Posted by: kelsijo97 | May 22, 2012

June 2012

Wang, Guojiang J., Huang, Y. S., Zhang, L. Z., Lin, Z. B., & Wang, G. F. (2012). Growth and spectroscopic characteristics of Cr(3+):KSc(WO(4))(2) Crystal. Optical Materials, 34(7), 1120-1123.

The Cr(3+).:KSc(WO(4))2 crystal was grown by top seed solution method. The absorption and luminescence spectra were investigated. The absorption cross section sigma(a) is 1.16 x 10(-19) cm(-2) at 469 nm for the (4)A(2) -> (4)T(1) transition and 4.98 x 10(-20) cm-2 at 684 nm for the (4)A(2) -> (4)T(2) transition, respectively. The emission cross section sigma(a) of (4)T(2) -> (4)A(2) transition is 4.86 x 10(-20) cm(2) at 916 nm with FWHM of 200 nm and fluorescence lifetime is 19.83 mu s. Based on the absorption and emission spectra, the crystal field strength Dq, the Racah parameters B and C, the effective phonon energy tico and the Huang-Rhys factor S were calculated. Cr(3+) ions in Ksc(WO(4))(2) crystal occupy the weak crystal field sites and have stronger coupling to crystal lattice. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Physics Department.

 

Venesky, M. D., Wilcoxen, T. E., Rensel, M. A., Rollins-Smith, L., Kerby, Jacob L., & Parris, M. J. (2012). Dietary protein restriction impairs growth, immunity, and disease resistance in southern leopard frog tadpoles. Oecologia, 169(1), 23-31.

The immune system is a necessary, but potentially costly, defense against infectious diseases. When nutrition is limited, immune activity may consume a significant amount of an organism’s energy budget. Levels of dietary protein affect immune system function; high levels can enhance disease resistance. We exposed southern leopard frog [Lithobates sphenocephalus (=Rana sphenocephala)] tadpoles to high and low protein diets crossed with the presence or absence of the pathogenic amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis; Bd) and quantified: (1) tadpole resistance to Bd; (2) tadpole skin-swelling in response to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) injection (a measure of the T cell-mediated response of the immune system); (3) bacterial killing ability (BKA) of tadpole blood (a measure of the complement-mediated cytotoxicity of the innate immune system); and (4) tadpole growth and development. Tadpoles raised on a low-protein diet were smaller and less developed than tadpoles on a high-protein diet. When controlled for developmental stage, tadpoles raised on a low-protein diet had reduced PHA and BKA responses relative to tadpoles on a high-protein diet, but these immune responses were independent of Bd exposure. High dietary protein significantly increased resistance to Bd. Our results support the general hypothesis that host condition can strongly affect disease resistance; in particular, fluctuations in dietary protein availability may change how diseases affect populations in the field.

Biology Department.

 

Sundram, Vasudha, Chauhan, Subhash C., Ebeling, Mara, & Jaggi, Meena. (2012). Curcumin Attenuates beta-catenin Signaling in Prostate Cancer Cells through Activation of Protein Kinase D1. PloS one, 7(4), e35368.

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer affecting 1 in 6 males in the US. Understanding the molecular basis of prostate cancer progression can serve as a tool for early diagnosis and development of novel treatment strategies for this disease. Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1) is a multifunctional kinase that is highly expressed in normal prostate. The decreased expression of PKD1 has been associated with the progression of prostate cancer. Therefore, synthetic or natural products that regulate this signaling pathway can serve as novel therapeutic modalities for prostate cancer prevention and treatment. Curcumin, the active ingredient of turmeric, has shown anti-cancer properties via modulation of a number of different molecular pathways. Herein, we have demonstrated that curcumin activates PKD1, resulting in changes in beta-catenin signaling by inhibiting nuclear beta-catenin transcription activity and enhancing the levels of membrane beta-catenin in prostate cancer cells. Modulation of these cellular events by curcumin correlated with decreased cell proliferation, colony formation and cell motility and enhanced cell-cell aggregation in prostate cancer cells. In addition, we have also revealed that inhibition of cell motility by curcumin is mediated by decreasing the levels of active cofilin, a downstream target of PKD1. The potent anti-cancer effects of curcumin in vitro were also reflected in a prostate cancer xenograft mouse model. The in vivo inhibition of tumor growth also correlated with enhanced membrane localization of beta-catenin. Overall, our findings herein have revealed a novel molecular mechanism of curcumin action via the activation of PKD1 in prostate cancer cells.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Sun, Y., Thiel, C. W., & Cone, R. L. (2012). Optical decoherence and energy level structure of 0.1% Tm3+:LiNbO3. Physical Review B, 85(16).

