Posted by: kelsijo97 | September 22, 2011

September 2011

Newswander, Chad B. “Foucauldian Power and Schmittian Politics: The Craft of Constitution.” Administration & Society 43, no. 5 (2011).

A political pattern of power focused on defining enemies of the state permits administrative agencies to be grounded in framework that allows them to create meaning. In an effort to better understand how agencies act as political players in a web of power relationships, this article suggests a framework based jointly on Foucault’s concept of power and Schmitt’s understanding of the political. Although these models may at first appear to be incompatible, Foucault and Schmitt’s ideas on power and politics are in fact complementary, and together can enrich an understanding of how administration is deeply constitutive.

Political Science Department.

Boschee, Bonni F., and Boschee, Floyd. “A Profile of Homeschooling in South Dakota.” Journal of School Choice 5, no. 3 (2011).

The authors conducted a statewide study to determine which factors influenced parents’ decision making in electing to homeschool their children rather than send them to public school education in South Dakota. Analysis of data, using frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations revealed that the most prevalent reasons for homeschooling in South Dakota were the opportunity for parents to strengthen their relationship with their children, religion, peer pressure, public schools not teaching American values, and not aiding in character development. The major reason why parents homeschooled their children was to strengthen their family relationship. The least prevalent factors were teacher salary, ridicule by peers, physical handicap, not getting along with teachers, and racial reasons.

School of Education

Anbalagan, S., McShan, W. M., Dunman, P. M., and Chaussee, Michael S. “Identification of Rgg Binding Sites in the Streptococcus Pyogenes Chromosome.” Journal of Bacteriology 193, no. 18 (2011).

Streptococcus pyogenes Rgg is a regulatory protein that controls the transcription of 588 genes in strain NZ131 during the post-exponential phase of growth, including the virulence-associated genes encoding the extracellular SpeB protease, pullulanase A (PulA), and two extracellular nucleases (SdaB and Spd-3). Rgg binds to DNA proximally to the speB promoter (PspeB) to activate transcription; however, it is not known if Rgg binds to the promoters of other genes to influence expression, or if the perturbation of other global regulons accounts for the genome-wide changes in expression associated with the mutant. To address this issue, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by DNA microarray analysis (ChIP-chip) was used to identify the DNA binding sites of Rgg. Rgg bound to 65 sites in the chromosome. Thirty-five were within noncoding DNA, and 43% of these were adjacent to genes previously identified as regulated by Rgg. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were used to assess the binding of Rgg to a subset of sites bound in vivo, including the noncoding DNA upstream of speB, the genes encoding PulA, Spd-3, and a transcriptional regulator (SPY49_1113), and prophage-associated genes encoding a putative integrase (SPY49_0746) and a surface antigen (SPY49_0396). Rgg bound to all target DNAs in vitro, consistent with the in vivo results. Finally, analyses with a transcriptional reporter system showed that the DNA bound by Rgg contained an active promoter that was regulated by Rgg. Overall, the results indicate that Rgg binds specifically to multiple sites in the chromosome, including prophage DNA, to influence gene expression.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Li, Jie, Horak, Kathleen M., Su, Huabo B., Sanbe, A., Robbins, J., and Wang, Xuejun J. “Enhancement of Proteasomal Function Protects against Cardiac Proteinopathy and Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Mice.” Journal of Clinical Investigation 121, no. 9 (2011).

