Posted by: katybug23 | February 7, 2011

January 2011

Newland, Lisa A., Lori A. Roggman, Keenan A. Pituch, and Andrea D. Hart. “Play and Attention: Social Foundations of Early Language.” International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach/ Tarptautinis psichilogijos žurnalas: Biopsichosocialinis požiūris 2 (2008): 29-54.

Background, purpose: Language emerges in the context of social interactions that include play. The purpose of the study was to examine how infant language development is related to joint attention, social toy play, and preferences for attention games. Material and methods: To examine how infant language development is related to joint attention, social toy play, and preferences for attention games, we videotaped 153 mothers and their 14-month-olds in a 20-minute laboratory observation that included a high chair task and a free-play session. Joint visual attention and social toy play were coded from the videotapes by trained observers. Mothers rated their own and their infants’ preferences for specific types of play at home. Language items selected from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development were used to assess preverbal, receptive, and productive language skills. Results, conclusions: Reciprocal social toy play sequences and preferences for simple and coordinated attention games were related to infant language. Joint attention was related to social toy play interactions and preferences for specific attention games at home, but was not directly related to language skills at 14 months. The results suggest that joint attention skills support coordinated, reciprocal, language rich interactions that foster infant language development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)

School of Education.

Bufalino, Janet, Wang Chuang, Francisco X. Gómez-Bellengé, and Garreth Zalud. “What’s Possible for First-Grade at-Risk Literacy Learners Receiving Early Intervention Services.” Literacy Teaching & Learning: An International Journal of Early Reading & Writing 15, no. 1/2 (2010): 1-15.

This paper summarizes a study that was conducted on data from children who received a one-on-one intervention called Reading Recovery® during the first half of their first-grade year in school. The purpose was to investigate the relationship between accelerated progress children made during and after receiving a Reading Recovery intervention, and to determine if a prediction could be made of children’s progress following a series of Reading Recovery lessons. The measure used to assess progress in literacy development was Text Reading Level (TRL), a subtask of An Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement (Clay, 2006). The findings show a moderate relationship between students’ progress following a series of Reading Recovery lessons to the end of first grade, suggesting the sustained effect of the intervention. Additionally, intervention length was noted to be a significant predictor of year-end TRL. Students who had progressed through their series of lessons at a quick rate and had the same TRL at mid-year were shown to have higher TRL scores at year-end. Plotting odds of success (defined as reaching a year-end TRL >18 or 20) for length of intervention and mid-year TRL revealed that students who accelerated through the intervention quickly did not need to reach as high a TRL by the end of the intervention compared to students who did not progress as fast. Although mid-year TRL was known to be important in predicting success after an intervention, no empirical determination of which level was predictive existed prior to this study.

School of Education

Kenyon, Denyelle B., and essica. S. Carter. “Ethnic Identity, Sense of Community, and Psychological Well-Being among Northern Plains American Indian Youth.” Journal of Community Psychology 39, no. 1 (2011): 1-9.

Limited research has examined how ethnic identity and sense of community may be associated with psychological well-being in American Indian adolescents. Via survey data, we examined the relationships among ethnic identity, sense of community, psychosomatic symptoms, positive affect, and feelings of depression with students from a tribal high school (N = 95; n = 37 males; n = 58 females; aged 14.4-20.95 years; mean = 17.3, SD = 1.47 years). A majority of the sample self-identified as American Indian/Native American (85.3%), with small percentages reporting additional ethnic backgrounds. Analyses revealed a significant difference in sense of community and positive affect by ethnic identity group. Post hoc analyses demonstrated adolescents in the “achieved” identity group were significantly higher on sense of community and positive affect than the other three groups. However, there were no significant differences on feelings of depression or psychosomatic symptoms by ethnic identity group. Implications for interventions are discussed. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

Klingenberg, C. P., L. Wetherill, J. Rogers, H. Eugene Hoyme, S. N. Mattson, T. K. Li, E. P. Riley, T. Foroud, and Cifasd Consortium. “Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Alters the Patterns of Facial Asymmetry.” Alcohol 44, no. 7-8 (2010): 649-57.