We report the energy level structure of the H-3(6) and H-3(4) multiplets for Tm3+ doped congruent LiNbO3, as well as the decoherence properties and their temperature dependencies for the H-3(6)(1) <-> H-3(4)(1a) transition at 794 nm. It is shown that this material provides very significant improvements in bandwidth, time-bandwidth product, and sensitivity for spatial-spectral holographic signal processing devices and quantum memories based on spectral hole burning. The available signal processing bandwidth for 0.1% Tm3+: LiNbO3 is 300 GHz versus 20 GHz for Tm3+ YAG. The peak absorption coefficient for 0.1% Tm3+: LiNbO3 is 15 cm(-1) at 794.5 nm compared with 1.7 cm(-1) for 0.1% Tm:YAG at 793 nm, and the total absorption strength is eighty times stronger. The oscillator strength for Tm3+: LiNbO3 is about twenty-five times larger than that for Tm3+: YAG, making the material five times more sensitive for processing high-bandwidth analog signals. The homogeneous linewidth, which determines processing time or spectrum analyzer resolution, is 30 kHz at 1.6 K and 350 kHz at 6 K, as measured by photon echoes. Those values establish potential time-bandwidth products of 10(7) and 7 x 10(5), respectively. The temperature dependence of the homogeneous linewidth was explained by observation of a 7.8 cm(-1) crystal field level in the ground multiplet and direct phonon coupling. The excited state H-3(4) lifetime T-1 is 152 mu s and the bottleneck lifetime of the lowest F-3(4) level is 7 ms from photon echo measurements. These factors combine to provide a surprisingly large increase in key parameters that determine material performance for spatial-spectral holography, quantum information, and other spectral hole burning applications.

Physics Department.

 

Simons, Jeffrey S., Dvorak, Robert D., Merrill, J. E., & Read, J. P. (2012). Dimensions and severity of marijuana consequences: Development and validation of the Marijuana Consequences Questionnaire (MACQ). Addictive Behaviors, 37(5), 613-621.

The Marijuana Consequences Questionnaire (MACQ) is a 50-item self-report measure modeled after the Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire (YAACQ). College students (n = 315) completed questionnaires online. A confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized 8-factor structure. The results indicate good convergent and discriminant validity of the MACQ. A brief, unidimensional, 21-item version (B-MACQ) was developed by a Rasch model. Comparison of item severity estimates of the B-MACQ items and the corresponding items from the YAACQ indicates that the severity of alcohol- and marijuana-problems is defined by a relatively unique pattern of consequences. The MACQ and B-MACQ provide promising new alternatives to assessing marijuana-related problems. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Psychology Department.

 

Shinozaki, Gen, Romanowicz, Magdalena, Kung, Simon, Rundell, James, & Mrazek, David. (2012). Investigation of serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) by child abuse history interaction with body mass index and diabetes mellitus of White female depressed psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric genetics, 22(3), 109-114.

