Posted by: princekhaled | January 8, 2009

January 2009

Aldrich AW(*) (2008).
Creating Collaborative Workstations for Reference and Public Use in Academic Libraries.
College & Undergraduate Libraries 15(3): 364-377.

The current focus on libraries as place involves the collaborative needs of library users for features such as movable furniture, group work areas, and amenities such as coffee shops. Additional attention needs to focus on how the technology infrastructure can support collaborative work in academic libraries. The one-user-one-machine setup common in many academic libraries does not do this. A collaborative workstation that is inexpensive and readily assembled is described along with equipment needs and costs. The impact of such a collaborative workstation for both reference work and public use is discussed.

(*)I. D. Weeks Library, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069

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An H(*) & Chan KC (2008).
Credit ratings and IPO pricing.
Journal of Corporate Finance 14(5): 584-595.

We examine the effects of credit ratings on IPO pricing. The evidence from U.S. common share IPOs during 1986–2004 shows that when firms go public, those with credit ratings are underpriced significantly less than firms without credit ratings. Credit rating levels, however, do not have a significant effect on IPO underpricing. The existence of credit rating reduces uncertainty about firm value. It is the value certainty that matters, not the value per se. Credit ratings also reduce the degree of price revision during the bookbuilding process and the aftermarket volatility in the post-IPO period. The evidence suggests that credit ratings convey useful information in reducing value uncertainty of the issuing firms as well as information asymmetry in the IPO markets.

(*)Beacom School of Business. the University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069

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Bird DW(*) (2008).
Mutation of Two Mycoplasma arthritidis Surface Lipoproteins with Divergent Functions in Cytadherence.
Infection and Immunity 76(12): 5768-5776.

Mycoplasma arthritidis is a natural pathogen of rats, causing an acute polyarthritis. Previous studies identified two membrane-bound lipoproteins, Maa1 and Maa2, thought to be associated with cytadherence of M. arthritidis strain 158p10p9. We have since confirmed that Maa1 is a major adhesin, although the role of Maa2 has proven more elusive. Both proteins were capable of eliciting protective immunity in rats against challenge with the virulent strain 158p10p9, suggesting that they may be important in pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to better understand the roles of Maa1 and Maa2 in cytadherence in vitro. Insertion mutants were created for both genes by transposon mutagenesis. In vitro adherence of the Maa1 mutant KOMaa1 to rat L2 lung cells was reduced to the level previously reported for a spontaneous low-adherence mutant of 158p10p9 in which Maa1 is truncated and nonfunctional. Surprisingly, adherence of the Maa2 mutant KOMaa2 was approximately fivefold greater than that of the wild type. Complementation of KOMaa1 and KOMaa2 with wild-type alleles of maa1 and maa2, respectively, returned adherence to wild-type levels. This work confirms our earlier observation that Maa1 is a major adhesin for M. arthritidis strain 158p10p9. Maa2, on the other hand, may play a suppressive or modulatory role, possibly serving to release organisms from microcolonies at certain stages of infection.

(*)Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, 414 E. Clark Street, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069

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Duysen EG, Li B, Carlson M, Li Y-F(*), Wieseler S, Hinrichs SH, et al. (2008).
Increased Hepatotoxicity and Cardiac Fibrosis in Cocaine-Treated Butyrylcholinesterase Knockout Mice.
Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology 103(6): 514-521.

In mice, cocaine is detoxified to inactive products by butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and carboxylesterase. In human beings, cocaine detoxification is primarily by BChE. The focus of this investigation was to elucidate the importance of BChE in reducing pathophysiological effects following cocaine exposure. Previous studies examining the effects of cocaine on BChE deficient animals relied on chemical inhibition of BChE with tetraisopropyl pyrophosphoramide (iso-OMPA). The creation of the BChE knockout mouse has provided a model for studying pathological effects of cocaine in mice free of chemical confounders. We hypothesized that mice with low or no BChE activity would have reduced cocaine metabolism, leading to hepatotoxicity and cardiomyopathy. A high-resolution in vivoimaging system recorded cardiac and respiratory function following treatment with a carboxylesterase inhibitor and a high dose of cocaine (100Â mg/kg, intraperitoneally). The BChE?/? mice demonstrated depressed respiration through 12Â hr after dosing and abnormal respiratory patterns consisting of a pause at full inspiration (apneusis), whereas BChE/ mice had recovered normal respiration rates by 30Â min. after dosing and exhibited no apneusis. Liver and cardiac histology sections were analysed following a 20Â mg/kg intraperitoneally dose of cocaine administered daily for 7 days. BChE-/- mice treated for 7 days with the chronic low dose showed significant hepatotoxicity and cardiac perivascular fibrosis compared to BChE/ mice. The observed functional changes following acute high-dose and chronic low-dose cocaine in BChE?/? and /? mice warrants further investigation into the possibility of increased cocaine toxicity in human beings with BChE deficiency.