Directional asymmetry, the systematic differences between the left and right body sides, is widespread in human populations. Changes in directional asymmetry are associated with various disorders that affect craniofacial development. Because facial dysmorphology is a key criterion for diagnosing fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the question arises whether in utero alcohol exposure alters directional asymmetry in the face. Data on the relative position of 17 morphologic landmarks were obtained from facial scans of children who were classified as either FAS or control. Shape data obtained from the landmarks were analyzed with the methods of geometric morphometrics. Our analyses showed significant directional asymmetry of facial shape, consisting primarily of a shift of midline landmarks to the right and a displacement of the landmarks around the eyes to the left. The asymmetry of FAS and control groups differed significantly and average directional asymmetry was increased in those individuals exposed to alcohol in utero. These results suggest that the developmental consequences of fetal alcohol exposure affect a wide range of craniofacial features in addition to those generally recognized and used for diagnosis of FAS. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

Maher, Diane M., Marcia C. Bell, Emmylu A. O’Donnell, Brij K. Gupta, Meena Jaggi, and Sabhash C. Chauhan. “Curcumin Suppresses Human Papillomavirus Oncoproteins, Restores P53, Rb, and Ptpn13 Proteins and Inhibits Benzo a Pyrene-Induced Upregulation of Hpv E7.” Molecular Carcinogenesis 50, no. 1 (2011): 47-57.

Curcumin has great potential as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent; however, its effects on human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated molecular events are inadequately explored. This study examined the effects of curcumin on HPV-associated pathways involved in developing cervical cancer. We demonstrate for the first time that curcumin treatment suppresses cervical cancer cell growth in a three-dimensional raft culture system. Curcumin also inhibits tumorigenic characteristics as shown by decreases in both clonogenic potential and cell motility. Additionally, our findings show that curcumin treatment inhibits the transcription of HPV16 E6/E7 as early as 6 h posttreatment and restores the expression of tumor suppressor proteins p53, retinoblastoma protein, and PTPN13. While smoking is a recognized risk factor for cervical cancer, the molecular effects of smoke carcinogens on the expression of HPV E6/E7 oncogenes are not well known. We show for the first time that exposure to benzo[a] pyrene (BaP), a tobacco carcinogen, increases the expression of HPV E7 oncoprotein suggesting a molecular link between smoking and cervical cancer. Importantly, curcumin decreases the BaP induced increase in the expression of HPV E7 oncoprotein. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that curcumin alters HPV-associated molecular pathways in cervical cancer cells. These novel findings imply that curcumin may be an effective chemopreventive and therapeutic agent for cervical cancer prevention and treatment. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

Pearce, David A., Attila D. Kovács, Angelika Saje, Andrew Wong, Gábor Szénási, Péter Kiricsi, Éva Szabó, and Jonathan D. Cooper. “Temporary Inhibition of Ampa Receptors Induces a Prolonged Improvement of Motor Performance in a Mouse Model of Juvenile Batten Disease.” Neuropharmacology 60, no. 2/3 (2011): 405-09.

Abstract: Mutations in the CLN3 gene cause juvenile Batten disease, a fatal pediatric neurodegenerative disorder. The Cln3-knockout (Cln3 <sup>Δex1–6 </sup>) mouse model of the disease displays many pathological characteristics of the human disorder including a deficit in motor coordination. We have previously found that attenuation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor activity in one-month-old Cln3 <sup>Δex1–6 </sup> mice resulted in an immediate improvement of their motor skills. Here we show that at a later stage of the disease, in 6-7-month-old Cln3 <sup>Δex1–6 </sup> mice, acute inhibition of AMPA receptors by a single intraperitoneal injection (1mg/kg) of the non-competitive AMPA antagonist, EGIS-8332, does not have an immediate effect. Instead, it induces a delayed but prolonged improvement of motor skills. Four days after the injection of the AMPA antagonist, Cln3 <sup>Δex1–6 </sup> mice reached the same motor skill level as their wild type (WT) counterparts, an improvement that persisted for an additional four days. EGIS-8332 was rapidly eliminated from the brain as measured by HPLC-MS/MS. Histological analysis performed 8 days after the drug administration revealed that EGIS-8332 did not have any impact upon glial activation or the survival of vulnerable neuron populations in 7-month-old Cln3 <sup>Δex1–6 </sup> mice. We propose that temporary inhibition of AMPA receptors can induce a prolonged correction of the pre-existing abnormal glutamatergic neurotransmission in vivo for juvenile Batten disease.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

Pearce, David A., Sabrina S. Seehafer, Denia Ramirez-Montealegre, Andrew M. S. Wong, Chun-Hung Chan, Julian Castaneda, Michael Horak, Sarah M. Ahmadi, Ming J. Lim, and Jonathan D. Cooper. “Immunosuppression Alters Disease Severity in Juvenile Batten Disease Mice.” Journal of Neuroimmunology 230, no. 1/2 (2011): 169-72.