BACKGROUND: The serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism (5HTTLPR) and child abuse have been associated with an increased risk for depression. We previously reported the long/long (l/l) genotype of 5HTTLPR being associated with higher heart rate among patients with a history of child abuse compared with those without a history of child abuse, whereas the short allele carriers did not have heart rate differences dependent on child abuse history. This time, we extended our investigation to other outcomes with body mass index (BMI), and diabetes mellitus (DM) diagnosis.METHODS: A retrospective chart review identified 185 White female depressed inpatients who were genotyped for 5HTTLPR. Child abuse history, BMI, and DM diagnosis were recorded. The relationship between 5HTTLPR, child abuse, and BMI, as well as a prevalence of DM were analyzed.RESULTS: Among the l/l genotype group, patients with a history of child abuse had a higher prevalence of DM (14.3 vs. 0%, P=0.06), and higher BMI (32.3 vs. 27.3 kg/m, P=0.03) compared with those without. Patients with the short allele (s/s or s/l) had fewer differences on the basis of abuse history.CONCLUSION: A potential interaction between 5HTTLPR and child abuse influenced metabolic profiles of White female depressed inpatients. In contrast with the widely recognized ‘reactivity’ associated with the short allele of 5HTTLPR, our White female depressed psychiatric inpatients with the l/l genotype showed relatively greater clinical pathology in metabolic profiles if they have a history of child abuse than inpatients with at least one short allele who had a history of child abuse.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Shearer, Gregory C., Savinova, Olga V., & Harris, William S. (2012). Fish oil – How does it reduce plasma triglycerides? Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, 1821(5), 843-851.

Long chain omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) are effective for reducing plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. At the pharmaceutical dose, 3.4 g/day, they reduce plasma TG by about 25-50% after one month of treatment, resulting primarily from the decline in hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-TG) production, and secondarily from the increase in VLDL clearance. Numerous mechanisms have been shown to contribute to the TG overproduction, but a key component is an increase in the availability of FAs in the liver. The liver derives FAs from three sources: diet (delivered via chylomicron remnants), de novo lipogenesis, and circulating non-esterified FAs (NEFAs). Of these, NEFAs contribute the largest fraction to VLDL-TG production in both normotriglyceridemic subjects and hypertriglyceridemic, insulin resistant patients. Thus reducing NEFA delivery to the liver would be a likely locus of action for fish oils (FO). The key regulator of plasma NEFA is intracellular adipocyte lipolysis via hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), which increases as insulin sensitivity worsens. FO counteracts intracellular lipolysis in adipocytes by suppressing adipose tissue inflammation. In addition, FO increases extracellular lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase (LpL) in adipose, heart and skeletal muscle and enhances hepatic and skeletal muscle beta-oxidation which contributes to reduced FA delivery to the liver. FO could activate transcription factors which control metabolic pathways in a tissue specific manner regulating nutrient traffic and reducing plasma TG. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Triglyceride Metabolism and Disease. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Schlenker, Evelyn H. (2012). Effects of hypothyroidism on the respiratory system and control of breathing: Human studies and animal models. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 181(2), 123-131.

Abstract: Hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and euthyroid sick syndrome, are prevalent disorders that affect all body systems including the respiratory system and control of breathing. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the regulation of thyroid hormone production and their function at the cellular level; the many causes of hypothyroidism; the effects of hypothyroidism on the respiratory system and on control of ventilation in hypothyroid patients; the variety of ways animal models of hypothyroidism are induced; and how in animal models hypothyroidism affects the respiratory system and control of breathing including neurotransmitters that influence breathing. Finally, this review will present controversies that exist in the field and thus encourage new research directions. Because of the high prevalence of hypothyroidism and subclinical forms of hypothyroidism and their influence on ventilation and the respiratory system, understanding underlying molecular mechanisms is necessary to ascertain how and sometimes why not thyroid replacement may normalize function.

Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Puumala, Susan E., Nelson, H. H., Ross, J. A., Nguyen, R. H. N., Damario, M. A., & Spector, L. G. (2012). Similar DNA methylation levels in specific imprinting control regions in children conceived with and without assisted reproductive technology: a cross-sectional study. BMC Pediatrics, 12.

