactylus. All species recognized in this study possess allopatric geographic ranges and differ from congeners by numerous diagnostic characters of external morphology and, therefore, should be recognized as full species in accordance with any lineage-based species concept. This study nearly doubles the known diversity of Philippine false geckos.

Biology Department.

Stager, M., David L. Swanson, & Z. A. Cheviron. (2015). Regulatory mechanisms of metabolic flexibility in the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). Journal of Experimental Biology, 218(5), 767-+.

Small temperate birds reversibly modify their aerobic performance to maintain thermoregulatory homeostasis under seasonally changing environmental conditions and these physiological adjustments may be attributable to changes in the expression of genes in the underlying regulatory networks. Here, we report the results of an experimental procedure designed to gain insight into the fundamental mechanisms of metabolic flexibility in the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). We combined genomic transcriptional profiles with measures of metabolic enzyme activities and whole-animal thermogenic performance from juncos exposed to four 6-week acclimation treatments that varied in temperature (cold, 3 degrees C; warm, 24 degrees C) and photoperiod (short day, 8 h light: 16 h dark; long day, 16 h light: 8 h dark). Cold-acclimated birds increased thermogenic capacity compared with warm-acclimated birds, and this enhanced performance was associated with upregulation of genes involved in muscle hypertrophy, angiogenesis, and lipid transport and oxidation, as well as with catabolic enzyme activities. These physiological changes occurred over ecologically relevant timescales, suggesting that birds make regulatory adjustments to interacting, hierarchical pathways in order to seasonally enhance thermogenic capacity.

Biology Department.

Wesner, Jeff S., P. Meyers, E. J. Billman, & M. C. Belk. (2015). Habitat selection and consumption across a landscape of multiple predators. Ecology and Evolution, 5(1), 121-129.

Predator community composition can alter habitat quality for prey by changing the strength and direction of consumptive effects. Whether predator community composition also alters prey density via nonconsumptive effects during habitat selection is not well known, but is important for understanding how changes to predator communities will alter prey populations. We tested the hypothesis that predator community composition (presence of caged trout, caged dragonflies, or caged trout+dragonflies) alters colonization of aquatic mesocosms by ovipositing aquatic insects. In a previous experiment in this system, we found a spatial contagion effect, in which insects avoided pools with predators, but only when predator-free pools were isolated (similar to 5m away from predator pools). Here, we removed the isolated predator-free pools, allowing us to test whether insects would make fine-scale (similar to 1m) oviposition decisions in the absence of preferred isolated pools. We also estimated consumptive effects by allowing predators to feed on colonists for 5days following colonization. All insects collected after 21days were dipterans, dominated by Chironomidae. Total colonization, measured as the number of developing larvae after 21days, was not affected by either predator presence or composition. Consumption was significant in the trout only treatment, reducing larval insect density by 46 +/- 37% (mean +/- SE). No other predator treatment significantly reduced prey density, although the proportion of chironomid larvae in protective cases increased in response to direct predation from dragonflies, indicating an antipredatory behavioral response. Taken together, these results reveal that predator community composition altered larval survival and behavior, but colonizing females either did not or could not assess these risks across small scales during oviposition.

Biology Department.

Thiruppathi, Eagappanath, M. K. Larson, & Gapinath Mani. (2015). Surface Modification of CoCr Alloy Using Varying Concentrations of Phosphoric and Phosphonoacetic Acids: Albumin and Fibrinogen Adsorption, Platelet Adhesion, Activation, and Aggregation Studies. Langmuir, 31(1), 358-370.

CoCr alloy is commonly used in various cardiovascular medical devices for its excellent physical and mechanical properties. However, the formation of blood clots on the alloy surfaces is a serious concern. This research is focused on the surface modification of CoCr alloy using varying concentrations (1, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mM) of phosphoric acid (PA) and phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) to generate various surfaces with different wettability, chemistry, and roughness. Then, the adsorption of blood plasma proteins such as albumin and fibrinogen and the adhesion, activation, and aggregation of platelets with the various surfaces generated were investigated. Contact angle analysis showed PA and PAA coatings on CoCr provided a gradient of hydrophilic surfaces. FTIR showed PA and PAA were covalently bound to CoCr surface and formed different bonding configurations depending on the concentrations of coating solutions used. AFM showed the formation of homogeneous PA and PAA coatings on CoCr. The single and dual protein adsorption studies showed that the amount of albumin and fibrinogen adsorbed on the alloy surfaces strongly depend on the type of PA and PAA coatings prepared by different concentrations of coating solutions. All PA coated CoCr showed reduced platelet adhesion and activation when compared to control CoCr. Also, 75 and 100 mM PA-CoCr showed reduced platelet aggregation. For PAA coated CoCr, no significant difference in platelet adhesion and activation was observed between PAA coated CoCr and control CoCr. Thus, this study demonstrated that CoCr can be surface modified using PA for potentially reducing the formation of blood clots and improving the blood compatibility of the alloy.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

Mariappan, Kadarkaraisamy, Janani Sindhu Ragothaman, Vinothini Balasubramanian, Mariah Hoffman, Madhubabu Alaparthi, & Andrew G. Sykes. (2015). Palladium(II) complexes of anthraquinone-based As-O-As type and Se-O-Se type bipodands. Synthesis, X-ray crystallography and catalytic properties. Inorganica Chimica Acta, 429, 46-50.

The reaction of the Ph2As anion with 1,8-bis(2-bromoethoxy) anthracene-9,10-dione in 2: 1 ratio generates 1,8-bis(2-diphenylarsinoethoxy) anthracene-9,10-dione (L1). L1 and 1,8-bis(2-phenylselenoethoxy) anthraquinone (L2) reacted with bis(benzonitrile) palladium(II) chloride in 1: 1 ratio yielding Pd(L1)Cl-2 (1) and Pd(L2)Cl-2 (2). X-ray structures of 1 and 2 revealed that L1 and L2 chelate with Pd(II) and form a convex square planar geometry. The catalytic properties of both Pd(II) complexes in the Heck reaction was investigated, and the results show that compound 2 acts as a better catalyst than 1. The redox behavior of L1, 1 and 2 versus Ag/AgCl are also explored. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

Meng, Qingguo, Jiangchao Chen, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2015). Proton reduction at surface of transition metal nanocatalysts. Molecular Simulation, 41(1-3), 134-145.

Catalytic activities of neutral and charged palladium (Pd) nanoparticles are compared for hydrogen reduction half-reaction. In this work the sequential H-2 dissociation from the surface of a Pd13H24 cluster is systematically studied by ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) at the density functional theory level. AIMD simulation is launched by preparing initial values of momenta of all nuclei in the model corresponding to a temperature range of 0-1700K. AIMD simulation provides the trajectories of all the atoms in the cluster. A sequential H-2 desorption up to seven molecules is observed from the cluster surface due to thermal motion of nuclei. Modifications of total charge on the neutral Pd13H24 cluster model are found to affect surface H-2 desorption behaviour. A desorption rate of H-2 molecule on both neutral and charged Pd13H24 clusters is compared to the data of Pt13H24 cluster reported previously. The H-2 desorption energy on all the investigated clusters is also determined. The results reveal that Pd-13 cluster presents a higher catalytic activity than Pt-13 cluster.

Chemistry Department.

Peng, Rui, J. Baltrusaitis, Chia-Ming Wu, & Ranjit T. Koodali. (2015). Pd-Ti-MCM-48 cubic mesoporous materials for solar simulated hydrogen evolution. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 40(2), 905-918.

A facile synthetic method (in as little as four hours) for simultaneously loading high amounts of titania (Si/Ti = 3) and Pd-0 co-catalyst (0.1 wt.% per gram of total catalyst) in cubic mesoporous MCM-48 material was developed at room temperature. The solar simulated photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from photocatalysts containing Pd and TiO2 nanoclusters in periodic cubic MCM-48 and aperiodic mesoporous silica was compared. The results indicate that the periodicity of the mesoporous silica support, the oxidation state of Pd, the location and dispersion of Pd have a significant impact on the photocatalytic activity. Periodic cubic MCM-48 mesoporous silica containing Pd in close contact with titania exhibit superior hydrogen evolution rates, compared to Pd-0-TiO2 containing aperiodic mesoporous silica. The highly ordered and open three-dimensional mesoporous cubic MCM-48 support has high surface area and facilitate good dispersion and close contact of titania and Pd. At very low loadings of 0.1 wt.% of Pd, hydrogen yield was found to be 560 mu mol h(-1), which is among the highest reported in the literature for Pd containing TiO2 based materials under solar simulated conditions. The results suggest that the pore architecture of the support is also an important parameter that governs the photocatalytic activity. In addition, the Pd-0-mesoporous materials in general possess higher activity than Pd2+ containing mesoporous materials. The photocatalysts were extensively characterized by a variety of techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen sorption analysis, transmission and scanning electron microscopic studies, photoluminescence, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), CO Chemisorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Copyright (C) 2014, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

Rasalingam, Shivatharsiny, Chia-Ming Wu, & Ranjit T. Koodali. (2015). Modulation of Pore Sizes of Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysts by a Facile Template Free Hydrothermal Synthesis Method: Implications for Photocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine B. Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces, 7(7), 4368-4380.

Mesoporous TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared in ethanol media by using relatively green, template free sol-gel technique. A mild hydrothermal treatment procedure was employed to tune the pore sizes of the materials. Comprehensive techniques that include powder X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, specific surface area analysis, electron microscopy, FT-IR, TGA, and xi-potential measurements were used to characterize the titania materials. Porosity (pore size and pore volume) of the materials were found to be key factors for the variation in the rate of photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B; in addition to specific surface area, and surface hydroxyl groups. An increase in porosity permits effective transport of the dye molecules resulting in an increase in the rate of the degradation in materials having larger pores. A detailed electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) study was carried out for selected materials to identify photodegraded intermediates and products formed during the degradation of rhodamine B. In addition, experiments were also carried out to understand the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In summary, this work provides a simple way to tune pore sizes without the use of any template and an insight into the influence of pore size for the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B.

Chemistry Department.

Vazhappilly, T., Dmitri S. Kilin, & D. A. Micha. (2015). Modeling the surface photovoltage of silicon slabs with varying thickness. Journal of Physics-Condensed Matter, 27(13), 9.

The variation with thickness of the energy band gap and photovoltage at the surface of a thin semiconductor film are of great interest in connection with their surface electronic structure and optical properties. In this work, the change of a surface photovoltage (SPV) with the number of layers of a crystalline silicon slab is extracted from models based on their atomic structure. Electronic properties of photoexcited slabs are investigated using generalized gradient and hybrid density functionals, and plane wave basis sets. Si(1 1 1) surfaces have been terminated by hydrogen atoms to compensate for dangling bonds and have been described by large supercells with periodic boundary conditions. Calculations of the SPV of the Si slabs have been done in terms of the reduced density matrix of the photoactive electrons including dissipative effects due to their interaction with medium phonons and excitons. Surface photovoltages have been calculated for model Si slabs with 4-12, and 16 layers, to determine convergence trends versus slab thickness. Band gaps and the inverse of the SPVs have been found to scale nearly linearly with the inverse thickness of the slab, while the electronic density of states increases quadratically with thickness. Our calculations show the same trends as experimental values indicating band gap reduction and absorption enhancement for Si films of increasing thickness. Simple arguments on confined electronic structures have been used to explain the main effects of changes with slab thickness. A procedure involving shifted electron excitation energies is described to improve results from generalized gradient functionals so they can be in better agreement with the more accurate but also more computer intensive values from screened exchange hybrid functionals.

Chemistry Department.

Yao, Ge, Cuikun Lin, Qingguo Meng, P. Stanley May, & Mary T. Berry. (2015). Calculation of Judd-Ofelt parameters for Er3+ in beta-NaYF4: Yb3+, Er3+ from emission intensity ratios and diffuse reflectance spectra. Journal of Luminescence, 160, 276-281.

We report the calculation of Er3+ Judd-Ofelt (JO) parameters for beta-phase NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+. The parameters were extracted from measured emission intensity ratios and the diffuse reflectance spectrum, augmented by a single radiative rate constant The derived parameters were used to calculate the entire suite of radiative rate constants for the f-f transitions of Er3+ in the visible and near infrared (NIR) range and to calculate the absorbance spectrum. Two sets of JO parameter values, in units of pm(2), were calculated using two available sets of reduced matrix elements (Omega(2)=236, Omega(4)=-022, Omega(6)=1.24) and (Omega(2)=2.43, Omega(4)=0.21, Omega(6) = 122). (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

Yao, Ge, Qingguo Meng, Mary T. Berry, P. Stanley May, & Dimitri S. Kilin. (2015). Molecular dynamics in finding nonadiabatic coupling for beta-NaYF4: Ce3+ nanocrystals. Molecular Physics, 113(3-4), 385-391.

Optical and electronic properties of cerium ions doped into solid host matrices are explored by density functional theory (DFT). A spin-polarised (unrestricted) DFT + U approach is applied to beta-NaYF4: Ce3+ nanocrystals, in which the Hubbard U – J value is determined through experimental fitting to be 8.5 eV for yttrium, and 2.9 eV for cerium. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the energies of the localised f-like orbitals of the Ce3+ dopant exhibit strong thermal fluctuations compared to that of the p- and d-shaped orbitals due to charge-density localisation. Our observation of mixing between the d and f orbitals of Ce3+ ion is consistent with experimental results. Combining time-dependent density matrix methodology, ab initio molecular dynamics, and on-the-fly nonadiabatic couplings simulates nonradiative transitions between electronic states at ambient temperature. Transition rates between individual orbitals decrease with their energy difference, which is similar to the format of the energy gap law. These transitions contribute to integrated rates of nonradiative thermalisation of different electronic excitations to the lowest excited state through multiple pathways. The integrated rates of thermalisation decrease with energy difference of the initial photoexcitation and the final excitation.

Chemistry Department.

Lushbough, Carol M., Etienne Z. Gnimpieba, & R. Dooley. (2015). Life science data analysis workflow development using the bioextract server leveraging the iPlant collaborative cyberinfrastructure. Concurrency and Computation-Practice & Experience, 27(2), 408-419.

In order to handle the vast quantities of biological data gener6ated by high-throughput experimental technologies, the BioExtract Server (bioextract.org) has leveraged iPlant Collaborative () functionality to help address big data storage and analysis issues in the bioinformatics field. The BioExtract Server is a Web-based, workflow-enabling system that offers researchers a flexible environment for analyzing genomic data. It provides researchers with the ability to save a series of BioExtract Server tasks (e.g., query a data source, save a data extract, and execute an analytic tool) as a workflow and the opportunity for researchers to share their data extracts, analytic tools, and workflows with collaborators. The iPlant Collaborative is a community of researchers, educators, and students working to enrich science through the development of cyberinfrastructurethe physical computing resources, collaborative environment, virtual machine resources, and interoperable analysis software and data servicesthat are essential components of modern biology. The iPlant AGAVE Advanced Programming Interface, developed through the iPlant Collaborative, is a hosted, Software-as-a-Service resource providing access to a collection of high performance computing and cloud resources. Leveraging AGAVE, the BioExtract Server gives researchers easy access to multiple high performance computers and delivers computation and storage as dynamically allocated resources via the Internet. (c) 2014 The Authors. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Computer Science Department.

Wang, L. Y., D. Ware, Carol M. Lushbough, N. Merchant, & L. Stein. (2015). A genome-wide association study platform built on iPlant cyber-infrastructure. Concurrency and Computation-Practice & Experience, 27(2), 420-432.

We demonstrate a flexible genome-wide association study platform built upon the iPlant Collaborative Cyber-infrastructure. The platform supports big data management, sharing, and large-scale study of both genotype and phenotype data on clusters. End users can add their own analysis tools and create customized analysis workflows through the graphical user interfaces in both iPlant Discovery Environment and BioExtract server. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Computer Science Department.

Meng, Qingguo, P. Stanley May, Mary T. Berry, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2015). Time-resolved electronic and optical properties of a thiolate-protected Au-38 nanocluster. Molecular Physics, 113(3-4), 408-417.

Density functional theory and density matrix theory are employed to investigate the time-dependent optical and electronic properties of an Au-14 nanocluster protected by six cyclic thiolate ligands, Au-4(SCH3)(4). The Au-14[Au-4(SCH3)(4)](6) nanocluster, i.e. Au-38(SCH3)(24), is equivalent to a truncated-octahedral face-centred cubic Au-38 core coated by a monolayer of 24 methylthiol molecules. The electronic and optical properties, such as density of states, linear absorption spectra, nonradiative nonadiabatic dissipative electronic dynamics and radiative emission spectra were calculated and compared for the core Au-14 and thiolate-protected Au-38(SCH3)(24) nanocluster. The main observation from computed photoluminescence for both models is a mechanism of radiative emission. Specifically, a strong contribution to light emission intensity originates from intraband transitions inside the conduction band (CB) in addition to interband LUMO -> HOMO transition (HOMO: highest occupied molecular orbital and LUMO: lowest unoccupied molecular orbital). Such comparison clarifies the contributions from Au core and methylthiol ligands to the electronic and optical properties of the Au-38(SCH3)(24) nanocluster.

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Cited Reference Count: 47

Meng, Qingguo May, Stanley P. Berry, Mary T. Kilin, Dmitri S.

South Dakota Governor’s Office of Economic Development, NSF [EPS-0903804]; DOE, BES – Chemical Sciences, NERSC [DE-AC02-05CH11231, 86898]

This work was supported financially by the South Dakota Governor’s Office of Economic Development, NSF award EPS-0903804, DOE, BES – Chemical Sciences, NERSC Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, allocation Award 86898, ‘Computational Modeling of Photo-catalysis and Photoinduced Charge Transfer Dynamics on Surfaces’. Computational resources of USD High Performance Computing facilities operated by Douglas Jennewein, the Dean’s Opportunity Fund of the College of Arts and Sciences, University of South Dakota.

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Masotti, A., P. Uva, Laura Davis-Keppen, L. Basel-Vanagaite, L. Cohen, E. Pisaneschi, . . . B. Dallapiccola. (2015). Keppen-Lubinsky Syndrome Is Caused by Mutations in the Inwardly Rectifying K+ Channel Encoded by KCNJ6. American Journal of Human Genetics, 96(2), 295-300.

Keppen-Lubinsky syndrome (KPLBS) is a rare disease mainly characterized by severe developmental delay and intellectual disability, microcephaly, large prominent eyes, a narrow nasal bridge, a tented upper lip, a high palate, an open mouth, tightly adherent skin, an aged appearance, and severe generalized lipodystrophy. We sequenced the exomes of three unrelated individuals affected by KPLBS and found de novo heterozygous mutations in KCNJ6 (GIRK2), which encodes an inwardly rectifying potassium channel and maps to the Down syndrome critical region between DIRK1A and DSCR4. In particular, two individuals shared an in-frame heterozygous deletion of three nucleotides (c.455_457del) leading to the loss of one amino acid (p.Thr152del). The third individual was heterozygous for a missense mutation (c.460G>A) which introduces an amino acid change from glycine to serine (p.Gly154Ser). In agreement with animal models, the present data suggest that these mutations severely impair the correct functioning of this potassium channel. Overall, these results establish KPLBS as a channelopathy and suggest that KCNJ6 (GIRK2) could also be a candidate gene for other lipodystrophies. We hope that these results will prompt investigations in this unexplored class of inwardly rectifying K+ channels.

ISI Document Delivery No.: CA9WY

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Cited Reference Count: 26

Masotti, Andrea Uva, Paolo Davis-Keppen, Laura Basel-Vanagaite, Lina Cohen, Lior Pisaneschi, Elisa Celluzzi, Antonella Bencivenga, Paola Fang, Mingyan Tian, Mingyu Xu, Xun Cappa, Marco Dallapiccola, Bruno

Italian Ministry of Health; company BVLGARI

The authors are indebted to the families who contributed to this study. The financial support of the Italian Ministry of Health and the company BVLGARI is fully acknowledged.

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Tinguely, Joseph. (2015). The Implicit Affection Between Kantian Judgment and Aristotelian Rhetoric. Philosophy and Rhetoric, 48(1), 1-25.

Recent scholarship on Kant and rhetoric suggests an inclusive relation between affectivity and cognitive judgment, but that position runs counter to a traditional philosophical opposition between sensibility and rationality. A way to overcome this opposition comes into view in the overlap in three significant areas between Kantian judgment and Aristotelian rhetoric. First, each allows that communicative capacities operate within the way a perceptual object or scene appears in the first place. Secondly, each significantly broadens such communicative capacities so as to include the entire conceptual form of one’s disposition or orientation to the world as a whole. Thirdly, each links those broad mental dispositions to specifically affective states of mind. Taken together, the areas of overlap between Kantian judgment and Aristotelian rhetoric adumbrate an integrated picture of the affective sensibilities and cognitive capacities largely missing from the contemporary landscape.

Languages, Linguistics & Philosophy Department.

Mertens, S., K. Dolde, M. Korzeczek, F. Glueck, S. Groh, Ryan D. Martin, . . . M. Steidl. (2015). Wavelet approach to search for sterile neutrinos in tritium beta-decay spectra. Physical Review D, 91(4), 10.

Sterile neutrinos in the mass range of a few keV are candidates for both cold and warm dark matter. An admixture of a heavy neutrino mass eigenstate to the electron neutrino would result in a minuscule distortion-a kink-in a beta-decay spectrum. In this paper we show that a wavelet transform is a very powerful shape analysis method to detect this signature. For a tritium source strength, similar to what is expected from the KATRIN experiment, a statistical sensitivity to active-to-sterile neutrino mixing down to sin(2)theta = 10(-6) (90% C. L.) can be obtained after three years of measurement time. It is demonstrated that the wavelet approach is largely insensitive to systematic effects that result in smooth spectral modifications. To make full use of this analysis technique a high- resolution measurement (FWHM of similar to 100 eV) of the tritium beta-decay spectrum is required.

Physics Department.

Zhang, C., & D. M. Mei. (2014). Measuring muon-induced neutrons with liquid scintillation detector at Soudan mine. Physical Review D, 90(12), 13.

We report a direct detection of muon-induced high-energy neutrons with a 12-liter neutron detector fabricated with EJ-301 liquid scintillator operating at Soudan mine for about two years. The detector response to energy from a few MeV up to similar to 20 MeV has been calibrated using radioactive sources and cosmic-ray muons. Subsequently, we have calculated the scintillation efficiency for nuclear recoils, up to a few hundred MeV, using Birks’ law in the Monte Carlo simulation. Data from an exposure of 655.1 days were analyzed and neutron-induced recoil events were observed in the energy region from 4 to 50 MeV, corresponding to fast neutrons with kinetic energy up to a few hundred MeV, depending on the scattering angle. Combining with the Monte Carlo simulation, the measured muon-induced fast neutron flux is determined to be (2.23 +/- 0.52(sta) +/- 0.99(sys) x 10(-9) cm(-2) s(-1) (E-n > 20 MeV), in a reasonable agreement with the model prediction. The muon flux is found to be (1.65 +/- 0.02(sta) +/- 0.1(sys)) x 10(-7) cm(-2) s(-1) (E-mu > 1 GeV), consistent with other measurements. As a result, the muon-induced high-energy gamma-ray flux is simulated to be 7.08 x 10(-7) cm(-2) s(-1) (E-gamma > 1 MeV) for the depth of Soudan.

Physics Department.

Newswander, Chad B. (2015). Guerrilla Statesmanship: Constitutionalizing an Ethic of Dissent. Public Administration Review, 75(1), 126-134.

According to judicial precedents, administrators informed by their expertise can speak on issues of public concern under First Amendment protections. In one sense, they could dissent by working against their employers in an attempt to direct issues of public concern through an educational function. The power to act like a statesman in raising such issues allows administrators to lead from behind and in front, as long as certain judicial thresholds are met. However, the U.S. Supreme Court recently moved to tighten the scope of such activity. This article assesses how an ethic of dissent has been translated into a constitutional perspective that at first was moderately constrained and later became very restricted. While the move to limit an ethic of dissent provides necessary constraints, it also may have weakened administrators’ ability to perform necessary statesmanship acts rooted in guerrilla government to achieve the common good.

Political Science Department.

Newswander, Chad B., & Lynita K. Newswander. (2015). Metis: Using Wile and Wisdom to Inform Administrative Discretion. American Review of Public Administration, 45(2), 153-166.

When seeking to accomplish public ends in a prudent manner, administrators are occasionally put in precarious situations that require a degree of metis. Metis is a distinct form of knowledge characterized by a mixture of wile and wisdom and is valuable because it can offer viable alternatives for solving complex problems in contingent situations. Individualized problems often require administrators to forego routinized recommendations and pursue a path to prudence through shrewd thinking and action. However, if metis is not properly contained, it runs the risk of sinking under the weight of unscrupulous motivation and of negatively affecting the legitimacy of administrative action. What is important is that a crafty ethos is bound within a proper sphere. This is why a bounded metis informed by a modified version of intermediate scrutiny may provide a meaningful guide that legitimizes the ability of administrators to handle ambiguous situations in a prudent manner.

Political Science Department.

Rao, L. L., X. T. Wang, & S. Li. (2015). Investment choice and perceived mating intentions regulated by external resource cues and internal fluctuation in blood glucose levels. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 7.

We examined resource allocation priorities in the framework of an updated Maslow hierarchy of fundamental human needs. In Experiment 1, the participants in the food abundance priming condition viewing photos of high-calorie food allocated more money to savings than to spending. However, the participants preferred spending to savings under the condition of mating availability priming with romantic photographs. In Experiment 2, before and after drinking either water or a sugary beverage, fasting participants rated photos of a conversation between a man and a woman. Water drinking lowered the rating scores of mating intentions as well as blood glucose (BG) levels. The sugary drink buffered this decline in sexual perceptivity. Overall, the change in BG levels was positively associated with changes in the ratings of mating intentions but was not associated with other likelihood ratings. These results suggest that both external cues of food and mating resources and internal BG fluctuation regulate the cognitive priority of physiological needs vs. mate acquisition and retention.

Psychology Department.

Milanovich, Samuel, J. Peterson, J. Allred, C. Stelloh, K. Rajasekaran, J. Fisher, . . . S. Rao. (2015). Sall4 overexpression blocks murine hematopoiesis in a dose-dependent manner. Experimental Hematology, 43(1), 53-64.

Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4) is a transcription factor that exists in two splice isoforms, SALL4a and SALL4b, and regulates transcription in embryonic stem cells, hematopoiesis, and acute myeloid leukemia. Constitutive overexpression of SALL4 in mice induces acute myeloid leukemia. Interestingly, a potential benefit of using SALL4 to facilitate ex vivo hematopoietic stem cell expansion has been proposed. However, distinct roles for how SALL4 contributes to normal versus malignant processes remain undefined. Here we show that SALL4b is the predominant isoform in murine hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors. Overexpression of either SALL4 isoform in hematopoietic stem cells or progenitors impairs hematopoietic colony formation and expansion in vitro. Lineage-negative bone marrow overexpressing SALL4b fails to engraft and reconstitute hematopoiesis when transplanted. We found that both SALL4a and SALL4b overexpression impair hematopoiesis, in part through dose-dependent repression of BMI1. Additionally, we have identified the following potential novel SALL4 target genes in hematopoiesis: ARID5B (SALL4a and SALL4b), EZH2, and KLF2 (SALL4a). Lastly, we found that SALL4 expression is variable in acute myeloid leukemia, ranging from no expression to levels comparable to embryonic stem cells. These results show that SALL4 isoforms contribute to only a subset of acute myeloid leukemia and that overexpression of SALL4 isoforms impairs hematopoiesis through repression of BMI1. Together these data demonstrate the sensitivity of hematopoiesis to appropriately balanced SALL4 expression, highlighting the importance of regulating this dynamic in potential therapeutic applications such as ex vivo stem cell expansion. Copyright (C) 2015 ISEH – International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Naesgaard, P. A., V. Ponitz, H. Aarsetoey, …., William S. Harris, H. Staines, & D. T. Nilsen. (2015). Prognostic Utility of Vitamin D in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients in Coastal Norway. Disease Markers, 11.

Background. An inverse relationship between cardiovascular risk and levels of vitamin D and omega-3 index may exist. Objectives. To evaluate the prognostic utility of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in 871 patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and to assess the seasonal correlation between 25(OH)D and the omega-3 index in 456 ACS patients from southwestern Norway. Results. In the univariate analysis the hazard ratio (HR) at 2-year follow-up for all-cause mortality in the highest as compared to the lowest quartile of 25(OH)D in the total population was 0.61 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.37-1.00), P = 0.050. At 7-year follow-up, the corresponding HR for all-cause mortality was 0.66 (95% CI, 0.49-0.90), P = 0.008, and for females alone 0.51 (95% CI, 0.32-0.83), P = 0.006. Quartile survival did not differ in the multivariable analysis, whereas 25(OH) D < 40nM (< 16 ng/mL) was found to be independently related to mortality. Seasonal differences in 25(OH)D, but not for the omega-3 index, were noted, and the two biomarkers were positively correlated, especially during winter-spring; Pearson’s correlation coefficient was 0.358, P < 0.001. Conclusion. Vitamin D levels are related to survival, especially in females, and correlate with the omega-3 index.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Newman, J. W., T. L. Pedersen, Verdayne R. Brandenburg, William S. Harris, & Gregory C. Shearer. (2014). Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters on the Oxylipin Composition of Lipoproteins in Hypertriglyceridemic, Statin-Treated Subjects. Plos One, 9(11), 12.