The ubiquitin-proteasome system degrades most intracellular proteins, including misfolded. proteins. Proteasome functional insufficiency (PFI) has been observed in proteinopathies, such as desmin-related cardiomyopathy, and implicated in many common diseases, including dilated cardiomyopathy and ischemic heart disease. However, the pathogenic role of PFI has not been established. Here we created inducible Tg mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted overexpression of proteasome 28 subunit alpha (CR-PA28 alpha OE) to investigate whether upregulation of the 11S proteasome enhances the proteolytic function of the proteasome in mice and, if so, whether the enhancement can rescue a bona fide proteinopathy and protect against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We found that CR-PA28 alpha OE did not alter the homeostasis of normal proteins and cardiac function, but did facilitate the degradation of a surrogate misfolded protein in the heart. By breeding mice with CR-PA28 alpha OE with mice representing a well-established model of desmin-related cardiomyopathy, we demonstrated that CR-PA28 alpha OE markedly reduced aberrant protein aggregation. Cardiac hypertrophy was decreased, and the lifespan of the animals was increased. Furthermore, PA28 alpha knockdown promoted, whereas PA28 alpha overexpression attenuated, accumulation of the mutant protein associated with desmin-related cardiomyopathy in cultured cardiomyocytes. Moreover, CR-PA28 alpha OE limited infarct size and prevented postreperfusion cardiac dysfunction in mice with myocardial I/R injury. We therefore conclude that benign enhancement of cardiac proteasome proteolytic function can be achieved by CR-PA28 alpha OE and that PFI plays a major pathogenic role in cardiac proteinopathy and myocardial I/R injury.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Li, Jie, Powell, Saul R., and Wang, Xuejun. “Enhancement of Proteasome Function by Pa28α Overexpression Protects against Oxidative Stress.” FASEB Journal 25, no. 3 (2011).

The principal function of the proteasome is targeted degradation of intracellular proteins. Proteasome dysfunction has been observed in experimental cardiomyopathies and implicated in human congestive heart failure. Measures to enhance proteasome proteolytic function are currently lacking but would be beneficial in testing the pathogenic role of proteasome dysfunction and could have significant therapeutic potential. The association of proteasome activator 28 (PA28) with the 20S proteasome may play a role in antigen processing. It is unclear, however, whether the PA28 plays any important role outside of antigen presentation, although up-regulation of PA28 has been observed in certain types of cardiomyopathy. Here, we show that PA28α expression (PA28αOE) stabilized PA28β, increased 11S proteasomes, and enhanced the degradation of a previously validated proteasome surrogate substrate (GFPu) in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. PA28αOE significantly attenuated H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-induced increases in the protein carbonyls and markedly suppressed apoptosis in cultured cardiomyocytes under basal conditions or when stressed by H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-. We conclude that PA28αOE is sufficient to up-regulate 11S proteasomes, enhance proteasome-mediated removal of misfolded and oxidized proteins, and protect against oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes, providing a highly sought means to increase proteasomal degradation of abnormal cellular proteins.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Lopez-Fontana, C. M., Maselli, M. E., de Di Nasso, F. E. G., Telleria, Carlos M., and Caron, R. W. “Regulation of Prolactin Secretion During the Estrus in Rats: Possible Role of Glucocorticoids.” Reproduction 142, no. 3 (2011).

Mifepristone (MIF) administration to cycling rats at proestrus induces hypersecretion of prolactin (PRL) at the following estrus. We aimed to assess whether this effect is due to the antiprogesterone or antiglucocorticoid action of MIF and to help underscore the nature of the circulating hormone(s) regulating PRL secretion at estrus. Female cycling rats in proestrus were treated with vehicle; the progesterone (Pg) and glucocorticoid receptor antagonists, MIF (5 mg/kg) or ORG-33628 (5 mg/kg); the glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone (DEX; 27 mg/kg)+/-MIF; or the inhibitor of steroid synthesis aminoglutethimide (AG; 150 mg/kg)+/-MIF. The animals’ blood was sampled the same day at 1800 h and at 1800 h of the following day to assess for circulating PRL and Pg levels. To distinguish antiglucocorticoid from antiprogesterone effects of MIF, we administered a highly specific neutralizing antibody against Pg. None of the antagonists modified serum PRL values at proestrus but increased PRL levels at estrus. DEX decreased the secretion of PRL at proestrus, yet the effect was entirely blocked by MIF. Furthermore, DEX decreased PRL at estrus in a MIF-reversible manner, suggesting that adrenal corticoids during proestrous may regulate PRL secretion at estrus. AG increased PRL secretion at estrus, whereas its association with MIF produced an even higher response. PRL concentration at estrus was not modified by the antiprogesterone antibody, suggesting that the effect of MIF is a consequence of its antiglucocorticoid effect and not due to its antiprogesterone properties. In conclusion, PRL secretion in the afternoon of the estrus is most likely regulated by glucocorticoids through an inhibitory action. Reproduction (2011) 142 477-485

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Mark-Kappeler, Connie J., Martin, Douglas S., and Eyster, Kathleen M. “Estrogens and Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators Regulate Gene and Protein Expression in the Mesenteric Arteries.” Vascular Pharmacology 55, no. 1-3 (2011).