Background: While a possible link between assisted reproductive technology ( ART) and rare imprinting disorders has been found, it is not clear if this is indicative of subtler disruptions of epigenetic mechanisms. Results from previous studies have been mixed, but some methylation differences have been observed. Methods: Children conceived through ART and children conceived spontaneously were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Information about reproductive history, demographic factors, birth characteristics, and infertility treatment was obtained from maternal interview and medical records. Peripheral blood lymphocytes and buccal cell samples were collected from participating children. Methylation analysis was performed on five loci using pyrosequencing. Statistical analysis of methylation differences was performed using linear regression with generalized estimating equations. Results are reported as differences with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: A total of 67 ART children and 31 spontaneously conceived (SC) children participated. No significant difference in methylation in lymphocyte samples was observed between groups for any loci. Possible differences were found in buccal cell samples for IGF2 DMR0 (Difference: 2.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.28, 4.42; p = 0.08) and IGF2R (Difference: -2.79; 95% CI: -5.74, 0.16; p = 0.06). Subgroup analysis indicated potential lower methylation in those whose parents used ART for unexplained infertility. Conclusions: Observed differences in methylation between the ART and SC groups were small for all loci in the two sample types examined and no statistical differences were observed. It is still unclear whether or not small differences observed in several studies represent a real difference between groups and if this difference is biologically meaningful. Larger studies with long term follow-up are needed to fully answer these questions.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Pottala, J. V., Talley, J. A., Churchill, S. W., Lynch, D. A., Von Schacky, C., & Harris, William S. (2012). Red blood cell fatty acids are associated with depression in a case-control study of adolescents. Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids, 86(4-5), 161-165.

INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies suggest that reduced intakes and/or blood levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with increased risk for depression in adults, but data on adolescents are scarce. The objective of this study was to determine whether red blood cell (RBC) levels of EPA+DHA (the omega-3 index) and/or the overall RBC fatty acid profile differ between depressed adolescents (cases) and non-depressed adolescents (controls).PATIENTS AND METHODS: We measured the RBC fatty acid composition of cases admitted to the hospital for depression (n=150) and compared it to that of controls (n=161).RESULTS: Cases and controls had similar ages, gender proportions, and body mass index (BMI) distributions, but there was a significant difference in racial/ethnic composition due to differences in recruitment sites. The unadjusted odds ratio for case status was 0.72 (95% CI; 0.55-0.95) for a 1% absolute increase in the omega-3 index. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine which fatty acids were useful in classifying cases and controls; BMI, age, gender, and race/ethnicity were forced into the model. Seven fatty acids were selected (DHA, myristic, stearic, oleic, trans linoleic, trans palmitoleic, and alpha-linolenic acids) to optimize the model fit to the data. In the adjusted model, the odds ratio was 0.67 (95% CI; 0.49-0.93) for a 1 SD increase in DHA. Adding the seven fatty acid profile to the basic model increased the area under the ROC curve by 12.6% (7.5%-17.6%).DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: These findings support the hypothesis that adolescent depression is associated with a perturbed RBC fatty acid pattern which includes a reduced omega-3 index. Intervention studies with EPA and DHA should be conducted in this vulnerable population for which few, safe therapeutic options currently exist. Copyright 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Pfefferbaum, B., Schonfeld, D., Flynn, B. W., Norwood, A. E., Jacobs, Gerald A., Hobfoll, S. E., et al. (2012). The H1N1 Crisis: A Case Study of the Integration of Mental and Behavioral Health in Public Health Crises. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 6(1), 67-71.

In substantial numbers of affected populations, disasters adversely affect well-being and influence the development of emotional problems and dysfunctional behaviors. Nowhere is the integration of mental and behavioral health into broader public health and medical preparedness and response activities more crucial than in disasters such as the 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic. The National Biodefense Science Board, recognizing that the mental and behavioral health responses to H1N1 were vital to preserving safety and health for the country, requested that the Disaster Mental Health Subcommittee recommend actions for public health officials to prevent and mitigate adverse behavioral health outcomes during the H1N1 pandemic. The subcommittee’s recommendations emphasized vulnerable populations and concentrated on interventions, education and training, and communication and messaging. The subcommittee’s H1N1 activities and recommendations provide an approach and template for identifying and addressing future efforts related to newly emerging public health and medical emergencies. The many emotional and behavioral health implications of the crisis and the importance of psychological factors in determining the behavior of members of the public argue for a programmatic integration of behavioral health and science expertise in a comprehensive public health response. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2012;6:67-71)

Psychology Department.

 

Pfefferbaum, B., Flynn, B. W., Schonfeld, D., Brown, L. M., Jacobs, Gerald A., Dodgen, Daniel, et al. (2012). The Integration of Mental and Behavioral Health Into Disaster Preparedness, Response, and Recovery. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 6(1), 60-66.