Background: Oxylipins mediate inflammation, vascular tension, and more. Their presence in lipoproteins could explain why lipoproteins mediate nearly identical activities. Methods: To determine how oxylipins are distributed in the lipoproteins of hypertriglyceridemic subjects, and whether omega-3 fatty acids alter them in a manner consistent with improved cardiovascular health, we recruited 15 dyslipidemic subjects whose levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were at goal but who remained hypertriglyceridemic (200-499 mg/dL). They were treated them with the indicated dose of 4 g/d omega-3 acid ethyl esters (P-OM3) for 8 weeks. Measured oxylipins included mid-chain alcohols (HETEs, HEPEs and HDoHEs), ketones (KETEs), epoxides (as EpETrEs, EpETEs, and EpDPEs). Results: At baseline, arachidonate-oxylipins (HETEs, KETEs, and EpETrEs) were most abundant in plasma with the greatest fraction of total abundance (mean vertical bar 95% CI vertical bar) being carried in high density lipoproteins (HDL); 42% vertical bar 31, 57 vertical bar followed by very low density lipoproteins (VLDL); 27% vertical bar 20, 36 vertical bar; and LDL 21% vertical bar 16, 28 vertical bar. EPA- and DHA-derived oxylipins constituted less than 11% of total. HDL carried alcohols and epoxides but VLDL was also rich in ketones. Treatment decreased AA-derived oxylipins across lipoprotein classes (-23% vertical bar-33, -12 vertical bar, p = 0.0003), and expanded EPA-(322% vertical bar 241, 422 vertical bar, p<0.0001) and DHA-derived oxylipins (123% vertical bar 80, 176 vertical bar, p<0.0001). Conclusions: Each lipoprotein class carries a unique oxylipin complement. P-OM3 treatment alters the oxylipin content of all classes, reducing pro-inflammatory and increasing anti-inflammatory species, consistent with the improved inflammatory and vascular status associated with the treatment.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Roohani, P., T. Emiru, A. Carpenter, C. Luzzio, Jerome Freeman, S. Scarberry, . . . G. Parry. (2014). Late onset multiple sclerosis: Is it really late onset? Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, 3(4), 444-449.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common demyelinating disease, and onset over the age of 50 years is referred to as late onset MS (LOMS). It has been thought that LOMS patients will be more likely to exhibit a primary progressive (PPMS) clinical course. Objective: To identify the clinical characteristics of demyelinating disease in patients over the age of 50 years from four different MS centers in the Northern Midwest USA. Methods: We reviewed medical records of all patients seen at the MS centers and identified those who were 50 years of age or more at the time of first spontaneously reported symptoms. We included those who were diagnosed with MS or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and excluded MS mimickers. Demographics, initial clinical course diagnosis, clinical characteristics, and any available five-year follow up data were collected. The clinical course was reevaluated in each patient with careful questioning regarding any prior focal neurological symptoms that had persisted for at least 48 h, not otherwise explained. Those with a prior event who were initially diagnosed with PPMS or CIS were reclassified as secondary-progressive MS (SPMS) and relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) respectively. Results: We identified 124 patients from a total of 3700 patients, making LOMS 3.4% MS in our population. The initial clinical course was RRMS in 50 (40%), PPMS in 44 (36%), SPMS in 15 (12%), and CIS in 15 (12%) patients. After reclassification the clinical course was RRMS in 55 (44%), PPMS in 25 (20%), SPMS in 34 (28%), and CIS in 10 (8%) patients. The clinical syndrome was identified as acute for 77 patients (62%) with transverse myelitis (N=25, 32%) as the most common type. The clinical syndrome was chronic for 47 patients (37%) and again transverse myelitis (N=24, 51%) was the most common type. Five-year follow up data was available for 44% of these patients. Discussion: LOMS is rare and RRMS is the most common clinical course. Reclassification of the clinical course, not done before in any other LOMS study, with careful questioning regarding a prior neurological event reveals that SPMS is the most common type of progressive MS and PPMS may be less common than previously thought. Transverse myelitis is the most common clinical presentation. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Sundram, Vasudha, A. Ganju, Joshua E. Hughes, S. Khan, S. C. Chauhan, & M. Jaggi. (2014). Protein Kinase D1 attenuates tumorigenesis in colon cancer by modulating beta-catenin/T cell factor activity. Oncotarget, 5(16), 6867-6884.

Over 80% of colon cancer development and progression is a result of the dysregulation of beta-catenin signaling pathway. Herein, for the first time, we demonstrate that a serine-threonine kinase, Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1), modulates the functions of beta-catenin to suppress colon cancer growth. Analysis of normal and colon cancer tissues reveals downregulation of PKD1 expression in advanced stages of colon cancer and its co-localization with beta-catenin in the colon crypts. This PKD1 downregulation corresponds with the aberrant expression and nuclear localization of beta-catenin. In-vitro investigation of the PKD1-beta-catenin interaction in colon cancer cells reveal that PKD1 overexpression suppresses cell proliferation and clonogenic potential and enhances cell-cell aggregation. We demonstrate that PKD1 directly interacts with beta-catenin and attenuates beta-catenin transcriptional activity by decreasing nuclear beta-catenin levels. Additionally, we show that inhibition of nuclear beta-catenin transcriptional activity is predominantly influenced by nucleus targeted PKD1. This subcellular modulation of beta-catenin results in enhanced membrane localization of beta-catenin and thereby increases cell-cell adhesion. Studies in a xenograft mouse model indicate that PKD1 overexpression delayed tumor appearance, enhanced necrosis and lowered tumor hypoxia. Overall, our results demonstrate a putative tumor-suppressor function of PKD1 in colon tumorigenesis via modulation of beta-catenin functions in cells.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Tintle, N. L., J. V. Pottala, S. Lacey, V. Ramachandran, J. Westra, A. Rogers, . . . G. C. Shearer. (2015). A genome-wide association study of saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated red blood cell fatty acids in the Framingham Heart Offspring Study. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 94, 65-72.

Most genome-wide association studies have explored relationships between genetic variants and plasma phospholipid fatty acid proportions, but few have examined apparent genetic influences on the membrane fatty acid profile of red blood cells (RBC). Using RBC fatty acid data from the Framingham Offspring Study, we analyzed over 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association with 14 RBC fatty acids identifying 191 different SNPs associated with at least 1 fatty acid. Significant associations (p < 1 x 10(-8)) were located within five distinct 1 MB regions. Of particular interest were novel associations between (1) arachidonic acid and PCOLCE2 (regulates apoA-I maturation and modulates apoA-I levels), and (2) oleic and linoleic acid and LPCAT3 (mediates the transfer of fatty acids between glycerolipids). We also replicated previously identified strong associations between SNPs in the FADS (chromosome 11) and ELOVL (chromosome 6) regions. Multiple SNPs explained 8-14% of the variation in 3 high abundance ( > 11%) fatty acids, but only 1-3% in 4 low abundance ( < 3%) fatty acids, with the notable exception of dihomo-gamma linolenic acid with 53% of variance explained by SNPs. Further studies are needed to determine the extent to which variations in these genes influence tissue fatty acid content and pathways modulated by fatty acids. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

van Dongen, J., Erik A. Ehli, R. C. Slieker, M. Bartels, Z. M. Weber, Gareth E. Davies, . . . D. I. Boomsma. (2014). Epigenetic Variation in Monozygotic Twins: A Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation in Buccal Cells. Genes, 5(2), 347-365.

DNA methylation is one of the most extensively studied epigenetic marks in humans. Yet, it is largely unknown what causes variation in DNA methylation between individuals. The comparison of DNA methylation profiles of monozygotic (MZ) twins offers a unique experimental design to examine the extent to which such variation is related to individual-specific environmental influences and stochastic events or to familial factors (DNA sequence and shared environment). We measured genome-wide DNA methylation in buccal samples from ten MZ pairs (age 8-19) using the Illumina 450k array and examined twin correlations for methylation level at 420,921 CpGs after QC. After selecting CpGs showing the most variation in the methylation level between subjects, the mean genome-wide correlation (rho) was 0.54. The correlation was higher, on average, for CpGs within CpG islands (CGIs), compared to CGI shores, shelves and non-CGI regions, particularly at hypomethylated CpGs. This finding suggests that individual-specific environmental and stochastic influences account for more variation in DNA methylation in CpG-poor regions. Our findings also indicate that it is worthwhile to examine heritable and shared environmental influences on buccal DNA methylation in larger studies that also include dizygotic twins.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Newland, Lisa A. (2015). Family well-being, parenting, and child well-being: Pathways to healthy adjustment. Clinical Psychologist, 19(1), 3-14.

Family well-being provides a foundation for positive parenting and child well-being. Many previous studies have outlined the possible connections between family well-being, parenting, and child well-being, yet translating research into practice continues to be problematic. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature (from 2000 to 2014) on family and child well-being in order to create a model of well-being that is useful for both researchers and practitioners. The model builds upon Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory, and is differentiated from other prominent models of family functioning by focusing on bolstering family strengths and well-being (as opposed to ameliorating family stress, risk, or deficits) and on supporting child well-being (as opposed to treating maladjustment). The model addresses family well-being (parental well-being, family self-sufficiency, and family resiliency), developmental parenting (affection, responsiveness, encouragement, teaching, engagement, positive discipline, and co-parenting), and child well-being (physical and mental health, self-regulation, social and cognitive competence). Direct and indirect connections between model components and possible moderating factors are discussed. A theory of change model is proposed as a tool for practitioners from a variety of disciplines and fields to guide their work with families. Recommendations for clinicians, limitations of the model, and future directions are discussed.

School of Education.

Newland, Lisa A., Michael J. Lawler, Jarod T. Giger, Soonhee Roh, & Eliann R. Carr. (2015). Predictors of Children’s Subjective Well-Being in Rural Communities of the United States. Child Indicators Research, 8(1), 177-198.

This study examined children’s subjective well-being in a rural Midwestern United States sample of children (N = 1,286). Fifth grade (M (age) = 10.66, SD = .55, range 10-12 years) and 7th grade (M (age) = 12.63, SD = .55, range 12-14 years) children completed an adapted version of the previously tested Children’s Worlds survey, measuring children’s subjective well-being. Surveys included individual factors (age, gender, number of residences), contextual factors of home and family (home environment, family relationships, parent involvement), life and neighborhood (financial resources, life stress, neighborhood quality), school (teacher relationships, school climate, school satisfaction), and peers (peer relationships), and subjective well-being measures for life satisfaction, mental health, and self-image. Though children’s subjective well-being was predicted by a number of individual, home and family, life and neighborhood, school, and peer variables, the strongest predictors of child well-being were relationships, school, and gender (males had higher scores). The reliability of the regression models were assessed by bootstrap resampling. Results are discussed in the context of an ecological, relationship-based framework of child well-being.

School of Health Sciences

School of Education

Sarriera, J. C., F. Casas, L. Bedin, D. Abs, M. R. Strelhow, D. Gross-Manos, & Jarod T. Giger. (2015). Material Resources and Children’s Subjective Well-Being in Eight Countries. Child Indicators Research, 8(1), 199-209.

The objective of this research is to examine the relationship between children’s perception of their available material resources and their subjective well-being. Participants (n = 13,953) resided in eight countries and were largely female (57 %), between the ages of 10-14 (M = 12.05; SD = 0.59). Each child completed a culturally appropriate country-survey that included demographic information and validated measures from the International Survey of Children’s Well-Being project (ISCIWeB), which included the Student’s Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS) and material resources items. We tested a relational model for predicting subjective well-being and applied structural equation modelling (SEM) to the data. Results indicated that children in Uganda had limited access to material resources and the lowest average of well-being. Together with Algeria and South Africa, Uganda also had the strongest associations between the access to material resources and the SLSS. Even with access to all material resources evaluated, well-being scores are also lower in the case of South Korea, probably due to the so-called “Asian bias”. Children from Israel, Brazil, Spain, and England were similar in their levels of satisfaction and well-being. Our model fit the data well and revealed significant relationships between material resources and child subjective well-being in each country. Preliminary results underscore the importance of assessing material well-being in children and highlight the role material resources have in influencing children’s subjective well-being, especially in cases of children experiencing severe resource deprivation. Our model warrants further testing to replicate and extend our findings. Recommendations for future research are provided.

School of Health Sciences.

Bollinger, Stephen S., Weltman, Nathan Y., Gerdes, A. M., & Schlenker, Evelyn H. (2015). T-3 supplementation affects ventilatory timing & glucose levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus model. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 205, 92-98.

Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can affect ventilation, metabolism, and fasting blood glucose levels. Hypothyroidism may be a comorbidity of T2DM. In this study T2DM was induced in 20 female Sprague Dawley rats using Streptozotocin (STZ) and Nicotinamide (N). One of experimental STZ/N groups (N=10 per group) was treated with a low dose of triiodothyronine (T-3). Blood glucose levels, metabolism and ventilation (in air and in response to hypoxia) were measured in the 3 groups. STZ/N-treated rats increased fasting blood glucose compared to control rats eight days and 2 months post-STZ/N injections indicating stable induction of T2DM state. Treatments had no effects on ventilation, metabolism or body weight. After one month of T-3 supplementation, there were no physiological indications of hyperthyroidism, but T-3 supplementation altered ventilatory timing and decreased blood glucose levels compared to STZ/N rats. These results suggest that low levels of T-3 supplementation could offer modest effects on blood glucose and ventilatory timing in this T2M model. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Chen, X., Shi, X. P., Zhao, C., …., Wang, Xuejun, & Liu, J. B. (2014). Anti-rheumatic agent auranofin induced apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia cells resistant to imatinib through both Bcr/Abl-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Oncotarget, 5(19), 9118-9132.

Resistance to Imatinib mesylate (IM) is an emerging problem for patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). T315I mutation in the Bcr-Abl is the predominant mechanism of the acquired resistance to IM and second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Therefore it is urgent to search for new measures to overcome TKI-resistance. Auranofin (AF), clinically used to treat rheumatic arthritis, was recently approved by US Food and Drug Administration for Phase II clinical trial to treat cancer. In contrast to the reports that AF induces apoptosis by increasing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels via inhibiting thioredoxin reductase, our recent study revealed that AF-induced apoptosis depends on inhibition of proteasomal deubiquitinases (UCHL5 and USP14). Here we report that (i) AF induces apoptosis in both Bcr-Abl wild-type cells and Bcr-Abl-T315I mutation cells and inhibits the growth of IM-resistant Bcr-Abl-T315I xenografts in vivo; (ii) AF inhibits Bcr-Abl through both downregulation of Bcr-Abl gene expression and Bcr-Abl cleavage mediated by proteasome inhibition-induced caspase activation; (iii) proteasome inhibition but not ROS is required for AF-induced caspase activation and apoptosis. These findings support that AF overcomes IM resistance through both Bcr/Abl-dependent and -independent mechanisms, providing great clinical significance for cancer treatment.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Gauliard, E., Ouellette, Scot P., Rueden, Kelsey J., & Ladant, D. (2015). Characterization of interactions between inclusion membrane proteins from Chlamydia trachomatis. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 5.

Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens of eukaryotes. The bacteria grow in an intracellular vesicle called an inclusion, the membrane of which is heavily modified by chlamydial proteins called lncs (Inclusion membrane proteins). lncs represent 7-10% of the genomes of Chlamydia and, given their localization at the interface between the host and the pathogen, likely play a key role in the development and pathogenesis of the bacterium. However, their functions remain largely unknown. Here, we characterized the interaction properties between various Inc proteins of C. trachomatis, using a bacterial two-hybrid (BACTH) method suitable for detecting interactions between integral membrane proteins. To validate this approach, we first examined the oligomerization properties of the well-characterized IncA protein and showed that both the cytoplasmic domain and the transmembrane region independently contribute to IncA oligomerization. We then analyzed a set of Inc proteins and identified novel interactions between these components. Two small lncs, IncF, and Ct222, were found here to interact with many other Inc proteins and may thus represent interaction nodes within the inclusion membrane. Our data suggest that the Inc proteins may assemble in the membrane of the inclusion to form specific multi-molecular complexes in an hierarchical and temporal manner. These studies will help to better define the putative functions of the Inc proteins in the infectious process of Chlamydia.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Killian, J. K., Miettinen, M., Walker, R. L., …., Killian, M. Scott, Lau, C. C., Pineda, M., Walling, J., Stevenson, H., Smith, C., Wang, Z. F., Lasota, J., Kim, S. Y., Boikos, S. A., Helman, L. J., & Meltzer, P. S. (2014). Recurrent epimutation of SDHC in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Science Translational Medicine, 6(268).

Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a conserved effector of cellular metabolism and energy production, and loss of SDH function is a driver mechanism in several cancers. SDH-deficient gastrointestinal stromal tumors (dSDH GISTs) collectively manifest similar phenotypes, including hypermethylated epigenomic signatures, tendency to occur in pediatric patients, and lack of KIT/PDGFRA mutations. dSDH GISTs often harbor deleterious mutations in SDH subunit genes (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD, termed SDHx), but some are SDHx wild type (WT). To further elucidate mechanisms of SDH deactivation in SDHx-WT GIST, we performed targeted exome sequencing on 59 dSDH GISTs to identify 43 SDHx-mutant and 16 SDHx-WT cases. Genome-wide DNA methylation and expression profiling exposed SDHC promoter-specific CpG island hypermethylation and gene silencing in SDHx-WT dSDH GISTs [ 15 of 16 cases (94%)]. Six of 15 SDHC-epimutant GISTs occurred in the setting of the multitumor syndrome Carney triad. We observed neither SDHB promoter hypermethylation nor large deletions on chromosome 1q in any SDHx-WT cases. Deep genome sequencing of a 130-kbp (kilo-base pair) window around SDHC revealed no recognizable sequence anomalies in SDHC-epimutant tumors. More than 2000 benign and tumor reference tissues, including stem cells and malignancies with a hypermethylator epigenotype, exhibit solely a non-epimutant SDHC promoter. Mosaic constitutional SDHC promoter hypermethylation in blood and saliva from patients with SDHC-epimutant GIST implicates a postzygotic mechanism in the establishment and maintenance of SDHC epimutation. The discovery of SDHC epimutation provides a unifying explanation for the pathogenesis of dSDH GIST, whereby loss of SDH function stems from either SDHx mutation or SDHC epimutation.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Li, Hao, Scholl, Jamie L., Tu, Wenyu, Hassell, James E., Watt, Michael J., Forster, Gina L., & Renner, Kenneth J. (2014). Serotonergic responses to stress are enhanced in the central amygdala and inhibited in the ventral hippocampus during amphetamine withdrawal. European Journal of Neuroscience, 40(11), 3684-3692.

Withdrawal from amphetamine increases anxiety and reduces the ability to cope with stress, which are factors that are believed to contribute to drug relapse. Stress-induced serotonergic transmission in the central nucleus of the amygdala is associated with anxiety states and fear. Conversely, stress-induced increases in ventral hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) levels have been linked to coping mechanisms. The goal of this study was to investigate the neurobiological changes induced by amphetamine that contribute to stress sensitivity during withdrawal. We tested the hypothesis that limbic serotonergic responses to restraint stress would be altered in male Sprague-Dawley rats chronically pretreated with amphetamine (2.5mg/kg, intraperitoneal) and then subjected to 2weeks of withdrawal. Amphetamine withdrawal resulted in increased stress-induced behavioral arousal relative to control treatment, suggesting that drug withdrawal induced greater sensitivity to the stressor. When microdialysis was used to determine the effects of restraint on extracellular 5-HT, stress-induced increases in 5-HT levels were abolished in the ventral hippocampus and augmented in the central amygdala during amphetamine withdrawal. Reverse dialysis of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone into the ventral hippocampus blocked the stress-induced increase in 5-HT levels in saline-pretreated rats, suggesting that glucocorticoid receptors mediate stress-induced increases in 5-HT levels in the ventral hippocampus. However, mifepristone had no effect on stress-induced increases in 5-HT levels in the central amygdala, indicating that stress increases 5-HT levels in this region independently of glucocorticoid receptors. During amphetamine withdrawal, the absence of stress-induced increases in ventral hippocampal 5-HT levels combined with enhanced stress-induced serotonergic responses in the central amygdala may contribute to drug relapse by decreasing stress-coping ability and heightening stress responsiveness.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Liu, N. N., Li, X. F., Huang, H. B., …., Wang, Xuejun, & Liu, J. B. (2014). Clinically used antirheumatic agent auranofin is a proteasomal deubiquitinase inhibitor and inhibits tumor growth. Oncotarget, 5(14), 5453-5471.

Proteasomes are attractive emerging targets for anti-cancer therapies. Auranofin (Aur), a gold-containing compound clinically used to treat rheumatic arthritis, was recently approved by US Food and Drug Administration for Phase II clinical trial to treat cancer but its anti-cancer mechanism is poorly understood. Here we report that (i) Aur shows proteasome-inhibitory effect that is comparable to that of bortezomib/Velcade (Vel); (ii) different from bortezomib, Aur inhibits proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (DUBs) UCHL5 and USP14 rather than the 20S proteasome; (iii) inhibition of the proteasome-associated DUBs is required for Aur-induced cytotoxicity; and (iv) Aur selectively inhibits tumor growth in vivo and induces cytotoxicity in cancer cells from acute myeloid leukemia patients. This study provides important novel insight into understanding the proteasome-inhibiting property of metal-containing compounds. Although several DUB inhibitors were reported, this study uncovers the first drug already used in clinic that can inhibit proteasome-associated DUBs with promising anti-tumor effects.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Butler, Stephen A., & Ghosh, D. (2015). Individual differences in managerial accounting judgments and decision making. British Accounting Review, 47(1), 33-45.

Managers are influenced in their decisions by the information provided by managerial accountants. Two typical examples from textbooks are the irrelevance of sunk costs and, more recently, the affect of knowing the outcome of a decision or revised budget forecast. Individual differences in the cognitive ability of decision makers to use information can lead to systematic differences in judgments. We identify and label one of these individual cognitive differences comprehensive thinking ability: the ability to think about multiple paths, branches or alternatives. Significant comprehensive thinking ability is likely to mitigate systematic differences in judgment in many contexts. We report the results of a series of studies using a variation on the investment trap (sunk cost or irrelevant cost) problem and a probability revision task. The findings suggest that comprehensive thinking ability may also explain other common systematic differences in judgment. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Beacom School of Business.

Balhoff, J. P., Dahdul, Wasila M., Dececchi, T. Alexander, Lapp, H., Mabee, Paula M., & Vision, T. J. (2014). Annotation of phenotypic diversity: decoupling data curation and ontology curation using Phenex. Journal of Biomedical Semantics, 5.

Background: Phenex (http://phenex.phenoscape.org/) is a desktop application for semantically annotating the phenotypic character matrix datasets common in evolutionary biology. Since its initial publication, we have added new features that address several major bottlenecks in the efficiency of the phenotype curation process: allowing curators during the data curation phase to provisionally request terms that are not yet available from a relevant ontology; supporting quality control against annotation guidelines to reduce later manual review and revision; and enabling the sharing of files for collaboration among curators. Results: We decoupled data annotation from ontology development by creating an Ontology Request Broker (ORB) within Phenex. Curators can use the ORB to request a provisional term for use in data annotation; the provisional term can be automatically replaced with a permanent identifier once the term is added to an ontology. We added a set of annotation consistency checks to prevent common curation errors, reducing the need for later correction. We facilitated collaborative editing by improving the reliability of Phenex when used with online folder sharing services, via file change monitoring and continual autosave. Conclusions: With the addition of these new features, and in particular the Ontology Request Broker, Phenex users have been able to focus more effectively on data annotation. Phenoscape curators using Phenex have reported a smoother annotation workflow, with much reduced interruptions from ontology maintenance and file management issues.

Biology Department.

Bubak, A. N., Grace, J. L., Watt, Michael J., Renner, Kenneth J., & Swallow, J. G. (2014). Neurochemistry as a bridge between morphology and behavior: Perspectives on aggression in insects. Current Zoology, 60(6), 778-790.

Aggression is a common behavioral trait shared in many animals, including both vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the type and intensity of agonistic encounters and displays can vary widely both across and within species, resulting in complicated or subjective interpretations that create difficulties in developing theoretical models that can be widely applied. The need to easily and objectively identify quantifiable behaviors and their associated morphologies becomes especially important when attempting to decipher the neurological mechanisms underlying this complex behavior. Monoamines, neuropeptides, and pheromones have been implicated as important neuromodulators for agonistic displays in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Additionally, recent breakthroughs in insect research have revealed exciting proximate mechanisms important in aggression that may be broadly relevant, due to the relatively high conservation of these neurochemical systems across animal taxa. In this review, we present the latest research demonstrating the importance of monoamines, neuropeptides, and pheromones as neuromodulators for aggression across a variety of insect species. Additionally, we describe the stalk-eyed fly as a model system for studying aggression, which integrates physiological, morphological, and neurochemical approaches in exploring detailed mechanisms responsible for this common yet complex behavior. We conclude with our perspective on the most promising lines of future research aimed at understanding the proximate and ultimate mechanisms underlying aggressive behaviors.

Biology Department.

Davis, Drew R., & Gabor, Caitlin R. (2015). Behavioral and physiological antipredator responses of the San Marcos salamander, Eurycea nana. Physiology & Behavior, 139, 145-149.

Exposure to predatory stimuli typically results in the elevation of circulating glucocorticoid levels and a behavioral response of freezing or escape behavior in many prey species. Corticosterone (CORT) is the main glucocorticoid in amphibians and is known to be important in modulating many behaviors and developmental functions. The federally threatened San Marcos salamander, Eurycea nana, decreases activity in response to both native and introduced predatory fish, however, experience may further influence these interactions. To better understand the indirect effects of fish predators on this salamander, we examined both the antipredator behavior and water-borne CORT release rates in response to chemical cues (kairomones) from two fish species that varied in temporal risk of predation: (1) a low encounter frequency predator (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides), (2) a high encounter frequency predator (redbreast sunfish, Lepomis auritus), and (3) a blank water control. Salamanders reduced activity (antipredator response) after exposure to both predator treatments, but not to the blank water control, and the response to M. salmoides was significantly stronger than that to L. auritus. The CORT response (post-stimulus/pre-stimulus release rates) did not differ between the blank water control and L. auritus treatments, and both were significantly less than the CORT response to M. salmoides. Overall, E. nana showed a decreased antipredator response and no CORT response towards the high encounter frequency L. auritus as compared to the low encounter frequency M. salmoides. Eurycea nana may mute antipredator and CORT responses to high temporal frequency predators. There was, however, no correlation between CORT release rates and antipredator behavior, which suggests that the presence of predators may be affecting CORT response and behavior independently. (c) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Biology Department.

Jarchow, Meghann E., Liebman, M., Dhungel, S., Dietzel, R., Sundberg, D., Anex, R. P., Thompson, M. L., & Chua, T. (2015). Trade-offs among agronomic, energetic, and environmental performance characteristics of corn and prairie bioenergy cropping systems. Global Change Biology Bioenergy, 7(1), 57-71.

Cellulosic bioenergy production provides opportunities to utilize a range of cropping systems that can enhance the multifunctionality of agricultural landscapes. In a 9-ha field experiment located on fertile land in Boone County, IA, USA, we directly compared a corn-soybean rotation harvested for grain, continuous corn harvested for grain and stover, continuous corn harvested for grain and stover with a rye cover crop, newly reconstructed prairie harvested for biomass and fertilized with nitrogen, and unfertilized newly reconstructed prairie harvested for biomass. Comparisons were made using four performance indicators: harvestable yield, net energy balance (NEB), root production, and nutrient balances. We found trade-offs among systems in terms of the measured performance indicators. Continuous corn systems were the highest yielding, averaging 13Mgha(-1) of harvested biomass (grain plus stover), whereas fertilized and unfertilized prairies produced the least harvested biomass at 8.8 and 6.5Mgha(-1), respectively. Mean NEBs were highest in continuous corn systems at 45.1GJha(-1), intermediate in the corn-soybean rotation at 28.6GJha(-1), and lowest in fertilized and unfertilized prairies at 11.4 and 10.5GJha(-1), respectively. Concomitant with the high yields of the continuous corn systems were the large nutrient requirements of these systems compared to the prairie systems. Continuous corn with rye required three times more nitrogen inputs than fertilized prairie. Root production, on the other hand, was on average seven times greater in the prairie systems than the annual crop systems. On highly fertile soils, corn-based cropping systems are likely to play an important role in maintaining the high productivity of agricultural landscapes, but alternative cropping systems, such as prairies used for bioenergy production, can produce substantial yield, require minimal externally derived inputs, and can be incorporated into the landscape at strategic locations to maximize the production of other ecosystem services.

Biology Department.

Nguyen, H. T., Park, H., Koster, Karen L., Cahoon, R. E., Nguyen, H. T. M., Shanklin, J., Clemente, T. E., & Cahoon, E. B. (2015). Redirection of metabolic flux for high levels of omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acid accumulation in camelina seeds. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 13(1), 38-50.

