Posted by: reganenosusd | February 22, 2016

February 2016

Puumala, Susan E., & H. Eugene Hoyme. (2015). Epigenetics in Pediatrics. Pediatrics in Review, 36(1), 14-21.

Epigenetic mechanisms are external modifications of DNA that cause changes in gene function and are involved in many diseases. Specific examples of pediatric diseases with a known or suspected epigenetic component include Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, childhood leukemia, allergies, asthma, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, childhood obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Currently, epigenetically active treatments are being used to treat childhood leukemia. Potential epigenetically active treatments and preventive regimens are under study for other diseases. Pediatricians need to be aware of the epigenetic basis of disease to help inform clinical decision making in the future.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Munes, E. C., Mark D. Dixon, David L. Swanson, C. L. Merkord, & A. R. Benson. (2015). Large, infrequent disturbance on a regulated river: response of floodplain forest birds to the 2011 Missouri River flood. Ecosphere, 6(11), 19.

Floodplain forests are dynamic habitats that support a high diversity and abundance of birds. Periodic flood disturbance is important in the establishment and maintenance of the heterogeneous mosaic of vegetation communities across the riverine landscape. Human suppression of disturbance regimes has been implicated in the decline of bird species in these systems. Because few large rivers are not subject to flood control by dams and levees, opportunities to study avian responses to flood disturbance are limited. A large magnitude, long-duration flood event on the Missouri River, USA, during the summer of 2011 provided an opportunity to quantify post-flood changes in forest bird densities and species richness relative to pre-flood conditions on a riverine floodplain impacted by decades of flow regulation. We surveyed 75 forest sites on two segments of remnant floodplain forest along the Missouri National Recreational River (MNRR) in southeastern South Dakota and northeastern Nebraska and examined changes in density for 35 breeding landbird species from pre-flood (2009-2010) to post-flood (2012-2014) periods. We used a repeated measures ANOVA design to test the effects of year on average densities of birds and nesting guilds and confidence intervals to determine changes in densities of individual species and species richness. 19 of 35 focal species declined significantly one year after the flood (2012), but abundances of ten species recovered to pre-flood densities or higher within two years. In 2012, density declines of six species and density increases of two species were significantly correlated with a decrease in woody vegetation density and percent shrub cover. Average bird densities and the density of shrub nesters rebounded in 2013 to pre-flood levels and continued to increase through 2014. There were no significant changes in species richness at the level of forest habitat types between sampling years. Our results demonstrate short-term resilience of floodplain bird species to a major disturbance despite declines in early successional habitat and minimal recovery of woody vegetation.

Biology Department.

Simons, Jeffrey S., S. A. Maisto, Tyler B. Wray, & Noah N. Emery. (2016). Acute Effects of Intoxication and Arousal on Approach/Avoidance Biases Toward Sexual Risk Stimuli in Heterosexual Men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(1), 43-51.

This study tested the effects of alcohol intoxication and physiological arousal on cognitive biases toward erotic stimuli and condoms. Ninety-seven heterosexual men were randomized to 1 of 6 independent conditions in a 2 (high arousal or control) x 3 (alcohol target BAC = 0.08, placebo, or juice control) design and then completed a variant of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT). The AAT assessed reaction times toward approaching and avoiding erotic stimuli and condoms with a joystick. Consistent with hypotheses, the alcohol condition exhibited an approach bias toward erotic stimuli, whereas the control and placebo groups exhibited an approach bias toward condom stimuli. Similarly, the participants in the high arousal condition exhibited an approach bias toward erotic stimuli and the low arousal control condition exhibited an approach bias toward condoms. The results suggest that acute changes in intoxication and physiological arousal independently foster biased responding toward sexual stimuli and these biases are associated with sexual risk intentions.

Psychology Department.

Hahn, Austin M., Raluca M. Simons, & Jeffrey S. Simons. (2016). Childhood Maltreatment and Sexual Risk Taking: The Mediating Role of Alexithymia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(1), 53-62.

Childhood maltreatment is a significant predictor of sexual risk taking. The nature of this relationship is not fully understood; however, emotion dysregulation may play an important role. We tested the role of difficulty identifying and describing feelings (i.e., alexithymia) on the relationship between childhood maltreatment and sexual risk taking. Specifically, we hypothesized two mechanisms, one in which alexithymia is related to sexual risk taking via negative urgency and alcohol use and a second one in which alexithymia is related to sexual risk taking via neediness. The participants for this study were 425 sexually active college undergraduates (303 females, 122 males) between the ages of 18 and 25 years. The results of a structural equation model indicated that alexithymia accounted for a significant part of the relationship between child maltreatment and sexual risk behavior. Moreover, the relationship between alexithymia and sexual risk taking was fully accounted for by two separate paths. First, negative urgency and subsequent alcohol use partially mediated the relationship, and the second effect was accounted for by needy interpersonal style. Adverse experiences during childhood can impair emotional functioning and contribute to behavioral and interpersonal dysregulation.