Abstract: Autoantibodies to brain proteins are present in Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (Batten disease) patients and in the Cln3 <sup> −/− </sup> mouse model of this disease, suggesting an autoimmune component to pathogenesis. Using genetic or pharmaceutical approaches to attenuate this immune response in Cln3 <sup> −/− </sup> mice, we demonstrate decreased neuroinflammation, decreased deposition of immunoglobulin G in the brain and protection of vulnerable neuron populations. Moreover, immune suppression results in a significant improvement in motor performance providing for the first plausible therapeutic approach for juvenile Batten disease.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

Yallapu, Murali M., Shadi F. Othman, Evan T. Curtis, Brij K. Gupta, Meena Jaggi, and Subhash C. Chauhan. “Multi-Functional Magnetic Nanoparticles for Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cancer Therapy.” Biomaterials 32, no. 7 (2011): 1890-905.

Abstract: We have developed a multi-layer approach for the synthesis of water-dispersible superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and drug delivery applications. In this approach, iron oxide core nanoparticles were obtained by precipitation of iron salts in the presence of ammonia and provided β-cyclodextrin and pluronic polymer (F127) coatings. This formulation (F127250) was highly water dispersible which allowed encapsulation of the anti-cancer drug(s) in β-cyclodextrin and pluronic polymer for sustained drug release. The F127250 formulation has exhibited superior hyperthermia effects over time under alternating magnetic field compared to pure magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) and β-cyclodextrin coated nanoparticles (CD200). Additionally, the improved MRI characteristics were also observed for the F127250 formulation in agar gel and in cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells (A12780CP) compared to MNP and CD200 formulations. Furthermore, the drug-loaded formulation of F127250 exhibited many folds of imaging contrast properties. Due to the internalization capacity of the F127250 formulation, its curcumin-loaded formulation (F127250-CUR) exhibited almost equivalent inhibition effects on A2780CP (ovarian), MDA-MB-231 (breast), and PC-3 (prostate) cancer cells even though curcumin release was only 40%. The improved therapeutic effects were verified by examining molecular effects using Western blotting and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. F127250-CUR also exhibited haemocompatibility, suggesting a nanochemo-therapuetic agent for cancer therapy.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

Schwartz, Seth J., Alan S. Waterman, Alexander T. Vazsonyi, S. Jean Caraway, Su Yeong Kim, Larry F. Forthun, M. Brent Donnellan, and Lindsay S. Ham. “The Association of Well-Being with Health Risk Behaviors in College-Attending Young Adults.” Applied Developmental Science 15, no. 1 (2011): 20-36.

The present study investigated the associations of well-being with engagement in illicit drug use, sexual risk taking, and impaired driving in a sample of 9,515 students from 30 U.S. colleges and universities. Participants completed measures of subjective well-being, psychological well-being, and eudaimonic well-being, and indicated how many times in the past 30 days that they had engaged in several illicit drug use, sexual risk, and impaired driving behaviors. Findings indicated that well-being was negatively associated with incidence of illicit drug use and some sexual risk behaviors, but not with incidence of drunk/drugged driving or riding with an impaired driver. Well-being was negatively related to frequency of casual sex, sex while drunk/high, drunk/drugged driving, and riding with an impaired driver. Associations of well-being were strongest for more dangerous types of drug use and sexual behavior and for riding with an impaired driver. Results are discussed in terms of implications for research and intervention development.

Psychology Department

Huckfeldt, Vaughn. “Prudence, Commitments and Intertemporal Conflicts.” Theoria: A Swedish Journal of Philosophy 77, no. 1 (2011): 42-54.

Typical justifications of prudence are based on the fact that we are temporally extended agents who remain numerically identical over time. After showing that prudential considerations should instead be based on our identity at a particular time, I outline a normative context for prudential reasons, based on a present commitment to temporal neutrality. I then consider how contingency in the content of a present commitment to temporal neutrality provides a flexible context that can help to resolve current debates about whether agents are required to maximize value, maximin value, minimax loss or are required to conform to any of a host of other options on how to adjudicate various types of conflict between present and future values.