Seed oils enriched in omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids, including palmitoleic acid (16:19) and cis-vaccenic acid (18:111), have nutraceutical and industrial value for polyethylene production and biofuels. Existing oilseed crops accumulate only small amounts (<2%) of these novel fatty acids in their seed oils. We demonstrate a strategy for enhanced production of omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids in camelina (Camelina sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) that is dependent on redirection of metabolic flux from the typical 9 desaturation of stearoyl (18:0)-acyl carrier protein (ACP) to 9 desaturation of palmitoyl (16:0)-acyl carrier protein (ACP) and coenzyme A (CoA). This was achieved by seed-specific co-expression of a mutant 9-acyl-ACP and an acyl-CoA desaturase with high specificity for 16:0-ACP and CoA substrates, respectively. This strategy was most effective in camelina where seed oils with similar to 17% omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids were obtained. Further increases in omega-7 fatty acid accumulation to 60-65% of the total fatty acids in camelina seeds were achieved by inclusion of seed-specific suppression of 3-keto-acyl-ACP synthase II and the FatB 16:0-ACP thioesterase genes to increase substrate pool sizes of 16:0-ACP for the 9-acyl-ACP desaturase and by blocking C18 fatty acid elongation. Seeds from these lines also had total saturated fatty acids reduced to similar to 5% of the seed oil versus similar to 12% in seeds of nontransformed plants. Consistent with accumulation of triacylglycerol species with shorter fatty acid chain lengths and increased monounsaturation, seed oils from engineered lines had marked shifts in thermotropic properties that may be of value for biofuel applications.

Biology Department.

Han, Yulun, Micha, D. A., & Kilin, Dmitri S. (2015). Ab initio study of the photocurrent at the Au/Si metal-semiconductor nanointerface. Molecular Physics, 113(3-4), 327-335.

Photo-induced charge transfer at the interface of two materials is a fundamental process in photovoltaic applications. In this study, we have considered a model of a simplified photovoltaic cell composed of a Si nanocrystal co-doped with Al and P, interfacing with Au electrodes. The photo-induced time-dependent electric currents were computed from a combination of ab initio electronic structure and time-dependent density matrix methodology, and using the continuity equation for electronic currents. A dissipative equation of motion for the reduced density matrix for electronic degrees of freedom is used to study the phonon-induced relaxation of hot electrons in the simulated system. Equations are solved in a basis set of orbitals generated ab initio from a density functional. Non-adiabatic couplings between electronic orbitals are computed on-the-fly along nuclear trajectories. Charge carrier dynamics induced by selected photoexcitations show that hole relaxation in energy and in space is much faster than electron relaxation. The overall net charge transfer across the slab is small; however, local currents at the Si/Au interfaces are substantial. It is also shown that the relaxation of the induced current can be used to parameterise the dynamical conductivity by means of a fluctuation-dissipation relation.

Chemistry Department.

Ho, W. K., Zhang, Z. Z., Lin, W., Huang, Shuping, Zhang, X. W., Wang, X. X., & Huang, Y. (2015). Copolymerization with 2,4,6-Triaminopyrimidine for the Rolling-up the Layer Structure, Tunable Electronic Properties, and Photocatalysis of g-C3N4. Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces, 7(9), 5497-5505.

Copolymerization with 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine (TAP) is developed for precise substitution of one nitrogen with carbon atom in the triazine ring of polymeric g-C3N4. Direct incorporation of C4N2 ring from TAP into the network retains the structural features of g-C3N4, but induces the rolling-up of g-C3N4 sheets into tubular configuration. The band gap energy is narrowed from 2.7 to 2.4 eV by a negative shift of valence band of the g-C3N4 photocatalyst, which enhances charge-carrier migration and separation, leading to higher photocatalytic activity for NO gas pollutant removal. It is attributed to the decrease of the pi-deficiency and the generation of imbalanced electron density in pi-electron conjugated units of g-C3N4 by TAP incorporation. This work provides a significant technique for precise control of heteroatom in the framework of g-C3N4 to finely adjust its intrinsic electronic properties and its photocatalytic properties.

Chemistry Department.

Clark, Prentiss. (2014). Pulse for Pulse in Harmony with the Universal Whole: Hearing “Self-Reliance” Anew. Nineteenth-Century Literature, 69(3), 319-341.

This essay recounts how Ralph Waldo Emerson, the nineteenth-century thinker perhaps most associated with individualism, is equally, and perhaps necessarily, a student of the intimacies in which we exist. More specifically, the essay contests the explanatory power criticism generally attributes to what Emerson called “self-reliance” by delineating how “self-reliance” (the idea and the 1841 essay by this name) participates in Emerson’s broad work of investigating what he termed “man’s true position in the universe” and its implications for one’s conduct of life. In this reading, which draws from Emerson’s neglected as well as canonical essays, lectures, and sermons, “the infinitude of the private man”-the “one doctrine” Emerson says he teaches in all his lectures-has less to do with the singular human self as such than with our standing ever amid innumerable and consequential relations and accountable for all it entails. Ultimately, this essay hopes to demonstrate how Emerson speaks, from the first, to the ethical potential of rediscovering our connections-connections to ourselves, fellow persons, nature, and beyond (even when at the distances to which our differences can put us).

English Department.

De, Pradip, Carlson, J., Leyland-Jones, Brian, & Dey, Nawdini. (2014). Oncogenic nexus of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A): an oncoprotein with many hands. Oncotarget, 5(13), 4581-4602.

Oncoprotein CIP2A a Cancerous Inhibitor of PP2A forms an “oncogenic nexus” by virtue of its control on PP2A and MYC stabilization in cancer cells. The expression and prognostic function of CIP2A in different solid tumors including colorectal carcinoma, head & neck cancers, gastric cancers, lung carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, esophageal cancers, pancreatic carcinoma, brain cancers, breast carcinoma, bladder cancers, ovarian carcinoma, renal cell carcinomas, tongue cancers, cervical carcinoma, prostate cancers, and oral carcinoma as well as a number of hematological malignancies are just beginning to emerge. Herein, we reviewed the recent progress in our understanding of (1) how an ” oncogenic nexus” of CIP2A participates in the tumorigenic transformation of cells and (2) how we can prospect/view the clinical relevance of CIP2A in the context of cancer therapy. The review will try to understand the role of CIP2A (a) as a biomarker in cancers and evaluate the prognostic value of CIP2A in different cancers (b) as a therapeutic target in cancers and (c) in drug response and developing chemo-resistance in cancers.

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De, Pradip Carlson, Jennifer Leyland-Jones, Brian Dey, Nandini

Impact journals llc

Albany

Hanlon, S. M., Lynch, K. J., Kerby, Jacob, & Parris, M. J. (2015). Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis exposure effects on foraging efficiencies and body size in anuran tadpoles. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 112(3), 237-242.

Chytridiomycosis, the amphibian disease caused by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is fatal to adults of many species. Bd is largely sublethal to amphibian larvae; however, it is known to reduce larval (i.e. tadpole) growth rates, with possible long-term effects on population dynamics and fitness. We conducted an experiment to test how Bd altered southern leopard frog Lithobates sphenocephalus tadpole mouthpart damage, percentage of food ingested, and subsequent body size. We examined our results using path analyses. We hypothesized that Bd would increase mouthpart damage, causing less food to be ingested, and ultimately reduce body size. In our model, both Bd exposure and increased mouthpart damage significantly reduced food ingested and subsequent body size. However, our study provides evidence against the long-standing hypothesis of mouthpart damage as a pathway for Bd-induced reductions in larval group. Here we provide evidence for reduced foraging efficiency (percentage of food ingested) as a mechanism for Bd-induced reductions in body size. This work highlights the importance of studying the sublethal effects of Bd on larval amphibians.

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Cited Reference Count: 31

Hanlon, Shane M. Lynch, Kyle J. Kerby, Jake Parris, Matthew J.

Inter-research

Oldendorf luhe

Balakrishnan, N., Jiang, Nan, Tsai, T. R., Lio, Y. L., & Chen, D. G. (2015). Reliability Inference on Composite Dynamic Systems Based on Burr Type-XII Distribution. IEEE Transactions on Reliability, 64(1), 144-153.

Failure of a component in a composite dynamic system often induces a higher load on surviving components, and increases the hazard rate. Statistical inferential procedures on composite dynamic systems are developed here based on a Burr type-XII distribution with a power-trend hazard rate function. Point estimates of the Burr type-XII parameters, and interval estimates of the baseline survival function are obtained based on the maximum-likelihood estimates, and the Fisher information matrix. A test procedure is presented for examining the relationship between the hazard rate function and the number of failed components. The performance of the proposed method is then evaluated by means of an extensive Monte Carlo simulation study. An example is finally presented for illustrative purpose.

Mathematics Department.

Hecock, R. D., & Jepsen, Eric M. (2014). The Political Economy of FDI in Latin America 1986-2006: A Sector-Specific Approach. Studies in Comparative International Development, 49(4), 426-447.

This study examines the political determinants of foreign direct investment (FDI) across 15 Latin American countries from 1986 to 2006. In contrast to existing scholarship, we focus on the causes of investment by economic sector-primary resources, manufacturing, and services. Additionally, a regional focus on Latin America helps to control for omitted variables by comparing relatively similar countries. We find substantial variation in the causes and characteristics of FDI across sector. Specifically, manufacturing investment is volatile and attracted to less democratic regimes. In contrast, investment in primary resources privileges greater democracy and property rights protection, while FDI in services is associated with public fiscal responsibility. These results yield important theoretical and practical implications for scholars and policymakers throughout the region.

Political Science Department.

Brennan, M. L., Adam, M. P., Seaver, L. H., Myers, Angela, Schelley, S., Zadeh, N., Hudgins, L., & Bernstein, J. A. (2015). Increased Body Mass in Infancy and Early Toddlerhood in Angelman Syndrome Patients with Uniparental Disomy and Imprinting Center Defects. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 167A(1), 142-146.

The diagnosis of Angelman syndrome (AS) is based on clinical features and genetic testing. Developmental delay, severe speech impairment, ataxia, atypical behavior and microcephaly by two years of age are typical. Feeding difficulties in young infants and obesity in late childhood can also be seen. The NIH Angelman-Rett-Prader-Willi Consortium and others have documented genotype-phenotype associations including an increased body mass index in children with uniparental disomy (UPD) or imprinting center (IC) defects. We recently encountered four cases of infantile obesity in non-deletion AS cases, and therefore examined body mass measures in a cohort of non-deletion AS cases. We report on 16 infants and toddlers (ages 6 to 44 months; 6 female, and 10 male) with severe developmental delay. Birth weights were appropriate for gestational age in most cases, >97th% in one case and not available in four cases. The molecular subclass case distribution consisted of: UPD (n = 2), IC defect (n = 3), UPD or IC defect (n = 3), and UBE3A mutation (n = 8). Almost all (7 out of 8) UPD, IC and UPD/IC cases went on to exhibit >90th% age-and gender-appropriate weight for height or BMI within the first 44 months. In contrast, no UBE3A mutation cases exhibited obesity or pre-obesity measures (percentiles ranged from <3% to 55%). These findings demonstrate that increased body mass may be evident as early as the first year of life and highlight the utility of considering the diagnosis of AS in the obese infant or toddler with developmental delay, especially when severe. Although a mechanism explaining the association of UPD, and IC defects with obesity has not been identified, recognition of this correlation may inform investigation of imprinting at the PWS/AS locus and obesity. (C) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Dorman, Jason C., Valentine, Verle D., Munce, Thayne A., Tjarks, B. Joel, Thompson, Paul A., & Bergeron, Michael F. (2015). Tracking postural stability of young concussion patients using dual-task interference. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 18(1), 2-7.

Objectives: This study examined the diagnostic benefit of using dual-task interference balance testing in young concussion patients and the longitudinal changes in postural stability that occur relative to other standard clinical assessments of concussion injury. Design: Longitudinal, case-control. Methods: Eighteen patients (16.6 (1.6)y) diagnosed with a concussion provided 22 separate ratings to characterize the severity of their current concussion-related symptoms and were evaluated for postural stability at each of four clinical visits. Twenty-six injury-free adolescents (17 (2.8) y) performed balance testing on two occasions, separated by 1 week. Results: There was a progressive decrease in self-reported symptoms from visit 1 to visit 4 (P<0.0001-0.001). A similar improvement occurred in postural stability, indicated by 95% ellipse area and velocity. However, the differences in ellipse area and velocity were significant only between visit 1 and the rest of the visits as a whole (P<0.0001-0.05). There was a significant difference between concussion patients and healthy, injury-free participants in ellipse area and velocity during visit 1. A group difference was also observed in ellipse area on visit 2, but only during the two balance tests that involved a concomitant secondary cognitive task. Conclusions: Improvements in postural stability coincide with reductions in reported symptoms, though apparent recovery of these selected measures of postural stability seemingly occurs sooner. Because of the distinguishing time course of recovery indicated by dual-task interference balance testing, this type of balance testing assessment may be particularly valuable in evaluating integrated functional impairment and recovery in young concussion patients. (C) 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Guo, Q. S., Wang, Y. Q., Tripathi, P., Manda, K. R., Mukherjee, Malay, Chaklader, M., Austin, P. F., Surendran, Kameswaran, & Chen, F. (2015). Adam10 Mediates the Choice between Principal Cells and Intercalated Cells in the Kidney. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 26(1), 149-159.

A disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 10 (Adam10), a member of the ADAM family of cell membrane-anchored proteins, has been linked to the regulation of the Notch, EGF, E-cadherin, and other signaling pathways. However, it is unclear what role Adam10 has in the kidney in vivo. In this study, we showed that Adam10 deficiency in ureteric bud (UB) derivatives leads to a decrease in urinary concentrating ability, polyuria, and hydronephrosis in mice. Furthermore, Adam10 deficiency led to a reduction in the percentage of aquaporin 2 (Aqp2)(+) principal cells (PCs) in the collecting ducts that was accompanied by a proportional increase in the percentage of intercalated cells (ICs). This increase was more prominent in type A ICs than in type B ICs. Foxi1, a transcription factor important for the differentiation of ICs, was upregulated in the Adam10 mutants. The observed reduction of Notch activity in Adam10 mutant collecting duct epithelium and the similar reduction of PC/IC ratios in the collecting ducts in mice deficient for mindbomb E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1, a key regulator of the Notch and Wnt/receptor-like tyrosine kinase signaling pathways, suggest that Adam10 regulates cell fate determination through the activation of Notch signaling, probably through the regulation of Foxi1 expression. However, phenotypic differences between the Adam10 mutants, the Mib1 mutants, and the Foxi1 mutants suggest that the functions of Adam10 in determining the fate of collecting duct cells are more complex than those of a simple upstream factor in a linear pathway involving Notch and Foxi1.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Jung, Y. S., Vermeer, Paola D., Vermeer, Daniel W., Lee, S. J., Goh, A. R., Ahn, H. J., & Lee, John H. (2015). CD200: Association with cancer stem cell features and response to chemoradiation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Head and Neck-Journal for the Sciences and Specialties of the Head and Neck, 37(3), 327-335.

BackgroundThe purpose of this study was to characterize the expression of CD200, a membrane protein that functions in immune evasion, to examine its correlations with cancer stem cell (CSC)-like features and analyze its response to chemotherapy and radiation in human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive (+) and negative (-) head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). MethodsCD200 expression was analyzed in several HNSCC cell lines. CD200 was overexpressed in HPV(+) murine tonsil epithelial cells, its effects on Shh and Bmi-1 were examined in vitro, and tumor growth and response to chemoradiation were analyzed in vitro and in vivo. ResultsCD200 was diversely expressed and consistently associated with expression of Bmi-1 and Shh. Overexpression of CD200 induced Bmi-1 and Shh. Tumors grew similarly between C57BL/6 and Rag1(-/-) C57BL/6 mice. CD200 expression enhanced the resistance to chemoradiation only in vivo. ConclusionCD200 was related to CSC features and modulates response to chemoradiation in vivo. Attenuating this might be a potential therapeutic strategy. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 37: 327-335, 2015

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Kaess, B. M., Harris, William S., Lacey, S., Larson, M. G., Hamburg, N. M., Vita, J. A., Robins, S. J., Benjamin, E. J., Mitchell, G. F., & Vasan, R. S. (2015). The relation of red blood cell fatty acids with vascular stiffness, cardiac structure and left ventricular function: The Framingham Heart Study. Vascular Medicine, 20(1), 5-13.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been associated with beneficial influences on cardiovascular health. However, the underlying mechanisms are not clear, and data on the relations of polyunsaturated fatty acids to subclinical disease measures such as vascular stiffness and cardiac function are sparse and inconclusive. In a large community-based cohort, we examined the relations of omega-3 and other fatty acids to a comprehensive panel of vascular function measures (assessing microvascular function and large artery stiffness), cardiac structure and left ventricular function. Red blood cell (RBC) membrane fatty acid composition, a measure of long-term fatty acid intake, was assessed in participants of the Framingham Offspring Study and Omni cohorts and related to tonometry-derived measures of vascular stiffness and to a panel of echocardiographic traits using partial correlations. Up to n=3055 individuals (56% women, mean age 66 years) were available for analyses. In age- and sex-adjusted models, higher RBC omega-3 content was moderately associated (p0.002) with several measures of vascular stiffness and function in a protective direction. However, after multivariable adjustment, only an association of higher RBC omega-3 content with lower carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (a measure of aortic stiffness) remained significant (r = -0.06, p=0.002). In secondary analyses, higher linoleic acid, the major nutritional omega-6 fatty acid, was associated with smaller left atrial size, even after multivariable adjustment (r = -0.064, p<0.001). In conclusion, in our cross-sectional community-based study, we found several associations consistent with the notion of protective effects of omega-3 and linoleic acid. The clinical significance of these modest associations remains to be elucidated.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Khan, S., Ebeling, Mara C., Zaman, M. S., Sikander, M., …., Thompson, Paul A., Jaggi, M., & Chauhan, S. C. (2014). MicroRNA-145 targets MUC13 and suppresses growth and invasion of pancreatic cancer. Oncotarget, 5(17), 7599-7609.

Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis due to late diagnosis and ineffective therapeutic multimodality. MUC13, a transmembrane mucin is highly involved in pancreatic cancer progression. Thus, understanding its regulatory molecular mechanisms may offer new avenue of therapy for prevention/treatment of pancreatic cancer. Herein, we report a novel microRNA (miR-145)-mediated mechanism regulating aberrant MUC13 expression in pancreatic cancer. We report that miR-145 expression inversely correlates with MUC13 expression in pancreatic cancer cells and human tumor tissues. miR-145 is predominantly present in normal pancreatic tissues and early Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) precursor lesions (PanIN I) and is progressively suppressed over the course of development from PanIN II/III to late stage poorly differentiated PDAC. We demonstrate that miR-145 targets 3′ untranslated region of MUC13 and thus downregulates MUC13 protein expression in cells. Interestingly, transfection of miR-145 inhibits cell proliferation, invasion and enhances gemcitabine sensitivity. It causes reduction of HER2, P-AKT, PAK1 and an increase in p53. Similar results were found when MUC13 was specifically inhibited by shRNA directed at MUC13. Additionally, intratumoral injections of miR-145 in xenograft mice inhibited tumor growth via suppression of MUC13 and its downstream target, HER2. These results suggest miR-145 as a novel regulator of MUC13 in pancreatic cancer.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Kuppast, B., Spyridaki, K., Lynch, C., Hu, Yuehan, Liapakis, G., Davies, Gareth E., & Fahmy, H. (2015). Synthesis of New Thiazolo 4,5-d pyrimidines as Corticotropin Releasing Factor Modulators. Medicinal Chemistry, 11(1), 50-59.

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a neurohormone that plays a crucial role in integrating the body’s overall response to stress. It appears necessary and sufficient for the organism to mount functional, physiological and endocrine responses to stressors. CRF is released in response to various triggers such as chronic stress. The role of CRF and its involvement in these neurological disorders suggest that new drugs that can target the CRF function or bind to its receptors may represent a new development of neuropsychiatric medicines to treat various stress-related disorders including depression, anxiety and addictive disorders. Based on pharmacophore of the CRF1 receptor antagonists, a new series of thiazolo[4,5-d] pyrimidines were synthesized as Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor modulators and the prepared compounds carry groups shown to produce optimum binding affinity to CRF receptors. Twenty two compounds were evaluated for their CRF1 receptor binding affinity in HEK 293 cell lines and two compounds 5o and 5s showed approximately 25% binding affinity to CRF1 receptors. Selected compounds (5c and 5f) were also evaluated for their effect on expression of genes associated with depression and anxiety disorders such as CRF1, CREB1, MAO-A, SERT, NPY, DatSLC6a3, and DBH and significant upregulation of CRF1 mRNA has been observed with compound 5c.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Hooper, D. R., Cook, B. M., Comstock, Brent A., Szivak, T. K., Flanagan, S. D., Looney, D. P., DuPont, W. H., & Kraemer, W. J. (2015). SYNTHETIC GARMENTS ENHANCE COMFORT, THERMOREGULATORY RESPONSE, AND ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE COMPARED WITH TRADITIONAL COTTON GARMENTS. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29(3), 700-707.

The ability of a fabric to transfer moisture is referred to as “wicking,” and an increase in this property may have benefits in terms of comfort and thermoregulation. However, this phenomenon has not been studied in the context of sporting-type activities. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess whether comfort, thermal physiological parameters, and physical performance can be affected by the garment that is used. Ten men (age: 27.5 +/- 4.4 years; height: 169.3 +/- 14.2 cm; weight: 80.05 +/- 10.87 kg) and 10 women (age: 26.8 +/- 3.7 years; height: 166.6 +/- 4.46 cm; weight: 64.63 +/- 4.49 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. A within-group crossover counterbalanced design was used that included the Illinois Agility Run (IAR) and the Multistage Fitness Test (MSFT). The IAR was also performed while wearing protective padding. The protocol was completed on 2 occasions, once while wearing a cotton garment (C) and again while wearing a polyester (P) garment. Questionnaires referring to sensations of various components of comfort were completed after each test. The P garment provided significantly (p <= 0.05) greater comfort in men and women after both the IAR and the MSFT. The P garment led to significantly (p <= 0.05) improved performance during the IAR in women. The P garment also provided significantly (p <= 0.05) greater body mass loss during the protocol in women. This study demonstrated dramatic increases in the comfort of P garments, including while using protective equipment. This study also discovered the influence of P garments on anaerobic tasks and also revealed dramatic sex differences, where women seem to be much more sensitive to the benefits of P garments. Strength and conditioning coaches should be aware of the dramatic impact of garment choice, in aerobic and anaerobic tasks, particularly in women.

School of Education.

Posted by: reganenosusd | February 4, 2015

January 2015

Davis, Drew R., Kathryn D. Feller, Rafe M. Brown, & Cameron D. Siler. (2014). Evaluating the Diversity of Philippine Slender Skinks of the Brachymeles bonitae Complex (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae): Redescription of B. tridactylus and Descriptions of Two New Species. Journal of Herpetology, 48(4), 480-494.

We review the species of the Brachymeles bonitae Complex ( B. bonitae and B. tridactylus) and describe an additional two new species in this highly specialized, limb-reduced, endemic Philippine clade of fossorial lizards. For more than 4 decades, B. bonitae has been recognized as a single ‘widespread’ species, a perception that has persisted as a result of limited sampling and similar overall morphology (body sizes, scale pigmentation) among populations. However, on the basis of new collections we note consistent morphological differences between populations, and our new data build on previous observations, allowing us to utilize newly defined character state differences for the purpose of delimiting unambiguous boundaries between species. Here, we use morphological and molecular data to define species limits in B. bonitae and its close relatives. Our data indicate that the ‘widespread’ species B. bonitae is actually a complex of four distinct evolutionary lineages, several of which are not each others’ closest relatives. The taxa we define possess allopatric geographic ranges (biogeographically supporting our taxonomic conclusions) and differ from their congeners by several diagnostic characters of external morphology. We conclude that each, therefore, should be recognized as full species in accordance with lineage-based species concepts. Species diversity in the genus has doubled in the last 4 yr, with newly described taxa increasing the total number of species of Brachymeles to 38.

Biology Department.

Wesner, Jeff S., J. M. Kraus, T. S. Schmidt, D. M. Walters, & W. H. Clements. (2014). Metamorphosis Enhances the Effects of Metal Exposure on the Mayfly, Centroptilum triangulifer. Environmental Science & Technology, 48(17), 10415-10422.

The response o f larval aquatic insects to stressors such as metals is used to assess the ecological condition of streams worldwide. However, nearly all larval insects metamorphose from aquatic larvae to winged adults, and recent surveys indicate that adults may be a more sensitive indicator of stream metal toxicity than larvae. One hypothesis to explain this pattern is that insects exposed to elevated metal in their larval stages have a reduced ability to successfully complete metamorphosis. To test this hypothesis we exposed late-instar larvae o f the mayfly, Centroptilum triangulifer, to an aqueous Zn gradient (32-476 μg/L) in the laboratory. After 6 days of exposure, when metamorphosis began, larval survival was unaffected by zinc. However, Zn reduced wingpad development at concentrations above 139 μg/L. In contrast, emergence of subimagos and imagos tended to decline with any increase in Zn. At Zn concentrations below 105 μg/L (hardness-adjusted aquatic life criterion), survival between the wingpad and subimago stages declined 5-fold across the Zn gradient. These results support the hypothesis that metamorphosis may be a survival bottleneck, particularly in contaminated streams. Thus, death during metamorphosis may be a key mechanism explaining how stream metal contamination can impact terrestrial communities by reducing aquatic insect emergence.

Biology Department.

Balasanthiran, Choumini, & James D. Hoefelmeyer. (2014). Facile method to attach transition metal ions to the surface of anatase TiO2 nanorods. Chemical Communications, 50(43), 5721-5724.

We report a robust, low-cost method to attach transition metal ions directly to the surface of anatase TiO2 rod-shaped nanocrystals with preservation of the host nanocrystal morphology and phase. The procedure has been optimized to achieve quantitative control of metal ion loading on the surface of the nanorods. The metal ion can be attached to the nanocrystal surface up to full monolayer coverage, after which the surface becomes saturated and there is no further addition.

Chemistry Department.

Feng-Rong, Dai, Dustin C. Becht, & Zhenqiang Wang. (2014). Modulating guest binding in sulfonylcalixarene-based metal-organic supercontainers. Chemical Communications, 50(40), 5385-5387.

Metal-organic supercontainers (MOSCs) represent a new family of synthetic receptors derived from container precursors and featuring both endo and exo cavities. A neutral MOSC has been functionalized into an anionic container by incorporating sulfo groups. The anionic MOSC exhibits cavity-specific binding properties in both solid state and solution.

Chemistry Department.

Summers, Torrie, Sara Holec, & Brian D. Burrell. (2014). Physiological and behavioral evidence of a capsaicin-sensitive TRPV-like channel in the medicinal leech. Journal of Experimental Biology, 217(23), 4167-4173.

Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels are found throughout the animal kingdom, where they play an important role in sensory transduction. In this study, we combined physiological studies with in vivo behavioral experiments to examine the presence of a putative TRPV-like receptor in the medicinal leech, building upon earlier studies in this lophotrochozoan invertebrate. The leech polymodal nociceptive neuron was activated by both peripheral and central application of the TRPV1-activator capsaicin in a concentration-dependent manner, with 100 mu moll(-1) being the lowest effective concentration. Responses to capsaicin were inhibited by the selective TRPV1 antagonist SB366791. The polymodal nociceptive neuron also responded to noxious thermal stimuli (>40 degrees C), and this response was also blocked by SB366791. Capsaicin sensitivity was selective to the polymodal nociceptor with no direct response being elicited in the mechanical nociceptive neuron or in the non-nociceptive touch-or pressure-sensitive neurons. Capsaicin also elicited nocifensive behavioral responses (withdrawals and locomotion) in a concentration-dependent manner, and these behavioral responses were significantly attenuated with SB366791. These results suggest the presence of a capsaicin-sensitive TRPV-like channel in the medicinal leech central nervous system and are relevant to the evolution of nociceptive signaling.

Basic Biomedical Science, Vermillion Campus.

Killian, J. K., M. Miettinen, R. L. Walker, …., M. Scott Killian, C. C. Lau, . . . P. S. Meltzer. (2014). Recurrent epimutation of SDHC in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Science Translational Medicine, 6(268).

Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a conserved effector of cellular metabolism and energy production, and loss of SDH function is a driver mechanism in several cancers. SDH-deficient gastrointestinal stromal tumors (dSDH GISTs) collectively manifest similar phenotypes, including hypermethylated epigenomic signatures, tendency to occur in pediatric patients, and lack of KIT/PDGFRA mutations. dSDH GISTs often harbor deleterious mutations in SDH subunit genes (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD, termed SDHx), but some are SDHx wild type (WT). To further elucidate mechanisms of SDH deactivation in SDHx-WT GIST, we performed targeted exome sequencing on 59 dSDH GISTs to identify 43 SDHx-mutant and 16 SDHx-WT cases. Genome-wide DNA methylation and expression profiling exposed SDHC promoter-specific CpG island hypermethylation and gene silencing in SDHx-WT dSDH GISTs [ 15 of 16 cases (94%)]. Six of 15 SDHC-epimutant GISTs occurred in the setting of the multitumor syndrome Carney triad. We observed neither SDHB promoter hypermethylation nor large deletions on chromosome 1q in any SDHx-WT cases. Deep genome sequencing of a 130-kbp (kilo-base pair) window around SDHC revealed no recognizable sequence anomalies in SDHC-epimutant tumors. More than 2000 benign and tumor reference tissues, including stem cells and malignancies with a hypermethylator epigenotype, exhibit solely a non-epimutant SDHC promoter. Mosaic constitutional SDHC promoter hypermethylation in blood and saliva from patients with SDHC-epimutant GIST implicates a postzygotic mechanism in the establishment and maintenance of SDHC epimutation. The discovery of SDHC epimutation provides a unifying explanation for the pathogenesis of dSDH GIST, whereby loss of SDH function stems from either SDHx mutation or SDHC epimutation.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Li, Hao, Jamie L. Scholl, Wenyu Tu, James E. Hassell, Michael J. Watt, Gina L. Forster, & Kenneth J. Renner. (2014). Serotonergic responses to stress are enhanced in the central amygdala and inhibited in the ventral hippocampus during amphetamine withdrawal. European Journal of Neuroscience, 40(11), 3684-3692.