(*)Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD, USA

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Elhai JD(*), Voorhees S(*), Ford JD, Min KS(**), & Frueh BC (2009).
Sociodemographic, perceived and objective need indicators of mental health treatment use and treatment-seeking intentions among primary care medical patients.
Psychiatry Research 165(1-2): 145-153.

We explored sociodemographic and illness/need associations with both recent mental healthcare utilization intensity and self-reported behavioral intentions to seek treatment. Data were examined from a community sample of 201 participants presenting for medical appointments at a Midwestern U.S. primary care clinic, in a cross-sectional survey study. Using non-linear regression analyses accounting for the excess of zero values in treatment visit counts, we found that both sociodemographic and illness/need models were significantly predictive of both recent treatment utilization intensity and intentions to seek treatment. Need models added substantial variance in prediction, above and beyond sociodemographic models. Variables with the greatest predictive role in explaining past treatment utilization intensity were greater depression severity, perceived need for treatment, older age, and lower income. Robust variables in predicting intentions to seek treatment were greater depression severity, perceived need for treatment, and more positive treatment attitudes. This study extends research findings on mental health treatment utilization, specifically addressing medical patients and using statistical methods appropriate to examining treatment visit counts, and demonstrates the importance of both objective and subjective illness/need variables in predicting recent service use intensity and intended future utilization.

(*)Disaster Mental Health Institute, The University of South Dakota, 414 East Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069-2390, United States
(**)School of Business, The University of South Dakota, 414 E. Clark St., Vermillion, SD 57069-2390, United States

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Engelhart D(*), Kadarkaraisamy M(*), & Sykes A(*) (2008).
Monomeric complexes of 1,8-bis(isonicotinyloxy)anthracene-9,10-dione.
Journal of Coordination Chemistry 61(24): 3887-3894.

Condensation of two equivalents of isonicotinic acid with 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone forms 1,8-bis(isonicotinyloxy)anthracene-9,10-dione (1), a potential bridging diester ligand. Complexation reactions between 1 and Co(II) and Ni(II) perchlorate hexahydrate salts produce 2 : 1 ligand : metal monomeric complexes. One nicotinic nitrogen is bonded to a metal center while the second ‘free’ isonicotinic nitrogen is hydrogen bonded to water molecules, present from the hydrated salts used in the synthesis, ligated to the same metal center.

(*)Department of Chemistry, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069

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Frueh BC, Grubaugh AL, Cusack KJ, & Elhai JD(*) (2009).
Disseminating Evidence-Based Practices for Adults With PTSD and Severe Mental Illness in Public-Sector Mental Health Agencies.
Behavior Modification 33(1): 66-81.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains largely untreated among adults with severe mental illnesses (SMI). The treatment of psychotic symptoms usually takes precedence in the care of adults with SMI. Such oversight is problematic in that PTSD in SMI populations is common (19%-43%), contributes a significant illness burden, and hinders mental health care. Yet few public-sector mental health agencies routinely provide specialized services for PTSD. The purpose of the article is to describe strategies and efforts to disseminate trauma-focused empirically based practices in a public-sector mental health system. Identified challenges include limited resources and commitment; knowledge deficits, attitudes, and biases; and limited practice accountability at provider, facility, and system levels. Proposed strategies for overcoming these challenges are to set clear goals, nurture broad-based organizational commitment and key stakeholder involvement, implement specialty training efforts to provide information and change attitudes, provide ongoing supervision, conduct fidelity monitoring, and ensure accountability to the extent possible.

(*)Disaster Mental Health Institute and Department of Psychology, University of South Dakota

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Gernandt DS, Magallõn S, Lõpez GG, Flores OZn, Willyard A(*), & Liston A (2008).
Use of simultaneous analyses to guide fossil-based calibrations of pinaceae phylogeny.
International Journal of Plant Sciences 169(8): 1086-1099.

Uncertainties in the age and phylogenetic position of Pinaceae fossils present significant obstacles to our understanding of the timing of diversification in the family. We demonstrate that simultaneous phylogenetic analyses of chloroplast DNA(matK and rbcL) and nonmolecular characters that include both extant genera and a limited number of fossil taxa provide useful hypotheses for calibrating molecular trees. Root placements varied for Pinaceae, with Bayesian analyses recovering mutually monophyletic subfamilies Pinoideae and Abietoideae and parsimony analyses recovering Abietoideae as paraphyletic by placing the root between Cedrus and the remaining genera. The inferred phylogenetic positions of fossil taxa Pityostrobus bernissartensis as the sister group to Pinus and Pseudolarix erensis as the sister group to extant Pseudolarix were used to guide divergence time calibrations; these calibrations yielded an Early Cretaceous and an Early Jurassic age for crown-group Pinaceae, respectively. The older age estimates based on Pseudolarix erensis are supported by weaker evidence from the fossil record but are consistent with recent reports of Early Cretaceous leaf fossils that appear to coincide with extant genera. There remains a great need to characterize the anatomy of extant and fossil species and to code additional nonmolecular characters.