Languages, Linguistics and Philosophy Department

Mariappan, Kadarkaraisamy, and Prem Nath Basa. “Coordination Polymers of 1,8-Bis(2-Methylthioethoxy)Anthraquinone and 1,5-Bis(2-Methylthioethoxy)Anthraquinone with Ag(I): Synthesis and X-Ray Crystallography.” Inorganica Chimica Acta 366, no. 1 (2011): 344-49.

Abstract: The reaction of 2-(methylthioethanol) with 1,8-dichloroanthraquinone and 1,5-dichloroanthraquinone in THF with base produces 1,8-bis(2-methylthioethoxy)anthraquinone (1) and 1,5-bis(2-methylthioethoxy)anthraquinone (2), respectively. Silver(I) complexes of 1 and 2 have been synthesized after combination with [Ag(CH<sub>3</sub>CN)<sub>4</sub>]BF<sub>4</sub> in 1:1M ratio to yield, [(1,8-bis(2-methylthioethoxy)anthraquinone)Ag]BF<sub>4</sub>, (3) and [(1,5-bis(2-methylthioethoxy)anthraquinone)Ag·CH<sub>3</sub>CN]BF<sub>4</sub>, (4). X-ray crystal structures of the free ligand (1) and the Ag(I) complexes (3 and 4) are reported. The intraannular carbonyl group forms a coordinate–covalent bond with Ag(I) and, in the solid state, both silver(I) complexes are found as coordination polymers.

Chemistry Department

Clotfelter, E. D., M. M. McNitt, Russ E. Carpenter, and Cliff H. Summers. “Modulation of Monoamine Neurotransmitters in Fighting Fish Betta Splendens Exposed to Waterborne Phytoestrogens.” Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 36, no. 4 (2010): 933-43.

Endogenous estrogens are known to affect the activity of monoamine neurotransmitters in vertebrate animals, but the effects of exogenous estrogens on neurotransmitters are relatively poorly understood We exposed sexually mature male fighting fish Betta splendens to environmentally relevant and pharmacological doses of three phytoestrogens that are potential endocrine disruptors in wild fish populations genistein, equol, and beta-sitosterol We also exposed fish to two doses of the endogenous estrogen 17 beta-estradiol, which we selected as a positive control because phytoestrogens are putative estrogen mimics Our results were variable, but the effects were generally modest Genistein increased dopamine levels in the forebrains of B splendens at both environmentally relevant and pharmacological doses The environmentally relevant dose of equol increased dopamine levels in B splendens forebrains, and the pharmacological dose decreased norepinephrine (forebrain), dopamine (hindbrain), and serotonin (forebrain) levels The environmentally relevant dose of beta-sitosterol decreased norepinephrine and dopamine in the forebrain and hindbrain, respectively Our results suggest that sources of environmental phytoestrogens, such as runoff or effluent from agricultural fields, wood pulp mills, and sewage treatment plants, have the potential to modulate neurotransmitter activity in free-living fishes in a way that could interfere with normal behavioral processes

Biology Department

Monroe, Emy M., Colleen Lynch, Daniel A. Soluk, and Hugh B. Britten. “Nonlethal Tissue Sampling Techniques and Microsatellite Markers Used for First Report of Genetic Diversity in Two Populations of the Endangered Somatochlora Hineana (Odonata: Corduliidae).” Annals of the Entomological Society of America 103, no. 6 (2010): 1012-17.

Techniques for obtaining DNA noninvasively or nonlethally are highly desirable in molecular genetic studies of protected species, and several advances have been made in these types of sampling and extraction techniques. Insects present a unique set of difficulties in this regard that are not present when working with most vertebrates. This study evaluated the effectiveness of several nonlethal sampling techniques for larval and adults of the federally listed endangered dragonfly Somatochlora hineana (Williamson) (Odonata: Corduliidae). Fecal pellets and shed exuviae from captive S. hineana larvae did not provide high enough quality DNA for microsatellite analyses. Invasive, but nonlethal, wing clips from adults and tarsi from larvae provided high-quality DNA that amplified 10 microsatellite markers for this species. Ten loci were polymorphic in 94 specimens with four to 14 alleles per locus. Two populations in WI had average observed heterozygosity of 0.47, which is within the range reported for other odonates. Our sampling techniques and these new microsatellite markers provide an essential tool for determining the genetic structure of S. hineana populations throughout its range.