Withdrawal from amphetamine increases anxiety and reduces the ability to cope with stress, which are factors that are believed to contribute to drug relapse. Stress-induced serotonergic transmission in the central nucleus of the amygdala is associated with anxiety states and fear. Conversely, stress-induced increases in ventral hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) levels have been linked to coping mechanisms. The goal of this study was to investigate the neurobiological changes induced by amphetamine that contribute to stress sensitivity during withdrawal. We tested the hypothesis that limbic serotonergic responses to restraint stress would be altered in male Sprague-Dawley rats chronically pretreated with amphetamine (2.5mg/kg, intraperitoneal) and then subjected to 2weeks of withdrawal. Amphetamine withdrawal resulted in increased stress-induced behavioral arousal relative to control treatment, suggesting that drug withdrawal induced greater sensitivity to the stressor. When microdialysis was used to determine the effects of restraint on extracellular 5-HT, stress-induced increases in 5-HT levels were abolished in the ventral hippocampus and augmented in the central amygdala during amphetamine withdrawal. Reverse dialysis of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone into the ventral hippocampus blocked the stress-induced increase in 5-HT levels in saline-pretreated rats, suggesting that glucocorticoid receptors mediate stress-induced increases in 5-HT levels in the ventral hippocampus. However, mifepristone had no effect on stress-induced increases in 5-HT levels in the central amygdala, indicating that stress increases 5-HT levels in this region independently of glucocorticoid receptors. During amphetamine withdrawal, the absence of stress-induced increases in ventral hippocampal 5-HT levels combined with enhanced stress-induced serotonergic responses in the central amygdala may contribute to drug relapse by decreasing stress-coping ability and heightening stress responsiveness.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Wang, Changhua, & Xuejun Wang. (2015). The interplay between autophagy and the ubiquitin–proteasome system in cardiac proteotoxicity. BBA – Molecular Basis of Disease, 1852(2), 188-194.

Proteotoxicity refers to the detrimental effects of damaged/misfolded proteins on the cell. Cardiac muscle is particularly susceptible to proteotoxicity because sustained and severe proteotoxic stress leads to cell death and the cardiac muscle has very limited self-renewal capacity. The ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagic-lysosomal pathway (ALP) are two major pathways responsible for degradation of most cellular proteins. Alterations of UPS and ALP functions are associated with the accumulation of proteotoxic species in the heart, a key pathological feature of common forms of heart disease including idiopathic, ischemic, and pressure-overloaded cardiomyopathies and a large subset of congestive heart failure. Emerging evidence suggests that proteasome inhibition or impairment activates autophagy and conversely, acute ALP inhibition may sometimes increase intrinsic proteasome peptidase activities but chronic ALP inhibition hinders UPS performance in ubiquitinated protein degradation. The exact molecular basis on which the two degradative pathways interact remains largely undefined. Here we review current understanding of the roles of the UPS and autophagy in the control of cardiac proteotoxicity, with a specific focus on the crosstalk between the two pathways. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Autophagy and protein quality control in cardiometabolic diseases.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Kerby, Jacob, & Andrew Sih. (2015). Effects of carbaryl on species interactions of the foothill yellow legged frog ( Rana boylii) and the Pacific treefrog ( Pseudacris regilla). Hydrobiologia, 746(1), 255-269.

Amphibian species worldwide are being confronted with novel anthropogenic stressors such as contaminants and invasive species. While much work has been done to examine these factors individually, less is known about how these stressors might interact. No studies to this point have examined the potentially synergistic impacts between these two stressors on a threatened amphibian species. We present the results from three separate laboratory studies focusing on two species of frogs, the Pacific tree frog ( Pseudacris regilla) and a federal species of concern, the foothill yellow legged frog ( Rana boylii). These experiments examine the toxicity of an insecticide, carbaryl, on each species, on their competitive interactions, and on their interaction with a non-native crayfish predator ( Pacifastacus leniusculus). R. boylii were more susceptible to pesticide exposure than P. regilla and exposure reduced their ability to compete. This differential effect of the pesticide resulted in a remarkable increase in mortality (50%) for R. boylii with an invasive crayfish predator present while P. regilla exhibited no change. These results add to concerns over the utility of single species toxicity tests in determining safe levels for environmental exposure and advocate for the use of multiple species tests that focus on key species interactions.

Biology Department.

Nguyen, Huu Tam, Hyunwoo Park, Karen L. Koster, Rebecca E. Cahoon, Hanh T. M. Nguyen, John Shanklin, . . . Edgar B. Cahoon. (2015). Redirection of metabolic flux for high levels of omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acid accumulation in camelina seeds. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 13(1), 38-50.

Seed oils enriched in omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids, including palmitoleic acid (16:1∆9) and cis-vaccenic acid (18:1∆11), have nutraceutical and industrial value for polyethylene production and biofuels. Existing oilseed crops accumulate only small amounts (<2%) of these novel fatty acids in their seed oils. We demonstrate a strategy for enhanced production of omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids in camelina ( Camelina sativa) and soybean ( Glycine max) that is dependent on redirection of metabolic flux from the typical ∆9 desaturation of stearoyl (18:0)-acyl carrier protein ( ACP) to ∆9 desaturation of palmitoyl (16:0)-acyl carrier protein ( ACP) and coenzyme A (CoA). This was achieved by seed-specific co-expression of a mutant ∆9-acyl- ACP and an acyl-CoA desaturase with high specificity for 16:0- ACP and CoA substrates, respectively. This strategy was most effective in camelina where seed oils with ~17% omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids were obtained. Further increases in omega-7 fatty acid accumulation to 60-65% of the total fatty acids in camelina seeds were achieved by inclusion of seed-specific suppression of 3-keto-acyl- ACP synthase II and the FatB 16:0- ACP thioesterase genes to increase substrate pool sizes of 16:0- ACP for the ∆9-acyl- ACP desaturase and by blocking C18 fatty acid elongation. Seeds from these lines also had total saturated fatty acids reduced to ~5% of the seed oil versus ~12% in seeds of nontransformed plants. Consistent with accumulation of triacylglycerol species with shorter fatty acid chain lengths and increased monounsaturation, seed oils from engineered lines had marked shifts in thermotropic properties that may be of value for biofuel applications.

Biology Department.

Thiruppathi, Eagappanath, Mark K. Larson, & Gopinath Mani. (2015). Surface Modification of CoCr Alloy Using Varying Concentrationsof Phosphoric and Phosphonoacetic Acids: Albumin and Fibrinogen Adsorption,Platelet Adhesion, Activation, and Aggregation Studies. Langmuir, 31(1), 358-370.

CoCr alloy is commonly used in variouscardiovascular medical devices for its excellent physical and mechanicalproperties. However, the formation of blood clots on the alloy surfacesis a serious concern. This research is focused on the surface modificationof CoCr alloy using varying concentrations (1, 25, 50, 75, and 100mM) of phosphoric acid (PA) and phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) to generatevarious surfaces with different wettability, chemistry, and roughness.Then, the adsorption of blood plasma proteins such as albumin andfibrinogen and the adhesion, activation, and aggregation of plateletswith the various surfaces generated were investigated. Contact angleanalysis showed PA and PAA coatings on CoCr provided a gradient ofhydrophilic surfaces. FTIR showed PA and PAA were covalently boundto CoCr surface and formed different bonding configurations dependingon the concentrations of coating solutions used. AFM showed the formationof homogeneous PA and PAA coatings on CoCr. The single and dual proteinadsorption studies showed that the amount of albumin and fibrinogenadsorbed on the alloy surfaces strongly depend on the type of PA andPAA coatings prepared by different concentrations of coating solutions.All PA coated CoCr showed reduced platelet adhesion and activationwhen compared to control CoCr. Also, 75 and 100 mM PA-CoCr showedreduced platelet aggregation. For PAA coated CoCr, no significantdifference in platelet adhesion and activation was observed betweenPAA coated CoCr and control CoCr. Thus, this study demonstrated thatCoCr can be surface modified using PA for potentially reducing theformation of blood clots and improving the blood compatibility ofthe alloy.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

Rashwan, Khaled, Erik Brakke, & Grigoriy Sereda. (2014). Fluorescent labeling of materials using silica nanoparticles. Nanotechnology Reviews, 3(6), 591-596.

The article is focused on the implementation of fluorescent silica nanoparticles in the laboratory curriculum. Along with a brief overview of experimental procedures appropriate for teaching in the laboratory and scarce examples of utilization of silica nanoparticles in the laboratory instruction, a new mini-laboratory course is described in detail. The series of the developed experiments allow the students to synthesize silica nanoparticles, place organic functionalities on their surface, and explore nanoparticles as labels and building blocks for nanoassemblies. Introduction of students to the art of using the most popular specific interaction in nanomedicine (avidin-biotin), along with synthesis and manipulation of nanoparticles, will help them bridge their existing or future knowledge of organic chemistry, materials science, and nanomedicine. The experiment is beneficial for students’ understanding of the relationship between organic chemistry, materials science, and nanomedicine, regardless of their level of expertise in those fields.

Chemistry Department.

Ladegaard, Hans J., & Christopher J. Jenks. (2015). Language and intercultural communication in the workplace: critical approaches to theory and practice. Language & Intercultural Communication, 15(1), 1-12.

An introduction is presented in which the authors discuss topics within the issue, including intercultural communication (ICC) in the workplace, the professional experiences within multicultural and multilingual workplaces, and language behaviour in Malaysian workplaces.

English Department.

Jastram, A., H. R. Harris, R. Mahapatra, …., Joel Sander, & S. Upadhyayula. (2015). Cryogenic Dark Matter Search detector fabrication process and recent improvements. Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section a-Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment, 772, 14-25.

A dedicated facility has been commissioned for Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) detector fabrication at Texas A&M University (TAMU) The fabrication process has been carefully tuned using this facility and its equipment. Production of successfully tested detectors has been demonstrated. Significant improvements in detector performance have been made using new fabrication methods/equipment and tuning of process parameters. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Physics Department.

Newswander, Chad B. (2015). Guerrilla Statesmanship: Constitutionalizing an Ethic of Dissent. Public Administration Review, 75(1), 126-134.

According to judicial precedents, administrators informed by their expertise can speak on issues of public concern under First Amendment protections. In one sense, they could dissent by working against their employers in an attempt to direct issues of public concern through an educational function. The power to act like a statesman in raising such issues allows administrators to lead from behind and in front, as long as certain judicial thresholds are met. However, the U.S. Supreme Court recently moved to tighten the scope of such activity. This article assesses how an ethic of dissent has been translated into a constitutional perspective that at first was moderately constrained and later became very restricted. While the move to limit an ethic of dissent provides necessary constraints, it also may have weakened administrators’ ability to perform necessary statesmanship acts rooted in guerrilla government to achieve the common good.

Political Science Department.

Dvorak, R. D., & Jeffrey S. Simons. (2014). Daily Associations Between Anxiety and Alcohol Use: Variation by Sustained Attention, Set Shifting, and Gender. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 28(4), 969-979.

Many theories of emotion regulation and alcohol use posit that alcohol is consumed as a way to regulate negative mood. However, the literature has conflicting evidence on mood – alcohol use associations. Understanding how individual differences affect mood – alcohol use associations remains an important area of study. Previous research has suggested that cognitive abilities may affect the relationship between mood and alcohol. The current ecological momentary study examined associations between daytime anxious and positive mood and both (a) the likelihood of alcohol use and (b) the intensity of use on drinking nights as a function of sustained attention, set shifting, and gender. Participants (n = 100) completed assessments of sustained attention and set shifting, then carried palmtop computers for 21 days, reporting mood and alcohol use up to 8 times per day. Results showed that positive mood was consistently associated with both likelihood and intensity of alcohol use, but the association between positive mood and alcohol outcomes was not affected by cognitive abilities. Anxious mood was positively associated with the likelihood of drinking for men with high cognitive abilities. Anxious mood was positively associated with intoxication on drinking nights for men with high sustained attention, but inversely associated with intoxication on drinking nights for women with high sustained attention. Results suggest that variation in mood, executive functioning, and gender interact to contribute to observed differences in drinking behavior. These differences may be the result of gender-specific coping strategies in response to negative emotion.

Psychology Department.

Gaher, Raluca M., Austin M. Hahn, Hanako Shishido, Jeffrey S. Simons, & Sam Gaster. (2015). Associations between sensitivity to punishment, sensitivity to reward, and gambling. Addictive Behaviors, 42, 180-184.

The majority of individuals gamble during their lifetime; however only a subset of these individuals develops problematic gambling. Gray’s Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory may be relevant to understanding gambling problems. Differences in sensitivity to punishments and rewards can influence an individual’s behavior and may be pertinent to the development of gambling problems. This study examined the functional associations between sensitivity to punishment (SP), sensitivity to reward (SR), and gambling problems in a sample of 2254 college students. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression was used to predict gambling problems as well as the absence of gambling problems. Gambling problems were hypothesized to be positively associated with SR and inversely associated with SP. In addition, SP was hypothesized to moderate the association between SR and gambling problems, attenuating the strength of the association. As hypothesized, SR was positively associated with gambling problems. However, SP did not moderate the relationship between SR and gambling problems. SP did, however, moderate the relationship between SR and the likelihood of never experiencing gambling problems. The results demonstrate that individual differences in SP and SR are functionally associated with gambling problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Gaher, Raluca M., Jeffrey S. Simons, Austin M. Hahn, Nicole L. Hofman, Jamie Hansen, & J. Buchkoski. (2014). An Experience Sampling Study of PTSD and Alcohol-Related Problems. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 28(4), 1013-1025.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents a debilitating psychiatric condition that is affecting the lives of many returning veterans. PTSD and alcohol use and dependence are highly comorbid. The purpose of this study was to understand the functional mechanisms between PTSD and alcohol use and problems. Specifically, the role of negative urgency and emotional intelligence were investigated as vulnerability and resiliency factors, respectively. This study utilized experience sampling to test associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol use and related problems in a sample of 90 OIF/OEF veterans. Participants completed 8 brief questionnaires daily for 2 weeks on palmtop computers. Elevations in PTSD symptoms during the day were associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use and associated problems that night. PTSD symptoms were associated with greater problems above and beyond the effect of drinking level at both the within-and between-person level. Emotional intelligence was associated with lower negative urgency, fewer PTSD symptoms, and less alcohol use and associated problems. The effects of emotional intelligence were primarily indirect via negative urgency and the effects of negative urgency on alcohol use and problems were indirect via its positive association with PTSD symptoms. Hypothesized cross-level effects of emotional intelligence and negative urgency were not supported. The findings suggest a functional association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption. The association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption is consistent with a self-medication model. However, the significant associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol problems, after controlling for use level, suggest a broader role of dysregulation.

Psychology Department.

Messler, Erick C., Noah N. Emery, & Randy P. Quevillon. (2015). Does relationship quality matter? Perceived mutual reciprocity as a moderator between perceived parental approval of drinking and college alcohol use. Journal of Substance Use, 20(1), 44-49.

Alcohol misuse among young adult college students remains a major public health problem in USA. Although much effort has been made to identify factors associated with problem drinking among college students, there is a lack of research investigating the role parents may have on college student drinking. Recent evidence indicates that parents matter when it comes to adolescent drinking, both before and after their children go to college. In this study, the authors examined mutual reciprocity as a moderator variable between perceived parental approval of drinking and negative consequences of alcohol use. Contrary to the hypothesized results, our findings indicate that mutual reciprocity does not moderate the relationship between perceived parental approval and negative alcohol-related consequences.

Psychology Department.

Oliver-Rodríguez, Juan C., & X. T. Wang. (2015). Non-parametric three-way mixed ANOVA with aligned rank tests. British Journal of Mathematical & Statistical Psychology, 68(1), 23-42.

Research problems that require a non-parametric analysis of multifactor designs with repeated measures arise in the behavioural sciences. There is, however, a lack of available procedures in commonly used statistical packages. In the present study, a generalization of the aligned rank test for the two-way interaction is proposed for the analysis of the typical sources of variation in a three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. It can be implemented in the usual statistical packages. Its statistical properties are tested by using simulation methods with two sample sizes ( n = 30 and n = 10) and three distributions (normal, exponential and double exponential). Results indicate substantial increases in power for non-normal distributions in comparison with the usual parametric tests. Similar levels of Type I error for both parametric and aligned rank ANOVA were obtained with non-normal distributions and large sample sizes. Degrees-of-freedom adjustments for Type I error control in small samples are proposed. The procedure is applied to a case study with 30 participants per group where it detects gender differences in linguistic abilities in blind children not shown previously by other methods.

Psychology Department.

Wray, Tyler B., Jeffrey S. Simons, & Stephen A. Maisto. (2015). Effects of alcohol intoxication and autonomic arousal on delay discounting and risky sex in young adult heterosexual men. Addictive Behaviors, 42, 9-13.

Objectives: The relationship between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior is complex and depends on psychological and environmental factors. The alcohol myopia model predicts that, due to alcohol’s impact on attention, the behavior of intoxicated individuals will become increasingly directed by salient cues. Autonomic arousal (AA) may have a similar effect on attention. Experiential delay discounting (DD) may be increased by both alcohol consumption and AA due to their common effects and may mediate the relationship between these conditions and risky sex. Methods: This study employed a 3 (alcohol, placebo, control)×2 (high, low arousal) experimental design to examine the effects of acute alcohol intoxication and AA on experiential delay discounting, subjective sexual arousal, and risky sex. Results: Path models revealed complex results that only partially supported study hypotheses. Ratings of subjective sexual arousal did not differ across either beverage or arousal conditions. DD was also unrelated to any study variable. However, subjective sexual arousal was positively related to risky sexual intentions. Alcohol intoxication was also positively associated with increased unprotected sex intentions, consistent with past studies. Conclusions: These results affirm the role of subjective sexual arousal and alcohol intoxication in risky sexual decision-making, yielding effect sizes similar to comparable past studies. The lack of differences across autonomic arousal groups also suggests that effects of attentional myopia may be behavior-specific. Failure to replicate effects of alcohol intoxication on DD also suggests reservation regarding its involvement in alcohol-involved risky sex.

Psychology Department.

Ceccanti, Mauro, Daniela Fiorentino, Giovanna Coriale, …., H. Eugene Hoyme, J. Phillip Gossage, . . . Philip A. May. (2014). Maternal risk factors for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in a province in Italy. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 145, 201-208.

Background: Maternal risk factors for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in Italy and Mediterranean cultures need clarification, as there are few studies and most are plagued by inaccurate reporting of antenatal alcohol use. Methods: Maternal interviews (n = 905) were carried out in a population-based study of the prevalence and characteristics of FASD in the Lazio region of Italy which provided data for multivariate case control comparisons and multiple correlation models. Results: Case control findings from interviews seven years post-partum indicate that mothers of children with FASD are significantly more likely than randomly-selected controls or community mothers to: be shorter; have higher body mass indexes (BMI); be married to a man with legal problems; report more drinking three months pre-pregnancy; engage in more current drinking and drinking alone; and have alcohol problems in her family. Logistic regression analysis of multiple candidate predictors of a FASD diagnosis indicates that alcohol problems in the child’s family is the most significant risk factor, making a diagnosis within the continuum of FASD 9 times more likely (95% C.I. = 1.6 to 50.7). Sequential multiple regression analysis of the child’s neuropsychological performance also identifies alcohol problems in the child’s family as the only significant maternal risk variable (p &lt; .001) when controlling for other potential risk factors. Conclusions: Underreporting of prenatal alcohol use has been demonstrated among Italian and other Mediterranean antenatal samples, and it was suspected in this sample. Nevertheless, several significant maternal risk factors for FASD have been identified. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Harris, William S., & Michelle L. Baack. (2015). Beyond building better brains: bridging the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) gap of prematurity. Journal of Perinatology, 35(1), 1-7.

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are essential for normal vision and neurodevelopment. DHA accretion in utero occurs primarily in the last trimester of pregnancy to support rapid growth and brain development. Premature infants, born before this process is complete, are relatively deficient in this essential fatty acid. Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants remain deficient for a long period of time due to ineffective conversion from precursor fatty acids, lower fat stores and a limited nutritional provision of DHA after birth. In addition to long-term visual and neurodevelopmental risks, VLBW infants have significant morbidity and mortality from diseases specific to premature birth, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and retinopathy of prematurity. There is increasing evidence that DHA has protective benefits against these disease states. The aim of this article is to identify the unique needs of premature infants, review the current recommendations for LCPUFA provision in infants and discuss the caveats and innovative new ways to overcome the DHA deficiency through postnatal supplementation, with the long-term goal of improving morbidity and mortality in this at-risk population.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Liaw, W., S. Coleman, A. Bazemore, & Mark K. Huntington. (2014). Another risk to US travelers-malaria. Journal of Family Practice, 63(11), E1-E7.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Miedema, Jayson, D. C. Zedek, B. Z. Rayala, & E. E. Bain. (2014). 9 tips to help prevent derm biopsy mistakes. Journal of Family Practice, 63(10), 559-564.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Bjornestad, A. G., Amy Schweinle, & J. D. Elhai. (2014). Measuring Secondary Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Military Spouses With the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Military Version. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 202(12), 864-869.

Little research to date has examined secondary traumatic stress symptoms in spouses of military veterans. This study investigated the presence and severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms in a sample of 227 Army National Guard veterans and secondary traumatic stress symptoms among their spouses. The veterans completed the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist Military Version (PCL-M) (Weathers et al., 1993) to determine the probable prevalence rate of posttraumatic stress symptoms. A modified version of the PCL-M was used to assess secondary traumatic stress symptoms in the spouses. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the modified version of the PCL-M used to assess secondary traumatic stress symptoms in spouses fits using the same four-factor PTSD structure as the PCL-M for veterans. This study provides initial evidence on the underlying symptom structure of secondary traumatic stress symptoms among spouses of traumatic event victims.

School of Education.

Newland, Lisa A., Jarod T. Giger, Michael J. Lawler, Eliann R. Carr, Emily A. Dykstra, & Soonhee Roh. (2014). Subjective well-being for children in a rural community. Journal of Social Service Research, 40(5), 642-661.

This study examined indicators of rural children’s subjective well-being and the prediction of well-being indicators from person variables as well as home, life, neighborhood, school, and peer-group contexts. Seventh-grade children (Mage = 13 years, age range = 12–14 years) in a rural Midwestern U.S. community (N = 149) completed an adapted version of an international survey measuring children’s subjective well-being and ecological contexts in childhood and adolescence. Indicators of children’s subjective well-being (including life satisfaction, mental health, and self-image) were significantly correlated with all home, life, neighborhood, school, and peer contexts except life stress. Regression and bootstrap analyses suggest that the strongest predictors of both life satisfaction and mental health were school satisfaction and family, teacher, and peer relationships. The strongest predictors of self-image were gender, number of residences, school satisfaction, and teacher and peer relationships. Findings suggest that a model of subjective well-being that accounts for relational factors, as well as person and other environmental factors, is potentially useful for understanding children’s subjective well-being. Results are discussed in the context of ecological, relationship-based interventions from early childhood through school-age years. Future studies should test this model with samples diverse in child age, culture, and geographical locations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

School of Education.

Shim, Andrew L., & Shannon Norman. (2015). Incorporating Pedal-less Bicycles into a Pre-K through Third-grade Curriculum to Improve Stability in Children. JOPERD: The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 86(1), 50-51.

Physical educators are expected to develop activities that promote psychological and physiological benefits for children during their pre-adolescent years, especially in pre-K through third grade. One of these skill components is the development and acquisition of stability or balance. This article describes how to use pedal-less bicycles to teach balance and stability to pre-K through third-grade children.

School of Education.

Cho, Sunhee, So-Young Park, Kunsook S. Bernstein, Soonhee Roh, & Gyeong-Suk Jeon. (2014). Socio-demographic and health behavioral correlates of depressive symptoms among korean americans. Community Mental Health Journal, 50(9), x.

This study identifies the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and help seeking behaviors for depressive symptoms among adult Korean Americans (KAs). Using survey data from 230 residents of the New York City, Teaneck, New Jersey, and Philadelphia areas, simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between depressive symptoms and the covariates. Women were at much lower risk of depressive symptoms than were men, even after adjusting other covariates (OR 0.45, 95 % CI 0.21–0.96). Having no health insurance (OR 4.02, 95 % CI 1.28–12.61) and having experience in seeking professional help for mental health problems during the last year were significantly associated with depressive symptoms (OR 2.96, 95 % CI 1.29–6.80). The findings suggest more attention to the risk of depression of KA men and further efforts on understanding the unique contribution of socio-demographic factors and health-related behaviors on depressive symptoms among KAs.

School of Health Sciences.

Giger, Jarod T., Natalie D. Pope, H. Bruce Vogt, Cassity Gutierrez, Lisa A. Newland, Jason Lemke, & Michael J. Lawler. (2015). Remote patient monitoring acceptance trends among older adults residing in a frontier state. Computers in Human Behavior, 44, 174-182.

This pilot study aims to present a methodological approach for investigating remote patient monitoring system acceptance trends for older adults residing in a frontier state. For this purpose, extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) variables, which included subjective norm , perceived usefulness , perceived ease of use , and behavioral intention were investigated using growth curve methods and modern resampling techniques. Results revealed our methodological and analytical approach shows promise for investigating technology acceptance over time on subjects where little literature exists and where recruiting adequate sample sizes for statistical power purposes may be challenging. Results of the data analysis showed there was a significant and reliable linear trend on subjective norm. Time did not predict perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, or behavioral intention, indicating the levels of these factors were high and stable over the course of the study. Older adults accepted remote patient monitoring, and family and friends may influence technology acceptance promoting behaviors. The longer participants used the technology, the more they perceived those important to them would want them to use it. Attention to social influence to optimize the implementation of in-home health monitoring among this population is warranted. Recommendations for future research are provided.

School of Health Sciences.

Roh, Soonhee, Catherine E. Burnette, Kyoung Hag Lee, Yeon-Shim Lee, Scott D. Easton, & Michael J. Lawler. (2015). Risk and protective factors for depressive symptoms among American Indian older adults: Adverse childhood experiences and social support. Aging & Mental Health, 19(4), 371-380.

Objectives:Despite efforts to promote health equity, many American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations, including older adults, experience elevated levels of depression. Although adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and social support are well-documented risk and protective factors for depression in the general population, little is known about AI/AN populations, especially older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to depression among a sample of AI older adults in the midwest. Method:Data were collected using a self-administered survey completed by 233 AIs over the age of 50. The survey included standardized measures such as the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form, ACE Questionnaire, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the main hypotheses of the study. Results:Two dimensions of ACE (i.e., childhood neglect, household dysfunction) were positively associated with depressive symptoms; social support was negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Perceived health and living alone were also significant predictors. Conclusion: ACE may play a significant role in depression among AI/AN across the life course and into old age. Social support offers a promising mechanism to bolster resilience among AI/AN older adults.

School of Health Sciences.

Porter, Megan L., Kingston, A. C. N., McCready, R., Cameron, E. G., Hofmann, C. M., Suarez, L., Olsen, G. H., Cronin, T. W., & Robinson, P. R. (2014). Characterization of visual pigments, oil droplets, lens and cornea in the whooping crane Grus americana. Journal of Experimental Biology, 217(21), 3883-3890.

Vision has been investigated in many species of birds, but few studies have considered the visual systems of large birds and the particular implications of large eyes and long-life spans on visual system capabilities. To address these issues we investigated the visual system of the whooping crane Grus americana (Gruiformes, Gruidae), which is one of only two North American crane species. It is a large, long-lived bird in which UV sensitivity might be reduced by chromatic aberration and entrance of UV radiation into the eye could be detrimental to retinal tissues. To investigate the whooping crane visual system we used microspectrophotometry to determine the absorbance spectra of retinal oil droplets and to investigate whether the ocular media (i.e. the lens and cornea) absorb UV radiation. In vitro expression and reconstitution was used to determine the absorbance spectra of rod and cone visual pigments. The rod visual pigments had wavelengths of peak absorbance (lambda(max)) at 500 nm, whereas the cone visual pigment lambda(max) values were determined to be 404 nm (SWS1), 450 nm (SWS2), 499 nm (RH2) and 561 nm (LWS), similar to other characterized bird visual pigment absorbance values. The oil droplet cut-off wavelength (lambda(cut)) values similarly fell within ranges recorded in other avian species: 576 nm (R-type), 522 nm (Y-type), 506 nm (P-type) and 448 nm (C-type). We confirm that G. americana has a violet-sensitive visual system; however, as a consequence of the lambda(max) of the SWS1 visual pigment (404 nm), it might also have some UV sensitivity.

Biology Department.

