Posted by: princekhaled | February 8, 2010

February 2010

Harbaugh, D. T., Molly Nepokroeff, R. K. Rabeler, J. McNeill, E. A. Zimmer, and W. L. Wagner.
A New Lineage-Based Tribal Classification of the Family Caryophyllaceae.
International Journal of Plant Sciences, 171 (2010): 185-98.

Understanding the relationships within the Caryophyllaceae has been difficult, in part because of arbitrarily and poorly defined genera and difficulty in determining phylogenetically useful morphological characters. This study represents the most complete phylogenetic analysis of the family to date, with particular focus on the genera and relationships within the large subfamily Alsinoideae, using molecular characters to examine the monophyly of taxa and the validity of the current taxonomy as well as to resolve the obscure origins of divergent taxa such as the endemic Hawaiian Schiedea. Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of three chloroplast gene regions (matK, trnL-F, and rps16) from 81 newly sampled and 65 GenBank specimens reveal that several tribes and genera, especially within the Alsinoideae, are not monophyletic. Large genera such as Arenaria and Minuartia are polyphyletic, as are several smaller genera. The phylogenies reveal that the closest relatives to Schiedea are a pair of widespread, largely Arctic taxa, Honckenya peploides and Wilhelmsia physodes. More importantly, the three traditional subfamilies (Alsinoideae, Caryophylloideae, and Paronychioideae) are not reflective of natural groups; we propose abandoning this classification in favor of a new system that recognizes major lineages of the molecular phylogeny at the tribal level. A new tribe, Eremogoneae Rabeler & W.L. Wagner, is described here.

Biology Department
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Klinkova, Olga, Keith A. Hansen, Emily Winterton, Connie J. Mark, and Kathleen. M. Eyster.
Two-Way Communication between Endometrial Stromal Cells and Monocytes.
Reproductive Sciences, 17 (2010): 125-35.

Immune system cells and cells of the endometrium have long been proposed to interact in both physiological and pathological processes. The current study was undertaken to examine communication between cultured monocytes and endometrial stromal cells and also to assess responses of endometrial stromal cells for treatment with estradiol (E) in the absence and presence of medroxyprogesterone acetate (P). A telomerase-immortalized human endometrial stromal cell (T-HESC) line and the U937 monocyte cell line were used. Telomerase-immortalized human endometrial stromal cells were treated with E +/- P +/- monocyte conditioned medium; U937 were treated +/- T-HESC conditioned medium. Gene expression. in response to treatment was examined by DIVA microarray. Bidirectional communication, as demonstrated by changes in gene expression, clearly occurred between U937 monocytes and T-HESC.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States
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Olson, J. R., David L. Swanson, S. J. Cooper, M. J. Braun, and J. B. Williams.
Metabolic Performance and Latitudinal Distribution of Black-Capped and Carolina Chickadees.
Integrative and Comparative Biology, 49 (2009): E284-E84.

Biology Department, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States
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Pruitt, J. N., and Jerry F. Husak.
Context-Dependent Running Speed in Funnel-Web Spiders from Divergent Populations.
Functional Ecology, 24 (2010): 165-71.

P>1. Locomotor performance can influence individual fitness through several ecological contexts, such as prey capture and predator escape. One means of determining which contexts act as significant selective forces on running speed is to quantify individual speed in each context. The underlying hypothesis is that animals will exhibit their highest speeds in contexts most crucial to fitness. 2. We measured running speeds in three ecological contexts (prey capture, fleeing predators and territory defence) in lab-reared offspring of the funnel-web spider Agelenopsis aperta collected from two arid grassland and two riparian populations. Arid populations experience little predation pressure, are prey limited, and are highly territorial; riparian populations experience high predation, have high prey availability, and are less territorial in nature. 3. The offspring of arid individuals exhibited their highest burst speeds in territory defence, and ran more slowly in response to predator threats. The offspring of riparian populations, however, ran fastest when responding to predatory threats and displayed lower velocities in prey capture and territory defence. Thus, our findings support the hypothesis that A. aperta are selected to exhibit their highest speeds in contexts most important to their fitness. 4. Contextual use of running speed can differ among conspecific populations experiencing differing selective forces on locomotion.

Biology Department, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States
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Song, J., Kathleen M. Eyster, Curtis K. Kost, Barton Kjellsen, and Douglas S. Martin.
Involvement of Protein Kinase C-Cpi-17 in Androgen Modulation of Angiotensin Ii-Renal Vasoconstriction.
Cardiovascular Research, 85 (2010): 614-21.