Estrogen has both beneficial and detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) exhibit partial estrogen agonist/antagonist activity in estrogen target tissues. Gene targets of estrogen and SERMs in the vasculature are not well-known. Thus, the present study tested the hypothesis that estrogens (ethinyl estradiol, estradiol benzoate, and equilin) and SERMs (tamoxifen and raloxifene) cause differential gene and protein expression in the vasculature. DNA microarray and real-time RT-PCR were used to investigate gene expression in the mesenteric arteries of estrogen and SERM treated ovariectomized rats. The genes shown to be differentially expressed included stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), secreted frizzled related protein-4 (SFRP-4), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), phospholipase A2 group 1B (PLA2-G1B), and fatty acid synthase (FAS). Western blot further confirmed the differential expression of sEH, SFRP-4, FAS, and SCD protein. These results reveal that estrogens and SERMs cause differential gene and protein expression in the mesenteric artery. Consequently, the use of these agents may be associated with a unique profile of functional and structural changes in the mesenteric arterial circulation. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Novick, Andrew M., Forster, Gina L., Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M., and Watt, Michael J. “Adolescent Social Defeat Alters Markers of Adult Dopaminergic Function.” Brain Research Bulletin 86, no. 1/2 (2011).

Abstract: Stressful experiences during adolescence can alter the trajectory of neural development and contribute to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. We previously demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to repeated social defeat stress show changes in mesocorticolimbic dopamine content both at baseline and in response to amphetamine when tested in adulthood. In the present study we examined whether markers of adult dopamine function are also compromised by adolescent experience of social defeat. Given that the dopamine transporter as well as dopamine D1 receptors act as regulators of psychostimulant action, are stress sensitive and undergo changes during adolescence, quantitative autoradiography was used to measure [<sup>3</sup>H]-GBR12935 binding to the dopamine transporter and [<sup>3</sup>H]-SCH23390 binding to dopamine D1 receptors, respectively. Our results indicate that social defeat during adolescence led to higher dopamine transporter binding in the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex and higher dopamine D1 receptor binding in the caudate putamen, while other brain regions analyzed were comparable to controls. Thus it appears that social defeat during adolescence causes specific changes to the adult dopamine system, which may contribute to behavioral alterations and increased drug seeking.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Keifer, Joyce, and Zheng, Z. “Ampa Receptor Trafficking and Learning.” European Journal of Neuroscience 32, no. 2 (2010).

In the last few years it has become clear that AMPA-type glutamate neurotransmitter receptors are rapidly transported into and out of synapses to strengthen or weaken their function. The remarkable dynamics of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) synaptic localization provides a compelling mechanism for understanding the cellular basis of learning and memory, as well as disease states involving cognitive dysfunction. Here, we summarize the evidence for AMPAR trafficking as a mechanism underlying a variety of learned responses derived from both behavioral and cellular studies. Evidence is also reviewed supporting synaptic dysfunction related to impaired AMPAR trafficking as a mechanism underlying learning and memory deficits in Alzheimer’s disease. We conclude that emerging data support the concept of multistage AMPAR trafficking during learning and that a broad approach to include examination of all of the AMPAR subunits will provide a more complete view of the mechanisms underlying multiple forms of learning.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Zhaoqing, Zheng, Sabirzhanov, Boris, and Keifer, Joyce. “Oligomeric Amyloid-Β Inhibits the Proteolytic Conversion of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (Bdnf), Ampa Receptor Trafficking, and Classical Conditioning.” Journal of Biological Chemistry 285, no. 45 (2010).

Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide is thought to have a significant role in the progressive memory loss observed in patients with Alzheimer disease and inhibits synaptic plasticity in animal models of learning. We previously demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is critical for synaptic AMPA receptor delivery in an in vitro model of eyeblink classical conditioning. Here, we report that acquisition of conditioned responses was significantly attenuated by bath application of oligomeric (200 nm), but not fibrillar, Aβ peptide. Western blotting revealed that BDNF protein expression during conditioning is significantly reduced by treatment with oligomeric Aβ, as were phosphorylation levels of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), Ca<sup>2+</sup>/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), Ca2<sup>+</sup>/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV), and ERK. However, levels of PKA and PKC·/» were unaffected, as was PDK-1. Protein localization studies using confocal imaging indicate that oligomeric Aβ, but not fibrillar or scrambled forms, suppresses colocalization of GluR1 and GluR4 AMPA receptor subunits with synaptophysin, indicating that trafficking of these subunits to synapses during the conditioning procedure is blocked. In contrast, coapplication of BDNF with oligomeric Aβ significantly reversed these findings. Interestingly, a tolloid-like metalloproteinase in turtle, tTLLs (turtle tolloid-like protein), which normally processes the precursor proBDNF into mature BDNF, was found to degrade oligomeric Aβ into small fragments. These data suggest that an Aβ-induced reduction in BDNF, perhaps due to interference in the proteolytic conversion of proBDNF to BDNF, results in inhibition of synaptic AMPA receptor delivery and suppression of the acquisition of conditioning.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

An, Hunter, Cook, Douglas O., and Zumpano, Leonard V. “Corporate Transparency and Firm Growth: Evidence from Real Estate Investment Trusts.” Real Estate Economics 39, no. 3 (2011).

Using a panel data set of Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs), we find corporate transparency to be positively associated with REIT growth. These results suggest that greater transparency facilitates firm growth by relaxing information-based constraints on external financing. The magnitude of this effect is larger in the equity market than in the debt market. Moreover, the sensitivity of investment to cash flows is decreasing in transparency, evidence that transparency relaxes liquidity constraints. Finally, we find more transparent REITs are less likely to crash.

Beacom School of Business.

Egge, Alison R., and Swallow, John G. “Previous Experience Matters in the Stalk-Eyed Fly Teleopsis Dalmanni.” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 65, no. 9 (2011).

Previous experiences can play a significant role in determining future behaviors. Winner and loser effects, where the outcome of previous aggressive encounters influences the behavioral approach to and outcomes of future conflicts, have been documented in many taxa and illustrate this phenomenon. These effects are prevalent in species that interact frequently because modulation of these potentially costly social interactions may influence fitness. Stalk-eyed flies of the dimorphic species Teleopsis dalmanni engage in frequent fights over food resources, as well as over access to harems of females, with larger males typically prevailing when size disparities exist. However, whether and how prior experience influences fighting decisions and outcomes remains unexplored. To test for winner and loser effects in stalk-eyed flies, sexually mature flies were paired in size-mismatched dyads to establish winning and losing experiences. After their first contest, the flies were paired with size-matched individuals and allowed to interact. We determined whether an initial winning or losing experience significantly altered the outcome probabilities in the second size-matched encounter. Initial winning experience did not significantly affect the second interaction, providing no evidence for a winner effect. However, initial losers were significantly more likely to lose a subsequent interaction which provides evidence for a loser effect in stalk-eyed flies. In addition, smaller males experienced an increased probability of losing their second interaction regardless of prior winning or losing experience. This effect was not seen in large males. Our data suggest that the loser effects we observed, which were more pronounced in small males, could result from the energetic costs of fighting that they were less able to absorb than large males.

Biology Department.

Worthington, Amy M., and Swallow, John G. “Sequential Analysis Reveals Behavioral Differences Underlying Female-Biased Predation Risk in Stalk-Eyed Flies.” Ethology 117, no. 9 (2011).