The close interplay between mental health and physical health makes it critical to integrate mental and behavioral health considerations into all aspects of public health and medical disaster management. Therefore, the National Biodefense Science Board (NBSB) convened the Disaster Mental Health Subcommittee to assess the progress of the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in integrating mental and behavioral health into disaster and emergency preparedness and response activities. One vital opportunity to improve integration is the development of clear and directive national policy to firmly establish the role of mental and behavioral health as part of a unified public health and medical response to disasters. Integration of mental and behavioral health into disaster preparedness, response, and recovery requires it to be incorporated in assessments and services, addressed in education and training, and founded on and advanced through research. Integration must be supported in underlying policies and administration with clear lines of responsibility for formulating and implementing policy and practice. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2012;6:60-66)

Psychology Department.

 

Parayil, Sreenivasan Koliyat, Kibombo, Harrison S., Wu, Chia-Ming, Peng, Rui, Baltrusaitis, Jonas, & Koodali, Ranjit T. (2012). Enhanced photocatalytic water splitting activity of carbon-modified TiO2 composite materials synthesized by a green synthetic approach. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 37(10), 8257-8267.

Abstract: We report a green and facile approach for the preparation of carbon-modified (C-modified) TiO2 composite materials by hydrothermal synthesis followed by pyrolytic treatment. The resultant materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen physisorption studies, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photocatalytic performances of these materials were evaluated by calculating the amount of hydrogen evolved from the decomposition of water under solar simulated irradiation conditions. An improvement was achieved from no H2 evolution at all with the bare TiO2, to an evolution of 0.21mLg−1 h−1 from a composite material modified with an optimum carbon loading of 3.62%. These results suggested that the interaction of carbon with predominantly rutile form of TiO2 can promote shallow trapping of photogenerated electrons in the oxygen vacancies. This phenomenon consequently enhances the photocatalytic activity by minimizing charge carrier recombination, a characteristic demonstrated by fluorescence quenching of the TiO2 emission.

Chemistry Department.

 

Padmanabhuni, Ravathi V., Luo, Jie, Cao, Zhengbing B., & Sun, Yu Yu. (2012). Preparation and Characterization of N-Halamine-Based Antimicrobial Fillers. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 51(14), 5148-5156.

The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the surface of CaCO3 fillers can be coated with an N-halamine-based fatty acid to make the filler surface organophilic and simultaneously achieve antibacterial activity, rendering the resulting polymer filler composites antimicrobial. Thus, a new bifunctional compound, 4,4-dimethylhydantoin undecanoic acid (DMH-UA), was synthesized by treating the potassium salt of dimethylhydantoin (DMH) with 11-bromoundecanoic acid (BUA). Upon chlorination treatment with dilute bleach, DMH-UA was transformed into 3-chloro-4,4-dimethylhydantoin undecanoic acid (Cl-DMH-UA). Alternatively, DMH-UA could be coated onto the surface of CaCO3 to obtain the corresponding calcium salt, 4,4-dimethylhydantoin undecanoic acid calcium carbonate (DMH-UA-CaCO3). In the presence of dilute chlorine bleach, the DMH-UA coated on the surface of CaCO3 was transformed into Cl-DMH-UA, leading to the formation of Cl-DMH-UA-CaCO3. The reactions were characterized by FT-IR, NMR, UV, DSC, and SEM analyses. Both Cl-DMH-UA and Cl-DMH-UA-CaCO3 were used as antimicrobial additives for cellulose acetate (CA). The antimicrobial efficacy of the resulting samples was evaluated against both Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacteria). It was found that, for the same additive content, CA samples with Cl-DMH-UA-CaCO3 and Cl-DMH-UA had very similar antimicrobial and biofilm-controlling activities, but the former released less active chlorine into the surrounding environment than the latter.

Biomedical Engineering Program, Sioux Falls Campusw

 

Meyer, Danielle L., Davies, Daniel R., Barr, Jeffrey L., Manzerra, Pasquale, & Forster, Gina L. (2012). Mild traumatic brain injury in the rat alters neuronal number in the limbic system and increases conditioned fear and anxiety-like behaviors. Experimental neurology, 235(2), 574-587.