(*)Department of Biology, University of South Dakota, 414 East Clark Street, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069, U.S.A

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He H & Sykes AG(*) (2008).
Facile preparation of neutral monoporphyrinate lanthanide complexes with strong near-infrared emission.
Inorganic Chemistry Communications 11(10): 1304-1307.

Ytterbium (III) acetylacetonate reacts with 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (H2TPP) and 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-bromophenyl)porphyrin (H2TBrPP) in 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and forms unexpected acetate-bridged dimer and propionate-coordinated monomer of monoporphyrinate ytterbium (III) complexes, respectively, whereas interaction of ytterbium (III) acetate with H2TPP gives stable acetate-coordinated monomer with two labile methanol binding directly to metal center. This compound reacts readily with 1,10-phenanthroline derivatives to give eight-coordinate monoporphyrinate ytterbium (III) complexes with strong near infrared emission efficiency.

(*)Department of Chemistry, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 56069, USA

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Ikiugu MN(*), Anderson A(*), & Manas D(*) (2008).
The test-retest reliability of a battery of new occupational performance assessments.
International Journal of Therapy & Rehabilitation 15(12): 562-571.

Aims: The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the test-retest reliability of a set of newly developed occupational performance assessment instruments based on the philosophy of pragmatism and the complexity theory. These instruments were: the Assessment and Intervention Instrument for Instrumentalism in Occupational Therapy (AIIIOT), the Daily Occupational Inventory (DOI), and the Occupational Performance Calculation Guide (OPCG). Method: An experimental study with a non-experimental test-retest design was adopted to quantify observations, and to determine the ability of the instruments to produce stable scores on repeated testing. Findings: The AIIIOT was found to have low test-retest reliability, probably owing to a very small sample. The occupational performance scores as calculated on the OPCG had reliability coefficients that approached statistical significance. Adequacy, Satisfaction, and Belief scores on the AIIIOT were found to be good predictors of the frequency of engagement in occupations perceived to be important for achievement of personal mission in life. Conclusions: These assessments have promise as clinical instruments for measuring occupational performance in occupational therapy. Further research with more robust samples is indicated to validate the instruments conclusively.

(*)Occupational Therapy, University of South Dakota

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Jinbao L(*), Hanqiao Z(*), Mingxin T(*), Youn-Chu IR(*), & Xuejun W(*) (2008).
A therapeutic dose of doxorubicin activates ubiquitin-proteasome system-mediated proteolysis by acting on both the ubiquitination apparatus and proteasome.
American Journal of Physiology: Heart & Circulatory Physiology 64(6): H2541-H2550.

The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) degrades abnormal proteins and most unneeded normal proteins, thereby playing a critical role in protein homeostasis in the cell. Proteasome inhibition is effective in treating certain forms of cancer, while UPS dysfunction is increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of many severe and yet common diseases. It has been previously shown that doxorubicin (Dox) enhances the degradation of a UPS surrogate substrate in mouse hearts. To address the underlying mechanism, in the present study, we report that 1) Dox not only enhances the degradation of an exogenous UPS reporter (GFPu) but also antagonizes the proteasome inhibitor-induced accumulation of endogenous substrates (e.g., ~-catenin and c-Jun) of the UPS in cultured NIH 3T3 cells and cardiomyocytes; 2) Dox facilitates the in vitro degradation of GFPu and c-Jun by the reconstituted UPS via the enhancement of proteasomal function; 3) Dox at a therapeutically relevant dose directly stimulates the peptidase activities of purified 20S proteasomes; and 4) Dox increases, whereas proteasome inhibition decreases, E3 ligase COOH-terminus of heat shock protein cognate 70 in 3T3 cells via a posttranscriptional mechanism. These new findings suggest that Dox activates the UPS by acting directly on both the ubiquitination apparatus and proteasome.

(*)Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota

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Lushbough CM(*), Bergman MK, Lawrence CJ, & Jennewein D (2008).
Implementing bioinformatic workflows within the BioExtract Server.
International Journal of Computational Biology and Drug Design 1(3): 302-312.

Computational workflows in bioinformatics are becoming increasingly important in the achievement of scientific advances. These workflows typically require the integrated use of multiple, distributed data sources and analytic tools. The BioExtract Server (http://bioextract.org) is a distributed service designed to provide researchers with the web ability to query multiple data sources, save results as searchable data sets, and execute analytic tools. As the researcher works with the system, their tasks are saved in the background. At any time these steps can be saved as a workflow that can then be executed again and/or modified later.

