Posted by: tadeterman | March 31, 2017

January 2017

Aloreidi, KhalilBhavesh Patel, & Muslim Atiq. (2016). Intraductal cholangioscopy-guided electrohydraulic lithotripsy as a rescue therapy for impacted common bile duct stones within a Dormia basket. Endoscopy, 48, E357-E358.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.


Anuwatworn, AmornpolMaheedhar GedelaEdgard BendalyJulia A. Prescott-FochtJimmy YeeRichard Clark, et al. (2016). Sinus Venosus Atrial Septal Defect Complicated by Eisenmenger Syndrome and the Role of Vasodilator Therapy. Case Reports in Cardiology, 5.

Sinus venosus atrial septal defect is a rare congenital, interatrial communication defect at the junction of the right atrium and the vena cava. It accounts for 5-10% of cases of all atrial septal defects. Due to the rare prevalence and anatomical complexity, diagnosing sinus venous atrial septal defects poses clinical challenges which may delay diagnosis and treatment. Advanced cardiac imaging studies are useful tools to diagnose this clinical entity and to delineate the anatomy and any associated communications. Surgical correction of the anomaly is the primary treatment. We discuss a 43-year-old Hispanic female patient who presented with dyspnea and hypoxia following a laparoscopic myomectomy. She had been diagnosed with peripartum cardiomyopathy nine years ago at another hospital. Transesophageal echocardiography and computed tomographic angiography of the chest confirmed a diagnosis of sinus venosus atrial septal defect. She was also found to have pulmonary arterial hypertension and Eisenmenger syndrome. During a hemodynamic study, she responded to vasodilator and she was treated with Ambrisentan and Tadalafil. After six months, her symptoms improved and her pulmonary arterial hypertension decreased. We also observed progressive reversal of the right-to-left shunt. This case illustrates the potential benefit of vasodilator therapy in reversing Eisenmenger physiology, which may lead to surgical repair of the atrial septal defect as the primary treatment.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.


Bubak, A. N., J. D. W. Yaeger, Kenneth J. Renner, J. G. Swallow, & M. J. Greene. (2016). Neuromodulation of Nestmate Recognition Decisions by Pavement Ants. Plos One, 11(11), 15.

Ant colonies are distributed systems that are regulated in a non-hierarchical manner. Without a central authority, individuals inform their decisions by comparing information in local cues to a set of inherent behavioral rules. Individual behavioral decisions collectively change colony behavior and lead to self-organization capable of solving complex problems such as the decision to engage in aggressive societal conflicts with neighbors. Despite the relevance to colony fitness, the mechanisms that drive individual decisions leading to cooperative behavior are not well understood. Here we show how sensory information, both tactile and chemical, and social context-isolation, nestmate interaction, or fighting non-nestmates-affects brain monoamine levels in pavement ants (Tetramorium caespitum). Our results provide evidence that changes in octopamine and serotonin in the brains of individuals are sufficient to alter the decision by pavement ants to be aggressive towards non-nestmate ants whereas increased brain levels of dopamine correlate to physical fighting. We propose a model in which the changes in brain states of many workers collectively lead to the self-organization of societal aggression between neighboring colonies of pavement ants.

Biology Department.


Cerny, Shana. (2016). The Role of Occupational Therapy within the Federal Strategic Action Plan on Services for Victims of Human Trafficking in the United States. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 32(4), 317-328.

The occupational injustices experienced by human trafficking survivors lead to immediate occupational performance deficits and promote long-term instability. Experience and previous patterns of behavior contribute to the deficits and instability. The occupational manifestations of complex trauma are reflected in the inability to participate in meaningful and necessary occupations. Occupational therapy intervention can be a means of empowering victims of human trafficking by using the occupational therapy process, occupational therapy theories, and models of practice. Occupational therapy practitioners can enable survivors to address the intrinsic and extrinsic barriers to achieving increased overall well-being and occupational performance.

School of Health Sciences.


Dag, Ali, Asil Oztekin, Ahmet Yucel, Serkan Bulur, & Fadel M. Megahed. (2017). Predicting heart transplantation outcomes through data analytics. Decision Support Systems, 94, 42-52.