Psychology Department.

Heap, S. P. H., A. Ramalingam, S. Ramalingam, & Brock V. Stoddard. (2015). ‘Doggedness’ or ‘disengagement’? An experiment on the effect of inequality in endowment on behaviour in team competitions. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 120, 80-93.

Teams often suffer from a free rider problem with respect to individual contributions. That putting teams into competition with each other can mitigate this problem is an important recent insight. However, we know little about how inequality in endowment between teams might influence this beneficial effect from competition. We address this question with an experiment where teams contribute to a public good that then determines their chances of winning a Tullock contest with another team. The boost to efforts from competition disappears when inequality is high. This is mainly because the ‘rich’ disengage’: they make no more contribution to a public good than they would when there is no competition. There is evidence that the ‘poor’ respond to moderate inequality ‘doggedly’, by expending more effort compared to competition with equality, but this ‘doggedness’ disappears too when inequality is high. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Beacom School of Business.

Horowitz, R., Stephen J. Cico, & J. Bailitz. (2016). POINT-OF-CARE ULTRASOUND: A NEW TOOL FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF GASTRIC FOREIGN BODIES IN CHILDREN? Journal of Emergency Medicine, 50(1), 99-103.

Background: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has been used to identify ingested gastric foreign bodies. Our aim was to describe the sonographic findings of radiopaque and radiolucent gastric foreign bodies (FBs) in children. Case Report: Three children ingested different FBs. Two were confirmed with standard radiographs, one was not identified radiographically but was passed in the stool. All three objects were initially found in the stomach using POCUS. Why Should An Emergency Physician Be Aware of This?: With increased training and comfort, emergency physicians may begin to use POCUS for identification and monitoring of ingested FBs in the pediatric population. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Hivrale, V., Y. Zheng, C. O. R. Puli, …., Abdelali Barakat, & R. Sunkar. (2016). Characterization of drought- and heat-responsive microRNAs in switchgrass. Plant Science, 242, 214-223.

Recent investigations revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in plant acclimation to stress conditions. Switchgrass, one of the important biofuel crop species can withstand hot and dry climates but the molecular basis of stress tolerance is relatively unknown. To identify miRNAs that are important for tolerating drought or heat, small RNAs were profiled in leaves of adult plants exposed to drought or heat. Sequence analysis enabled the identification of 29 conserved and 62 novel miRNA families. Notably, the abundances of several conserved and novel miRNAs were dramatically altered following drought or heat. Using at least one fold (log2) change as cut off, we observed that 13 conserved miRNA families were differentially regulated by both stresses, and, five and four families were specifically regulated by drought and heat, respectively. Similarly, using a more stringent cut off of two fold (log2) regulation, we found 5 and 16 novel miRNA families were upregulated but 6 and 7 families were downregulated under drought and heat, respectively. The stress-altered expression of a subset of miRNAs and their targets was confirmed using quantitative PCR. Overall, the switchgrass plants exposed to drought or heat revealed similarities as well as differences with respect to miRNA regulation, which could be important for enduring different stress conditions. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Biology Department.

O’Brien, L., Kathleen M. Eyster, & Keith A. Hansen. (2015). Retained Foreign Body: “Needle in a Haystack”. Journal of Patient Safety, 11(4), 228-229.

Retained foreign bodies remain an area of potential patient harm. This case describes a retained needle from distant surgery discovered at the time of the needle count after myomectomy.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Anderson, Jordan A., Sujan Lamichhane, T. Remund, P. Kelly, & Gopinath Mani. (2016). Preparation, characterization, in vitro drug release, and cellular interactions of tailored paclitaxel releasing polyethylene oxide films for drug-coated balloons. Acta Biomaterialia, 29, 333-351.

