Posted by: princekhaled | January 8, 2010

January 2010

Ballal, Annand, and A. C. Manna.
Control of Thioredoxin Reductase Gene (Trxb) Transcription by Sara in Staphylococcus Aureus.
Journal of Bacteriology. 192,(2010): 336-45.

Thioredoxin reductase (encoded by trxB) protects Staphylococcus aureus against oxygen or disulfide stress and is indispensable for growth. Among the different sarA family mutants analyzed, transcription of trxB was markedly elevated in the sarA mutant under conditions of aerobic as well as microaerophilic growth, indicating that SarA acts as a negative regulator of trxB expression. Gel shift analysis showed that purified SarA protein binds directly to the trxB promoter region DNA in vitro. DNA binding of SarA was essential for repression of trxB transcription in vivo in S. aureus. Northern blot analysis and DNA binding studies of the purified wild-type SarA and the mutant SarAC9G with oxidizing agents indicated that oxidation of Cys-9 reduced the binding of SarA to the trxB promoter DNA. Oxidizing agents, in particular diamide, could further enhance transcription of the trxB gene in the sarA mutant, suggesting the presence of a SarA-independent mode of trxB induction. Analysis of two oxidative stress-responsive sarA regulatory target genes, trxB and sodM, with various mutant sarA constructs showed a differential ability of the SarA to regulate expression of the two above-mentioned genes in vivo. The overall data demonstrate the important role played by SarA in modulating expression of genes involved in oxidative stress resistance in S. aureus.

Basic Biomedical Sciences.  Vermillon
Chen, Yue-Feng, Rebecca A. Redetzke, Suleman Said, April J. Beyer, and A. Martin Gerdes.
Changes in Left Ventricular Function and Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction in Hypothyroid Rats.
American Journal of Physiology: Heart & Circulatory Physiology.(2010): 67H259-H6.

It has been shown that hypothyroidism may lead to delayed wound healing after experimental myocardial infarction (MI) in rats and increased infarct size in dogs. However, the long-term effect of hypothyroidism on left ventricular (LV) remodeling after MI has not been determined. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats with and without surgical thyroidectomy (TX) were used in the study. Four weeks after TX, MI or sham MI was performed on TX and non-TX rats. Rats from all groups were examined 4 wk later. Four weeks after TX, hypothyroid-induced LV dysfunction was confirmed by echocardiography. In terminal experiments 4 wk after MI, TX sham-MI rats showed smaller hearts and impaired LV function compared with non-TX sham-MI controls. TX + MI rats showed smaller hearts with bigger infarct areas, higher LV end-diastolic pressures, and greater impairment of relaxation (-dP/dt) compared with non-TX MI rats. Relative changes after MI between TX and non-TX rats for most other hemodynamic and echocardiographic indexes were similar. These results suggest that preexisting hypothyroidism exaggerates post-MI remodeling and worsens LV function, particularly diastolic function.

Medical School.  Sioux Falls
Freeman, Harry, and Tasha M. Almond.
Mapping Young Adults’ Use of Fathers for Attachment Support: Implications on Romantic Relationship Experiences.
Early Child Development & Care. (2010): 180227-48.

A mixed methods approach was used to examine how young adults (n = 1012) perceive fathers as targets for attachment support. Participants ranked the level of attachment support received and sought from fathers, mothers, best friends, and romantic partners, and provided relationship-specific information on additional indices of social support including commitment, intimacy, companionship, advice, and romantic relationship experiences. Findings indicated that approximately 10% of the young adults considered fathers a principal source of attachment support. Compared to the majority of young adults who did not rank fathers as a primary attachment figure, those who did were more likely to be male, younger than 20, not romantically involved, and less sexually active. A series of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that higher levels of sexual activity and closeness to romantic partners predicted lower use of fathers as attachment figures, albeit the links were specific to gender and romantic status groups. Qualitative interviews to assess father-daughter communication patterns were conducted in a follow-up study with 10 participants who previously indicated fathers as an unusually high or low source of attachment support. High paternal support was indicated by the capacity for resolving disagreements through open dialog and mutual respect, although this outcome was rarely sought or achieved within father-daughter dyads.

School of Education
Freeman, Harry, and Lisa A. Newland.
New Directions in Father Attachment.
Early Child Development & Care, (2010): 1801-8.