Biology Department

Lavin, Angeline M., David L. Carr, and Thomas L. Davies. “The Male Professor’s Attire and Student Perceptions of Instructional Quality.” Research in Higher Education Journal 4 (2009): 1-15.

This paper reports the results of a study conducted by the authors designed to address the question of whether the attire of male professors impacts the perceptions of male and female students differently as to the quality of instruction and their overall satisfaction with the academic program. Specifically, male and female students were surveyed using two different versions of a questionnaire which depicted a male model wearing casual, business casual, and professional clothing. Overall, in most cases the male instructor who was dressed more professionally was held in higher esteem by students of both genders. However, opposite results were found with respect to the male instructor’s ability to relate course information to the real world as well as his willingness to answer questions and listen to student opinions. Further, female students did rate the instructor more positively in all cases, although in some cases the difference was not statistically significant.

Beacom School of Business

Moen, David, Thomas Davies, and De Vee Dykstra. “Student Perceptions of Instructor Classroom Management Practices.” College Teaching Methods & Styles Journal 6, no. 1 (2010): 21-31.

This paper summarizes the results from a study that was conducted of students at a midsized Midwestern doctoral-granting liberal arts university. Students were asked whether a hypothetical Professor’s behavior in 42 described classroom scenarios was always, often, sometimes, rarely, or never appropriate. The purpose of the study is to provide guidance to professors in setting their own policies and procedures in managing their classes.

Beacom School of Business

Verbos, Amy Klemm, Joe S. Gladstone, and Deanna M. Kennedy. “Native American Values and Management Education: Envisioning an Inclusive Virtuous Circle.” Journal of Management Education 35, no. 1 (2011): 10-26.

Circles are symbols of interconnectedness. Behavioral circles can be vicious or virtuous. Many American Indians are caught in a vicious circle of exclusion from the purported benefits of Westernization, entrapment in its negative elements, and the ongoing undermining of their culture and thus their identities. Yet Native Americans, along with many indigenous peoples the world over, are holding fast to traditional values. Indigenous knowledge systems include spiritual orientations that, in the face of the social and environmental issues facing humanity, may provide an alternative set of values for generating life-enhancing business behavior. The authors introduce management educators to Native American values generally and specifically to four traditional Lakota values: bravery, generosity, fortitude, and wisdom. Management education might move toward to an inclusive, virtuous circle through respect for Native American values as an equally valid alternative to dominant management values.

Beacom School of Business

Verbos, Amy Klemm, Deanna M. Kennedy, and Joe S. Gladstone. ““Coyote Was Walking. . .”: Management Education in Indian Time.” Journal of Management Education 35, no. 1 (2011): 51-65.

The authors present a Coyote story to illustrate Native American perspectives on time, teaching, and learning. Coyote stories invoke Indian Time, a traditional Native American perception of time that progresses through events rather than minutes on a clock. Coyote, a trickster, wanders and investigates, interacting with animate creatures and inanimate objects. He inspires us to pursue creative, multidirectional approaches of understanding and reflective, self-discovered approach to learning. Whereas management and management education typically edify a single-time perspective, that of clock time, you may find wisdom in nonlinear Indian Time and reflective learning through timeless stories.

Beacom School of Business

Gonzalez-Vogel, A., J. Eyzaguirre, G. Oleas, Eduardo Callegari, and M. Navarrete. “Proteomic Analysis in Non-Denaturing Condition of the Secretome Reveals the Presence of Multienzyme Complexes in Penicillium Purpurogenum.” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 89, no. 1 (2011): 145-55.