Roberts, N. W., How, M. J., Porter, Megan L., Temple, S. E., Caldwell, R. L., Powell, S. B., Gruev, V., Marshall, N. J., & Cronin, T. W. (2014). Animal Polarization Imaging and Implications for Optical Processing. Proceedings of the Ieee, 102(10), 1427-1434.

Biologically inspired solutions for modern-day sensory systems promise to deliver both higher capacity and faster, more efficient processing of information than current computational approaches. Many animals are able to perform remarkable sensing tasks despite only being able to process what would be considered modest data rates and bandwidths. The key biological innovations revolve around dedicated filter designs. By sacrificing some flexibility, specifically matched and hard-wired sensory systems, designed primarily for single roles, provide a blueprint for data and task-specific efficiency. In this paper, we examine several animal visual systems designed to use the polarization of light in spatial imaging. We investigate some implications for artificial optical processing based on models of polarization image processing in fiddler crabs, cuttlefish, octopus, and mantis shrimp.

Biology Department.

Netzer, Nathan L., Dai, Feng-Rong, Wang, Zhenqiang, & Jiang, Chaoyang. (2014). pH-Modulated Molecular Assemblies and Surface Properties of Metal-Organic Supercontainers at the Air-Water Interface. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, 53(41), 10965-10969.

The orientation of metal-organic supercontainer (MOSC) molecules in Langmuir films was systematically studied at the air-water interface. The acidity of the aqueous subphases plays a significant role in tuning the orientation of MOSC molecules in the Langmuir films. Furthermore, Langmuir-Blodgett films of MOSCs were prepared and the uniform multilayer structures demonstrated various surface properties, depending on their conditions of fabrication. Our use of Langmuir films provides a novel approach to access tunable assemblies of MOSC molecules in two-dimensional thin films.

Chemistry Department.

Thiel, C. W., Macfarlane, R. M., Sun, Yongchen, Bottger, T., Sinclair, N., Tittel, W., & Cone, R. L. (2014). Measuring and analyzing excitation-induced decoherence in rare-earth-doped optical materials. Laser Physics, 24(10).

A method is introduced for quantitatively analyzing photon echo decay measurements to characterize excitation-induced decoherence resulting from the phenomenon of instantaneous spectral diffusion. Detailed analysis is presented that allows fundamental material properties to be extracted that predict and describe excitation-induced decoherence for a broad range of measurements, applications and experimental conditions. Motivated by the need for a method that enables systematic studies of ultra-low decoherence systems and direct comparison of properties between optical materials, this approach employs simple techniques and analytical expressions that avoid the need for difficult to measure and often unknown material parameters or numerical simulations. This measurement and analysis approach is demonstrated for the H-3(6) to H-3(4) optical transition of three thulium-doped crystals, Tm3+:YAG, Tm3+:LiNbO3 and Tm3+:YGG, that are currently employed in quantum information and classical signal processing demonstrations where minimizing decoherence is essential to achieve high efficiencies and large signal bandwidths. These new results reveal more than two orders of magnitude variation in sensitivity to excitation-induced decoherence among the materials studied and establish that the Tm3+:YGG system offers the longest optical coherence lifetimes and the lowest levels of excitation-induced decoherence yet observed for any known thulium-doped material.

Physics Department.

Struckman-Johnson, Cindy, Gaster, Samuel, Struckman-Johnson, Dave, Johnson, Melissa, & May-Shinagle, Gabby. (2015). Gender differences in psychosocial predictors of texting while driving. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 74, 218-228.

A sample of 158 male and 357 female college students at a midwestern university participated in an on-line study of psychosocial motives for texting while driving. Men and women did not differ in self-reported ratings of how often they texted while driving. However, more women sent texts of less than a sentence while more men sent texts of 1–5 sentences. More women than men said they would quit texting while driving due to police warnings, receiving information about texting dangers, being shown graphic pictures of texting accidents, and being in a car accident. A hierarchical regression for men’s data revealed that lower levels of feeling distracted by texting while driving (20% of the variance), higher levels of cell phone dependence (11.5% of the variance), risky behavioral tendencies (6.5% of the variance) and impulsivity (2.3%) of the variance) were significantly associated with more texting while driving (total model variance = 42%). A separate regression for women revealed that higher levels of cell phone dependence (10.4% of the variance), risky behavioral tendencies (9.9% of the variance), texting distractibility (6.2%), crash risk estimates (2.2% of the variance) and driving confidence (1.3% of the variance) were significantly associated with more texting while driving (total model variance = 31%.) Friendship potential and need for intimacy were not related to men’s or women’s texting while driving. Implications of the results for gender-specific prevention strategies are discussed.

Psychology Department.

Anderson, Joe, Nykamp, M., Danielson, Laura, Remund, T., & Kelly, P. W. (2014). A novel endovascular debranching technique using physician-assembled endografts for repair of thoracoabdominal aneurysms. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 60(5), 1177-1184.

Objective: The objective of this study was to demonstrate a technique that uses physician-assembled endografts to make use of the benefits of parallel grafts while also providing for circumferential seal and fixation in repair of thoracoabdominal aneurysms in inoperable patients. Methods: A single-center all-comers retrospective analysis of 14 patients was performed that looked at the early outcomes of patients treated for thoracoabdominal aneurysms. Three Crawford type II, four type III, four type IV, and three type V thoracoabdominal aneurysms were treated. Contrast material, fluoroscopy time, length of stay, clinical success, and technical success were measured. Results: There was no in-hospital, 30-day, or 6-month mortality. We found two type III endoleaks in the early design. One required coil embolization. Average volume of contrast material and average fluoroscopy time were 76.9 mL and 119.1 minutes, respectively. Average length of stay was 10.5 days, and average procedure time was 251.2 minutes. Clinical success was observed in 78.6% of patients to date, and technical success was observed in 85.7% of patients. Conclusions: Short-term results show that this approach is safe. The device can be safely implanted, is off-the-shelf, and can treat each of the Crawford thoracoabdominal aneurysm types. Finally, the assembly of off-the-shelf components may shorten the regulatory path for this physician-assembled endograft.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

May, Phiip A., Baete, Amy, Russo, Jaymi, Elliott, Amy J., Blankenship, J., …., & Hoyme, H. Eugene. (2014). Prevalence and Characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Pediatrics, 134(5), 855-866.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) among first grade students (6- to 7-year-olds) in a representative Midwestern US community. METHODS: From a consented sample of 70.5% of all first graders enrolled in public and private schools, an oversample of small children (<= 25th percentile on height, weight, and head circumference) and randomly selected control candidates were examined for physical growth, development, dysmorphology, cognition, and behavior. The children’s mothers were interviewed for maternal risk. RESULTS: Total dysmorphology scores differentiate significantly fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) from one another and from unexposed controls. Alcohol-related neuro developmental disorder (ARND) is not as clearly differentiated from controls. Children who had FASD performed, on average, significantly worse on 7 cognitive and behavioral tests and measures. The most predictive maternal risk variables in this community are late recognition of pregnancy, quantity of alcoholic drinks consumed 3 months before pregnancy, and quantity of drinking reported for the index child’s father. From the final multidisciplinary case findings, 3 techniques were used to estimate prevalence. FAS in this community likely ranges from 6 to 9 per 1000 children (midpoint, 7.5), PFAS from 11 to 17 per 1000 children (midpoint, 14), and the total rate of FASD is estimated at 24 to 48 per 1000 children, or 2.4% to 4.8% (midpoint, 3.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Children who have FASD are more prevalent among first graders in this Midwestern city than predicted by previous, popular estimates.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Nosova, E. V., Chong, K. C., Alley, H. F., Harris, William S., Boscardin, W. J., Conte, M. S., Owens, C. D., & Grenon, S. M. (2014). Clinical correlates of red blood cell omega-3 fatty acid content in male veterans with peripheral arterial disease. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 60(5), 1325-1331.

Objective: Despite available medical therapies, patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) remain at high risk for cardiovascular events. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), derived from marine sources, have been shown to improve cardiovascular mortality. The Omega-3 Index (O3I), a proportion of the n-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the red blood cell membrane, correlates with cardiovascular risk. Previous investigations have found that n-3 PUFA supplementation, fish consumption, older age, and smoking history affect the O3I in different patient populations, although similar correlations have never been explored in PAD. We hypothesized that in our PAD cohort, blood content of omega-3 fatty acids would directly and positively correlate with a history of fish oil supplementation and older age and inversely correlate with a smoking history and obesity. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 111 patients who had an ankle-brachial index of <0.9 associated with claudication symptoms. We used linear regression to determine the association between clinical factors and the O3I. Results: The mean age of the cohort was 69 +/- 8 years; 37% had diabetes mellitus (hemoglobin A(1c), 7% +/- 1%), and 94% reported current smoking or a history of smoking. The mean O3I was 5% +/- 2%. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the O3I was associated with older age, increasing body mass index, and a history of smoking and fish oil intake. Conclusions: This is the first report of the relation between blood content of omega-3 fatty acids and clinical factors in a PAD population. In patients with PAD, older age, elevated body mass index, and prior fish oil supplementation predicted a higher O3I. A history of smoking correlated with a lower O3I. These results demonstrate that the O3I is a reliable measure of dietary n-3 PUFA intake and that clinical factors related to the O3I in PAD are similar to those observed in other populations.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Surendran, Kameswaran, Vitiello, S. P., & Pearce, David A. (2014). Lysosome dysfunction in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases. Pediatric Nephrology, 29(12), 2253-2261.

The lysosome, an organelle central to macromolecule degradation and recycling, plays a pivotal role in normal cell processes, ranging from autophagy to redox regulation. Not surprisingly, lysosomes are an integral part of the renal epithelial molecular machinery that facilitates normal renal physiology. Two inherited diseases that manifest as kidney dysfunction are Fabry’s disease and cystinosis, each of which is caused by a primary biochemical defect at the lysosome resulting from loss-of-function mutations in genes that encode lysosomal proteins. The functions of the lysosomes in the kidney and how lysosomal dysfunction might contribute to Fabry’s disease and cystinosis are discussed. Unlike most other pediatric renal diseases, therapies are available for Fabry’s disease and cystinosis, but require early diagnosis. Recent analysis of ceroid neuronal lipofuscinosis type 3 (Cln3) null mice, a mouse model of lysosomal disease that is primarily associated with neurological deficits, revealed renal functional abnormalities. As current and future therapeutics increase the life-span of those suffering from diseases like neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, it remains a distinct possibility that many more lysosomal disorders that primarily manifest as infant and juvenile neurodegenerative diseases may also include renal disease phenotypes.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Zhuang, Yongxian, Chan, Daniel K., Haugrud, Allison B., & Miskimins, W. Keith. (2014). Mechanisms by Which Low Glucose Enhances the Cytotoxicity of Metformin to Cancer Cells Both In Vitro and In Vivo. Plos One, 9(9).

Different cancer cells exhibit altered sensitivity to metformin treatment. Recent studies suggest these findings may be due in part to the common cell culture practice of utilizing high glucose, and when glucose is lowered, metformin becomes increasingly cytotoxic to cancer cells. In low glucose conditions ranging from 0 to 5 mM, metformin was cytotoxic to breast cancer cell lines MCF7, MDAMB231 and SKBR3, and ovarian cancer cell lines OVCAR3, and PA-1. MDAMB231 and SKBR3 were previously shown to be resistant to metformin in normal high glucose medium. When glucose was increased to 10 mM or above, all of these cell lines become less responsive to metformin treatment. Metformin treatment significantly reduced ATP levels in cells incubated in media with low glucose (2.5 mM), high fructose (25 mM) or galactose (25 mM). Reductions in ATP levels were not observed with high glucose (25 mM). This was compensated by enhanced glycolysis through activation of AMPK when oxidative phosphorylation was inhibited by metformin. However, enhanced glycolysis was either diminished or abolished by replacing 25 mM glucose with 2.5 mM glucose, 25 mM fructose or 25 mM galactose. These findings suggest that lowering glucose potentiates metformin induced cell death by reducing metformin stimulated glycolysis. Additionally, under low glucose conditions metformin significantly decreased phosphorylation of AKT and various targets of mTOR, while phospho-AMPK was not significantly altered. Thus inhibition of mTOR signaling appears to be independent of AMPK activation. Further in vivo studies using the 4T1 breast cancer mouse model confirmed that metformin inhibition of tumor growth was enhanced when serum glucose levels were reduced via low carbohydrate ketogenic diets. The data support a model in which metformin treatment of cancer cells in low glucose medium leads to cell death by decreasing ATP production and inhibition of survival signaling pathways. The enhanced cytotoxicity of metformin against cancer cells was observed both in vitro and in vivo.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Posted by: reganenosusd | December 1, 2014

November 2014

Darling, Warren, Robert Morecraft, Diane Rotella, Marc Pizzimenti, Jizhi Ge, Kimberly Stilwell-Morecraft, . . . Paul Cheney. (2014). Recovery of precision grasping after motor cortex lesion does not require forced use of the impaired hand in macaca mulatta. Experimental Brain Research, 232(12), 3929-3938.

We investigated recovery of precision grasping of small objects between the index finger and thumb of the impaired hand without forced use after surgically placed lesions to the hand/arm areas of M1 and M1 + lateral premotor cortex in two monkeys. The unilateral lesions were contralateral to the monkey’s preferred hand, which was established in prelesion testing as the hand used most often to acquire raisins in a foraging board (FB) task in which the monkey was free to use either hand to acquire treats. The lesions initially produced a clear paresis of the contralesional hand and use of only the ipsilesional hand to acquire raisins in the FB task. However, beginning about 3 weeks after the lesion both monkeys spontaneously began using the impaired contralesional hand in the FB task and increased use of that hand over the next few tests. Moreover, the monkeys clearly used precision grasp to acquire the raisins in a similar manner to prelesion performances, although grasp durations were longer. Although the monkeys used the contralesional hand more often than the ipsilesional hand in some postlesion testing sessions, they did not recover to use the hand as often as in prelesion testing when the preferred hand was used almost exclusively. These findings suggest that recovery of fine hand/digit motor function after localized damage to the lateral frontal motor areas in rhesus monkeys does not require forced use of the impaired hand.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Slivka, P. F., C. L. Dearth, T. J. Keane, ….., Robert T. Riggio, J. E. Reing, & S. F. Badylak. (2014). Fractionation of an ECM hydrogel into structural and soluble components reveals distinctive roles in regulating macrophage behavior. Biomaterials Science, 2(10), 1521-1534.

Extracellular matrix (ECM) derived from mammalian tissues has been utilized to repair damaged or missing tissue and improve healing outcomes. More recently, processing of ECM into hydrogels has expanded the use of these materials to include platforms for 3-dimensional cell culture as well as injectable therapeutics that can be delivered by minimally invasive techniques and fill irregularly shaped cavities. At the cellular level, ECM hydrogels initiate a multifaceted host response that includes recruitment of endogenous stem/progenitor cells, regional angiogenesis, and modulation of the innate immune response. Unfortunately, little is known about the components of the hydrogel that drive these responses. We hypothesized that different components of ECM hydrogels could play distinctive roles in stem cell and macrophage behavior. Utilizing a well-characterized ECM hydrogel derived from urinary bladder matrix (UBM), we separated the soluble and structural components of UBM hydrogel and characterized their biological activity. Perivascular stem cells migrated toward and reduced their proliferation in response to both structural and soluble components of UBM hydrogel. Both components also altered macrophage behavior but with different fingerprints. Soluble components increased phagocytosis with an IL-1RA(high), TNF alpha(low), IL-1 beta(low), uPA(low) secretion profile. Structural components decreased phagocytosis with a PGE2(high), PGF2 alpha(high), TNF alpha(low), IL-1 beta(low), uPA(low), MMP2(low), MMP9(low), secretion profile. The biologic activity of the soluble components was mediated by Notch and PI3K/Akt signaling, while the biologic activity of the structural components was mediated by integrins and MEK/ERK signaling. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that soluble and structural components of ECM hydrogels contribute to the host response but through different mechanisms.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Tu, Wenyu, Alan Cook, Jamie L. Scholl, MacKenzie Mears, Michael J. Watt, Kenneth J. Renner, & Gina L. Forster. (2014). SEROTONIN IN THE VENTRAL HIPPOCAMPUS MODULATES ANXIETY-LIKE BEHAVIOR DURING AMPHETAMINE WITHDRAWAL. Neuroscience, 281, 35-43.

Withdrawal from amphetamine is associated with increased anxiety and sensitivity to stressors which are thought to contribute to relapse. Rats undergoing amphetamine withdrawal fail to exhibit stress-induced increases in serotonin (5-HT) release in the ventral hippocampus and show heightened anxiety-like behaviors. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that reducing 5-HT levels in the ventral hippocampus is a causal mechanism in increasing anxiety-like behaviors during amphetamine withdrawal. First, we tested whether reducing 5-HT levels in the ventral hippocampus directly increases anxiety behavior. Male rats were bilaterally infused with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) into the ventral hippocampus, which produced a 83% decrease in ventral hippocampus 5-HT content, and were tested on the elevated plus maze (EPM) for anxiety-like behavior. Reducing ventral hippocampus 5-HT levels decreased the time spent in the open arms of the maze, suggesting that diminished ventral hippocampus 5-HT levels increases anxiety-like behavior. Next, we tested whether increasing 5-HT levels in the ventral hippocampus reverses anxiety behavior exhibited by rats undergoing amphetamine withdrawal. Rats were treated daily with either amphetamine (2.5-mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 2 weeks, and at 2 weeks withdrawal, were infused with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine (0.5 mu M) bilaterally into the ventral hippocampus and tested for anxiety-like behavior on the EPM. Rats pre-treated with amphetamine exhibited increased anxiety- like behavior on the EPM. This effect was reversed by ventral hippocampus infusion of paroxetine. Our results suggest that 5-HT levels in the ventral hippocampus are critical for regulating anxiety behavior. Increasing 5-HT levels during withdrawal may be an effective strategy for reducing anxiety-induced drug relapse. (C) 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Wu, L. P., Y. Q. Huang, Das Manas, Y. Y. Chen, J. H. Fan, & H. G. Mo. (2014). REAL-TIME MONITORING OF STRESSES AND DISPLACEMENTS IN CERVICAL NUCLEI PULPOSI DURING CERVICAL SPINE MANIPULATION: A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL ANALYSIS. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 37(8), 561-568.

Objective: The objective of this study was to research the distribution of stresses and displacements in cervical nuclei pulposi during simulated cervical spine manipulation (CSM). Methods: A 3-dimensional finite element model of C-3/4 similar to C-6/7 was established. The detailed mechanical parameters of CSM were analyzed and simulated. During the process, the changes in stresses and displacements of cervical nuclei pulposi within the model were displayed simultaneously and dynamically. Results: Cervical spine manipulation with right rotation was targeted at the C-4 spinous process of the model. During traction, levels of stresses and displacements of the nuclei pulposi exhibited an initial decrease followed by an increase. The major stresses and displacements affected the C-3/4 nucleus pulposus during rotation in CSM, when its morphology gradually changed from circular to elliptical. The highest stress (48.53 kPa) occurred at its right superior edge, on rotating 40 degrees to the right. It protruded toward the right superior, creating a gap in its left inferior aspect. The highest displacement, also at 40 degrees right, occurred at its left superior edge and measured 0.7966 mm. Dimensions of stresses and displacements reduced quickly on rapid return to neutral position. Conclusion: The morphology of the C-3/4 nucleus pulposus changed during CSM with right rotation, and it created a gap in its left inferior aspect. Biomechanically, it is more safe and rational to rotate toward the healthy side than the prolapsed side of the intervertebral disk during CSM. Upon ensuring due safety, the closer the application force is to the diseased intervertebral disk, the better is the effect of CSM.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka, Abdelali Barakat, Piotr Łakomy, Dariusz J. Smoliński, & Marcin Zadworny. (2014). Lignin and lignans in plant defence: Insight from expression profiling of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase genes during development and following fungal infection in Populus. Plant Science, 229, 111-121.

Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyses the final step in the biosynthesis of monolignol, the main component of lignin. Lignins, deposited in the secondary cell wall, play a role in plant defence against pathogens. We re-analysed the phylogeny of CAD/CAD-like genes using sequences from recently sequenced genomes, and analysed the temporal and spatial expression profiles of CAD/CAD-like genes in Populus trichocarpa healthy and infected plants. Three fungal pathogens ( Rhizoctonia solani , Fusarium oxysporum , and Cytospora sp.), varying in lifestyle and pathogenicity, were used for plant infection. Phylogenetic analyses showed that CAD/CAD-like genes were distributed in classes represented by all members from angiosperm lineages including basal angiosperms and Selaginella . The analysed genes showed different expression profiles during development and demonstrated that three genes were involved in primary xylem maturation while five may function in secondary xylem formation. Expression analysis following inoculation with fungal pathogens, showed that five genes were induced in either stem or leaves. These results add further evidence that CAD/CAD-like genes have evolved specialised functions in plant development and defence against various pest and pathogens. Two genes ( PoptrCAD11 and PoptrCAD15 ), which were induced under various stresses, could be treated as universal markers of plant defence using lignification or lignan biosynthesis.

Biology Department.

Dahdul, Wasila M., H. Cui, Paula M. Mabee, C. J. Mungall, D. Osumi-Sutherland, R. L. Walls, & M. A. Haendel. (2014). Nose to tail, roots to shoots: spatial descriptors for phenotypic diversity in the Biological Spatial Ontology. Journal of Biomedical Semantics, 5, 13.

Background: Spatial terminology is used in anatomy to indicate precise, relative positions of structures in an organism. While these terms are often standardized within specific fields of biology, they can differ dramatically across taxa. Such differences in usage can impair our ability to unambiguously refer to anatomical position when comparing anatomy or phenotypes across species. We developed the Biological Spatial Ontology (BSPO) to standardize the description of spatial and topological relationships across taxa to enable the discovery of comparable phenotypes. Results: BSPO currently contains 146 classes and 58 relations representing anatomical axes, gradients, regions, planes, sides, and surfaces. These concepts can be used at multiple biological scales and in a diversity of taxa, including plants, animals and fungi. The BSPO is used to provide a source of anatomical location descriptors for logically defining anatomical entity classes in anatomy ontologies. Spatial reasoning is further enhanced in anatomy ontologies by integrating spatial relations such as dorsal to into class descriptions (e.g., ‘dorsolateral placode’ dorsal to some ‘epibranchial placode’). Conclusions: The BSPO is currently used by projects that require standardized anatomical descriptors for phenotype annotation and ontology integration across a diversity of taxa. Anatomical location classes are also useful for describing phenotypic differences, such as morphological variation in position of structures resulting from evolution within and across species.

Biology Department.

Haendel, M. A., J. P. Balhoff, ….., Paula M. Mabee, A. Niknejad, M. Robinson-Rechavi, . . . C. J. Mungall. (2014). Unification of multi-species vertebrate anatomy ontologies for comparative biology in Uberon. Journal of Biomedical Semantics, 5, 13.

Background: Elucidating disease and developmental dysfunction requires understanding variation in phenotype. Single-species model organism anatomy ontologies (ssAOs) have been established to represent this variation. Multi-species anatomy ontologies (msAOs; vertebrate skeletal, vertebrate homologous, teleost, amphibian AOs) have been developed to represent ‘natural’ phenotypic variation across species. Our aim has been to integrate ssAOs and msAOs for various purposes, including establishing links between phenotypic variation and candidate genes. Results: Previously, msAOs contained a mixture of unique and overlapping content. This hampered integration and coordination due to the need to maintain cross-references or inter-ontology equivalence axioms to the ssAOs, or to perform large-scale obsolescence and modular import. Here we present the unification of anatomy ontologies into Uberon, a single ontology resource that enables interoperability among disparate data and research groups. As a consequence, independent development of TAO, VSAO, AAO, and vHOG has been discontinued. Conclusions: The newly broadened Uberon ontology is a unified cross-taxon resource for metazoans (animals) that has been substantially expanded to include a broad diversity of vertebrate anatomical structures, permitting reasoning across anatomical variation in extinct and extant taxa. Uberon is a core resource that supports single-and cross-species queries for candidate genes using annotations for phenotypes from the systematics, biodiversity, medical, and model organism communities, while also providing entities for logical definitions in the Cell and Gene Ontologies.

Biology Department.

How, Martin J., Megan L. Porter, Andrew N. Radford, Kathryn D. Feller, Shelby E. Temple, Roy L. Caldwell, . . . Nicholas W. Roberts. (2014). Out of the blue: the evolution of horizontally polarized signals in Haptosquilla (Crustacea, Stomatopoda, Protosquillidae). Journal of Experimental Biology, 217(19), 3425-3431.

The polarization of light provides information that is used by many animals for a number of different visually guided behaviours. Several marine species, such as stomatopod crustaceans and cephalopod molluscs, communicate using visual signals that contain polarized information, content that is often part of a more complex multidimensional visual signal. In this work, we investigate the evolution of polarized signals in species of Haptosquilla, a widespread genus of stomatopod, as well as related protosquillids. We present evidence for a pre-existing bias towards horizontally polarized signal content and demonstrate that the properties of the polarization vision system in these animals increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the signal. Combining these results with the increase in efficacy that polarization provides over intensity and hue in a shallow marine environment, we propose a joint framework for the evolution of the polarized form of these complex signals based on both efficacy-driven (proximate) and content-driven (ultimate) selection pressures.

Biology Department.

Zhao, Zhong-Qiu, Xian-Yu Liu, Joseph Jeffry, ….., Kenneth J. Renner, & Yun-Qing Li. (2014). Descending Control of Itch Transmission by the Serotonergic System via 5-HT1A-Facilitated GRP-GRPR Signaling. Neuron, 84(4), 821-834.

Summary Central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptophan, 5-HT) modulates somatosensory transduction, but how it achieves sensory modality-specific modulation remains unclear. Here we report that enhancing serotonergic tone via administration of 5-HT potentiates itch sensation, whereas mice lacking 5-HT or serotonergic neurons in the brainstem exhibit markedly reduced scratching behavior. Through pharmacological and behavioral screening, we identified 5-HT1A as a key receptor in facilitating gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)-dependent scratching behavior. Coactivation of 5-HT1A and GRP receptors (GRPR) greatly potentiates subthreshold, GRP-induced Ca 2+ transients, and action potential firing of GRPR + neurons. Immunostaining, biochemical, and biophysical studies suggest that 5-HT1A and GRPR may function as receptor heteromeric complexes. Furthermore, 5-HT1A blockade significantly attenuates, whereas its activation contributes to, long-lasting itch transmission. Thus, our studies demonstrate that the descending 5-HT system facilitates GRP-GRPR signaling via 5-HT1A to augment itch-specific outputs, and a disruption of crosstalk between 5-HT1A and GRPR may be a useful antipruritic strategy.

Biology Department.

Netzer, Nathan L., Feng-Rong Dai, Zhenqiang Wang, & Chaoyang Jiang. (2014). pH-Modulated Molecular Assemblies and Surface Properties of Metal-Organic Supercontainers at the Air-Water Interface. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, 53(41), 10965-10969.

The orientation of metal-organic supercontainer (MOSC) molecules in Langmuir films was systematically studied at the air-water interface. The acidity of the aqueous subphases plays a significant role in tuning the orientation of MOSC molecules in the Langmuir films. Furthermore, Langmuir-Blodgett films of MOSCs were prepared and the uniform multilayer structures demonstrated various surface properties, depending on their conditions of fabrication. Our use of Langmuir films provides a novel approach to access tunable assemblies of MOSC molecules in two-dimensional thin films.

Chemistry Department.

Arens, Ashley M., Raluca M. Gaher, Jeffrey S. Simons, & Robert D. Dvorak. (2014). Child Maltreatment and Deliberate Self-Harm: A Negative Binomial Hurdle Model for Explanatory Constructs. Child Maltreatment, 19(3/4), 168-177.

Emerging adults demonstrate the highest rates of deliberate self-harm (DSH) and thus represent a population in need of further study. While child maltreatment (CM) history is a risk factor for DSH, the mechanisms behind this relationship are not fully understood. This study tested a model of mechanisms linking CM with DSH (likelihood of engaging in the behavior and frequency among those who self-harm) via negative urgency (tendency to engage in impulsive behaviors under conditions of negative affect), distress tolerance, sense of control, and desire for control in a sample of college students. As hypothesized, CM had a strong positive direct association with both the likelihood and frequency of DSH. CM was positively associated with negative urgency and inversely associated with distress tolerance and sense of control. Negative urgency was positively associated with DSH likelihood and frequency. Distress tolerance was not directly associated with DSH but was indirectly associated with DSH likelihood and frequency via negative urgency. Sense of control was not associated with the likelihood of engaging in DSH; however, among those who endorsed a history of DSH, sense of control was positively associated with DSH frequency. Desire for control was not associated with either CM or DSH.

Psychology Department.

Simons, Jeffrey S., T. A. Wills, & D. J. Neal. (2014). The Many Faces of Affect: A Multilevel Model of Drinking Frequency/Quantity and Alcohol Dependence Symptoms Among Young Adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 123(3), 676-694.