Predicting the survival of heart transplant patients is an important, yet challenging problem since it plays a crucial role in understanding the matching procedure between a donor and a recipient. Data mining models can be used to effectively analyze and extract novel information from large/complex transplantation datasets. The objective of this study is to predict the 1-, 5-, and 9-year patient’s graft survival following a heart transplant surgery via the deployment of analytical models that are based on four powerful classification algorithms (i.e. decision trees, artificial neural networks, support vector machines, and logistic regression). Since the datasets used in this study has a much larger number of survival cases than deaths for 1- and 5-year survival analysis and vice versa for 9-year survival analysis, random under sampling (RUS) and synthetic minority over-sampling (SMOTE) are employed to overcome the data-imbalance problems. The results indicate that logistic regression combined with SMOTE achieves the best classification for the 1-, 5-, and 9-year outcome prediction, with area-under-the-curve (AUC) values of 0.624, 0.676, and 0.838, respectively. By applying sensitivity analysis to the data analytical models, the most important predictors and their associated contribution for the 1-, 5-, and 9-year graft survival of heart transplant patients are identified. By doing so, variables, whose importance changes over time, are differentiated. Not only this proposed hybrid approach gives superior results over the literature but also the models and identification of the variables present important retrospective findings, which can be the basis for a prospective medical study.

Beacom School of Business.


Fang, J. M., Benjamin George, Y. F. Shao, & C. Wen. (2016). Affective and cognitive factors influencing repeat buying in e-commerce. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 19, 44-55.

Drawing on means-end chain theory and feelings-as-information theory, we propose a moderation model, and offer a detailed analysis of how the affective factor perceived enjoyment influences perceived value and repeat buying in e-tailing contexts. Based upon survey data from 651 online shoppers, we observe the complex moderation effects of e-shopping enjoyment on the relations between perceived benefits, sacrifice and perceived value. However, the moderation effect of enjoyment only appears in shoppers with a task-focused motivation. Furthermore, this study applies fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) and uncovers several equifinal configurations associated with the perceived value and repeat buying intention. The results reveal that none of the above-mentioned factors provide sufficient or necessary conditions for the presence of high perceived value and repeat buying intention. The findings suggest complex substitutive and complementary relationships between the factors and demonstrate the complexities of consumers’ online repurchase decision. This study thus helps to gain a better understanding of the conditions leading to e-shopping value and repeat buying behavior.

Beacom School of Business.


Ferguson, Tanner J., J. P. Berdahl, J. A. Schweitzer, & Ramu Sudhagoni. (2016). Evaluation of a Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stent in Pseudophakic Patients With Open-Angle Glaucoma. Journal of Glaucoma, 25(11), 896-900.

Purpose of the Study:The purpose of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the iStent Trabecular Micro-Bypass stent in pseudophakic patients with open-angle glaucoma.Methods:Retrospective, consecutive case series from October 2012 to May 2015 with no exclusion criteria. The series comprised 42 pseudophakic eyes with open-angle glaucoma that were implanted with 1 iStent. Data were collected preoperatively, and postoperative data were collected at 1 day, 1 week, 1, 3 and 6 months, 1 year, 18 months and 2 years. Data included intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications, the incidence of postoperative IOP pressure spikes 15 mm Hg at any timepoint, and the need for additional surgery.Results:The mean preoperative IOP was 20.266.00 mm Hg. At 1 year postoperatively, the mean IOP was 16.34 +/- 3.78 mm Hg (P<0.01). At 2 years postoperatively, the mean IOP was 13.62 +/- 4.55 (P<0.01). The mean number of glaucoma medications was 1.95 +/- 1.01 preoperative and 1.69 +/- 1.28 (P>0.05) at 1 year postoperatively. Postoperatively, 3 eyes (7%) experienced an IOP increase of 15 mm Hg above their baseline IOP that responded to topical therapy. In total, 96% of patients with an IOP19 mm Hg achieved a reduction in IOP at their last collected follow-up.Conclusions:The insertion of the iStent Trabecular Micro-Bypass stent effectively lowers IOP in pseudophakic patients with open-angle glaucoma. Although medication use was not significantly reduced postoperatively at 1 year, 80% of patients either experienced a reduction or no change in medication use. The safety profile appears favorable with a low rate of IOP spikes and only 1 patient requiring additional surgery.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.


Gaher, Raluca M., Carol O’brien, Paul Smiley, & Austin M. Hahn. (2016). Alexithymia, coping styles and traumatic stress symptoms in a sample of veterans who experienced military sexual trauma. Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 32(1), 55-62.