Stalk-eyed flies are classic models of how sexual selection can drive morphological and behavioral elaboration. Exaggerated ornaments born by stalk-eyed flies could impose locomotor costs and increase susceptibility to predation; however, a previous study determined that behavior, not eye span, was the major influence on predation risk. Despite the importance of behavior, relatively little is known about how these flies avoid and deter predators. We created an ethogram of behaviors and used it to score individual interactions of male and female Teleopsis dalmanni paired with an actively foraging, generalist arachnid predator ( Phidippus audax). Sequential analysis was employed to identify temporal patterns in behavior and determine how males and females differ in their approaches to avoiding predation. Our results indicate that males and females significantly differ when specific behaviors were employed. Patterns in the behavioral transitions suggest that males are more aggressive than females and are more likely to approach a predator to jab, abdomen bob, or display. Males elicited more retreat responses from the predator, whereas females elicited more attacks. Although the behavioral repertoires of male and female stalk-eyed flies are indistinguishable, their uses of the behaviors differ, particularly the sequential order of presentation, suggesting a strong sex difference in anti-predatory behavior.

Biology Department.

Luo, Jie E., Porteous, N., and Sun, Yuyu Y. “Rechargeable Biofilm-Controlling Tubing Materials for Use in Dental Unit Water Lines.” Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces 3, no. 8 (2011).

A simple and practical surface grafting approach was developed to introduce rechargeable N-halamine-based antimicrobial functionality onto the inner surfaces of continuous small-bore polyurethane (PU) dental unit waterline (DUWL) tubing. In this approach, tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution of a free-radical initiator, dicumyl peroxide (DCP), flowed through the PU tubing (inner diameter of 1/16 in., or 1.6 mm) to diffuse DCP into the tubing’s inner walls, which was used as initiator in the subsequent grafting polymerization methacrylamide (MAA) onto the tubing. Upon chlorine bleach treatment, the amide groups of the grafted MAA side chains were transformed into acyclic N-halamines. The reactions were confirmed with attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR) spectra and iodometric titration. The mechanical properties of the tubing were not significantly affected by the grafting reactions. The biofilm-controlling function of the new N-halamine-based PU tubing Was evaluated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), one of the most isolated water bacteria from DUWLs, in a continuous bacterial., flow, model. Bacteria culturing and SEM studies showed that the inner surfaces of the new N-halaniine-based PU tubing completely prevented bacterial biofilm formation for at least three to four weeks. After that, bacteria began to colonize the tubing surface: However, the lost function was fully regenerated by exposing the tubing inner surfaces to diluted chlorine bleach The recharging process could be repeated periodically to further extend the biofilm-controlling duration for long-term applications.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls

Netzer, Nathan L., Qiu, Chao, Zhang, Yongyi Y., Lin, Cuikun K., Zhang, L. F., Fong, H., and Jiang, Chaoyang Y. “Gold-Silver Bimetallic Porous Nanowires for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering.” Chemical Communications 47, no. 34 (2011).

Highly porous bimetallic nanowires manufactured via a simple galvanic reaction have demonstrated superior activity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering, allowing ultrasensitive chemical detections on isolated porous nanowires in comparison to pristine silver nanowires.

Chemistry Department.

Sellin Jeffries, Marlo K., Abbott, Kelty I., Cowman, Tim, and Kolok, Alan S. “Occurrence and Endocrine Effects of Agrichemicals in a Small Nebraska, USA, Watershed.” Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry 30, no. 10 (2011).