Drug-coated balloons (DCBs) are used to treat various cardiovascular diseases. Currently available DCBs carry drug on the balloon surface either solely or using different carriers. Several studies have shown that a significant amount of drug is lost in the blood stream during balloon tracking to deliver only a sub-therapeutic level of drug at the treatment site. This research is focused on developing paclitaxel (PAT) loaded polyethylene oxide (PEO) films (PAT-PEO) as a controlled drug delivery carrier for DCBs. An array of PAT-PEO films were developed in this study to provide tailored release of >90% of drug only at specific time intervals, which is the time frame required for carrying out balloon-based therapy. The characterizations of PAT-PEO films using SEM, FTIR, and DSC showed that the films developed were homogenous and the PAT was molecularly dispersed in the PEO matrix. Mechanical tests showed that most PAT-PEO films developed were flexible and ductile, with yield and tensile strengths not affected after PAT incorporation. The viability, proliferation, morphology, and phenotype of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) interacted with control-PEO and PAT-PEO films were investigated. All control-PEO and PAT-PEO films showed a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of SMCs, with the degree of inhibition strongly dependent on the w/v% of the polymer used. The PAT-PEO coating was produced on the balloons. The integrity of PAT-PEO coating was well maintained without any mechanical defects occurring during balloon inflation or deflation. The drug release studies showed that only 15% of the total PAT loaded was released from the balloons within the initial 1 min (typical balloon tracking time), whereas 80% of the PAT was released between 1 min and 4 min (typical balloon treatment time). Thus, this study demonstrated the use of PEO as an alternate drug delivery system for the balloons. Statement of Significance Atherosclerosis is primarily responsible for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in millions of patients every year. Drug-coated balloons (DCBs) are commonly used to treat various CVDs. However, in several currently used DCBs, a significant amount of drug is lost in the blood stream during balloon tracking to deliver only a sub-therapeutic level of drug at the treatment site. In this study, paclitaxel containing polyethylene oxide (PEO) films were developed to provide unique advantages including drug release profiles specifically tailored for balloon-based therapy, homogeneous films with molecularly dispersed drug, flexible and ductile films, and exhibits significant inhibitory effect on smooth muscle cell growth. Thus, this study demonstrated the use of PEO as an alternate drug delivery platform for DCBs to improve its efficacy. (C) 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

Son, Jung-Ho, Sem Raj Tamang, J. C. Yarbrough, & James D. Hoefelmeyer. (2015). Hydrolysis of 8-(pinacolboranyl)quinoline: where is the 8-quinolylboronic acid? Zeitschrift Fur Naturforschung Section B-a Journal of Chemical Sciences, 70(11), 775-781.

The compound 8-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-quinoline was prepared and found to hydrolyze rapidly in air; however, the expected product (quinolin-8-yl) boronic acid was not observed. Instead, the (quinolinium-8-yl) trihydroxyborate zwitterion or an anhydride were observed depending on the conditions of hydrolysis. The two products are related to one another in the degree of hydration, and the two forms could be interconverted. Both hydrolysis products were structurally characterized. Additionally, a commercial sample of ‘8-quinolylboronic acid’ was actually found to be the anhydride. The results call into question whether monomeric (quinolin-8-yl)boronic acid can actually be isolated in the neutral Lewis base-free form.

Chemistry Department.

Wolin, E., J. White, James V. Pottala, M. Sasinowski, T. Dall, T. D. Dayspring, . . . William S. Harris. (2015). Comparison of cardiometabolic risk biomarkers from a national. clinical laboratory with the US adult population. Journal of Clinical Lipidology, 9(6), 817-823.

BACKGROUND: Clinical laboratory patient databases are an untapped source of valuable diagnostic and prognostic information. However, the lack of associated clinical and/or demographic information and questionable generalizability to nonpatient populations often limit utility of these data. OBJECTIVES: This study compared levels of cardiometabolic biomarkers between a national clinical laboratory patient cohort (Health Diagnostic Laboratory [HD Lab]) and the US population as inferred from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2011-2012). METHODS: Sample sizes for HD Lab ranged from 199,000 to 739,000 and for NHANES from 2200 to 5300. The latter were weighted to represent the adult US population (similar to 220 million). Descriptive statistics were compared for body mass index, 5 lipid biomarkers, and 3 glycemic biomarkers. RESULTS: Using age-and sex-matched data, mean biomarker values (mgkIL unless noted) and percent differences (%) for HD Lab vs NHANES were body mass index (kg/m(2)), 29.1 vs 28.6 (1.7%); total cholesterol, 185 vs 193 (-4.1%); apolipoprotein B, 92 vs 90 (2.2%); low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 107 vs 115 (-7%); high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 53 vs 53 (0%); triglycerides, 128 vs 127 (0.8%); glucose, 99 vs 108 (-8.3%); insulin (uU/mL), 13.7 vs 13.4 (2.2%); and hemoglobin Alc (%), 5.6 vs 5.8 (-3.4%). Although all differences were statistically significant, only low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and glucose differed by more than 5%. These may reflect a greater use of medications among HD Lab patients and/or preanalytical factors. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiometabolic risk markers from a national clinical laboratory were broadly similar to those of the US population; thus, with certain caveats, data from the former may be generalizable to the latter. (C) 2015 National Lipid Association. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Holt, R. R., S. J. Yim, Gregory C. Shearer, R. M. Hackman, D. Djurica, J. W. Newman, . . . C. L. Keen. (2015). Effects of short-term walnut consumption on human microvascular function and its relationship to plasma epoxide content. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 26(12), 1458-1466.