The current study examined the association between alexithymia and coping styles (planning, positive reinterpretation and growth, social‐emotion coping, and denial), and trauma symptoms in a clinical sample of 170 male and female veterans who experienced sexual trauma during military service. Denial was the only coping style positively associated with trauma symptoms, and it mediated the relationship between alexithymia and trauma symptoms. Alexithymia was negatively associated with planning. Likewise, alexithymia was negatively associated with social‐emotional coping and with positive reinterpretation and growth. The results speak to the significant role that alexithymia has in predicting individual coping styles.

Psychology Department.


Goh, P. K., L. R. Doyle, …., H. Eugene Hoyme, J. A. Kable, P. A. May, et al. (2016). A Decision Tree to Identify Children Affected by Prenatal Alcohol Exposure. Journal of Pediatrics, 177, 121-+.

Objective To develop and validate a hierarchical decision tree model that combines neurobehavioral and physical measures to identify children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure even when facial dysmorphology is not present. Study design Data were collected as part of a multisite study across the US. The model was developed after we evaluated more than 1000 neurobehavioral and dysmorphology variables collected from 434 children (8-16 years of age) with prenatal alcohol exposure, with and without fetal alcohol syndrome, and nonexposed control subjects, with and without other clinically-relevant behavioral or cognitive concerns. The model subsequently was validated in an independent sample of 454 children in 2 age ranges (5-7 years or 10-16 years). In all analyses, the discriminatory ability of each model step was tested with logistic regression. Classification accuracies and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Results The model consisted of variables from 4 measures (2 parent questionnaires, an IQ score, and a physical examination). Overall accuracy rates for both the development and validation samples met or exceeded our goal of 80% overall accuracy. Conclusions The decision tree model distinguished children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure from nonexposed control subjects, including those with other behavioral concerns or conditions. Improving identification of this population will streamline access to clinical services, including multidisciplinary evaluation and treatment.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.


Hackemer, Kurt. (2017). Wartime Trauma and the Lure of the Frontier: Civil War Veterans in Dakota Territory. Journal of Military History, 81(1), 75-103.

This paper quantitatively analyzes an 1885 Dakota Territory census to draw larger conclusions about Civil War veterans who migrated to the frontier. A sample of almost 6,000 veterans suggests that a significant percentage experienced some degree of wartime trauma, needed to reestablish themselves socially and economically, and took advantage of what financial security they had when homesteading newly opened territory. They were more likely to move to newly opened counties by themselves rather than with comrades from the war, relying on prior relationships only when moving to more established regions of the frontier where those associations might prove useful.

History Department.


Hocking, Elise C.Raluca M. Simons, & Renata J. Surette. (2016). Attachment style as a mediator between childhood maltreatment and the experience of betrayal trauma as an adult. Child Abuse & Neglect, 52, 94-101.

Previous research has demonstrated a positive association between child maltreatment and adult interpersonal trauma (Arata, 2000; Crawford & Wright, 2007). From a betrayal trauma theory perspective, evidence suggests that the experience of trauma high in betrayal (e.g., child maltreatment by parents or guardians) increases ones risk of betrayal trauma as an adult (Gobin & Freyd, 2009). However, the mechanisms explaining these associations are not well understood; attachment theory could provide further insight. Child maltreatment is associated with insecure attachment (Baer & Martinez, 2006; Muller et al., 2000). Insecure attachment is also associated with deficits in interpersonal functioning and risk for intimate partner violence, suggesting insecure attachment may mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and the experience of betrayal trauma as an adult. The current study tested this hypothesis in a sample of 601 college students. Participants completed online questionnaires including the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS), the Experiences in Close Relationships—Revised (ECR-R) and the Brief Betrayal Trauma Survey (BBTS). Results indicated that child maltreatment is associated with adult betrayal trauma and anxious attachment partially mediates this relationship.

Psychology Department.


Hong, K., G. L. Zhao, Zhongkui Hong, Z. Sun, Y. Yang, P. S. Clifford, et al. (2016). Mechanical activation of angiotensin II type 1 receptors causes actin remodelling and myogenic responsiveness in skeletal muscle arterioles. Journal of Physiology-London, 594(23), 7027-7047.