This research tested a multilevel structural equation model of associations between 3 aspects of affective functioning (state affect, trait affect, and affective lability) and 3 alcohol outcomes (likelihood of drinking, quantity on drinking days, and dependence symptoms) in a sample of 263 college students. Participants provided 49 days of experience sampling data over 1.3 years in a longitudinal burst design. Within-person results: At the daily level, positive affect was directly associated with greater likelihood and quantity of alcohol consumption. Daily negative affect was directly associated with higher consumption on drinking days and with higher dependence symptoms. Between-person direct effects: Affect lability was associated with higher trait negative, but not positive, affect. Trait positive affect was inversely associated with the proportion of drinking days, whereas negative affectivity predicted a greater proportion of drinking days. Affect lability exhibited a direct association with dependence symptoms. Between-person indirect effects: Trait positive affect was associated with fewer dependence symptoms via proportion of drinking days. Trait negative affect was associated with greater dependence symptoms via proportion of drinking days. The results distinguish relations of positive and negative affect to likelihood versus amount of drinking and state versus trait drinking outcomes, and highlight the importance of affect variability for predicting alcohol dependence symptoms.

Psychology Department.

Chatterjee, Archana. (2014). The next generation of HPV vaccines: nonavalent vaccine V503 on the horizon. Expert Review of Vaccines, 13(11), 1279-1290.

HPV infection with ‘high-risk’ genotypes is associated with ano-genital and oropharyngeal cancers. Two currently licensed prophylactic HPV vaccines designed to prevent disease associated with HPV 16 and 18 are in use around the world. Both vaccines have very high efficacy for prevention of vaccine type-associated cervical precancers, preventing approximately 70% of these lesions. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine has also been shown to prevent HPV16/18-associated vaginal, vulvar and anal precancers, and HPV6/11-associated ano-genital warts. To broaden protection against HPV genotypes not in the current vaccines, ‘second-generation’ vaccines with additional genotypes are under development. Merck, Sharp and Dohme has submitted a Biologics License Application for its investigational nonavalent HPV vaccine V503 to the US FDA, with standard review being granted. The nonavalent HPV vaccine appears to be safe and effective in preventing persistent infection and precancerous lesions associated with HPV types 16/18/31/33/45/52/58, as well as genital warts related to HPV types 6 and 11.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Hanson, Jessica D., Tracey R. McMahon, Emily R. Griese, & DenYelle B. Kenyon. (2014). Understanding Gender Roles in Teen Pregnancy Prevention among American Indian Youth. American Journal of Health Behavior, 38(6), 807-815.

Objectives: To examine the impact of gender norms on American Indian (AI) adolescents’ sexual health behavior. Methods: The project collected qualitative data at a reservation site and an urban site through 24 focus groups and 20 key informant interviews. Results: The reasons that AI youth choose to abstain or engage in sexual intercourse and utilize contraception vary based on gender ideologies defined by the adolescent’s environment. These include social expectations from family and peers, defined roles within relationships, and gender empowerment gaps. Conclusions: Gender ideology plays a large role in decisions about contraception and sexual activity for AI adolescents, and it is vital to include re-definitions of gender norms within AI teen pregnancy prevention program.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Liaw, Winston, Sarah Coleman, Andrew Bazemore, & Mark K. Huntington. (2014). Another risk to US travelers—malaria. Journal of Family Practice, 63(11), E1-E7.

The article provides preventive measures for international travelers to limit risk of endemic disease malaria. It notes the necessity of reviewing the itineraries and health data of the travelers and educating patients. It recommends nonpharmacologic interventions even for those administering chemoprophylaxis with consideration of the location, comparative antimalarial agent side effects and dosage requirement.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

May, Philip A., Amy Baete, Jaymi Russo, Amy J. Elliott, Jason Blankenship, Wendy O. Kalberg, . . . H. Eugene Hoyme. (2014). Prevalence and Characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Pediatrics, 134(5), 855-866.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) among first grade students (6- to 7-year-olds) in a representative Midwestern US community. METHODS: From a consented sample of 70.5% of all first graders enrolled in public and private schools, an oversample of small children (≤25th percentile on height, weight, and head circumference) and randomly selected control candidates were examined for physical growth, development, dysmorphology, cognition, and behavior. The children’s mothers were interviewed for maternal risk. RESULTS: Total dysmorphology scores differentiate significantly fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) from one another and from unexposed controls. Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) is not as clearly differentiated from controls. Children who had FASD performed, on average, significantly worse on 7 cognitive and behavioral tests and measures. The most predictive maternal risk variables in this community are late recognition of pregnancy, quantity of alcoholic drinks consumed 3 months before pregnancy, and quantity of drinking reported for r the index child’s father. From the final multidisciplinary case findings, 3 techniques were used to estimate prevalence. FAS in this community likely ranges from 6 to 9 per 1000 children (midpoint, 7.5), PFAS from 11 to 17 per 1000 children (midpoint, 14), and the total rate of FASD is estimated at 24 to 48 per 1000 children, or 2.4% to 4.8% (midpoint, 3.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Children who have FASD are more prevalent among first graders in this Midwestern city than predicted by previous, popular estimates.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Munce, Thayne A., Jason C. Dorman, Tryg O. Odney, Paul A. Thompson, Verle D. Valentine, & Michael F. Bergeron. (2014). Effects of Youth Football on Selected Clinical Measures of Neurologic Function: A Pilot Study. Journal of Child Neurology, 29(12), 1601-1607.

We assessed 10 youth football players (13.4 ± 0.7 y) immediately before and after their season to explore the effects of football participation on selected clinical measures of neurologic function. Postseason postural stability in a closed-eye condition was improved compared to preseason (P = .017). Neurocognitive testing with the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery revealed that reaction time was significantly faster at postseason (P = .015). There were no significant preseason versus postseason differences in verbal memory (P = .507), visual memory (P = .750), or visual motor speed (P = .087). Oculomotor performance assessed by the King-Devick test was moderately to significantly improved (P = .047-.115). A 12-week season of youth football did not impair the postural stability, neurocognitive function, or oculomotor performance measures of the players evaluated. Though encouraging, continued and more comprehensive investigations of this at-risk population are warranted.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Sherman, M. E., M. Piedmonte, P. L. Mai, ….., Maria C. Bell, S. V. Blank, . . . M. H. Greene. (2014). Pathologic Findings at Risk-Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy: Primary Results From Gynecologic Oncology Group Trial GOG-0199. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 32(29), 3275-+.

Purpose Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) lowers mortality from ovarian/tubal and breast cancers among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Uncertainties persist regarding potential benefits of RRSO among high-risk noncarriers, optimal surgical age, and anatomic origin of clinically occult cancers detected at surgery. To address these topics, we analyzed surgical treatment arm results from Gynecologic Oncology Group Protocol-0199 (GOG-0199), the National Ovarian Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Study. Participants and Methods This analysis included asymptomatic high-risk women age >= 30 years who elected RRSO at enrollment. Women provided risk factor data and underwent preoperative cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) serum testing and transvaginal ultrasound (TVU). RRSO specimens were processed according to a standardized tissue processing protocol and underwent central pathology panel review. Research-based BRCA1/2 mutation testing was performed when a participant’s mutation status was unknown at enrollment. Relationships between participant characteristics and diagnostic findings were assessed using univariable statistics and multivariable logistic regression. Results Invasive or intraepithelial ovarian/tubal/peritoneal neoplasms were detected in 25 (2.6%) of 966 RRSOs (BRCA1 mutation carriers, 4.6%; BRCA2 carriers, 3.5%; and noncarriers, 0.5%; P < .001). In multivariable models, positive BRCA1/2 mutation status (P = .0056), postmenopausal status (P = .0023), and abnormal CA-125 levels and/or TVU examinations (P < .001) were associated with detection of clinically occult neoplasms at RRSO. For 387 women with negative BRCA1/2 mutation testing and normal CA-125 levels, findings at RRSO were benign. Conclusion Clinically occult cancer was detected among 2.6% of high-risk women undergoing RRSO. BRCA1/2 mutation, postmenopausal status, and abnormal preoperative CA-125 and/or TVU were associated with cancer detection at RRSO. These data can inform management decisions among women at high risk of ovarian/tubal cancer. (C) 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Stevens, D. C., Paul A. Thompson, C. C. Helseth, B. Hsu, M. Akram Khan, & D. P. Munson. (2014). A comparison of the direct cost of care in an open-bay and single-family room NICU. Journal of Perinatology, 34(11), 830-835.

Objective:This research examined the proposition that the direct costs of care were no different in an open-bay (OPBY) as compared with a single-family room (SFR) neonatal intensive care (NICU) environment.Study Design:This was a sequential cohort study.Result:General linear models were implemented using clinical and cost data for all neonates admitted to the two cohorts studied. Costs were adjusted to year 2007 U.S. dollars. Models were constructed for the unadjusted regression and subsequently by adding demographic variables, treatment variables, length of respiratory support and length of stay. With the exception of the last, none were found to achieve significance. The full model had R2=0.799 with P=0.0095 and predicted direct costs of care less in the SFR NICU.Conclusion:For the time, location and administrative practices in place, this study demonstrates that care can be provided in the SFR NICU at no additional cost as compared with OPBY NICU.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Yoshida, T., Y. Yoshioka, H. Takahashi, ….., Yasuhiro Abe, Y. Mukai, . . . Y. Tsutsumi. (2014). Intestinal absorption and biological effects of orally administered amorphous silica particles. Nanoscale Research Letters, 9, 7.

Although amorphous silica nanoparticles are widely used in the production of food products (e.g., as anticaking agents), there is little information available about their absorption and biological effects after oral exposure. Here, we examined the in vitro intestinal absorption and in vivo biological effects in mice of orally administered amorphous silica particles with diameters of 70, 300, and 1,000 nm (nSP70, mSP300, and mSP1000, respectively) and of nSP70 that had been surface-modified with carboxyl or amine groups (nSP70-C and nSP70-N, respectively). Analysis of intestinal absorption by means of the everted gut sac method combined with an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer showed that the intestinal absorption of nSP70-C was significantly greater than that of nSP70. The absorption of nSP70-N tended to be greater than that of nSP70; however, the results were not statistically significant. Our results indicate that silica nanoparticles can be absorbed through the intestine and that particle diameter and surface properties are major determinants of the degree of absorption. We also examined the biological effects of the silica particles after 28-day oral exposure in mice. Hematological, histopathological, and biochemical analyses showed no significant differences between control mice and mice treated with the silica particles, suggesting that the silica nanoparticles evaluated in this study are safe for use in food production.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Quatman-Yates, C., J. Hugentobler, Robin Ammon, N. Mwase, B. Kurowski, & G. D. Myer. (2014). The Utility of the Balance Error Scoring System for Mild Brain Injury Assessments in Children and Adolescents. Physician and Sportsmedicine, 42(3), 32-38.

The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) is widely recognized as an acceptable assessment of postural control for adult patients following a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion. However, the measurement properties of the BESS as a post-mTBI assessment test for younger patients are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of the BESS as a post-mTBI assessment test for children and adolescents aged 8 to 18 years through 2 investigations: (1) a retrospective medical records review of the relationship among age, BESS scores, and other common post-mTBI assessment tests; and (2) a prospective study comparing BESS scores for a cohort of children with a recent mTBI and BESS scores for a cohort of matched healthy peers. Age was found to be significantly correlated with several of the BESS measures and the total BESS score (P < 0.05). Significant differences were observed between the injured and healthy cohorts for 3 of the BESS measures and the total BESS score. However, the observed differences were not likely to be clinically meaningful. Cumulatively, evidence from the literature and the results of these studies indicate that the BESS may be limited for producing accurate assessments of younger athletes’ post-mTBI postural control abilities. Future research recommendations include testing of modified versions of the BESS or other alternatives for post-mTBI postural control assessments with younger individuals.

School of Education.

Stachowitz, Annie L., Hee-Sook Choi, & Amy Schweinle. (2014). THE USE OF THE BASC-2 FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF FEMALE ADOLESCENTS AT RISK FOR DEVELOPING AN EATING DISORDER. Psychology in the Schools, 51(10), 1063-1075.

Eating disorders, disordered eating, and body dissatisfaction prevalence rates are on the rise among adolescent females. The present study examined the potential use of a commonly used social-emotional instrument, the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2), for detecting the presence of possible eating disorders in adolescent females in a school setting. Participants included 65 female adolescents aged 13 to 17 years from Midwestern public middle and high schools. The Eating Disorder Inventory-Third Edition was used to determine eating disorder risk and level of body dissatisfaction. Those adolescents at risk for developing an eating disorder differed significantly on 12 of the 16 BASC-2 scales, whereas four of these scales were also in the clinically significant range according to the BASC-2 normative sample. A common profile of a female adolescent at risk for developing an eating disorder was explored. Implications of the findings and recommendations for future research are discussed.

School of Education.

Yom, Jae P., K. J. Simpson, S. W. Arnett, & C. N. Brown. (2014). The Effects of a Lateral In-flight Perturbation on Lower Extremity Biomechanics During Drop Landings. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 30(5), 655-662.

One potential ACL injury situation is due to contact with another person or object during the flight phase, thereby causing the person to land improperly. Conversely, athletes often have flight-phase collisions but do land safely. Therefore, to better understand ACL injury causation and methods by which people typically land safely, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an in-flight perturbation on the lower extremity biomechanics displayed by females during typical drop landings. Seventeen collegiate female recreational athletes performed baseline landings, followed by either unexpected laterally-directed perturbation or sham (nonperturbation) drop landings. We compared baseline and perturbation trials using paired-samples t tests (P < .05) and 95% confidence intervals for lower-extremity joint kinematics and kinetics and GRF. The results demonstrated that perturbation landings compared with baseline landings exhibited more extended joint positions of the lower extremity at initial contact; and, during landing, greater magnitudes for knee abduction and hip adduction displacements; peak magnitudes of vertical and medial GRF; and maximum moments of ankle extensors, knee extensors, and adductor and hip adductors. We conclude that a lateral in-flight perturbation leads to abnormal GRF and angular motions and joint moments of the lower extremity.

School of Education.

Kunsook Song, Bernstein, Cho Sunhee, Roh Soonhee, T. Nguyen My Hanh, Chen Daniel, Chiu Ya-Lin, & Bang Heejung. (2014). Development and Psychometric Testing of the Mental Health Service Barrier Assessment Instrument. Journal of Theory Construction & Testing, 18(2), 40-49.

The aim of this study was to develop and test an instrument identifying barriers to utilization of mental health services among Korean Americans. A 41-item initial instrument representing barriers to mental health services among Korean Americans was developed based on a literature review. Items were reduced to a final 22-item mental health service barrier assessment (MHSBA) instrument. The final instrument was evaluated by a sample of 256 Korean American community residents. Assessment of the scale was based on internal consistency estimates and principal components analysis. Simple and multiple linear regressions were used to reveal relationship between participants’ characteristics and the overall MHSBA instrument. Reliability of the instrument was high, with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.93. “Years of stay in the US” was negatively associated with the barrier score (p<0.0001) and higher education was associated with higher barrier (p=.009). People who had medical insurance (p=.05) and who were confident in speaking English (p=.003) tended to have a lower barrier score. The MHSBA has demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties, reflecting cultural understanding of the relevance and comprehension of health-care access in this population. Further studies are warranted.

School of Health Sciences.

Simmons, Thomas E. (2014). The ‘Evil Child’ in Literature, Film and Popular Culture. Journal of Popular Culture, 47(4), 899-902.

School of Law.

Posted by: reganenosusd | October 31, 2014

October 2014

Gupta, M. K., J. Gulick, R. J. Liu, Xuejun Wang, J. D. Molkentin, & J. Robbins. (2014). Sumo E2 Enzyme UBC9 Is Required for Efficient Protein Quality Control in Cardiomyocytes. Circulation Research, 115(8), 721-+.

Rationale: Impairment of proteasomal function is pathogenic in several cardiac proteinopathies and can eventually lead to heart failure. Loss of proteasomal activity often results in the accumulation of large protein aggregates. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is primarily responsible for cellular protein degradation, and although the role of ubiquitination in this process is well studied, the function of an ancillary post-translational modification, SUMOylation, in protein quality control is not fully understood. Objective: To determine the role of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 (UBC9), a small ubiquitin-like modifier-conjugating enzyme, in cardiomyocyte protein quality control. Methods and Results: Gain-and loss-of-function approaches were used to determine the importance of UBC9. Overexpression of UBC9 enhanced UPS function in cardiomyocytes, whereas knockdown of UBC9 by small interfering RNA caused significant accumulations of aggregated protein. UPS function and relative activity was analyzed using a UPS reporter protein consisting of a short degron, CL1, fused to the COOH-terminus of green fluorescent protein (GFPu). Subsequently, the effects of UBC9 on UPS function were tested in a proteotoxic model of desmin-related cardiomyopathy, caused by cardiomyocyte-specific expression of a mutated alpha B crystallin, CryAB(R120G). CryAB(R120G) expression leads to aggregate formation and decreased proteasomal function. Coinfection of UBC9-adenovirus with CryABR120G virus reduced the proteotoxic sequelae, decreasing overall aggregate concentrations. Conversely, knockdown of UBC9 significantly decreased UPS function in the model and resulted in increased aggregate levels. Conclusions: UBC9 plays a significant role in cardiomyocyte protein quality control, and its activity can be exploited to reduce toxic levels of misfolded or aggregated proteins in cardiomyopathy.

Baisc Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Klonoski, Joshua M., Heather R. Hurtig, Brian A. Juber, Margaret J. Schuneman, Thomas E. Bickett, Joshua M. Svendsen, . . . Victor C. Huber. (2014). Vaccination against the M protein of Streptococcus pyogenes prevents death after influenza virus:S. pyogenes super-infection. Vaccine, 32(40), 5241-5249.

Influenza virus infections are associated with a significant number of illnesses and deaths on an annual basis. Many of the deaths are due to complications from secondary bacterial invaders, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pyogenes. The beta-hemolytic bacteria S. pyogenes colonizes both skin and respiratory surfaces, and frequently presents clinically as strep throat or impetigo. However, when these bacteria gain access to normally sterile sites, they can cause deadly diseases including sepsis, necrotizing fasciitis, and pneumonia. We previously developed a model of influenza virus:S. pyogenes super-infection, which we used to demonstrate that vaccination against influenza virus can limit deaths associated with a secondary bacterial infection, but this protection was not complete. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of a vaccine that targets the M protein of S. pyogenes to determine whether immunity toward the bacteria alone would allow the host to survive an influenza virus:S. pyogenes super-infection. Our data demonstrate that vaccination against the M protein induces IgG antibodies, in particular those of the IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes, and that these antibodies can interact with macrophages. Ultimately, this vaccine-induced immunity eliminated death within our influenza virus:S. pyogenes super-infection model, despite the fact that all M protein-accinated mice showed signs of illness following influenza virus inoculation. These findings identify immunity against bacteria as an important component of protection against influenza virus:bacteria super-infection. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Morecraft, Robert J., Kimberly S. Stilwell-Morecraft, Kathryn M. Solon-Cline, Jizhir Ge, & W. G. Darling. (2014). Cortical Innervation of the Hypoglossal Nucleus in the Non-Human Primate (Macaca mulatta). Journal of Comparative Neurology, 522(15), 3456-3484.

The corticobulbar projection to the hypoglossal nucleus was studied from the frontal, parietal, cingulate, and insular cortices in the rhesus monkey by using high-resolution anterograde tracers and stereology. The hypoglossal nucleus received bilateral input from the face/head region of the primary (M1), ventrolateral pre( LPMCv), supplementary (M2), rostral cingulate (M3), and caudal cingulate (M4) motor cortices. Additional bilateral corticohypoglossal projections were found from the dorsolateral premotor cortex (LPMCd), ventrolateral proisocortical motor area (ProM), ventrolateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1), rostral insula, and pregenual region of the anterior cingulate gyrus (areas 24/32). Dense terminal projections arose from the ventral region of M1, and moderate projections from LPMCv and rostral part of M2, with considerably fewer hypoglossal projections arising from the other cortical regions. These findings demonstrate that extensive regions of the non-human primate cerebral cortex innervate the hypoglossal nucleus. The widespread and bilateral nature of this corticobulbar connection suggests recovery of tongue movement after cortical injury that compromises a subset of these areas, may occur from spared corticohypoglossal projection areas located on the lateral, as well as medial surfaces of both hemispheres. Since functional imaging studies have shown that homologous cortical areas are activated in humans during tongue movement tasks, these corticobulbar projections may exist in the human brain. (C) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Weltman, Nathan Y., K. Ojamaa, Evelyn H. Schlenker, Y. F. Chen, R. Zucchi, A. Saba, . . . A. M. Gerdes. (2014). Low-Dose T-3 Replacement Restores Depressed Cardiac T-3 Levels, Preserves Coronary Microvasculature and Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction in Experimental Diabetes Mellitus. Molecular Medicine, 20, 302-312.

Thyroid dysfunction is common in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) and may contribute to the associated cardiac dysfunction. However, little is known about the extent and pathophysiological consequences of low thyroid conditions on the heart in DM. DM was induced in adult female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats by injection of nicotinamide (N; 200 mg/kg) followed by streptozotocin (STZ; 65 mg/kg). One month after STZ/N, rats were randomized to the following groups (N = 10/group): STZ/N or STZ/N + 0.03 g/mL T-3; age-matched vehicle-treated rats served as nondiabetic controls (C). After 2 months of T-3 treatment (3 months post-DM induction), left ventricular (LV) function was assessed by echocardiography and LV pressure measurements. Despite normal serum thyroid hormone (TH) levels, STZ/N treatment resulted in reductions in myocardial tissue content of THs (T-3 and T-4 : 39% and 17% reduction versus C, respectively). Tissue hypothyroidism in the DM hearts was associated with increased DIO3 deiodinase (which converts THs to inactive metabolites) altered TH transporter expression, reexpression of the fetal gene phenotype, reduced arteriolar resistance vessel density, and diminished cardiac function. Low-dose T-3 replacement largely restored cardiac tissue TH levels (T-3 and T-4 : 43% and 10% increase versus STZ/N, respectively), improved cardiac function, reversed fetal gene expression and preserved the arteriolar resistance vessel network without causing overt symptoms of hyperthyroidism. We conclude that cardiac dysfunction in chronic DM may be associated with tissue hypothyroidism despite normal serum TH levels. Low-dose T-3 replacement appears to be a safe and effective adjunct therapy to attenuate and/or reverse cardiac remodeling and dysfunction induced by experimental DM.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Kraus, J. M., D. M. Walters, Jeff S. Wesner, C. A. Stricker, T. S. Schmidt, & R. E. Zuellig. (2014). Metamorphosis Alters Contaminants and Chemical Tracers in Insects: Implications for Food Webs. Environmental Science & Technology, 48(18), 10957-10965.

Insects are integral to most freshwater and terrestrial food webs, but due to their accumulation of environmental pollutants they are also contaminant vectors that threaten reproduction, development, and survival of consumers. Metamorphosis from larvae to adult can cause large chemical changes in insects, altering contaminant concentrations and fractionation of chemical tracers used to establish contaminant biomagnification in food webs, but no framework exists for predicting and managing these effects. We analyzed data from 39 studies of 68 analytes (stable isotopes and contaminants), and found that metamorphosis effects varied greatly. delta N-15, widely used to estimate relative trophic position in biomagnification studies, was enriched by similar to 1 parts per thousand during metamorphosis, while delta C-13 used to estimate diet, was similar in larvae and adults. Metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were predominantly lost during metamorphosis leading to similar to 2 to 125-fold higher larval concentrations and higher exposure risks for predators of larvae compared to predators of adults. In contrast, manufactured organic contaminants (such as polychlorinated biphenyls) were retained and concentrated in adults, causing up to similar to 3-fold higher adult concentrations and higher exposure risks to predators of adult insects. Both food web studies and contaminant management and mitigation strategies need to consider how metamorphosis affects the movement of materials between habitats and ecosystems, with special regard for aquatic-terrestrial linkages.

Biology Department.

Swanson, David, Yufeng Zhang, & Marisa King. (2014). Mechanistic Drivers of Flexibility in Summit Metabolic Rates of Small Birds. Plos One, 9(7), 9.

Flexible metabolic phenotypes allow animals to adjust physiology to better fit ecological or environmental demands, thereby influencing fitness. Summit metabolic rate (M-sum = maximal thermogenic capacity) is one such flexible trait. Skeletal muscle and heart masses and myocyte metabolic intensity are potential drivers of M-sum flexibility in birds. We examined correlations of skeletal muscle and heart masses and pectoralis muscle citrate synthase (CS) activity (an indicator of cellular metabolic intensity) with M-sum in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) to determine whether these traits are associated with M-sum variation. Pectoralis mass was positively correlated with M-sum for both species, but no significant correlation remained for either species after accounting for body mass (M-b) variation. Combined flight and leg muscle masses were also not significantly correlated with M-sum for either species. In contrast, heart mass was significantly positively correlated with M-sum for juncos and nearly so (P = 0.054) for sparrows. Mass-specific and total pectoralis CS activities were significantly positively correlated with M-sum for sparrows, but not for juncos. Thus, myocyte metabolic intensity influences M-sum variation in house sparrows, although the stronger correlation of total (r = 0.495) than mass-specific (r = 0.378) CS activity with M-sum suggests that both pectoralis mass and metabolic intensity impact M-sum. In contrast, neither skeletal muscle masses nor pectoralis metabolic intensity varied with M-sum in juncos. However, heart mass was associated with M-sum variation in both species. These data suggest that drivers of metabolic flexibility are not uniform among bird species.

Biology Department.

Wesner, Jeff S., J. M. Kraus, T. S. Schmidt, D. M. Walters, & W. H. Clements. (2014). Metamorphosis Enhances the Effects of Metal Exposure on the Mayfly, Centroptilum triangulifer. Environmental Science & Technology, 48(17), 10415-10422.

The response of larval aquatic insects to stressors such as metals is used to assess the ecological condition of streams worldwide. However, nearly all larval insects metamorphose from aquatic larvae to winged adults, and recent surveys indicate that adults may be a more sensitive indicator of stream metal toxicity than larvae. One hypothesis to explain this pattern is that insects exposed to elevated metal in their larval stages have a reduced ability to successfully complete metamorphosis. To test this hypothesis we exposed late-instar larvae of the mayfly, Centroptilum triangulifer, to an aqueous Zn gradient (32-476 mu g/L) in the laboratory. After 6 days of exposure, when metamorphosis began, larval survival was unaffected by zinc. However, Zn reduced wingpad development at concentrations above 139 mu g/L. In contrast, emergence of subimagos and imagos tended to decline with any increase in Zn. At Zn concentrations below 105 mu g/L (hardness-adjusted aquatic life criterion), survival between the wingpad and subimago stages declined 5-fold across the Zn gradient. These results support the hypothesis that metamorphosis may be a survival bottleneck, particularly in contaminated streams. Thus, death during metamorphosis may be a key mechanism explaining how stream metal contamination can impact terrestrial communities by reducing aquatic insect emergence.

Biology Department.

Ghimire, Niranjan, Jie Luo, Ruogu Tang, Yuyu Sun, & Ying Deng. (2014). Novel anti-infective activities of chitosan immobilized titanium surface with enhanced osteogenic properties. Colloids & Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 122, 126-133.

We have covalently immobilized chitosan onto a titanium (Ti) surface to manage implant-related infection and poor osseointegration, two of the major complications of orthopedic implants. The Ti surface was first treated with sulfuric acid (SA) and then covalently grafted with chitosan. Surface roughness, contact angle and surface zeta potential of the samples were markedly increased by the sulfuric acid treatment and the subsequent chitosan immobilization. The chitosan-immobilized Ti (SA-CS-Ti) showed two novel antimicrobial roles: it (a) prevented the invasion and internalization of bacteria into the osteoblast-like cells, and (b) significantly increased the susceptibility of adherent bacteria to antibiotics. In addition, the sulfuric acid-treated Ti (SA-Ti) and SA-CS-Ti led to significantly increased ( P < 0.05) osteoblast-like cell attachment, enhanced cell proliferation, and better osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of osteoblast-like cells.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

Banerjee, Subhash, Soumen Payra, Arijit Saha, & Grigoriy Sereda. (2014). ZnO nanoparticles: a green efficient catalyst for the room temperature synthesis of biologically active 2-aryl-1,3-benzothiazole and 1,3-benzoxazole derivatives. Tetrahedron Letters: International Organ for the Rapid Publication of Preliminary Communications in Organic Chemistry, 55(40), 5515-5520.

A facile synthetic protocol for the synthesis of 2-aryl-1,3-benzothiazoles and 1,3-benzoxazoles has been demonstrated using ZnO nanoparticles as a mild and efficient heterogeneous catalyst. The reactions using ZnO nanoparticles were very fast (<8 min) and provided excellent yields (>90%) of the products. The catalyst was recycled and reused up to eight times without significant loss of catalytic activity. The potential application of 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3-benzothiazole as new acid–base indicator has also been demonstrated in this Letter.

Chemistry Department.

Bartholomew, Catherine, Ashish Chakradhar, U. W. E. Burghaus, Chia-Ming Wu, R. U. I. Peng, Srujan Mishra, & Ranjit T. Koodali. (2014). REACTIVITY AND MORPHOLOGY OF , , AND – OXIDE CLUSTERS SUPPORTED ON MCM-48 TOWARD THIOPHENE HYDRODESULPHURIZATION. Surface Review & Letters, 21(5), -1.