Proteins secreted by filamentous fungi play key roles in different aspects of their biology. The fungus Penicillium purpurogenum, used as a model organism, is able to degrade hemicelluloses and pectins by secreting a variety of enzymes to the culture medium. This work shows that these enzymes interact with each other to form high molecular weight, catalytically active complexes. By using a proteomics approach, we were able to identify several protein complexes in the secretome of this fungus. The expression and assembly of these complexes depend on the carbon source used and display molecular masses ranging from 300 to 700 kDa. These complexes are composed of a variety of enzymes, including arabinofuranosidases, acetyl xylan esterases, feruloyl esterases, beta-glucosidases and xylanases. The protein-protein interactions in these multienzyme complexes were confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation assays. One of the complexes was purified from sugar beet pulp cultures and the subunits identified by tandem mass spectrometry. A better understanding of the biological significance of these kinds of interactions will help in the comprehension of the degradation mechanisms used by fungi and may be of special interest to the biotechnology industry.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus

Wang, Xuejun, D. Lei, F. Li, H. Su, Z. Tian, B. Ye, and N. Wei. “Cop9 Signalosome Subunit 8 Is Required for Postnatal Hepatocyte Survival and Effective Proliferation.” Cell Death & Differentiation 18, no. 2 (2011): 259-70.

Studies using lower organisms and cultured mammalian cells have revealed that the COP9 signalosome (CSN) has important roles in multiple cellular processes. Conditional gene targeting was recently used to study CSN function in murine T-cell development and activation. Using the Cre-loxP system, here we have achieved postnatal hepatocyte-restricted knockout of the csn8 gene (HR-Csn8KO) in mice. The protein abundance of other seven CSN subunits was differentially downregulated by HR-Csn8KO and the deneddylation of all cullins examined was significantly impaired. Moreover, HR-Csn8KO-induced massive hepatocyte apoptosis and evoked extensive reparative responses in the liver, including marked intralobular proliferation of biliary lineage cells and trans-differentiation and proliferation of the oval cells. However, division of pre-existing hepatocytes was significantly diminished in HR-Csn8KO livers. These findings indicate that Csn8 is essential to the ability of mature hepatocytes to proliferate effectively in response to hepatic injury. The histopathological examinations revealed striking hepatocytomegaly in Csn8-deficient livers. The hepatocyte nuclei were dramatically enlarged and pleomorphic with hyperchromasia and prominent nucleoli, consistent with dysplasia or preneoplastic cellular alteration in HR-Csn8KO mice at 6 weeks. Pericellular and perisinusoid fibrosis with distorted architecture was also evident at 6 weeks. It is concluded that CSN8/CSN is essential to postnatal hepatocyte survival and effective proliferation.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus

Yuan, Sharleen, and Brian D. Burrell. “Endocannabinoid-Dependent Ltd in a Nociceptive Synapse Requires Activation of a Presynaptic Trpv-Like Receptor.” Journal of Neurophysiology 104, no. 5 (2010): 2766-77.

Yuan S, Burrell BD. Endocannabinoid-dependent LTD in a nociceptive synapse requires activation of a presynaptic TRPV-like receptor. J Neurophysiol 104: 2766-2777, 2010. First published September 8, 2010; doi:10.1152/jn.00491.2010. Recent studies have found that some forms of endocannabinoid-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus are mediated through activation of transient potential receptor vanilloid (TRPV) receptors instead of cannabinoid receptors CB1 or CB2. The potential role for synaptic localization of TRPV receptors during endocannabinoid modulation of nociceptive synapses was examined in the leech CNS where it is possible to record from the same pair of neurons from one preparation to the next. Long-term depression (LTD) in the monosynaptic connection between the nociceptive (N) sensory neuron and the longitudinal (L) motor neuron was found to be endocannabinoid-dependent given that this depression was blocked by RHC-80267, an inhibitor of DAG lipase that is required for 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2AG) synthesis. Intracellular injection of a second DAG lipase inhibitor, tetrahyrdolipstatin (THL) was also able to block this endocannabinoid-dependent LTD (ecLTD) when injected postsynaptically but not presynaptically. N-to-L ecLTD was also inhibited by the TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine and SB 366791. Bath application of 2AG or the TRPV1 agonists capsaicin and resiniferatoxin mimicked LTD and both capsaicin-and 2AG-induced depression were blocked by capsazepine. In addition, pretreatment with 2AG or capsaicin occluded subsequent expression of LTD induced by repetitive activity. Presynaptic, but not postsynaptic, intracellular injection of capsazepine blocked both activity-and 2AG-induced ecLTD, suggesting that a presynaptic TRPV-like receptor in the leech mediated this form of synaptic plasticity. These findings potentially extend the role ecLTD to nociceptive synapses and suggest that invertebrate synapses, which are thought to lack CB1/CB2 receptor orthologues, utilize a TRPV-like protein as an endocannabinoid receptor

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus

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