The G(q/11) protein-coupled angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) has been shown to be activated by mechanical stimuli. In the vascular system, evidence supports the AT(1)R being a mechanosensor that contributes to arteriolar myogenic constriction. The aim of this study was to determine if AT(1)R mechanoactivation affects myogenic constriction in skeletal muscle arterioles and to determine underlying cellular mechanisms. Using pressure myography to study rat isolated first-order cremaster muscle arterioles the AT(1)R inhibitor candesartan (10(-7)-10(-5) M) showed partial but concentration-dependent inhibition of myogenic reactivity. Inhibition was demonstrated by a rightward shift in the pressure-diameter relationship over the intraluminal pressure range, 30-110 mmHg. Pressure-induced changes in global vascular smooth muscle intracellularCa(2+) (using Fura-2) were similar in the absence or presence of candesartan, indicating that AT(1)R-mediated myogenic constriction relies on Ca2+-independent downstream signalling. The diacylglycerol analogue 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG) reversed the inhibitory effect of candesartan, while this rescue effect was prevented by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF 109203X. Both candesartan and PKC inhibition caused increased G-actin levels, as determined by Western blotting of vessel lysates, supporting involvement of cytoskeletal remodelling. At the single vascular smooth muscle cell level, atomic force microscopy showed that cell swelling (stretch) with hypotonic buffer also caused thickening of cortical actin fibres and this was blocked by candesartan. Collectively, the present studies support growing evidence for novel modes of activation of the AT(1)R in arterioles and suggest that mechanically activated AT(1)R generates diacylglycerol, which in turn activates PKC which induces the actin cytoskeleton reorganization that is required for pressure-induced vasoconstriction.

Biomedical Engineering Department, Sioux Falls Campus.


Huang, ShupingChoumini Balasanthiran, S. Tretiak, James D. Hoefelmeyer, S. V. Kilina, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2016). Dynamics of charge at water-to-semiconductor interface: Case study of wet 001 anatase TiO2 nanowire. Chemical Physics, 481, 184-190.

The behavior of water molecules on the surfaces of the TiO2 nanowire grown in [001] direction has been investigated by combining theoretical calculations and experiments. Calculated UV-visible absorption spectra reproduce the main features of the experimental spectra. Computations predict that a photoexcitation followed by a sequence of relaxation events results in photoluminescence across the gap. TiO2 nanowires in vacuum and aqueous environment exhibit different dynamics of photo-excited charge carriers. In water, computed relaxation of electrons (holes) is approximately 2 (4) times faster compared with vacuum environment. Faster relaxation of holes vs. electrons and specific spatial localization of holes result to formation of long lived charge transfer excitation with positive charge at the surface of the nanowire. Comparison of relaxation process in TiO2/water interfaces focusing on different surfaces and nanostructures has potential in identifying structural characteristics of TiO2 materials important for efficient photo-electrochemical water splitting. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.


Jumbe, T., S. S. Comstock, William S. Harris, J. Kinabo, M. B. Pontifex, & J. I. Fenton. (2016). Whole-blood fatty acids are associated with executive function in Tanzanian children aged 4-6 years: a cross-sectional study. British Journal of Nutrition, 116(9), 1537-1545.

Essential fatty acids (EFA) are PUFA that are metabolised to long-chain PUFA and are important for brain development and cognitive function. The objective of this study was to determine the association between whole-blood EFA and cognitive function in Tanzanian children. A total of 325 2-6-year-old children attempted the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) tasks to assess executive function. Blood samples were collected for fatty acid (FA) analysis by GC. Associations between executive function and FA levels were assessed by regression. Among the 130 4-6-year-old children who attempted the DCCS tasks, whole-blood levels of linoleic acid were positively associated with executive function, whereas whole-blood levels of a-linolenic acid and nervonic acid were inversely associated with executive function. A full model including all twenty-five FA explained 38% of the variation in executive function, whereas a reduced model including only the EFA (a-linolenic acid and linoleic acid), DHA and EPA explained 25% of the variation in executive function. Children who had sufficient whole-blood levels of EFA were 3.8 times more likely to successfully complete all DCCS tasks compared with children with insufficient EFA. These results suggest that whole-blood FA levels are associated with cognitive abilities. Intervention trials that include assessment of whole-blood FA levels are required to determine the relationships between intake, blood levels and executive function in Tanzanian children.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.


Keifer, Joyce, & Cliff H. Summers. (2016). Putting the ‘biology’ back into ‘neurobiology’: The strength of diversity in animal model systems for neuroscience research. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 10(x), x-x.