The Bow Creek watershed (Nebraska, USA) is dominated by the production of beef cattle and row crops; therefore, surface waters are likely to receive runoff containing steroid hormones and pesticides. The goal of the present study was to determine the occurrence and endocrine effects of agrichemicals in this watershed. To accomplish this, four sites within the watershed-Pearl, Bow, and East Bow Creeks and a site at the confluence with the Missouri River-were selected. In June of 2008, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were deployed at each site, whereas in June of 2009, water and sediment samples were collected. Caged fathead minnows ( Pimephales promelas) were deployed at all of the selected sites in both years. Analysis of these samples revealed that steroid hormones were not present; however, pesticides were present in POCIS extracts and water samples. In general, the amount of pesticides was higher in POCIS retrieved from Pearl and Bow Creeks than in POCIS from East Bow Creek and the confluence. This variation between sites appeared to be related to row crop density, as row crop land cover surrounding the Pearl and Bow Creek sites was higher than that surrounding the East Bow and confluence sites. To determine the endocrine effects of agrichemicals within this watershed, the hepatic mRNA expression of vitellogenin and estrogen receptor α (ERα), as well as the gonadal expression of P450 aromatase A, was determined for the caged minnows. Females deployed at East Bow Creek and the confluence experienced decreases in the expression of ERα, suggesting that these females had been defeminized; however, this defeminization could not be attributed to any of the pesticides detected at these sites. Environ. Toxicol. Chem.

Missouri River Institute

Elhai, Jon D., Naifeh, James A., Forbes, David, Ractliffe, Kendra C., and Tamburrino, Marijo. “Heterogeneity in Clinical Presentations of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Medical Patients: Testing Factor Structure Variation Using Factor Mixture Modeling.” Journal of Traumatic Stress 24, no. 4 (2011).

The present study used factor mixture modeling to explore empirically defined subgroups of psychological trauma victims based on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and latent class analysis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. We sampled 310 medical patients with a history of trauma exposure. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the 4-factor emotional numbing PTSD model yielded the best model fit. Using latent factor means derived from this model and the 4-factor dysphoria PTSD model (indexing severity on PTSD factors), 3 latent classes of participants were identified using factor mixture modeling. The 3-class model fit the data very well and was validated against external measures of anxiety and rumination.

Psychology Department.

Billman, George E., and Harris, William S. “Effect of Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids on the Heart Rate and the Heart Rate Variability Responses to Myocardial Ischemia or Submaximal Exercise.” American Journal of Physiology: Heart & Circulatory Physiology 69, no. 6 (2011).

The consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) has been reported to decrease resting heart rate (HR) and increase heart rate variability (HRV). However, the effects of n-3 PUFAs on these variables in response to a physiological stress (e.g., exercise or acute myocardial ischemia), particularly in postmyocardial infarction (MI) patients, are unknown. Therefore, HR and HRV (high frequency and total R-R interval variability) were evaluated at rest, during submaximal exercise, and during a 2-min coronary artery occlusion at rest and before and 3 mo after n-3 PUFA treatment in dogs with healed MI (n = 59). The dogs were randomly assigned to either placebo (1 g/day corn oil, n = 19) or n-3 PUFA supplement (docosahexaenoic acid + eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl esters; 1 g/day, n = 6; 2 g/day, n = 12; or 4 g/day, n = 22) groups. The treatment elicited significant (P < 0.01) dose-dependent increases in right atrial n-3 PUFA levels but dose-independent reductions in resting HR and increases in resting HRV. In contrast, n-3 PUFAs did not attenuate the large changes in HR or HRV induced by either the coronary occlusion or submaximal exercise. These data demonstrate that dietary n-3 PUFA decreased resting (i.e., preexercise or preocclusion) HR and increased resting HRV but did not alter the cardiac response to physiologic challenges.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Sergeant, Susan, McQuail, Joseph A., Riddle, David R., Chilton, Floyd H., Ortmeier, Steven B., Jessup, Jewell A., Groban, Leanne, and Nicolle, Michelle M. “Dietary Fish Oil Modestly Attenuates the Effect of Age on Diastolic Function but Has No Effect on Memory or Brain Inflammation in Aged Rats.” Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences & Medical Sciences 66A, no. 5 (2011).