In this paper, the morphology, chemical composition and reactivity of MCM-48 powders impregnated with , or both toward hydrodesulphurization (HDS) of thiophene were characterized. The reactivity of the catalyst was quantitatively compared with a standard industrial catalyst (from HaldorTopsoe, Denmark) and a novel 2 nanotube-based catalysts (from R. Tenne, Israel). Morphology and chemical composition were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and EDX elemental maps. Reactivity was determined in a gas-chromatograph based mini flow reactor using thiophene as a probe molecule. The sulfided MCM-48 supported catalyst showed the largest HDS activity with turnover frequencies (TOF) about half as large as for the commercial system under the test conditions used here. Presulfiding did increase activity of all MCM-48 catalysts.

Chemistry Department.

Blumenthal, Tyler, Jeevan Meruga, Jon Kellar, William Cross, Krishnamraju Ankireddy, Swathi Vunnam, . . . QuocAnh N. Luu. (2012). Patterned direct-write and screen-printing of NIR-to-visible upconverting inks for security applications. Nanotechnology, 23(18), 1-1.

Two methods of direct-write printing for producing highly resolved features of a polymer impregnated with luminescent upconversion phosphors for security applications are presented. The printed polymer structures range in shape from features to text. The thin polymer features were deposited by direct-write printing of atomized material as well as by screen-printing techniques. These films contain highly luminescent lanthanide-doped, rare-earth nanocrystals, β-NaYF4:3%Er, 17%Yb, which are capped with oleic acid. This capping agent allows the nanocrystals to disperse throughout the films for full detailing of printed features. Upconversion of deposited features was obtained using a 980 nm wavelength laser with emission of upconverted light in the visible region at both 540 and 660 nm. Features were deposited onto high bond paper, Kapton®, and glass to demonstrate possible covert and forensic security printing applications, as they are printed in various features and invisible to ‘naked-eye’ viewing at low concentrations of nanocrystals.

Chemistry Department.

Huang, Shuping, T. M. Inerbaev, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2014). Excited State Dynamics of Ru-10 Cluster Interfacing Anatase TiO2(101) Surface and Liquid Water. Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 5(16), 2823-2829.

Charge transfer dynamics at the interface of supported metal nanocluster and liquid water by GGA+U calculations combined with density matrix formalism is considered. The Rum duster introduces new states into the band gap of TiO2 surface, narrows the band gap of TiO2, and enhances the absorption strength. The H2O adsorption significantly enhances the intensity of photon absorption, which is due to the formation of Ti-O(water) and Ru-O(water) bonds at the interfaces. The Ruff, cluster promotes the dissociation of water, facilitates charge transfer, and increases the relaxation rates of holes and electrons. We expect that our results are helpful in understanding basic processes contributing to photoelectrochemical water splitting.

Chemistry Department.

Huang, Shuping, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2014). Charge Transfer, Luminescence, and Phonon Bottleneck in TiO2 Nanowires Computed by Eigenvectors of Liouville Superoperator. Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, 10(9), 3996-4005.

A nonadiabatic excited state dynamics study of ?001? anatase TiO2 nanowire is obtained by combining density matrix in LiouvilleRedfield formalism and ab initio electronic structure calculations. The properties of eigenvectors of LiouvilleRedfield superoperator are investigated. The time evolutions of KohnSham orbital populations are obtained for different electronic excitations. The numerical solutions of the population changes over time are in agreement with the analytical results. The analytical and numerical results on the electron and hole relaxation rates are compared. The electron nonradiative relaxation to the bottom of conduction band involves Ti 3d orbitals, whereas the hole nonradiative relaxation to the top of valence band is mainly localized in surface O 2p orbitals. The rate of relaxation in nanowire is slower than in bulk TiO2 demonstrating phonon-bottleneck effect. Calculated emission spectrum has vanishing contribution from lowest energy excitation, which indicates charge transfer.

Chemistry Department.

Kibombo, Harrison S., Vagulejan Balasanthiran, Chia-Ming Wu, Rui Peng, & Ranjit T. Koodali. (2014). Exploration of room temperature synthesis of palladium containing cubic MCM-48 mesoporous materials. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 198, 1-8.

 

Pd-MCM-48 mesoporous materials were synthesized by a modified Stober synthesis method in 4 h at room temperature. Pd nanoparticles were prepared by using Na-2[PdCl4] and Pd(acac)(2) as Pd precursors, and their influence in the preparation of the cubic MCM-48 mesoporous phase was investigated. In addition, Pd(0) nanoparticles was prepared separately and added to the synthesis gel. The influence of varying the Pd precursor, solvent media, the time of addition of Pd precursor, and the concentration of NaBH4 reducing agent used for preparation of Pd(0) and its effect for the formation of the cubic phase were investigated. These resultant materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Visible spectroscopy, nitrogen physisorption, and CO-Pulse titration. Reusability studies assessing a material prepared using Pd(0)-DMAP encapsulated nanoparticles that were reduced with 0.1 N NaBH4 i.e. 3%Pd-MCM-48-D-N01 indicate that the yields for the hydrogenation of trans-cinnamic acid are greater than 95% even after 8 catalytic cycles, and at which the cubic phase was maintained under our experimental conditions. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

Meruga, Jeevan M., William M. Cross, P. Stanley  May, QuocAnh Luu, Grant A. Crawford, & Jon J. Kellar. (2012). Security printing of covert quick response codes using upconverting nanoparticle inks. Nanotechnology, 23(39), 1-1.

Counterfeiting costs governments and private industries billions of dollars annually due to loss of value in currency and other printed items. This research involves using lanthanide doped β-NaYF4 nanoparticles for security printing applications. Inks comprised of Yb3+/Er3+ and Yb3+/Tm3+ doped β-NaYF4 nanoparticles with oleic acid as the capping agent in toluene and methyl benzoate with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as the binding agent were used to print quick response (QR) codes. The QR codes were made using an AutoCAD file and printed with Optomec direct-write aerosol jetting®. The printed QR codes are invisible under ambient lighting conditions, but are readable using a near-IR laser, and were successfully scanned using a smart phone. This research demonstrates that QR codes, which have been used primarily for information sharing applications, can also be used for security purposes. Higher levels of security were achieved by printing both green and blue upconverting inks, based on combinations of Er3+/Yb3+ and Tm3+/Yb3+, respectively, in a single QR code. The near-infrared (NIR)-to-visible upconversion luminescence properties of the two-ink QR codes were analyzed, including the influence of NIR excitation power density on perceived color, in term of the CIE 1931 chromaticity index. It was also shown that this security ink can be optimized for line width, thickness and stability on different substrates.

Chemistry Department.

Sathe, Ajay, Matthea A. Peck, Choumini Balasanthiran, Marjorie A. Langell, Robert M. Rioux, & James D. Hoefelmeyer. (2014). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of transition metal ions attached to the surface of rod-shape anatase TiO2 nanocrystals. Inorganica Chimica Acta, 422, 8-13.

X-ray photoelectron spectra were obtained for a series of M–TiO 2 samples in which transition metal ions are directly attached to the surface of anatase TiO 2 nanocrystals. The samples were prepared using CrCl 3 · n H 2 O, MnCl 2 · n H 2 O, FeCl 2 · n H 2 O, CoCl 2 · n H 2 O, NiCl 2 · n H 2 O, and CuCl 2 · n H 2 O as metal sources. We observed spontaneous air oxidation of the metal for the Mn–TiO 2 and Fe–TiO 2 samples as indicated by rapid color changes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data confirms the oxidation states of the metals Cr, Co, and Ni are unchanged from the precursor, Mn and Fe are oxidized, and Cu is in a more reduced state. The reduction of Cu likely arises during the XPS experiment – a phenomenon well-documented in the literature; whereas UV–Vis data of the Cu–TiO 2 dispersions are consistent with Cu 2+ .

Chemistry Department.

Carley, Tamara L., Calvin F. Miller, Joseph L. Wooden, …., & Brennan T. Jordan. (2014). Iceland is not a magmatic analog for the Hadean: Evidence from the zircon record. Earth & Planetary Science Letters, 405, 85-97.

Tangible evidence of Earth’s earliest (Hadean; >4.0 Ga) crust, and the processes and materials that contributed to its formation, exists almost entirely in a record of detrital zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia, and a few other locations. Iceland, with its thick, juvenile, basaltic crust and relatively abundant silicic rocks, is considered a potential modern analog for the Hadean magmatic environment where >4 Ga zircon formed. We present the first extensive dataset for Icelandic zircon, with trace element and oxygen isotope compositions from samples that span the island’s history and full range of tectonic settings. This statistically robust zircon-based comparison between Iceland and the early Earth reveals distinctions in chemistry that suggest fundamental differences in magmatic environments. Whereas the δ 18 O signature of Hadean zircons generally exceed that of zircons equilibrated with mantle-derived magma ( 85 % ≥ 5.3 ‰ ; median 6‰), almost all Icelandic zircons are characterized by a “light” oxygen signature ( 98 % ≤ 5.3 ‰ ; median 3‰). Deviations from “juvenile” oxygen values indicate that many Hadean zircons and almost all Icelandic zircons grew from magmas with substantial contributions from materials that had interacted with surface waters. In the Hadean case, the interaction occurred at low temperatures, while in Iceland, it was a high-temperature interaction. Icelandic and Hadean zircons are also distinct in their Ti concentrations (Icelandic median concentration 12 ppm, Hadean median 5 ppm). Titanium in zircon correlates positively with temperature of crystallization, and this difference in median Ti concentration suggests a temperature difference of at least 50 °C. Other differences in trace elements compositions are consistent with the interpretation that Icelandic and Hadean zircons grew in magmas with very different origins and histories (e.g., the heavy rare earth element Yb is almost an order of magnitude higher in Icelandic zircon). A comparison with elemental data for Phanerozoic zircon from different environments demonstrates that the Hadean population is unusually depleted in Ti, but otherwise similar to zircons from continental arc settings. Zircons from Iceland, and from modern evolving rift environments where oceanic lithosphere and upwelling asthenosphere are replacing continental lithosphere, are compositionally intermediate between mid-ocean ridge and continental arc zircon populations. The elemental distinctions are consistent with fractionation of zircon-bearing magmas under hotter and drier conditions in Icelandic, mid-ocean ridge, and evolving rift environments and cooler and wetter conditions in arc and, especially, Hadean environments.

Earth Sciences Department.

Chowell, Gerardo, Lone Simonsen, Jose Flores, Mark A. Miller, & Cécile Viboud. (2014). Death Patterns during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic in Chile. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(11), 1803-1811.

Scarce information about the epidemiology of historical influenza pandemics in South America prevents complete understanding of pandemic patterns throughout the continent and across different climatic zones. To fill gaps with regard to spatiotemporal patterns of deaths associated with the 1918 influenza pandemic in Chile, we reviewed archival records. We found evidence that multiple pandemic waves at various times of the year and of varying intensities occurred during 1918-1921 and that influenza-related excess deaths peaked during July-August 1919. Pandemic-associated mortality rates were elevated for all age groups, including for adults ≥50 years of age; elevation from baseline was highest for young adults. Overall, the rate of excess deaths from the pandemic was estimated at 0.94% in Chile, similar to rates reported elsewhere in Latin America, but rates varied ≈10-fold across provinces. Patterns of death during the pandemic were affected by variation in host-specific susceptibility, population density, baseline death rate, and climate.

Mathematics Department.

Dutkay, Dorin E., & Gabriel Picioroaga. (2014). Generalized Walsh Bases and Applications. Acta Applicandae Mathematicae, 133(1), 1-18.

We investigate convergence properties of generalized Walsh series associated with signals faL (1)[0,1]. We also show how the dependence of the generalized Walsh bases on NxN unitary matrices allows for applications in signal encoding and encryption, provided the signals are piece-wise constant on N-adic subintervals of [0,1].

Mathematics Department.

Borrego, Maura, Daniel Boden, & Lynita K. Newswander. (2014). Sustained Change: Institutionalizing Interdisciplinary Graduate Education. Journal of Higher Education, 85(6), 858-885.

We employ Scott’s three pillars of institutions (regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive) to investigate how higher education organizations change to support interdisciplinary graduate education. Using document analysis and case study approaches, we illustrate how strategies which address both policies and cultural norms are most successful.

Political Science Department.

Emery, Noah N., Jeffrey S. Simons, C. Joseph Clarke, & Raluca M. Gaher. (2014). Emotion differentiation and alcohol-related problems: The mediating role of urgency. Addictive Behaviors, 39(10), 1459-1463.

Deficits in emotional and behavioral regulation figure prominently in etiological models of alcohol-related problems. This study tests a model linking poor differentiation of emotion to alcohol-related problems via urgency. The sample consisted of 102 undergraduates between the ages 18 and 24 who reported moderate to heavy alcohol consumption. As hypothesized, negative urgency mediated the relationship between negative emotion differentiation and alcohol-related problems. However, contrary to hypothesis, positive urgency was not associated with either positive emotion differentiation or alcohol-related problems and the indirect effect of positive emotion differentiation via positive urgency was not significant. Instead, positive emotion differentiation exhibited a significant direct effect on alcohol-related problems. This study provides an initial examination of connections between specificity in labeling emotions, behavioral disinhibition, and problematic alcohol use. These findings suggest that poor differentiation of negative emotion may foster impulsive behavior when negatively aroused. Whereas, impulsive behavior when positively aroused may reflect heightened sensitivity to positive reinforcement, which may not be related to reflective processes underlying emotion differentiation. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Psychology Department.

Robles, Elias, Noah N. Emery, Perla A. Vargas, Araceli Moreno, Brent Marshall, Richard C. Grove, & Huateng Zhang. (2014). Patterns of responding on a balloon analogue task reveal individual differences in overall risk-taking: Choice between guaranteed and uncertain cash. Journal of General Psychology, 141(3), 207-227.

We explored the utility of analyzing within- and between-balloon response patterns on a balloon analogue task (BAT) in relation to overall risk scores, and to a choice between a small guaranteed cash reward and an uncertain reward of the same expected value. Young adults (n = 61) played a BAT, and then were offered a choice between $5 in cash and betting to win $0 to $15. Between groups, pumping was differentially influenced by explosions and by the number of successive unexploded balloons, with risk takers responding increasingly on successive balloons after an explosion. Within-balloons, risk takers showed a characteristic pattern of constant high rate, while non-risk takers showed a characteristic variable lower rate. Overall, results show that the higher number of pumps and explosions that characterize risk takers at a molar level, result from particular forms of adaptation to the positive and negative outcomes of choices seen at a molecular level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Wang, X. T., S. Li, & L. L. Rao. (2014). Conservation combats exploitation: Choices within an evolutionary framework. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37(4), 437-438.

Intentional change when viewed as making a risky or intertemporal choice with evolutionary relevance helps us understand its successes and its failures. To promote future-oriented ecological rationality requires establishing a linkage between nongenetic, cultural, and symbolic selections and genetic adaptations. Coupled with biophilic instinct, intentional conservation is more likely to prevail against evolved desires of environmental exploitation.

Psychology Department.

Askelson, N. M., D. L. Chi, E. Momany, R. Kuthy, C. Ortiz, Jessica D. Hanson, & P. Damiano. (2014). Encouraging early preventive dental visits for preschool-aged children enrolled in Medicaid: using the Extended Parallel Process Model to conduct formative research. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 74(1), 64-70.

Objective: Preventive dental visits for preschool-aged children can result in better oral health outcomes, especially for children from lower income families. Many children, however, still do not see a dentist for preventive visits. This qualitative study examined the potential for the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) to be used to uncover potential antecedents to parents’ decisions about seeking preventive dental care. Methods: Seventeen focus groups including 41 parents were conducted. The focus group protocol centered on constructs (perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived self-efficacy, and perceived response efficacy) of the EPPM. Transcripts were analyzed by three coders who employed closed coding strategies. Results: Parents’ perceptions of severity of dental issues were high, particularly regarding negative health and appearance outcomes. Parents perceived susceptibility of their children to dental problems as low, primarily because most children in this study received preventive care, which parents viewed as highly efficacious. Parents’ self-efficacy to obtain preventive care for their children was high. However, they were concerned about barriers including lack of dentists, especially dentists who are good with young children. Conclusions: Findings were consistent with EPPM, which suggests this model is a potential tool for understanding parents’ decisions about seeking preventive dental care for their young children. Future research should utilize quantitative methods to test this model.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Bergeron, Michael F. (2014). Heat Stress and Thermal Strain Challenges in Running. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 44(10), 831-838.

 

SYNOPSIS: Running well and safely in the heat is challenging for all runners, from recreational to elite. As environmental heat stress (heat stress modulated or augmented by air temperature, humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation) and the intensity and duration of a training run or race increase, so are metabolic heat production, the parallel need for heat transfer from the body to maintain thermal equilibrium, the consequent increase in blood flow to the skin, and the concomitant sweating response progressively and proportionally amplified. An accumulating total body-water deficit from extensive sweating and escalating level of cardiovascular and thermal strain will, in due course, considerably challenge a runner’s physiology, perception of effort, and on-course well-being and performance. However, with the appropriate preparation and modifications to planned running intensity and distance, runners can safely tolerate and effectively train and compete in a wide range of challenging environmental conditions. Clinicians play a key role in this regard as an effective resource for providing the most effective guidelines and making the best overall individual recommendations regarding training and competing in the heat.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Ferris, D., R. Samakoses, S. L. Block, E. Lazcano-Ponce, J. A. Restrepo, K. S. Reisinger, . . . A. Saah. (2014). Long-term Study of a Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine. Pediatrics, 134(3), E657-E665.

 

BACKGROUND: We present a long-term safety, immunogenicity, and effectiveness study of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4) vaccine. METHODS: Sexually naive boys and girls aged 9 to 15 years (N = 1781) were assigned (2:1) to receive HPV4 vaccine or saline placebo at day 1 and months 2 and 6. At month 30, the placebo group (n = 482) received HPV4 vaccine following the same regimen and both cohorts were followed through month 96. Subjects >= 16 years were eligible for effectiveness evaluations. The primary objective was to evaluate the long-term anti-HPV6/11/16/18 serological levels. The secondary objective was to estimate vaccine effectiveness against HPV6/11/16/18-related persistent infection or disease. RESULTS: For each of the HPV4 vaccine types, vaccination-induced anti-HPV response persisted through month 96. Among 429 subjects who received HPV4 vaccine at a mean age of 12, none developed HPV6/11/16/18-related disease or persistent infection of >= 12 months’ duration. Acquisition of new sexual partners (among those >= 16 years) was similar to 1 per year. Subjects receiving HPV4 vaccine at month 30 (mean age 15 years) had a similar baseline rate of seropositivity to >= 1 of the 4 HPV types to those vaccinated at day 1 (mean age 12 years; 1.9% [9 of 474] vs 1.7% [20 of 1157]); however, 4 of the 9 subjects vaccinated at the later age were seropositive to 3 vaccine types, indicating previous HPV exposure. No new significant serious adverse events were observed for 8 years postvaccination in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: When administered to adolescents, the HPV4 vaccine demonstrated durability in clinically effective protection and sustained antibody titers over 8 years.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Finn, R., C. C. Evans, & Lance Lee. (2014). Strain-dependent brain defects in mouse models of primary ciliary dyskinesia with mutations in Pcdp1 and Spef2. Neuroscience, 277, 552-567.

Hydrocephalus is caused by the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the cerebral ventricular system which results in an enlargement of the cranium due to increased intraventricular pressure. The increase in pressure within the brain typically results in sloughing of ciliated ependymal cells, loss of cortical gray matter, and increased gliosis. Congenital hydrocephalus is associated with several syndromes including primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a rare, genetically heterogeneous, pediatric syndrome that results from defects in motile cilia and flagella. We have examined the morphological and physiological defects in the brains of two mouse models of PCD, nm1054 and bgh , which have mutations in Pcdp1 (also known as Cfap221 ) and Spef2 , respectively. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of mice with these mutations on the C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEvTac genetic backgrounds demonstrate strain-dependent morphological brain damage. Alterations in astrocytosis, microglial activation, myelination, and the neuronal population were identified and are generally more severe on the C57BL/6J background. Analysis of ependymal ciliary clearance ex vivo and CSF flow in vivo demonstrate a physiological defect in nm1054 and bgh mice on both genetic backgrounds, indicating that abnormal cilia-driven flow is not the sole determinant of the severity of hydrocephalus in these models. These results suggest that genetic modifiers play an important role in susceptibility to severe PCD-associated hydrocephalus.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Flock, M. R., A. C. Skulas-Ray, William S. Harris, T. L. Gaugler, J. A. Fleming, & P. M. Kris-Etherton. (2014). Effects of supplemental long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid content on circulating inflammatory markers in a randomized controlled trial of healthy adults. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 91(4), 161-168.

The long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated (n-3 PUFA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may have anti-inflammatory effects. We evaluated the dose-response effect of EPA+DHA supplementation on circulating TNF-alpha, IL-6, and CRP and explored associations between red blood cell (RBC) membrane PUFA content and TNF-alpha, IL-6, and CRP. Young adults with low fish intake (n= 116) received one of five doses (0, 300, 600, 900, or 1,800 mg/d EPA+DHA) for 5 months. There were no significant effects of supplemental EPA+DHA on IL-6 or CRP; however, there was a marginal treatment effect for TNF-alpha (p < 0.08). At baseline, higher quartiles of RBC DHA were associated with lower TNF-alpha (p=0.001); higher quartiles of arachidonic acid were associated with higher TNF-alpha (p=0.005). EPA+DHA supplementation had no dose-response effect on TNF-alpha, IL-6, or CRP in healthy young adults; however, associations between inflammatory markers and RBC PUFA warrant further investigation. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Floen, Miranda J., Benjamin J. Forred, Elliot J. Bloom, & Peter F. Vitiello. (2014). Thioredoxin-1 redox signaling regulates cell survival in response to hyperoxia. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 75, 167-177.

 

The most common form of newborn chronic lung disease, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), is thought to be caused by oxidative disruption of lung morphogenesis, which results in decreased pulmonary vasculature and alveolar simplification. Although cellular redox status is known to regulate cellular proliferation and differentiation, redox-sensitive pathways associated with these processes in developing pulmonary epithelium are unknown. Redox-sensitive pathways are commonly regulated by cysteine thiol modifications. Therefore two thiol oxidoreductase systems, thioredoxin and glutathione, were chosen to elucidate the roles of these pathways on cell death. Studies herein indicate that thiol oxidation contributes to cell death through impaired activity of glutathione-dependent and thioredoxin (Trx) systems and altered signaling through redox-sensitive pathways. Free thiol content decreased by 71% with hyperoxic (95% oxygen) exposure. Increased cell death was observed during oxygen exposure when either the Trx or the glutathione-dependent system was pharmacologically inhibited with aurothioglucose (ATG) or buthionine sulfoximine, respectively. However, inhibition of the Trx system yielded the smallest decrease in free thiol content (1.44% with ATG treatment vs 21.33% with BSO treatment). Although Trx1 protein levels were unchanged, Trx1 function was impaired during hyperoxic treatment as indicated by progressive cysteine oxidation. Overexpression of Trx1 in H1299 cells utilizing an inducible construct increased cell survival during hyperoxia, whereas siRNA knockdown of Trx1 during oxygen treatment reduced cell viability. Overall, this indicated that a comparatively small pool of proteins relies on Trx redox functions to mediate cell survival in hyperoxia, and the protective functions of Trx1 are progressively lost by its oxidative inhibition. To further elucidate the role of Trx1, potential Trx1 redox protein–protein interactions mediating cytoprotection and cell survival pathways were determined by utilizing a substrate trap (mass action trapping) proteomics approach. With this method, known Trx1 targets were detected, including peroxiredoxin-1 as well as novel targets, including two HSP90 isoforms (HSP90AA1 and HSP90AB1). Reactive cysteines within the structure of HSP90 are known to modulate its ATPase-dependent chaperone activity through disulfide formation and S-nitrosylation. Whereas HSP90 expression is unchanged at the protein level during hyperoxic exposure, siRNA knockdown significantly increased hyperoxic cell death by 2.5-fold, indicating cellular dependence on HSP90 chaperone functions in response to hyperoxic exposure. These data support the hypothesis that hyperoxic impairment of Trx1 has a negative impact on HSP90-oxidative responses critical to cell survival, with potential implications for pathways implicated in lung development and the pathogenesis of BPD.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Griffin, Kurt J., Paul A. Thompson, M. Gottschalk, J. H. Kyllo, & Alex Rabinovitch. (2014). Combination therapy with sitagliptin and lansoprazole in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (REPAIR-T1D): 12-month results of a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 2(9), 710-718.

Background Type 1 diabetes results from autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Findings from preclinical studies suggest that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and proton-pump inhibitors might enhance beta-cell survival and regeneration. We postulated that sitagliptin and lansoprazole would preserve beta-cell function in patients with recentonset type 1 diabetes. Methods We did a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial (REPAIR-T1D). Participants aged 11-36 years, diagnosed with type 1 diabetes within the past 6 months were recruited from Sanford Health Systems (Sioux Falls, SD, USA; Fargo, ND, USA), Children’s Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota (St Paul, MN, USA), and Rady Children’s Hospital (San Diego, CA, USA). Participants were randomly assigned (2: 1) to receive oral sitagliptin (100 mg for participants >= 18 years, 50 mg for those <18 years) and lansoprazole (60 mg for participants >= 18 years, 30 mg for those <18 years) or matched placebo for 12 months. Randomisation was done by a blocked randomisation process (blocks of three and six), with separate streams for younger (<18 years) and older (>= 18 years) participants, and males and females. All participants and personnel remained masked until after the completion of the final 12 month visit, at which time data were unmasked to the analysis team. The primary endpoint was C-peptide response to a mixed meal challenge at 12 months measured as 2 h area under curve. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01155284. Findings Between Sept 21, 2010, and May 29, 2012, 46 participants were randomly assigned to the treatment group and 22 to the placebo group; of whom 40 participants in the treatment group and 18 in the placebo group completed the 12-month treatment. At 12 months, the mean change in C-peptide area under curve was -229 pmol/L (95% CI -316 to -142) for the treatment group and -253 pmol/L (-383 to -123) for the placebo group; this difference was not significant (p= 0.77). No adverse or serious adverse events were probably or definitely related to the study treatment. Interpretation Although the expected change in the primary endpoint was not achieved, not all participants had increases in glucagon-like peptide-1 and gastrin concentrations that were expected with treatment. Although participants did not have adverse events related to study drugs, the study is not powered to address safety definitively. Further trials including these drugs might be warranted, but should be designed to ensure appropriate selection of participants and increases in these intermediary hormones.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Gupta, Brij, Diane Maher, Mara Ebeling, Phillip Stephenson, Susan Puumala, Michael Koch, . . . Subhash Chauhan. (2014). Functions and regulation of MUC13 mucin in colon cancer cells. Journal of Gastroenterology, 49(10), 1378-1391.

Background: MUC13 is overexpressed and aberrantly localized in colon cancer tissue; however, the specific functions and regulation of MUC13 expression are unknown. Methods: Stable cell lines with either overexpressed or suppressed MUC13 levels were analyzed to determine cell growth, colony formation, cell migration, and cell invasion assays. The molecular mechanisms involved in MUC13 regulation were elucidated via chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and analysis of interleukin 6 (IL6) treatments. Colon cancer tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the protein levels of MUC13 and P-STAT5 in colon cancer cells. Results: Overexpression of MUC13 increased cell growth, colony formation, cell migration, and invasion. In concordance, MUC13 silencing decreased these tumorigenic features. Overexpression of MUC13 also modulated various cancer-associated proteins, including telomerase reverse transcriptase, sonic hedgehog, B cell lymphoma murine like site 1, and GATA like transcription factor 1. Additionally, MUC13-overexpressing cells showed increased HER2 and P-ERK expression. ChIP analysis revealed binding of STAT5 to the predicted MUC13 promoter. IL6 treatment of colon cancer cells increased the expression of MUC13 via activation of the JAK2/STAT5 signaling pathway. Suppression of JAK2 and STAT5 signaling by chemical inhibitors abolished IL6-induced MUC13 expression. IHC analysis showed increased expression of both P-STAT5 and MUC13 in colon cancer as compared to adjacent normal tissue. Conclusions: The results of this study, for the first time, suggest functional roles of MUC13 in colon cancer progression and provide information regarding the regulation of MUC13 expression via JAK2/STAT5 which may reveal promising therapeutic approaches for colon cancer treatment.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Haugrud, Allison B., Yongxian Zhuang, Joseph D. Coppock, & W. Keith Miskimins. (2014). Dichloroacetate enhances apoptotic cell death via oxidative damage and attenuates lactate production in metformin-treated breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 147(3), 539-550.

 

The unique metabolism of breast cancer cells provides interest in exploiting this phenomenon therapeutically. Metformin, a promising breast cancer therapeutic, targets complex I of the electron transport chain leading to an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that eventually lead to cell death. Inhibition of complex I leads to lactate production, a metabolic byproduct already highly produced by reprogrammed cancer cells and associated with a poor prognosis. While metformin remains a promising cancer therapeutic, we sought a complementary agent to increase apoptotic promoting effects of metformin while attenuating lactate production possibly leading to greatly improved efficacy. Dichloroacetate (DCA) is a well-established drug used in the treatment of lactic acidosis which functions through inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) promoting mitochondrial metabolism. Our purpose was to examine the synergy and mechanisms by which these two drugs kill breast cancer cells. Cell lines were subjected to the indicated treatments and analyzed for cell death and various aspects of metabolism. Cell death and ROS production were analyzed using flow cytometry, Western blot analysis, and cell counting methods. Images of cells were taken with phase contrast microscopy or confocal microscopy. Metabolism of cells was analyzed using the Seahorse XF24 analyzer, lactate assays, and pH analysis. We show that when DCA and metformin are used in combination, synergistic induction of apoptosis of breast cancer cells occurs. Metformin-induced oxidative damage is enhanced by DCA through PDK1 inhibition which also diminishes metformin promoted lactate production. We demonstrate that DCA and metformin combine to synergistically induce caspase-dependent apoptosis involving oxidative damage with simultaneous attenuation of metformin promoted lactate production. Innovative combinations such as metformin and DCA show promise in expanding breast cancer therapies.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Miedema, Jayson, Daniel C. Zedek, Brian Z. Rayala, & E. Eugene Bain Iii. (2014). 9 tips to help prevent derm biopsy mistakes. Journal of Family Practice, 63(10), 559-564.