Current trends in neuroscience research have moved toward a reliance on rodent animal models to study most aspects of brain function. Such laboratory-reared animals are highly inbred, have been disengaged from their natural environments for generations and appear to be of limited predictive value for successful clinical outcomes. In this Perspective article, we argue that research on a rich diversity of animal model systems is fundamental to new discoveries in evolutionarily conserved core physiological and molecular mechanisms that are the foundation of human brain function. Analysis of neural circuits across phyla will reveal general computational solutions that form the basis for adaptive behavioral responses. Further, we stress that development of ethoexperimental approaches to improve our understanding of behavioral nuance will help to realign our research strategies with therapeutic goals and improve the translational validity of specific animal models. Finally, we suggest that neuroscience has a role in environmental conservation of habitat and fauna that will preserve and protect the ecological settings that drive species-specific behavioral adaptations. A rich biodiversity will enhance our understanding of human brain function and lead in unpredicted directions for development of therapeutic treatments for neurological disorders.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.


Kelly, Shawn C.Shenjing LiTomasz StysPaul A. Thompson, & A.Dam T. Stys. (2016). Reduction in Contrast Nephropathy From Coronary Angiography and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Ultra-Low Contrast Delivery Using an Automated Contrast Injector System. Journal of Invasive Cardiology, 28(11), 446-450.

Objective. To evaluate the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) following coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) utilizing a novel ultra-low contrast delivery (ULCD) technique. Background. Current techniques for reducing contrast volumes during angiographic and PCI procedures require the use of advanced coronary imaging methods, such as intravascular ultrasound and coronary flow wires. We propose the use of the ACIST CVi automated contrast injector system (Bracco Diagnostics) with a novel programming technique that significantly reduces contrast volumes and CIN development. Methods. From 2013 to 2014, a total of 123 patients with stage III or higher chronic kidney disease (CKD) underwent coronary angiography, PCI, or a combined procedure using the ULCD technique. A retrospective analysis was conducted to evaluate contrast volumes and rate of CIN development. Patients developing CIN were compared using tests of proportions. Results. The median contrast volume was 17.9 mL (n = 123). The study cohorts comprised diagnostic (15.2 mL; n = 72), PCI (17.1 mL; n = 30), and PCI + diagnostic groups (27.9 mL; n = 21). The incidence of CIN observed in the entire cohort through day 7 was 3.3% (4/123). Seventy-five percent of the CIN cases occurred following diagnostic angiography alone. Longitudinal follow-up at 21 days identified an additional 5 cases of CIN. Compared to literature data, the ULCD technique delivers less contrast per case. Conclusion. The adaptation of the ULCD technique for coronary procedures significantly reduces contrast volume delivery when compared with conventional practice or previously described low-contrast techniques. The ULCD appears to be an efficacious method of limiting CIN development in a susceptible population with CKD.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.


Lan, X. Y., C. Zhao, X. Chen, …., X. J. Wang, X. P. Shi, et al. (2016). Nickel pyrithione induces apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia cells resistant to imatinib via both Bcr/Abl-dependent and Bcr/Abl-independent mechanisms. Journal of Hematology & Oncology, 9, 16.

Background: Acquired imatinib (IM) resistance is frequently characterized by Bcr-Abl mutations that affect IM binding and kinase inhibition in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Bcr-Abl-T315I mutation is the predominant mechanism of the acquired resistance to IM. Therefore, it is urgent to search for additional approaches and targeting strategies to overcome IM resistance. We recently reported that nickel pyrithione (NiPT) potently inhibits the ubiquitin proteasome system via targeting the 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (UCHL5 and USP14), without effecting on the 20S proteasome. In this present study, we investigated the effect of NiPT, a novel proteasomal deubiquitinase inhibitor, on cell survival or apoptosis in CML cells bearing Bcr-Abl-T315I or wild-type Bcr-Abl. Methods: Cell viability was examined by MTS assay and trypan blue exclusion staining assay in KBM5, KBM5R, K562, BaF3-p210-WT, BaF3-p210-T315I cells, and CML patients’ bone marrow samples treated with NiPT. Cell apoptosis in CML cells was detected with Annexin V-FITC/PI and rhodamine-123 staining followed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry and with western blot analyses for apoptosis-associated proteins. Expression levels of Bcr-Abl in CML cells were analyzed by using western blotting and real-time PCR. The 20S proteasome peptidase activity was measured using specific fluorogenic substrate. Active-site-directed labeling of proteasomal DUBs, as well as the phosphorylation of USP14 was used for evaluating the inhibition of the DUBs activity by NiPT. Mouse xenograft models of KBM5 and KBM5R cells were analyzed, and Bcr-Abl-related proteins and protein biomarkers related to proliferation, differentiation, and adhesion in tumor tissues were detected by western blots and/or immunohistological analyses. Results: NiPT induced apoptosis in CML cells and inhibited the growth of IM-resistant Bcr-Abl-T315I xenografts in nude mice. Mechanistically, NiPT induced decreases in Bcr-Abl proteins, which were associated with downregulation of Bcr-Abl transcription and with the cleavage of Bcr-Abl protein by activated caspases. NiPT-induced ubiquitin proteasome system inhibition induced caspase activation in both IM-resistant and IM-sensitive CML cells, and the caspase activation was required for NiPT-induced Bcr-Abl downregulation and apoptotic cell death. Conclusions: These findings support that NiPT can overcome IM resistance through both Bcr-Abl-dependent and Bcr-Abl-independent mechanisms, providing potentially a new option for CML treatment.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.