Improved vascular function after the incorporation of walnuts into controlled or high-fat diets has been reported; however, the mechanism(s) underlying this effect of walnuts is(are) poorly defined. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the acute and short-term effects of walnut intake on changes in microvascular function and the relationship of these effects to plasma epoxides, the cytochrome-P450-derived metabolites of fatty acids. Thirty-eight hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women were randomized to 4 weeks of 5 g or 40 g of daily walnut intake. All outcomes were measured after an overnight fast and 4 h after walnut intake. Microvascular function, assessed as the reactive hyperemia index (RHI), was the primary outcome measure, with serum lipids and plasma epoxides as secondary measures. Compared to 5 g of daily walnut intake, consuming 40 g/d of walnuts for 4 weeks increased the RHI and Framingham RHI. Total cholesterol and low- and high-density cholesterol did not significantly change after walnut intake. The change in RHI after 4 weeks of walnut intake was associated with the change in the sum of plasma epoxides (r=0.65, P=.002) but not with the change in the sum of plasma hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. Of the individual plasma epoxides, arachidonic-acid-derived 14(15)-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid was most strongly associated with the change in microvascular function (r=0.72, P<.001). These data support the concept that the intake of walnut-derived fatty acids can favorably affect plasma epoxide production, resulting in improved microvascular function. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Chiang, J. Y., Y. L. Lio, & T. R. Tsai. (2015). Degradation Tests Using Geometric Brownian Motion Process for Lumen Degradation Data. Quality and Reliability Engineering International, 31(8), 1797-1806.

Running a traditional life test over an affordable time period with highly reliable products is inefficient to collect the lifetime information of products even if the products are subject to higher stress conditions. This fact makes it difficult to infer the reliability of highly reliable products. The accelerated degradation test (ADT) method has been suggested as an alternative to infer the reliability of highly reliable product based on its degradation measurements. The current study is motivated by the statistical modeling of the lumen degradation date set of transistor outline can packaged light emitting diodes (LEDs). All degradation measurements were collected from an ADT, which was conducted with two stress loadings, the ambient temperature and drive current. To study the reliability of the LEDs under the ADT, the geometric Brownian motion process and generalized Eyring model are applied to estimate the distribution parameters and percentiles of the LEDs. Planning strategies of the sample size and measurement times for the proposed ADT are established to minimize the asymptotic variance of maximum-likelihood estimator of the lower 100pth percentile of LED lifetimes under the given budget. An algorithm is provided to reach the planning strategy. The guidelines of this study can be extended to infer the reliability of other highly reliable product besides LEDs. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Mathematics Department.

Xu, Tao, Jacob M. Miszuk, Yong Zhao, Hongli L. Sun, & Hao Fong. (2015). Electrospun Polycaprolactone 3D Nanofibrous Scaffold with Interconnected and Hierarchically Structured Pores for Bone Tissue Engineering. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 4(15), 2238-2246.

For the first time, electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) 3D nanofibrous scaffold has been developed by an innovative and convenient approach (i.e., thermally induced nanofiber self-agglomeration followed by freeze drying), and the scaffold possesses interconnected and hierarchically structured pores including macropores with sizes up to approximate to 300 mu m. The novel PCL 3D scaffold is soft and elastic with very high porosity of approximate to 96.4%, thus it is morphologically/structurally similar to natural extracellular matrix and well suited for cell functions and tissue formation. The in vitro studies reveal that the scaffold can lead to high cell viability; more importantly, it is able to promote more potent BMP2-induced chondrogenic than osteogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Consistent to the in vitro findings, the in vivo results indicate that the electrospun PCL 3D scaffold acts as a favorable synthetic extracellular matrix for functional bone regeneration through the physiological endochondral ossification process.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus

Han, Yulun L., Q. G. Meng, B. Rasulev, P. Stanley May, Mary T. Berry, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2015). Photofragmentation of the Gas-Phase Lanthanum Isopropylcyclopentadienyl Complex: Computational Modeling vs Experiment. Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 119(44), 10838-10848.