Recent reports suggest that experiencing a mild closed head trauma or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is associated with a greater incidence of anxiety disorders. Dysfunction of limbic structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus, is associated with the symptoms of anxiety disorders. Therefore, the goal of the current studies was to characterize the consequences of closed mTBI on these limbic structures and associated fear and anxiety-related behaviors. A weight-drop procedure was employed to induce mTBI in male rats. Rats were transcardically perfused 4 or 9days following exposure to mTBI or control procedures, and neuronal number, brain region area, and the number of apoptotic cells in each region were determined. In separate groups of rats, the effects of mTBI on anxiety-like behaviors, motor function, nociception, and acquisition, retention and extinction of contextual fear were also assessed. Findings suggest that mTBI was associated with significant neuronal cell loss in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus and increased cell number in subregions of the amygdala, both of which appear to be related to alterations to apoptosis in these regions following mTBI. Furthermore, mTBI increased expression of anxiety-like behaviors and conditioned fear, with no effect on motor performance or nociception. Overall, a single impact to the skull to mimic mTBI in rats produces discrete alterations to neuronal numbers within the limbic system and specific emotional deficits, providing a potential neurobiological link between mTBI and anxiety disorders.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Lawler, Michael J., Curry, Dale, Donnenwirth, Jann, Mangrich, Mary E., & Times, Tonya N. (2012). Assessing Transfer-of-Learning Potential With Human Services Professionals. Journal of Social Service Research, 38(3), 402-412.

Transfer of learning (TOL) from training to the job was examined in two different populations of human services workers using the Transfer Potential Questionnaire (TPQ). A cross-validation study was conducted to explore commonalities and differences between public welfare (PW) professionals in California (n = 459) and Child Protective Services (CPS) social workers in Ohio (n = 598). The TPQ significantly correlated with perceived TOL for both training populations and added to the amount of TOL variance explained after controlling for participant satisfaction and perceived learning. Important TOL factors identified for both groups included perceived learning and application planning. Findings suggest TPQ is a valid predictor of TOL for both PW professionals and CPS social workers, supporting a shared construct relative to TOL across human services practice areas. Future research should explore additional TOL assessment methods and seek to further validate the TPQ with other populations of human services professionals.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Laudenschlager, Mark, Nykamp, Verlan, Allard, Brandon, Japs, Robert, & Simmons, Jerry. (2012). Cardiac Neuroendocrine Tumor with Absence of Sustentacular Cells: Immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural Findings. Ultrastructural Pathology, 36(2), 130-133.

A 68-year-old male presented with increased shortness of breath and intermittent chest pain. Cardiac catheterization along with echocardiogram imaging demonstrated 3-vessel coronary artery disease with severe left ventricular dysfunction and critical aortic stenosis. During coronary artery bypass surgery, a tumor was identified at the sulcus between the aorta and the right atrial appendage. This highly vascular tumor extended over the right coronary artery, prompting biopsy and further resection. Light microscopic evaluation showed packets of uniform round neoplastic cells without evidence of necrosis or increased mitotic figures. Immunohistochemical studies were positive for synaptophysin and weakly positive for chromogranin. Pankeratin, S-100, and GFAP stains were all negative. Ultrastructural examination of the neoplasm demonstrated numerous electron-dense secretory granules within the cytoplasm of the tumor cells. These secretory granules varied in size from 60 to 210 nm, with halos encircling many of them, suggesting the likelihood of epinephrine or norepinephrine granules. Within the specimen, abundant vascular spaces were identified, but no sustentactular cells were present. The patient agreed to undergo genetic testing, and a mutation in the succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit B (SDHB) was identified. This confirmed the molecular diagnosis of hereditary paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma syndrome. Now two years out from surgery, this patient continues to be asymptomatic in spite of the fact that his tumor was only partially resected.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Kruer, Michael C., Boddaert, N., Schneider, S. A., Houlden, H., Bhatia, K. P., Gregory, A., et al. (2012). Neuroimaging Features of Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 33(3), 407-414.