Landeen, Laurie B.Elizabeth M. HultgrenTaylor M. Kapsch, & Paul W. Mallory. (2016). Vaginal cuff dehiscence: a randomized trial comparing robotic vaginal cuff closure methods. Journal of Robotic Surgery, 10(4), 337-341.

The purpose of this study is to compare the rate of vaginal cuff dehiscence between two different methods of closure in patients undergoing robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy and explore variables related to postoperative breakdown. This was a prospective, randomized controlled study with two arms. The control group (Arm 1) underwent single-layer continuous closure while the study group (Arm 2) had three additional imbricating figure-of-X sutures placed in addition to the standard protocol. Of the 263 patients who completed the study, 4 patients (1.49 %) experienced dehiscence of the vaginal cuff. Three of the four patients with dehiscence received the standard single vaginal cuff closure (Arm 1) and the one remaining case of dehiscence underwent the protocol with additional sutures (Arm 2). All patients who experienced dehiscence were current smokers. Our study suggests that there may be benefit in adding additional sutures to the standard single-layer vaginal cuff closure procedure. Physicians should evaluate smoking status before deciding on a vaginal cuff closure method.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.


Lonsdale, Damian J. (2017). Intentions to Cheat: Ajzen’s Planned Behavior and Goal-Related Personality Facets. Journal of Psychology, 151(2), 113-129.

This study sought to test antecedents to college students’ intentions to cheat by utilizing Ajzen’s (1991) theory of planned behavior (TPB), and four goal-related personality facets. Those facets were behavioral approach, behavioral inhibition, need for achievement-hope of success, and need for achievement-fear of failure. As hypothesized, perceived friends’ and parents’ attitudes toward academic dishonesty (two subjective norms) and perceived ease of cheating (perceived behavioral control) all positively predicted overall intentions to cheat. Perceived friends’ attitudes seemed to play a more influential role than perceived parents’ attitudes. Interestingly, male students reported greater parental acceptance of academic misconduct than female students reported. Among the personality facets, behavioral approach and need for achievement-hope of success were positive and negative predictors of cheating intentions, respectively. A more finegrained examination of take-home assignments revealed that students considered them easier to cheat on and reported greater intentions to cheat on them in comparison to other forms of academic work (e.g., exams and papers). Also, need for achievement-fear of failure positively predicted intentions to cheat on take-home assignments, but not other cheating intentions. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Beacom School of Business.


Nan, Jiang. (2017). ON THE CONVERGENCE OF β-SCHEMES. International Journal of Numerical Analysis & Modeling, 14(1), 103-125.

Yang’s wavewise entropy inequality [19] is verified for β-schemes which, when m = 2 and under a mild technique condition, guarantees the convergence of the schemes to the entropy solutions of convex conservation laws in one-dimensional scalar case. These schemes, constructed by S. Osher and S. Chakravarthy [13], are based on unwinding principle and use E-schemes as building blocks with simple flux limiters, without which all of them are even linearly unstable. The total variation diminishing property of these methods was established in the original work of S. Osher and S. Chakravarthy.

Mathematics Department.


Rosenfeld, Silvana A., & Matthew P. Sayre. (2016). LLAMAS ON THE LAND: PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF MEAT AT CHAVIN DE HUANTAR, PERU. Latin American Antiquity, 27(4), 497-511.