Photofragmentation of the lanthanum isopropylcyclopentadienyl complex, La(iCp), was explored through time-dependent excited-state molecular dynamics (TDESMD), excited-state molecular dynamics (ESMD), and thermal molecular dynamics (MD). Simulated mass spectra were extracted from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations through a new and simple method and compared to experimental photoionization time-of-flight (PI-TOF) mass spectra. The computational results indicate that the value of excitation energy and mechanism of excitation determine the dissociation process.

Chemistry Department.

Mahoney, Luther, Shivatharsiny Rasalingam, Chia-Ming Wu, & Ranjit T. Koodali. (2015). Nanocasting of Periodic Mesoporous Materials as an Effective Strategy to Prepare Mixed Phases of Titania. Molecules, 20(12), 21881-21895.

Mesoporous titanium dioxide materials were prepared using a nanocasting technique involving silica SBA-15 as the hard-template. At an optimal loading of titanium precursor, the hexagonal periodic array of pores in SBA-15 was retained. The phases of titanium dioxide could be easily varied by the number of impregnation cycles and the nature of titanium alkoxide employed. Low number of impregnation cycles produced mixed phases of anatase and TiO2(B). The mesoporous TiO2 materials were tested for solar hydrogen production, and the material consisting of 98% anatase and 2% TiO2(B) exhibited the highest yield of hydrogen from the photocatalytic splitting of water. The periodicity of the pores was an important factor that influenced the photocatalytic activity. This study indicates that mixed phases of titania containing ordered array of pores can be prepared by using the nanocasting strategy.


Vogel, Dayton J., & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2015). First-Principles Treatment of Photoluminescence in Semiconductors. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 119(50), 27954-27964.

A comparison of two first-principles methodologies, (1) molecular dynamics (MD) sampling and (2) time integration along progression of Subsequently occupied excited states for computing emission spectra of semiconductors at different levels of accuracy is presented. Photoluminescence (PL) linewidth broadening is calculated to account for the motion of ionic positions. (1) In the MD sampling method, excited state lifetimes are assumed to be very short due to quick cascade therrnalization, leading to intense PL peaks in semicondudtors at transition energies corresponding to the bandgap energy of the materials, according to Kasha’s rule. Nuclear motion is modeled via adiabatic MD within VASP software. During MD, electronic orbital energies fluctuate through time according to electron phonon coupling terms. A sampling of possible radiative transition energies along the MD trajectory contributes to PL line width nhomogeneous broadening up Optically allowed transitions along fluctuating transition energies found at each MD time step model the emission spectra. (2) In the time integration method, nonadiabatic dynamics of a photoexcitation provides details of cascade thermalization and allows description of several channels of emission from long-lived intermediate states, taking into account non-radiative pathways, providing possible exceptions from Kasha’s rule and demonstrating relatively small PL line broadening sigma(2), so that sigma(1) >> sigma(2). PL spectra calculated using different methods are applied to nanostructured TiO2 semiconducting materials in different quantum confinement regimes, showing optical gap. narrowing due to confinement. Ti(OH)(4), which is a precursor in TiO, synthesis, wet TiO2 (001) nanowite, (NW), and TiO, anatase thin film: models are presented and compared with experimental PL results. Computed time,integrated PL spectra for the TiO2 (001) NW accurately describe the relevant PL energy and, when used in conjunction with the MD sampling PL method, provide the realistic PL line width.

Chemistry Department.

Maisto, S. A., & Jeffrey S. Simons. (2016). Research on the Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Arousal on Sexual Risk in Men who have Sex with Men: Implications for HIV Prevention Interventions. Aids and Behavior, 20, S158-S172.

The purpose of this paper was to describe and appraise the research evidence on the effects of acute alcohol intoxication and sexual arousal on sexual risk behaviors in men who have sex with men (MSM) and to examine its implications for design of HIV prevention interventions that target MSM. Toward that end, the paper begins with a discussion of research on sexual arousal in men and alcohol and their acute effects on sexual behaviors. This is followed by a review of empirical evidence on the combined acute effects of alcohol and sexual arousal in heterosexual men (the large majority of studies) and then in MSM. The empirical evidence and related theoretical developments then are integrated to derive implications for developing effective HIV prevention interventions that target MSM.

Psychology Department.


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