 

The article offers 9 tips for family physicians on how to prevent errors in conducting skin biopsy among patients.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Novak, Jeanne, Wendy Parent-Johnson, Laura A. Owens, & Patricia Keul. (2014). National certification initiative for employment support professionals: Promoting quality integrated employment services. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 40(2), 99-107.

 

This article describes a recent certification initiative to build an international network of professionals who have the knowledge and skills to provide quality integrated employment services to individuals with a variety of disabilities. An overview of the history and conceptual framework guiding the development of the Employment Support Professional Certification Program will be followed by a presentation of findings from a preliminary survey study of 93 professionals who have been certified. Survey respondents identified both personal and professional motivations for pursuing the Certified Employment Support Professional (CESP) designation, including the desire to (a) achieve a sense of accomplishment and personal satisfaction, (b) demonstrate a professional standard of competence and commitment to the profession, and (c) garner professional credibility and enhanced opportunities for career advancement. The authors describe ongoing efforts and recommendations for validating the credentialing program and for increasing the number of certified professionals equipped to establish and expand equitable employment opportunities for individuals with disabilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Radichev, Ilian A., Lilia V. Maneva-Radicheva, Christina Amatya, Camille Parker, Jacob Ellefson, Clive Wasserfall, . . . Alexei Y. Savinov. (2014). Nardilysin-Dependent Proteolysis of Cell-Associated VTCN1 (B7-H4) Marks Type 1 Diabetes Development. Diabetes, 63(10), 3470-3482.

T-cell responses directed against insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells are the key events highlighting type 1 diabetes (T1D). Therefore, a defective control of T-cell activation is thought to underlie T1D development. Recent studies implicated a B7-like negative costimulatory protein, V-set domain-containing T-cell activation inhibitor-1 (VTCN1), as a molecule capable of inhibiting T-cell activation and, potentially, an important constituent in experimental models of T1D. Here, we unravel a general deficiency within the VTCN1 pathway that is shared between diabetes-prone mice and a subset of T1D patients. Gradual loss of membrane-tethered VTCN1 from antigen-presenting cells combined with an increased release of soluble VTCN1 (sVTCN1) occurs in parallel to natural T1D development, potentiating hyperproliferation of diabeto-genic T cells. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that the loss of membrane-tethered VTCN1 is linked to proteolytic cleavage mediated by the metalloproteinase nardilysin. The cleaved sVTCN1 fragment was detected at high levels in the peripheral blood of 53% T1D patients compared with only 9% of the healthy subjects. Elevated blood sVTCN1 levels appeared early in the disease progression and correlated with the aggressive pace of disease, highlighting the potential use of sVTCN1 as a new T1D biomarker, and identifying nardilysin as a potential therapeutic target.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Savinova, Olga V., Kristi Fillaus, L. Jing, William S. Harris, & Gregory C. Shearer. (2014). Reduced Apolipoprotein Glycosylation in Patients with the Metabolic Syndrome. Plos One, 9(8), 9.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the apolipoprotein composition of the three major lipoprotein classes in patients with metabolic syndrome to healthy controls. Methods: Very low density (VLDL), intermediate/low density (IDL/LDL, hereafter LDL), and high density lipoproteins (HDL) fractions were isolated from plasma of 56 metabolic syndrome subjects and from 14 age-sex matched healthy volunteers. The apolipoprotein content of fractions was analyzed by one-dimensional (1D) gel electrophoresis with confirmation by a combination of mass spectrometry and biochemical assays. Results: Metabolic syndrome patients differed from healthy controls in the following ways: (1) total plasma – apoA1 was lower, whereas apoB, apoC2, apoC3, and apoE were higher; (2) VLDL – apoB, apoC3, and apoE were increased; (3) LDL – apoC3 was increased, (4) HDL -associated constitutive serum amyloid A protein (SAA4) was reduced (p<0.05 vs. controls for all). In patients with metabolic syndrome, the most extensively glycosylated (di-sialylated) isoform of apoC3 was reduced in VLDL, LDL, and HDL fractions by 17%, 30%, and 25%, respectively (p<0.01 vs. controls for all). Similarly, the glycosylated isoform of apoE was reduced in VLDL, LDL, and HDL fractions by 15%, 26%, and 37% (p<0.01 vs. controls for all). Finally, glycosylated isoform of SAA4 in HDL fraction was 42% lower in patients with metabolic syndrome compared with controls (p<0.001). Conclusions: Patients with metabolic syndrome displayed several changes in plasma apolipoprotein composition consistent with hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL cholesterol levels. Reduced glycosylation of apoC3, apoE and SAA4 are novel findings, the pathophysiological consequences of which remain to be determined.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Simpson, N. A., E. D. Wheeler, & David A. Pearce. (2014). Screening, diagnosis and epidemiology of Batten disease. Expert Opinion on Orphan Drugs, 2(9), 903-910.

Introduction: Batten disease, also called neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, describes a heterogeneous group of lysosomal storage disorders that are the most common inherited progressive neurodegenerative disorders in children. The disease is caused by mutations in the neuronal ceroid lipofusinoses (CLN) genes, which are mostly inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Areas covered: Screening guidelines and diagnostic tools have been developed for Batten disease, and although improvements have been made to these tools they may not be widely available or accessible. While certain studies have investigated the epidemiology of Batten disease in certain geographic locations, the global prevalence of Batten disease is not well established. Expert opinion: An international patient registry may provide a mechanism to gather important data on individuals diagnosed with Batten disease and may serve as a resource that could help investigators better understand the epidemiology of the disease.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Stewart, Brandie M., Jason P. Gallivan, Lee A. Baugh, & J. Randall Flanagan. (2014). Motor, not visual, encoding of potential reach targets. Current Biology, 24(19), R953-R954.

Summary We often encounter situations in which there are multiple potential targets for action, as when, for example, we hear the request “could you pass the …” at the dinner table. It has recently been shown that, in such situations, activity in sensorimotor brain areas represents competing reach targets in parallel prior to deciding between, and then reaching towards, one of these targets [1] . One intriguing possibility, consistent with the influential notion of action ‘affordances’ [2] , is that this activity reflects movement plans towards each potential target [3] . However, an equally plausible explanation is that this activity reflects an encoding of the visual properties of the potential targets (for example, their locations or directions), prior to any target being selected and the associated movement plan being formed. Notably, previous work showing spatial averaging behaviour during reaching, in which initial movements are biased towards the midpoint of the spatial distribution of potential targets [4–6] , remains equally equivocal concerning the motor versus visual encoding of reach targets. Here, using a rapid reaching task that disentangles these two competing accounts, we show that reach averaging behaviour reflects the parallel encoding of multiple competing motor plans. This provides direct evidence for theories proposing that the brain prepares multiple available movements before selecting between them [3] .

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Jang, Yuri, Soonhee Roh, & David A. Chiriboga. (2014). The impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms: A comparison of older Korean Americans in two areas. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 5(3), 200-205.

This study examined how the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms varied between two samples of older Korean Americans. One sample was from west central Florida (low Korean density area; n = 672), and the other from the New York City metropolitan area (high Korean density area; n = 420). The average level of acculturation was lower among older Korean Americans in New York, compared to those living in Florida. In the hierarchical regression models with the New York sample, acculturation was initially significant in predicting depressive symptoms; however, its impact was gradually attenuated and eventually became nonsignificant with the sequential entry of control variables. On the other hand, in the Florida sample, the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms remained significant throughout the models. The results suggest that the level and importance of acculturation may differ by geographic locations and invite further contextual research in immigrant populations.

School of Health Sciences.

Posted by: reganenosusd | September 10, 2014

September 2014

Klonoski, Joshua M., Hurtig, Heather R., Juber, Brian A., Schuneman, Margaret J., Bickett, Thomas E.,Svendsen, Joshua M., Burum, Brandon, Penfound, Thomas A., Sereda, Grigoriy,Dale, James B., Chaussee, Michael S., & Huber, Victor C. (2014). Vaccination against the M protein of Streptococcus pyogenes prevents death after influenza virus:S. pyogenes super-infection. Vaccine, 32(40), 5241-5249.

Influenza virus infections are associated with a significant number of illnesses and deaths on an annual basis. Many of the deaths are due to complications from secondary bacterial invaders, including Streptococcus pneumoniae , Staphylococcus aureus , Haemophilus influenzae , and Streptococcus pyogenes . The β-hemolytic bacteria S. pyogenes colonizes both skin and respiratory surfaces, and frequently presents clinically as strep throat or impetigo. However, when these bacteria gain access to normally sterile sites, they can cause deadly diseases including sepsis, necrotizing fasciitis, and pneumonia. We previously developed a model of influenza virus: S. pyogenes super-infection, which we used to demonstrate that vaccination against influenza virus can limit deaths associated with a secondary bacterial infection, but this protection was not complete. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of a vaccine that targets the M protein of S. pyogenes to determine whether immunity toward the bacteria alone would allow the host to survive an influenza virus: S. pyogenes super-infection. Our data demonstrate that vaccination against the M protein induces IgG antibodies, in particular those of the IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes, and that these antibodies can interact with macrophages. Ultimately, this vaccine-induced immunity eliminated death within our influenza virus: S. pyogenes super-infection model, despite the fact that all M protein-vaccinated mice showed signs of illness following influenza virus inoculation. These findings identify immunity against bacteria as an important component of protection against influenza virus:bacteria super-infection.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus [Everyone whose underlined except Sereda and Burum].

Chemistry Department [Sereda and Burum].

Barr, Jeffrey L., Forster, Gina L., & Unterwald, Ellen M. (2014). Repeated cocaine enhances ventral hippocampal-stimulated dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens and alters ventral hippocampal NMDA receptor subunit expression. Journal of Neurochemistry, 130(4), 583-590.

Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens is important for various reward-related cognitive processes including reinforcement learning. Repeated cocaine enhances hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and phasic elevations of accumbal dopamine evoked by unconditioned stimuli are dependent on impulse flow from the ventral hippocampus. Therefore, sensitized hippocampal activity may be one mechanism by which drugs of abuse enhance limbic dopaminergic activity. In this study, in vivo microdialysis in freely moving adult male Sprague-Dawley rats was used to investigate the effect of repeated cocaine on ventral hippocampus-mediated dopaminergic transmission within the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens. Following seven daily injections of saline or cocaine (20 mg/kg, ip), unilateral infusion of N-methyl- d-aspartate ( NMDA, 0.5 μg) into the ventral hippocampus transiently increased both motoric activity and ipsilateral dopamine efflux in the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens, and this effect was greater in rats that received repeated cocaine compared to controls that received repeated saline. In addition, repeated cocaine altered NMDA receptor subunit expression in the ventral hippocampus, reducing the NR2A : NR2B subunit ratio. Together, these results suggest that repeated exposure to cocaine produces maladaptive ventral hippocampal-nucleus accumbens communication, in part through changes in glutamate receptor composition.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Tian, Zongwen, Wang, Changhua,Hu, Chengjun, Tian, Yihao, Liu, J. B., & Wang, Xuejun. (2014). Autophagic-Lysosomal Inhibition Compromises Ubiquitin-Proteasome System Performance in a p62 Dependent Manner in Cardiomyocytes. Plos One, 9(6).

Intracellular protein degradation is primarily performed by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagic-lysosomal pathway (ALP). The interplay between these two pathways has been rarely examined in intact animals and the mechanism underlying the interplay remains unclear. Hence, we sought to test in vivo and in vitro the impact of inhibition of the ALP on UPS proteolytic performance in cardiomyocytes and to explore the underlying mechanism. Transgenic mice ubiquitously expressing a surrogate UPS substrate (GFPdgn) were treated with bafilomycin-A1 (BFA) to inhibit the ALP. Myocardial and renal GFPdgn protein levels but not mRNA levels were increased at 24 hours but not 3 hours after the first injection of BFA. Myocardial protein abundance of key proteasome subunits and the activities of proteasomal peptidases were not discernibly altered by the treatment. In cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs), the surrogate UPS substrate GFPu and a control red fluorescence protein (RFP) were co-expressed to probe UPS performance. At 12 hours or 24 hours after ALP inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or BFA, GFPu/RFP protein ratios and the protein half-life of GFPu were significantly increased, which is accompanied by increases in p62 proteins. Similar findings were obtained when ALP was inhibited genetically via silencing Atg7 or Rab7. ALP inhibition-induced increases in GFPu and p62 are co-localized in NRVMs. siRNA-mediated p62 knockdown prevented ALP inhibition from inducing GFPu accumulation in NRVMs. We conclude that in a p62-dependent fashion, ALP inhibition impairs cardiac UPS proteolytic performance in cardiomyocytes in vitro and in vivo.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Ghose, Sonia L., Donnelly, Maureen A., Kerby, Jacob,& Whitfield, Steven M. (2014). Acute toxicity tests and meta-analysis identify gaps in tropical ecotoxicology for amphibians. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry, 33(9), 2114-2119.

Amphibian populations are declining worldwide, particularly in tropical regions where amphibian diversity is highest. Pollutants, including agricultural pesticides, have been identified as a potential contributor to decline, yet toxicological studies of tropical amphibians are very rare. The present study assesses toxic effects on amphibians of 10 commonly used commercial pesticides in tropical agriculture using 2 approaches. First, the authors conducted 8-d toxicity assays with formulations of each pesticide using individually reared red-eyed tree frog ( Agalychnis callidryas) tadpoles. Second, they conducted a review of available data for the lethal concentration to kill 50% of test animals from the US Environmental Protection Agency’s ECOTOX database to allow comparison with their findings. Lethal concentration estimates from the assays ranged over several orders of magnitude. The nematicides terbufos and ethoprophos and the fungicide chlorothalonil were very highly toxic, with evident effects within an order of magnitude of environmental concentrations. Acute toxicity assays and meta-analysis show that nematicides and fungicides are generally more toxic than herbicides yet receive far less research attention than less toxic herbicides. Given that the tropics have a high diversity of amphibians, the findings emphasize the need for research into the effects of commonly used pesticides in tropical countries and should help guide future ecotoxicological research in tropical regions.

Biology Department.

Monroe, E. M., & Britten, Hugh B. (2014). Conservation in Hine’s sight: the conservation genetics of the federally endangered Hine’s emerald dragonfly, Somatochlora hineana. Journal of Insect Conservation, 18(3), 353-363.

Hine’s emerald dragonfly (Somatochlora hineana) is distributed in discrete fen and wet meadow habitats over its range from Ontario, Canada, to Missouri, USA. Habitat destruction in the vicinity of Chicago, IL, and other areas lead to its designation as an US federal endangered species in 1995. Our main goal was to delineate the population genetic structure of the species within the northern recovery unit centered on the Door Peninsula in Wisconsin and the southern recovery unit in the Des Plaines River Valley near Chicago, IL. Sites on the Door Peninsula, WI, are in a matrix of agricultural development and second-growth forest and were used as a best available approximation of a pristine system for the dragonfly. We nondestructively sampled 557 adults and larvae from 16 sites in Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin from 2008 through 2011 and used ten microsatellite markers to estimate levels of genetic variability, and genetic structure. Mean allelic richness across all sites and years was 5.03 (+/- 0.64) and expected heterozygosity was 0.52 (+/- 0.032). Northern and southern recovery units as designated in the original recovery plan were genetically distinct. We delineated two genetic populations in the northern unit and three within the southern including two disjunct sites.

Biology Department.

Qiu, Chao, Bao, Ying,Netzer, Nathan L., & Jiang, Chaoyang. (2014). Environment-dependent optical scattering of cuprous oxide microcrystals in liquid dispersions and Langmuir-Blodgett films. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 2(29), 5910-5915.

Optical properties of semiconductor materials are important for their broad applications, especially when the materials are nano-and micrometer crystals. Here we show that cuprous oxide microcrystals have three extinction peaks that are environment sensitive in the visible-near infrared region. The extinction peaks show a linear blue shift with the increase in refractive index of the surrounding medium. The environment-dependent shift of extinction spectra can also be observed for cuprous oxide in cast films and Langmuir-Blodgett films. The sensitivity of environment-dependent optical behavior depends on the energy of the extinction peaks. Both experimental work and theoretical calculation on the environment-dependent spectra of cuprous oxide microcrystals provide valuable knowledge on these functional semiconductor materials for various applications.

Chemistry Department.

St. Louis, Kenneth O., Williams, Mandy J., Ware, Mercedes B., Guendouzi, Jacqueline, & Reichel, Isabella K. (2014). The Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S) and Bipolar Adjective Scale (BAS): Aspects of validity. Journal of Communication Disorders, 50, 36-50.

Purpose In order to estimate instrument validity, attitudes toward stuttering measured by the newly developed Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S) and the Woods and Williams (1976) semantic differential scale (referred to herein as the Bipolar Adjective Scale [BAS]) are compared in college students on one occasion as well as before and after coursework on fluency disorders. Method Undergraduate and graduate students (n = 321) from four universities filled out online versions of the POSHA-S and BAS. Two-thirds were speech-language pathology (SLP) majors; one-third were students in other majors. A subset of the SLP students (n = 35) filled out the two instruments again after 8-13 weeks of coursework on fluency disorders. Results Correlations between all ratings of the POSHA-S and BAS were run for the 321 students. Only 26% of the correlations were statistically significant (R ≥±0.129), and the large majority of these reflected small relationships. POSHA-S ratings were correlated with up to 77% of the items of the BAS while BAS items were correlated with up to 45% of the POSHA-S ratings. After coursework on stuttering, students’ attitudes improved on both instruments, but more on the POSHA-S than the BAS. Conclusions Greater evidence of discriminant validity than convergent validity characterized the POSHA-S and BAS. Both measures showed improved attitudes after fluency disorders coursework, but more so for the POSHA-S, confirming previous reports of construct validity. The POSHA-S taps relevant constructs not included in the BAS, which provide advantages for intracultural, international, and other comparisons of public attitudes toward stuttering. Learning outcomes: The reader will be able to: (1) describe differentiating characteristics of the POSHA-S and BAS as measures of public attitudes toward stuttering, (2) describe the overlap and lack of overlap in the constructs measured by POSHA-S and BAS, (3) describe discriminant versus convergent validity and (4) describe advantages of the POSHA-S and BAS in various types of comparative studies of stuttering attitudes.

Communications Disorders Department.

Ehsan, Md. Amimul, Khizar, M., Raja, M. Y. A., & Mei, Dongming. (2014). Numerical Analysis of a-Si/c-Si1-xGex/c-Si Heterostructures Based on Si and Ge Thin-Film Solar Cells. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 39(7), 5347-5353.

The electrical transport properties of a-Si/cSi(1-x)Ge(x)/c-Si heterostructure thin-film solar cells are described. A lattice mismatch of similar to 4.17 % between Si and Ge is always challenging when considering such material system. Numerical optimization of the layer by layer structure shows that Si absorber and p Si1-xGex strained layers play a critical role to improve the light absorption properties of a-Si/c-Si1-xGex/c-Si heterostructure for their infrared detection applications. For this study, a finite element analysis technique is used to solve the fully coupled two carrier semiconductor transport equations. Obtained results show a substantial enhancement in the conversion efficiency of the newly designed a-Si/c-Si1-xGex/c-Si heterostructure thin-film solar cell. Achieved enhancement in conversion efficiency is attributed due to a noticeable improvement in the open circuit voltage (V-OC) and a corresponding increase in the optical path lengths. Comparative study of the Si-and Ge-based thin-film solar cells shows that the conversion efficiency of Si-based heterostructures is better than germanium mainly due to the low thermal and lattice mismatch of Si to the design hetero-epitaxial structure. As much as a conversion efficiency of similar to 21.19 % was calculated for a-Si/cSi(1-x)Ge(x)/c-Si heterostructure thin-film solar cell.

Physics Department.

Messier, Erick C., Quevillon, Randal P., & Simons, Jeffrey S. (2014). The Effect of Perceived Parental Approval of Drinking on Alcohol Use and Problems. Journal of Alcohol& Drug Education, 58(1), 44-59.

The relationship between perceived parental approval of drinking and alcohol use and problems was explored with undergraduate students in a small midwestern university. Participants completed a survey measuring demographic information, perceived approval of drinking, and alcohol use and problems. Results indicated perceived parental approval of drinking was significantly related to alcohol use and problems. Path analysis demonstrated perceived parental approval of drinking affected weekly drinking quantity, alcohol use frequency, and negative consequences of alcohol indirectly through perceived friends’ approval of drinking. There was also a significant direct effect from parental approval to alcohol use frequency. These findings suggest that parents may influence their children’s drinking by mechanisms such as affecting peer selection.

Psychology Department.

Simons, Jeffrey S., Wills, Thomas A., & Neal, Dan J. (2014). The Many Faces of Affect: A Multilevel Model of Drinking Frequency/Quantity and Alcohol Dependence Symptoms Among Young Adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 123(3), 676-694.

This research tested a multilevel structural equation model of associations between 3 aspects of affective functioning (state affect, trait affect, and affective lability) and 3 alcohol outcomes (likelihood of drinking, quantity on drinking days, and dependence symptoms) in a sample of 263 college students. Participants provided 49 days of experience sampling data over 1.3 years in a longitudinal burst design. Within-person results: At the daily level, positive affect was directly associated with greater likelihood and quantity of alcohol consumption. Daily negative affect was directly associated with higher consumption on drinking days and with higher dependence symptoms. Between-person direct effects: Affect lability was associated with higher trait negative, but not positive, affect. Trait positive affect was inversely associated with the proportion of drinking days, whereas negative affectivity predicted a greater proportion of drinking days. Affect lability exhibited a direct association with dependence symptoms. Between-person indirect effects: Trait positive affect was associated with fewer dependence symptoms via proportion of drinking days. Trait negative affect was associated with greater dependence symptoms via proportion of drinking days. The results distinguish relations of positive and negative affect to likelihood versus amount of drinking and state versus trait drinking outcomes, and highlight the importance of affect variability for predicting alcohol dependence symptoms.

Psychology Department.

Hansen, Keith A. (2014). What Is New in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome?Obstetrics & Gynecology, 124(3), 630-632s.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Harris, William S., Pottala, James V., Thiselton, D. L., Varvel, S. A., Baedke, A. M., Dayspring, T. D., Warnick, G. R., & McConnell, J. P. (2014). Does APOE Genotype Modify the Relations Between Serum Lipid and Erythrocyte Omega-3 Fatty Acid Levels? Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research, 7(5), 526-532.

Earlier reports indicated that patients with the apolipoprotein APOE epsilon 4 allele responded to fish oil supplementation with a rise in serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) compared to epsilon 3 homozygotes. In this study, we used clinical laboratory data to test the hypothesis that the cross-sectional relation between RBC omega-3 fatty acid status (the Omega-3 Index) and LDL-C was modified by APOE genotype. Data from 136,701 patients were available to compare lipid biomarker levels across Omega-3 Index categories associated with heart disease risk in all APOE genotypes. We found no adverse interactions between APOE genotype and the Omega-3 Index for LDL-C, LDL particle number, apoB, HDL-C, or triglycerides. However, we did find evidence that epsilon 2 homozygotes lack an association between omega-3 status and LDL-C, apoB, and LDL particle number. In summary, we found no evidence for a deleterious relationship between lipid biomarkers and the Omega-3 Index by APOE genotype.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Levin, S. W., Baker, E. H., Zein, W. M., Zhang, Z. J., …, Griffin, Kurt J., Bianconi, S., Chandra, G., Khan, O. I., Caruso, R. C., Liu, A. Y., & Mukherjee, A. B. (2014). Oral cysteamine bitartrate and N-acetylcysteine for patients with infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis: a pilot study.Lancet Neurology, 13(8), 777-787.

Background Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is a devastating neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the gene (CLN1 or PPT1) encoding palmitoyl-protein thioesterase-1 (PPT1). We have previously reported that phosphocysteamine and N-acetylcysteine mediate ceroid depletion in culured cells from patients with this disease. We aimed to assess whether combination of oral cysteamine bitartrate and N-acetylcysteine is beneficial for patients with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Methods Children between 6 months and 3 years of age with infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis with any two of the seven most lethal PPT1 mutations were eligible for inclusion in this pilot study. All patients were recruited from physician referrals. Patients received oral cysteamine bitartrate (60 mg/kg per day) and N-acetylcysteine (60 mg/kg per day) and were assessed every 6-12 months until they had an isoelectric electroencephalogram (EEG, attesting to a vegetative state) or were too ill to travel. Patients were also assessed by electroretinography, brain MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and electron microscopic analyses of leukocytes for granular osmiophilic deposits (GRODs). Children also underwent physical and neurodevelopmental assessments on the Denver scale. Outcomes were compared with the reported natural history of infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and that of affected older siblings. Findings Between March 14, 2001, and June 30, 2012, we recruited ten children with infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis; one child was lost to follow-up after the first visit and nine patients (five girls and four boys) were followed up for 8 to 75 months. MRI showed abnormalities similar to those in previous reports; brain volume and N-acetyl aspartic acid (NAA) decreased steadily, but no published quantitative MRI or MRS studies were available for comparison. None of the children acquired new developmental skills, and their retinal function decreased progressively. Average time to isoelectric EEG (52 months, SD 13) was longer than reported previously (36 months). At the first follow-up visit, peripheral leukocytes in all nine patients showed virtually complete depletion of GRODs. Parents and physicians reported less irritability, improved alertness, or both in seven patients. No treatment-related adverse events occurred apart from mild gastrointestinal discomfort in two patients, which disappeared when liquid cysteamine bitartrate was replaced with capsules. Interpretation Our findings suggest that combination therapy with cysteamine bitartrate and N-acetylcysteine is associated with delay of isoelectric EEG, depletion of GRODs, and subjective benefits as reported by parents and physicians. Our systematic and quantitative report of the natural history of patients with infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis provides a guide for future assessment of experimental therapies.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Reindl, Bailey A., Lynch, Douglas W., & Jassim, Ali D. (2014). Aggressive Variant of a Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasm A Case Report and Literature Review. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 138(7), 974-978.

Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm, a lesion of uncertain cellular differentiation, is an unusual tumor of the pancreas with an indolent clinical course that typically arises in young females. We report a case of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm arising in a 17-year-old adolescent girl who presented with progressive abdominal pain. The patient underwent surgical resection of an 18 x 14 x 8-cm pancreatic mass that displayed the usual histologic features of a solid pseudopapillary neoplasm in addition to prominent nuclear atypia, increased proliferative index, and extensive necrosis. These unusual histologic findings are rare and are of particular interest owing to the dramatically decreased survival time displayed in this case. Although precise pathologic criteria suggesting a high risk for aggressive behavior of solid pseudopapillary neoplasms are uncertain, recognition of the unusual pathologic features displayed in this case may be useful in the prediction of potentially more aggressive neoplasms that portend a poorer prognosis.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Newland, Lisa A. (2014). Supportive family contexts: promoting child well-being and resilience. Early Child Development & Care, 184(9/10), 1336-1346.

Prevention and intervention programmes for children at risk aim to improve child well-being and resilience. They do so using both direct and indirect strategies, intervening with children but also considering broader contextual factors (such as family dynamics). Children’s subjective well-being comprises five main components (physical health, mental health, self-regulation, social competence, and cognitive competence) and is predicted by person, relationship, and contextual factors. Children’s resilience, or ability to beat the odds under adverse conditions, is predicted by similar protective factors. Family well-being (FWB) is one of the strongest and most consistent predictors of child well-being and resilience. Aspects of FWB (including adult health and well-being, family self-sufficiency, and family resiliency) have been shown to impact child well-being through positive parent–child interactions. However, risk factors (including poverty and living in geographic locales with limited resources or high levels of neighbourhood violence) can threaten both family and child well-being. Strategies are offered for promoting FWB as a means of supporting resilience and well-being in children at risk for violence, abuse, or neglect.

School of Education.

Biricocchi, Charlanne, Drake, JamieLynn,& Svien, Lana. (2014). Balance Outcomes Following a Tap Dance Program for a Child With Congenital Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 26(3), 360-365.

Purpose: This case report describes the effects of a 6-week progressive tap dance program on static and dynamic balance for a child with type 1 congenital myotonic muscular dystrophy (congenital MMD1). Summary of Key Points: A 6-year-old girl with congenital MMD1 participated in a 1-hour progressive tap dance program. Classes were held once a week for 6 consecutive weeks and included 3 children with adaptive needs and 1 peer with typical development. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2) balance subsection and the Pediatric Balance Scale were completed at the beginning of the first class and the sixth class. The participant’s BOT-2 score improved from 3 to 14. Her Pediatric Balance Scale score did not change. Conclusion: Participation in a progressive tap dance class by a child with congenital MMD1 may facilitate improvements in static and dynamic balance.

Scnool of Health Sciences.

 

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