Chavin de Huantar is a Formative-period site (broadly 1500-200 B.C.) in the Peruvian Andes known for its highly complex art and monumental architecture. Recent excavations in the La Banda sector uncovered domestic settlements. The zooarchaeological analysis demonstrates that meat was locally produced and many bone tools were manufactured in this sector. These results contrast with previous faunal analysis from other parts of the site in which it was argued that dry camelid meat on the bone (ch’arki) was traded in exchange for local crops. The local economy of Chavin de Huantar was complex, showing different economic strategies across the site. While there is abundant evidence for the trade of lightweight exotic goods at the site (seashells, marine bone, obsidian, and cinnabar), the subsistence economy was locally focused.

Social Behavior Department.


Rudolph, M. C., B. E. Young, K. H. Jackson, N. F. Krebs, William S. Harris, & P. S. Maclean. (2016). Human Milk Fatty Acid Composition: Comparison of Novel Dried Milk Spot Versus Standard Liquid Extraction Methods. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, 21(3-4), 131-138.

Accurate assessment of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) content of human milk (HM) provides a powerful means to evaluate the FA nutrient status of breastfed infants. The conventional standard for FA composition analysis of HM is liquid extraction, trans-methylation, and analyte detection resolved by gas chromatography. This standard approach requires fresh or frozen samples, storage in deep freeze, organic solvents, and specialized equipment in processing and analysis. Further, HM collection is often impractical for many studies in the free living environment, particularly for studies in developing countries. In the present study, we compare a novel and more practical approach to sample collection and processing that involves the spotting and drying similar to 50 mu L of HM on a specialized paper stored and transported at ambient temperatures until analysis. Deming regression indicated the two methods aligned very well for all LC-PUFA and the abundant HM FA. Additionally, strong correlations (r > 0.85) were observed for DHA, ARA, EPA, linoleic (LA), and alpha-linolenic acids (ALA), which are of particular interest to the health of the developing infant. Taken together, our data suggest this more practical and inexpensive method of collection, storage, and transport of HM milk samples could dramatically facilitate studies of HM, as well as understanding its lipid composition influences on human health and development.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.


Schwebach, A., & Jennifer Ball. (2016). Urine Drug Screening Minimizing False-Positives and False-Negatives to Optimize Patient Care. Us Pharmacist, 41(8), 26-30.

Urine drug screening is a common way to test for compliance with medications having high abuse potential. False-negatives and false-positives from immunoassays can lead to adverse consequences for patients and providers. By identifying medications that contribute to false-negatives and false-positives, pharmacists decrease misinterpretations from urine drug screens. Unexpected results from urine immunoassays should have a confirmatory gas chromatography-mass spectrometry or a high-performance liquid chromatography test performed. Pharmacists can provide guidance in selecting appropriate drug therapies that are less likely to cause false readings, thus decreasing the need for additional testing.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.


Shaikh, K.S. KellyM. GedelaV. KumarA. Stys, & T. Stys. (2016). Novel Use of an Orbital Atherectomy Device for In-Stent Restenosis: Lessons Learned. Case Reports in Cardiology, 4.

We present a case of a 67-year-old man with stage III chronic kidney disease, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and high surgical risk who presented with two episodes of acute coronary syndrome attributed to in-stent restenosis (ISR) associated with heavily calcified lesions. In this case, we were able to improve luminal patency with orbital atherectomy system (OAS); however, withdrawal of the device resulted in a device/stent interaction, causing failure of the device. Given limitations in current evidence and therapies, managing ISR can be a technical and cognitive challenge. Balloon expansion of the affected region often provides unsatisfactory results, possibly related to significant calcium burden. OAS could be an efficacious way of reestablishing luminal patency in ISR lesions, as these lesions are often heavily calcified.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.


Tjarks, B. Joel, Najwa Somani, Melissa Piliang, & Wilma F. Bergfeld. (2017). A proposed classification for follicular involvement by melanoma. Journal of Cutaneous Pathology, 44(1), 45-52.