The article discusses various papers published within the issue including one about fathering and attachment, reports on the conceptualization and measurement of children’s attachment to fathers and an article about co-parenting and infant attachment.

School of Education, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States
He, H. S., Andrew G. Sykes, P. Stanley May, and G. S. He.
Structure and Photophysics of near-Infrared Emissive Ytterbium(Iii) Monoporphyrinate Acetate Complexes Having Neutral Bidentate Ligands.
Dalton Transactions,(2009): 7454-61.

Substitution reactions between [Yb(TPP)(OOCCH3)(CH3OH)(2)] (1) and neutral bidentate ligands NN led to the formation of monoporphyrinate ytterbium(III) complexes [ Yb( TPP)( OOCCH3)( NN)] (TPP = 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrinate anion; NN = 4-methyl-1,10-phenanthroline (2), 1,10-phenanthroline ( 3), 4,7-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline ( 4), 5,6-epoxy-5,6-dihydroxy-1,10-phenanthroline ( 5) and 2,2′-dipyridylamine (6)). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that ytterbium( III) ions in 1 and 6 were seven-coordinate with OOCCH3- in monodentate coordination, whereas those in 2, 3, 4 and 5 were eight-coordinate with OOCCH3- in bidentate coordination. The visible emission ( 650 and 720 nm) from the porphyrin and near-infrared (NIR) emission ( 980 and 1003 nm) from ytterbium( III) ion were observed for all complexes. The eight-coordinate complexes exhibited stronger NIR emission and longer lifetimes in toluene solution than the seven-coordinate complexes. The NIR emission of complexes with decreased lifetimes was also observed when they were blended into organic polymer PMMA.

Chemistry Department, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States
Little, Marlene.
Re-Cognition of Women’s Power: Newland’s Misreading of May and Ellen in the Age of Inno Cence.” South Dakota Review.
South Dakota Review, 46 (2008): 64-72.

<p>English Department, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States</p>
Lushbough, Carol, M. K. Bergman, C. J. Lawrence, D. Jennewein, and V. Brendel.
Bioextract Server-an Integrated Workflow-Enabling System to Access and Analyze Heterogeneous, Distributed Biomolecular Data.
Ieee-Acm Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, 7 (2010): 12-24.

Many in silico investigations in bioinformatics require access to multiple, distributed data sources and analytic tools. The requisite data sources may include large public data repositories, community databases, and project databases for use in domain-specific research. Different data sources frequently utilize distinct query languages and return results in unique formats, and therefore researchers must either rely upon a small number of primary data sources or become familiar with multiple query languages and formats. Similarly, the associated analytic tools often require specific input formats and produce unique outputs which make it difficult to utilize the output from one tool as input to another. The BioExtract Server (<;) is a Web-based data integration application designed to consolidate, analyze, and serve data from heterogeneous biomolecular databases in the form of a mash-up. The basic operations of the BioExtract Server allow researchers, via their Web browsers, to specify data sources, flexibly query data sources, apply analytic tools, download result sets, and store query results for later reuse. As a researcher works with the system, their “steps” are saved in the background. At any time, these steps can be preserved long-term as a workflow simply by providing a workflow name and description.

Computer Science Department, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States
Naifeh, James A., and J. D. Elhai.
An Experimental Comparison of Index Traumatic Event Queries in Ptsd Assessment.
Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24 (2010): 155-60.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often assessed based on an individual’s self-defined “worst” traumatic event. This method may not be optimal for assessing current PTSD, as it is Vague and often does not emphasize events associated with current distress. The purpose of this study was to examine whether providing a more specific index traumatic event query increases the selection traumas associated with higher PTSD symptom ratings. Non-clinical participants endorsing a trauma history (n = 342) received one of the three randomly assigned index event queries and rated their current PTSD symptoms. The queries varied in their emphasis on current distress and description of PTSD criteria. Findings revealed no significant differences between groups, providing preliminary support for the “worst event” method. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Psychology Department, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States
Newland, Lisa A., and Diana D. Coyl.
Fathers’ Role as Attachment Figures: An Interview with Sir Richard Bowlby.
Early Child Development & Care, (2010): 18025-32.