Aims Previous studies suggested that androgens augmented renal vascular responses to angiotensin II (Ang II). The protein kinase C (PKC)-CPI-17 pathway is involved in vascular constriction. We tested the hypothesis that this pathway may contribute to androgenic amplification of Ang II-renal vasoconstriction in the New Zealand genetically hypertensive (NZGH) rat. Methods and results NZGH underwent sham operation, castration, or castration with testosterone replacement at 5 weeks of age. When the rats were 16-17 weeks of age, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal vascular resistance (RVR) responses to intravenous Ang II infusion (20, 40, and 80 ng/kg/min) were recorded before and after treatment with a PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine. mRNA expression of PKC isoforms and CPI-17 protein expression were analysed in renal cortex. MAP and RVR responses to Ang II were enhanced in androgen-replete NZGH. The Ang II-induced increase in RVR was significantly lower in castrated NZGH (ranged from 100 +/- 8% to 161 +/- 9% of baseline) than in sham-operated NZGH (ranged between 123 +/- 3% and 237 +/- 19% of baseline). Testosterone treatment restored RVR responses to Ang II in castrated rats. Chelerythrine treatment markedly reduced the MAP and RVR responses to Ang II in each group and attenuated the differential MAP and RVR responses to Ang II amongst the three groups. PKC delta and PKC epsilon mRNA levels were significantly reduced by castration and increased by testosterone treatment. In contrast, no significant differences in protein expression were detected for these PKC isoforms. Castration decreased while testosterone treatment increased CPI-17 and phospho-CPI-17 expression. Conclusion Collectively, these results suggest that androgens modulate renal vascular responses to Ang II in part via an effect on the PKC-CPI-17 signalling pathway.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States
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Ye, M. Q., C. Coldren, X. Q. Liang, M. B. Perryman, L. A. Garrett-Sinha, and P. Grossfeld.
Deletion of Ets-1, a Gene in the Jacobsen Syndrome Critical Region, Causes Ventricular Septal Defects and Abnormal Ventricular Morphology in Mice.
Human Molecular Genetics, (2010): 648-56.

Congenital heart defects comprise the most common form of major birth defects, affecting 0.7% of all newborn infants. Jacobsen syndrome (11q-) is a rare chromosomal disorder caused by deletions in distal 11q. We have previously determined that a wide spectrum of the most common congenital heart defects occur in 11q-, including an unprecedented high frequency of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). We identified an similar to 7 Mb ‘cardiac critical region’ in distal 11q that contains a putative causative gene(s) for congenital heart disease. In this study, we utilized chromosomal microarray mapping to characterize three patients with 11q- and congenital heart defects that carry interstitial deletions overlapping the 7 Mb cardiac critical region. We propose that this 1.2 Mb region of overlap harbors a gene(s) that causes at least a subset of the congenital heart defects that occur in 11q-. We demonstrate that one gene in this region, ETS-1 (a member of the ETS family of transcription factors), is expressed in the endocardium and neural crest during early mouse heart development. Gene-targeted deletion of ETS-1 in mice in a C57/B6 background causes, with high penetrance, large membranous ventricular septal defects and a bifid cardiac apex, and less frequently a non-apex-forming left ventricle (one of the hallmarks of HLHS). Our results implicate an important role for the ETS-1 transcription factor in mammalian heart development and should provide important insights into some of the most common forms of congenital heart disease.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States
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Harris, William S., and Rachel M. Thomas.
Biological Variability of Blood Omega-3 Biomarkers.
Clinical Biochemistry, 43 (2010): 338-340.

Objectives: We conducted a pilot study to estimate the biological variability and effects of a prior meal on the omega-3 fatty acid (FA) content of 3 blood FA pools. Design and methods: We measured FA levels in red blood cells (RBCs), plasma and plasma phospholipids (PL) obtained from 20 healthy volunteers tested weekly over 6 weeks. Results: The within-subject coefficients of variation were 4.1% +/- 1.9%, 15.9% +/- 6.4%, and 14.5% +/- 8.4%, respectively (RBC vs. others, p<0.001). RBC omega-3 FA content had the lowest biological variability and was not altered in the fed state. Conclusions: From the perspective of variability and of the sample types tested, RBCs may be the preferred sample type for assessing omega-3 FA status. (C) 2009 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Medical School.  Sioux Falls
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Lal, Yasir, and Aristides P. Assimacopoulos.
Two Cases ofDaptomycin-Induced Eosinophilic Pneumonia and ChronicPneumonitis.
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 50 (2010): 737-740.

We present 2 elderly patients who developed lung infiltrates associated with eosinophiliaduring intravenous daptomycin treatment. Both patients improved quickly after daptomycinwas stopped and steroid treatment was initiated. However, complete recovery did not occur, and both patients became chronically steroid dependent.

Medical School.  Sioux Falls
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