Background Folliculotropism in melanoma is poorly characterized and standard categorization for follicular involvement by melanoma is unavailable. We propose a logical categorization system. Methods We conducted a search of our archives over a 24-year period for cases mentioning the terms follicle, follicular, folliculotropic, folliculocentric and melanoma. Results We identified 90 cases of melanoma with involvement of the hair follicle. Distinct patterns were identified. The invasive patterns were primary follicular, folliculotropic and invasive arising from melanoma in situ ( MIS) with extensive follicular involvement. Follicular involvement by MIS was either lentiginous, nested or a combination of both. A total of 29 invasive melanomas were identified. Of these 12 had invasive melanoma around the hair follicle, 2 were primary follicular melanomas, 7 showed folliculotropism and 3 were invasive melanomas arising from MIS around the follicle. Seventeen invasive melanomas had follicles only involved by MIS (9 nested, 6 nested and lentiginous and 2 lentiginous). A total of 61 cases of MIS with follicular involvement were identified; of these 33 were lentiginous, 10 nested and 18 both lentiginous and nested. Conclusion We propose that the three distinct patterns of follicular involvement by invasive melanoma and the three distinct patterns of MIS will be valuable for logically categorizing involvement of the hair follicle by melanoma.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.


Venkatesan, S., J. Y. Sun, L. J. Zhang, A. Dubey, Andrew Sykes, T. Y. Lin, et al. (2016). An oligothiophene chromophore with a macrocyclic side chain: synthesis, morphology, charge transport, and photovoltaic performance. Rsc Advances, 6(104), 102043-102056.

An oligothiophene chromophore RingBDT(T(3)A)(2) has been synthesized, where BDT is benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene, Ring is a 1,12-dodecylenedioxy cyclic side chain on the benzene of BDT, T-3 is 2,2′:5′,2 ”-terthiophene, and A is an electron acceptor. In single crystals, the immediate precursor of RingBDT(T(3)A)(2) formed pi-dimers and the ring prevented further p-stacking of the dimers. A differential scanning calorimetry study showed that BDT(T(3)A)(2), the ringless analog with two 2-ethylhexyloxy side chains on BDT, crystallized quickly from its melt upon cooling, while crystallization of RingBDT(T(3)A)(2) melt upon cooling was slow and incomplete. Interestingly, RingBDT(T(3)A)(2) solid crystallized fast at similar to 110 degrees C upon heating, but its thin films (200 nm) remained amorphous after annealing at 80 degrees C. Despite the amorphous nature, the hole mobility of RingBDT(T(3)A)(2) films (1.52 x 10(-3) cm(2) V-1 s(-1)) was 144% higher than that of the highly crystalline BDT(T(3)A)(2) films (200-80 nm). Solar cells were fabricated from blends of the chromophores and phenyl-C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM). Thermal annealing at 100 degrees C for 10 minutes enhanced chromophore p-p interaction, and improved device fill factor and efficiency for the RingBDT(T(3)A)(2) blend solar cells, while retaining the amorphous nature of blend. In stark contrast, thermal annealing under the same conditions caused the efficiency of BDT(T(3)A)(2) cell efficiency to drop by 82%. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of using a macrocyclic side chain as a strategy for developing amorphous molecular semiconducting materials with improved mobility and morphological stability.

Chemistry Department.


Yao, QingqingYangxi Liu, J. N. Tao, K. M. Baumgarten, & Hongli Sun. (2016). Hypoxia-Mimicking Nanofibrous Scaffolds Promote Endogenous Bone Regeneration. Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces, 8(47), 32450-32459.

Utilizing biomimetic materials to potentiate endogenous cell growth or signaling is superior to relying on exogenous cells or signals for bone formation. Desferoxamine (DFO), which is a hypoxia-mimetic agent that chelates iron (Fe3+), mimics hypoxia to encourage bone healing. However, high cytotoxicity, off-target effects, and the short half-life of DFO have significantly impeded its further applications. We mitigated these side effects by locally immobilizing DFO onto a gelatin nanofibrous (GF) scaffold that retained DFO’s ability to chelate Fe3+. Moreover, DFO-functionalized GF (GF-DFO) scaffolds, which have similar micro/macrostructures to GF scaffolds, not only demonstrated decreased cytotoxicity on both human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human mesenchymal stem cells but also significantly increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in vitro. Most importantly, in our in vivo experiments on a critical-sized cranial bone defect mouse model, a significant amount of bone was formed in most of the GF-DFO scaffolds after six weeks, while very little new bone was observed in the GF scaffolds. These data suggest that use of a hypoxia-mimicking nanofibrous scaffold is a promising strategy for promoting endogenous bone formation.

Biomedical Engineering Department, Sioux Falls Campus.


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