Sir Richard Bowlby, son of John Bowlby, has carried on his father’s work by lecturing and writing on the topic of attachment theory. He has initiated and maintained international connections with researchers, practitioners and agencies in the field of child development, and has produced training videos to more widely disseminate information about attachment theory to professionals working with children and families. In this interview, conducted in London in February of 2009, Richard responded to questions regarding the father’s role as an attachment figure, highlighting new theoretical directions and current research. He also addressed cultural influences on fathering and attachment, and offered suggestions for researchers and practitioners.

School of Education, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States
Newland, Lisa A., Diana D. Coyl, and Chen Hui-Hua.
Fathering and Attachment in the USA and Taiwan: Contextual Predictors and Child Outcomes.
Early Child Development & Care, (2010): 180173-91.

This study examined connections between fathering context (stress, social support, and fathers’ internal working models), fathering dimensions, children’s attachment to fathers, and children’s social-emotional and academic outcomes within two culturally diverse samples in the USA and Taiwan. Participants included 274 fathers and their eight- to 11-year-old children. Fathers completed questionnaires regarding their close relationships, stress, social support, and children’s academic achievement. Children completed measures of fathering dimensions, attachment, and standardised social-emotional assessments. Fathering context was related to fathering dimensions and children’s attachment to fathers, which were related to children’s social-emotional and academic outcomes. MANCOVA was used to test for differences in children’s outcomes by nationality, while controlling for context, fathering dimensions, and child attachment to fathers. Fathering dimensions, children’s attachment, and nationality were all uniquely predictive, but fathering context was not. These findings suggest that cross-cultural differences in context, fathering practices, and children’s attachment security partially explain children’s outcomes.

School of Education, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States
Sandvik, David, and James M. Keegan.
H1n1 Influenza in Elderly Nursing Home Residents.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, (2010): 1111-12.

We offer this brief report to inform other nursing home medical directors and attending physicians of a possible change in the profile of persons susceptible to H1N1 influenza. If a significant number of cases appear in older persons, the recommendations for H1N1 vaccination may need to be changed to include the elderly. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]

Medical School.  Rapid City
Sjolie, Dennis.
Water Ghosts.
South Dakota Review, 46 (2008): 50-59.

English Department, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States
Swanson, David L., and J. S. Palmer.
Spring Migration Phenology of Birds in the Northern Prairie Region Is Correlated with Local Climate Change.
Journal of Field Ornithology, 80 (2009): 351-63.

In apparent response to recent periods of global warming, some migratory birds now arrive earlier at stopover sites and breeding grounds. However, the effects of this warming on arrival times vary among locations and species. Migration timing is generally correlated with temperature, with earlier arrival during warm years than during cold years, so local variation in climate change might produce different effects on migration phenology in different geographic regions. We examined trends in first spring arrival dates (FADs) for 44 species of common migrant birds in South Dakota (1971-2006) and Minnesota (1964-2005) using observations compiled by South Dakota and Minnesota Ornithologists’ Unions. We found significant trends in FAD over time for 20 species (18 arriving earlier and two later) in South Dakota and 16 species (all earlier) in Minnesota. Of these species, 10 showed similar significant trends for both states. All 10 of these species exhibited significantly earlier arrival, and all were early spring migrants, with median FADs before 10 April in both states. Eighteen of the 44 species showed significant negative correlations of FADs with either winter (December-February) or spring (arrival month plus previous month) temperatures in one or both states. Interestingly, spring temperatures in both South Dakota and Minnesota did not warm significantly from 1971-2006, but winter temperatures in both states warmed significantly over the same time period. This suggests that the warmer winters disproportionately affected early spring migrants, especially those associated with aquatic habitats (seven of the 10 species showing significantly earlier spring arrival in both states). The stronger response to climate change by early spring migrants in our study is consistent with the results of several other studies, and suggests that migrants, especially early migrants, are capable of responding to local temperature conditions experienced on wintering grounds or along the migration route.

Biology Department, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States
Wolfe, Susan J.
Women’s Speech in Hemingway’s Novels.
South Dakota Review, 46 (2008): 73-83.

Languages, Linguistics & Philosophy Department, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States
Xiaofei, Gao, Wan Fengyi, Kristina Mateo, Eduardo Callegari, Michael S. Chaussee, B. Brett Finlay, Michael J. Lenardo, and Philip R. Hardwidge.
Bacterial Effector Binding to Ribosomal Protein S3 Subverts Nf-?b Function.
PLoS Pathogens, (2009): 61-18.