NBIA characterizes a class of neurodegenerative diseases that feature a prominent extrapyramidal movement disorder, intellectual deterioration, and a characteristic deposition of iron in the basal ganglia. The diagnosis of NBIA is made on the basis of the combination of representative clinical features along with MR imaging evidence of iron accumulation. In many cases, confirmatory molecular genetic testing is now available as well. A number of new subtypes of NBIA have recently been described, with distinct neuroradiologic and clinical features. This article outlines the known subtypes of NBIA, delineates their clinical and radiographic features, and suggests an algorithm for evaluation.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Kim, Young Yun, & Mckay-Semmler, Kelly. (2012). Social engagement and cross-cultural adaptation: An examination of direct- and mediated interpersonal communication activities of educated non-natives in the United States. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, x(x), x-x.

This study explores whether or not technology-mediated interpersonal communication activities with co-ethnics weakens the vital role that direct social engagements with members of the host society play in the cross-cultural adaptation process. Grounded in Kim’s integrative theory of cross-cultural adaptation, this study addresses this question through a detailed examination of the extent to which non-natives participate in face-to-face and mediated “host interpersonal communication” and “ethnic interpersonal communication” through dyadic relationships and organizational affiliations. The analysis utilizes portions of the quantitative and qualitative data obtained from in-depth interviews with 51 relatively well-educated foreign-born residents in the United States. The results indicate that: (1) technology-mediated forms of communication such as email and the Internet serve as the primary means for maintaining contacts with family and friends who remain in the country of origin; (2) non-natives are engaged predominantly in activities of host interpersonal communication rather than ethnic interpersonal communication; and (3) non-natives’ involvements in direct host interpersonal communication, but not their ethnic interpersonal communication, are significantly correlated with their functional and psychological well-being. These and related findings suggest the continuing primacy of non-natives’ direct social engagement with members of the host society in the cross-cultural adaptation process.

Communication Studies Department.

 

Goyeneche, Alicia A., Seidel, Erin E., & Telleria, Carlos M. (2012). Growth inhibition induced by antiprogestins RU-38486, ORG-31710, and CDB-2914 in ovarian cancer cells involves inhibition of cyclin dependent kinase 2. Investigational new drugs, 30(3), 967-980.

Antiprogestins have been largely utilized in reproductive medicine, yet their repositioning for oncologic use is rapidly emerging. In this study we investigated the molecular mediators of the anti-ovarian cancer activity of the structurally related antiprogestins RU-38486, ORG-31710 and CDB-2914. We studied the responses of wt p53 OV2008 and p53 null SK-OV-3 cells to varying doses of RU-38486, ORG-31710 and CDB-2914. The steroids inhibited the growth of both cell lines with a potency of RU-38486 > ORG-31710 > CDB-2914, and were cytostatic at lower doses but lethal at higher concentrations. Antiprogestin-induced lethality associated with morphological features of apoptosis, hypodiploid DNA content, DNA fragmentation, and cleavage of executer caspase substrate PARP. Cell death ensued despite RU-38486 caused transient up-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, ORG-31710 induced transient up-regulation of inhibitor of apoptosis XIAP, and CDB-2914 up-regulated both XIAP and Bcl-2. The antiprogestins induced accumulation of Cdk inhibitors p21(cip1) and p27(kip1) and increased association of p21(cip1) and p27(kip1) with Cdk-2. They also promoted nuclear localization of p21(cip1) and p27(kip1), reduced the nuclear abundances of Cdk-2 and cyclin E, and blocked the activity of Cdk-2 in both nucleus and cytoplasm. The cytotoxic potency of the antiprogestins correlated with the magnitude of the inhibition of Cdk-2 activity, ranging from G1 cell cycle arrest towards cell death. Our results suggest that, as a consequence of their cytostatic and lethal effects, antiprogestin steroids of well-known contraceptive properties emerge as attractive new agents to be repositioned for ovarian cancer therapeutics.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Dixon, Mark D., Johnson, W. Carter, Scott, Michael L., Bowen, Daniel E., & Rabbe, Lisa A. (2012). Dynamics of Plains Cottonwood (Populus deltoides) Forests and Historical Landscape Change along Unchannelized Segments of the Missouri River, USA. Environmental management, 49(5), 990-1008.