Fish oil (FO) mediates a number of cardioprotective benefits in patients with cardiovascular disease. In the absence of cardiovascular disease, however, the effects of FO on cardiac structure and function are not clear. In addition, it is not known if an effective dosing strategy for attenuating age-related cardiac dysfunction is also effective at limiting cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, we determined if 4 months of FO supplementation in aged rats would lessen age-related cardiac dysfunction while concomitantly preventing the cognitive decline that is normally observed in this population. The results indicate that FO initiated late in life modifies diastolic function in a small but positive way by attenuating the age-related increases in filling pressure, posterior wall thickness, and interstitial collagen without mitigating age-related deficits in memory or increases in brain inflammation. These data raise the possibility that FO supplementation for purposes of cardiac and brain protection may need to occur earlier in the life span.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Stevens, Dennis C., Helseth, Carol C., Khan, M. Akram, Munson, David P., and Reid, E. J. “A Comparison of Parent Satisfaction in an Open-Bay and Single-Family Room Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.” Herd-Health Environments Research & Design Journal 4, no. 3 (2011).

Objective: The purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that parental satisfaction with neonatal intensive care is greater in a single-family room facility as compared with a conventional open-bay neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Methods: This investigation was a prospective cohort study comparing satisfaction survey results for parents who responded to a commercially available parent NICU satisfaction survey following the provision of NICU care in open-bay and single-family room facilities. A subset of 16 items indicative of family-centered care was also computed and compared for these two NICU facilities. Results: Parents whose babies received care in the single-family room facility expressed significantly improved survey responses in regard to the NICU environment, overall assessment of care, and total survey score than did parents of neonates in the open-bay facility. With the exception of the section on nursing in which scores in both facilities were high, nonsignificant improvement in median scores for the sections on delivery, physicians, discharge planning, and personal issues were noted. The total median item score for family-centered care was significantly greater in the single-family room than the open-bay facility. Conclusions: Parental satisfaction with care in the single-family room NICU was improved in comparison with the traditional open-bay NICU. The single-family room environment appears more conducive to the provision of family-centered care. Improved parental satisfaction with care and the potential for enhanced family-centered care need to be considered in decisions made regarding the configuration of NICU facilities in the future.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Sundram, Vasudha, Chauhan, Subhash C., and Jaggi, Meena. “Emerging Roles of Protein Kinase D1 in Cancer.” Molecular Cancer Research 9, no. 8 (2011).

Protein kinase D1 (PKD1) is a serine-threonine kinase that regulates various functions within the cell, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, and cell motility. In normal cells, this protein plays key roles in multiple signaling pathways by relaying information from the extracellular environment and/or upstream kinases and converting them into a regulated intracellular response. The aberrant expression of PKD1 is associated with enhanced cancer phenotypes, such as deregulated cell proliferation, survival, motility, and epithelial mesenchymal transition. In this review, we summarize the structural and functional aspects of PKD1 and highlight the pathobiological roles of this kinase in cancer. Mol Cancer Res; 9(8); 985-96. (C)2011 AACR.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Daack-Hirsch, Sandra, Dieter, Carla, and Quinn Griffin, Mary T. “Integrating Genomics into Undergraduate Nursing Education.” Journal of nursing scholarship : an official publication of Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing / Sigma Theta Tau 43, no. 3 (2011).

Purpose: To prepare the next generation of nurses, faculty are now faced with the challenge of incorporating genomics into curricula. Here we discuss how to meet this challenge. Organizing Construct: Steps to initiate curricular changes to include genomics are presented along with a discussion on creating a genomic curriculum thread versus a standalone course. Ideas for use of print material and technology on genomic topics are also presented. Information is based on review of the literature and curriculum change efforts by the authors. Conclusions: In recognition of advances in genomics, the nursing profession is increasing an emphasis on the integration of genomics into professional practice and educational standards. Incorporating genomics into nurses’ practices begins with changes in our undergraduate curricula. Information given in didactic courses should be reinforced in clinical practica, and Internet-based tools such as WebQuest, Second Life, and wikis offer attractive, up-to-date platforms to deliver this now crucial content. Clinical Relevance: To provide information that may assist faculty to prepare the next generation of nurses to practice using genomics. 2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.

 School of Health Sciences.

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