Enteric bacterial pathogens cause food borne disease, which constitutes an enormous economic and health burden. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) causes a severe bloody diarrhea following transmission to humans through various means, including contaminated beef and vegetable products, water, or through contact with animals. EHEC also causes a potentially fatal kidney disease (hemolytic uremic syndrome) for which there is no effective treatment or prophylaxis. EHEC and other enteric pathogens (e.g., enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia) utilize a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject virulence proteins (effectors) into host cells. While it is known that T3SS effectors subvert host cell function to promote diarrheal disease and bacterial transmission, in many cases, the mechanisms by which these effectors bind to host proteins and disrupt the normal function of intestinal epithelial cells have not been completely characterized. In this study, we present evidence that the E. coli O157:H7 nleH1 and nleH2 genes encode T3SS effectors that bind to the human ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3), a subunit of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) transcriptional complexes. NleH1 and NleH2 co-localized with RPS3 in the cytoplasm, but not in cell nuclei. The Nterminal region of both NleH1 and NleH2 was required for binding to the N-terminus of RPS3. NleH1 and NleH2 are autophosphorylated Ser/Thr protein kinases, but their binding to RPS3 is independent of kinase activity. NleH1, but not NleH2, reduced the nuclear abundance of RPS3 without altering the p50 or p65 NF-kB subunits or affecting the phosphorylation state or abundance of the inhibitory NF-?B chaperone l?B? NleH1 repressed the transcription of a RPS3/ NF-?B-dependent reporter plasmid, but did not inhibit the transcription of RPS3-independent reporters. In contrast, NleH2 stimulated RPS3-dependent transcription, as well as an AP-1-dependent reporter. We identified a region of NleH1 (N40-K45) that is at least partially responsible for the inhibitory activity of NleH1 toward RPS3. Deleting nleH1 from E. coli O157:H7 produced a hypervirulent phenotype in a gnotobiotic piglet model of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli infection. We suggest that NleH may disrupt host innate immune responses by binding to a cofactor of host transcriptional complexes.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States
Farzaneh-Far, R., J. Lin, E. S. Epel, William S. Harris, E. H. Blackburn, and M. A. Whooley.
Association of Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acid Levels with Telomeric Aging in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease.
JAMA-Journal of the American Medical Association, 303 (2010): 250-257.

Context Increased dietary intake of marine omega-3 fatty acids is associated with prolonged survival in patients with coronary heart disease. However, the mechanisms underlying this protective effect are poorly understood. Objective To investigate the association of omega-3 fatty acid blood levels with temporal changes in telomere length, an emerging marker of biological age. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective cohort study of 608 ambulatory outpatients in California with stable coronary artery disease recruited from the Heart and Soul Study between September 2000 and December 2002 and followed up to January 2009 (median, 6.0 years; range, 5.0-8.1 years). Main Outcome Measures We measured leukocyte telomere length at baseline and again after 5 years of follow-up. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to investigate the association of baseline levels of omega-3 fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] and eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]) with subsequent change in telomere length. Results Individuals in the lowest quartile of DHA + EPA experienced the fastest rate of telomere shortening (0.13 telomere-to-single-copy gene ratio [T/S] units over 5 years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.17), whereas those in the highest quartile experienced the slowest rate of telomere shortening (0.05 T/S units over 5 years; 95% CI, 0.02-0.08; P < .001 for linear trend across quartiles). Levels of DHA + EPA were associated with less telomere shortening before (unadjusted beta coefficient x 10(-3) = 0.06; 95% CI, 0.02-0.10) and after (adjusted beta coefficient x 10(-3) = 0.05; 95% CI, 0.01-0.08) sequential adjustment for established risk factors and potential confounders. Each 1-SD increase in DHA + EPA levels was associated with a 32% reduction in the odds of telomere shortening (adjusted odds ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47-0.98). Conclusion Among this cohort of patients with coronary artery disease, there was an inverse relationship between baseline blood levels of marine omega-3 fatty acids and the rate of telomere shortening over 5 years.

Medical School.  Sioux Falls


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