Construction of six large dams and reservoirs on the Missouri River over the last 50-75years has resulted in major landscape changes and alterations in flow patterns, with implications for riparian forests dominated by plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides). We quantified changes in land cover from 1892-1950s and the 1950s-2006 and the current extent and age structure of cottonwood forests on seven segments (two reservoir and five remnant floodplain) comprising 1127km (53%) of the unchannelized upper two-thirds of the Missouri River. Riparian forest area declined by 49%; grassland 61%; shrubland 52%; and sandbar habitat 96%; while agricultural cropland increased six-fold and river/reservoir surface area doubled from 1892 to 2006. Net rates of erosion and accretion declined between the 1892-1950s and 1950s-2006 periods. Accretion exceeded erosion on remnant floodplain segments, resulting in declines in active channel width, particularly in 1950s-2006. Across all study segments in 2006, most cottonwood stands (67%) were >50years old, 22% were 25-50years old, and only 10% were <25years old. Among stands <50years old, the higher proportion of 25-50year old stands represents recruitment that accompanied initial post-dam channel narrowing; while declines in sandbar and shrubland area and the low proportion of stands <25years old suggest declines in geomorphic dynamism and limited recruitment under recent river management. Future conservation and restoration efforts should focus both on limiting further loss of remnant cottonwood stands and developing approaches to restore river dynamics and cottonwood recruitment processes.

Biology Department.

 

Casais, M., Vallcaneras, S. S., Arbocco, F. C. V., Delgado, S. M., Hapon, M. B., Sosa, Z., et al. (2012). Estradiol Promotes Luteal Regression Through a Direct Effect on the Ovary and an Indirect Effect From the Celiac Ganglion via the Superior Ovarian Nerve. Reproductive Sciences, 19(4), 416-422.

There is evidence suggesting that estradiol (E(2)) regulates the physiology of the ovary and the sympathetic neurons associated with the reproductive function. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of E(2) on the function of late pregnant rat ovaries, acting either directly on the ovarian tissue or indirectly via the superior ovarian nerve (SON) from the celiac ganglion (CG). We used in vitro ovary (OV) or ex vivo CG-SON-OV incubation systems from day 21 pregnant rats. Various concentrations of E(2) were added to the incubation media of either the OV alone or the ganglion compartment of the CG-SON-OV system. In both experimental schemes, we measured the concentration of progesterone in the OV incubation media by radioimmunoassay at different times. Luteal messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD) and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20 alpha-HSD) enzymes, respectively, involved in progesterone synthesis and catabolism, and of antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and proapoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), were measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at the end of the incubation period. Estradiol added directly to the OV incubation or to the CG of the CG-SON-OV system caused a decline in the concentration of progesterone accumulated in the incubation media. In addition, E(2), when added to the OV incubation, decreased the expression of 3 beta-HSD and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. We conclude that through a direct effect on the OV, E(2) favors luteal regression at the end of pregnancy in rats, in association with neural modulation from the CG via the SON.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Brouwer, Kyle L. (2012). Writing motivation of students with language impairments. Child Language Teaching & Therapy, 28(2), 189-210.

This study compared the writing motivation of students with language impairments (LI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. For the study 272 students (33 students with language impairments, 242 TD peers) aged 8–10 years, in 11 elementary schools, were sampled. The two groups completed self-report measures of writing motivation and 20 grade-appropriate spelling words from a standardized measure. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the hypothesis that perceived writing competence – a self-evaluative judgment of writing competence – mediates the relationship between LI status (LI or TD) and intrinsic forms of writing motivation. Statistical analyses indicated that (1) students with specific language impairments reported lower levels of perceived writing competence and intrinsic writing motivation; (2) LI status was a significant predictor of perceived competence after spelling, grade and gender were controlled; and (3) when spelling, grade and gender were controlled, perceived writing competence was a significant predictor of intrinsic writing motivation, but LI status was not. Future research is necessary to further describe external influences on the writing motivation of students with LI and appropriate motivational supports.

Communications Disorders Department.

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