(*)Department of Computer Science, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA.

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Mo B(*), Callegari E(*), Telefont M(*), & Renner KJ(*) (2008).
Estrogen Regulation of Proteins in the Rat Ventromedial Nucleus of the Hypothalamus.
Journal of Proteome Research 7(11): 5040-5048.

The effects of estradiol (E 2) on the expression of proteins in the pars lateralis of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMNpl) in ovariectomized rats was studied using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by RPLC-nanoESI-MS/MS. E 2treatment resulted in the up-regulation of 29 identified proteins. Many of these proteins are implicated in the promotion of neuronal plasticity and signaling.

(*)Department of Biology and Neuroscience Group, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Daklota 57069, and Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069

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Naifeh JA(*), Elhai JD(*), Kashdan TB, & Grubaugh AL (2008).
The PTSD Symptom Scale’s latent structure: An examination of trauma-exposed medical patients.
Journal of Anxiety Disorders 22(8): 1355-1368.

Several studies have employed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to evaluate the latent structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessment measures among various trauma-exposed populations. Findings have generally failed to support the current three-factor DSM-IV PTSD conceptualization, demonstrating the need to consider alternative models. The present study used CFA to evaluate seven models, including intercorrelated and hierarchical versions of two models with the most empirical support. Data were utilized from a heterogeneous trauma-exposed sample of general medical patients (n=252). Based on several indices, the three-factor DSM-IV PTSD model was shown to be inferior to alternative models. The strongest support was found for an intercorrelated four-factor model, separating avoidance and numbing symptoms into distinct factors. Validity for this model was partially supported by divergent relations between factors and external variables. Implications of the results are discussed, and a framework is proposed for resolving discrepant findings in the PTSD CFA literature.

(*)Disaster Mental Health Institute, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD, United States

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Nelson D(*), Kennedy B(*), Regnerus C(*), & Schweinle A(**) (2008).
Accuracy of Automated Blood Pressure Monitors.
Journal of Dental Hygiene 82(4): 35-35.

Purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine if automated and aneroid manometers are as accurate a means of determining blood pressure as the mercury manometer. Obtaining vital signs for patients is considered standard of care, yet many dental offices do not routinely perform this health service because of technique inconsistencies and time constraints. The use of automatic blood pressure monitors addresses both concerns. The mercury column manometer, the control in this study, has long been considered the most accurate and preferred instrument for obtaining blood pressure measurements. Methods. During this study, 94 participants (19 years of age and older) consented to having blood pressure taken by each of 4 different monitors. These included the mercury column manometer and stethoscope, the aneroid manometer and stethoscope, the automatic arm blood pressure monitor, and the automatic wrist blood pressure monitor. Each of 3 investigators was assigned to and calibrated for a specific monitoring device. All measurements were taken from the left arm with 5 minutes allowed between measurements. Identical stethoscopes were used with the manual monitors. Strict adherence to the manufacturers’ directions and patient preparation was followed for all monitors. Investigators were not aware of readings obtained by other investigators during testing. Eighty-three subjects completed all tests. Results. Review and analysis of data indicates little difference for pulse readings between the automated and digital methods. Systolic readings by automated wrist manometers were the most unreliable. Automated arm monitors tended to provide higher measures than the mercury standard on average, and demonstrated significantly different diastolic readings in one age group compared to the control. All monitors exhibited low reliability for participants over age 50 compared to the control. Conclusion. This study demonstrates there is inaccuracy in the use of automated blood.

(*)Division of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, University of South Dakota
(**)Division of Counseling and Psychology in Education, University of South Dakota

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Pietrzak D(*), Duncan K(**), & Korcuska JS(**) (2008).
Counseling Students’ Decision Making Regarding Teaching Effectiveness: A Conjoint Analysis.
Counselor Education & Supervision 48(2): 114-132.

The authors examined the relative importance of 4 attributes of decision making for student evaluation of teaching effectiveness: perceived knowledge base of the professor, professor’s delivery style, course organization, and course workload. Participants were 234 counseling graduate students from 6 midwestern universities in the United States. Data were analyzed with classic conjoint analysis using an additive model with full-profile method. Results indicated that decisions about teaching effectiveness are complex and based on multiple attributes. There was sufficient variability in the decision-making process to warrant caution in overgeneralizing results. Implications for faculty development and faculty hiring are considered.

(*)Department of Academic Evaluation and Assessment and Division of Counseling and Psychology in Education , University of South Dakota, 414 East Clark, Slagle 103, Vermillion, SD 57069
(**)Division of Counseling and Psychology in Education, University of South Dakota

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Schweinle A(*), Turner JC, & Meyer DK (2009).
Understanding Young Adolescents’ Optimal Experiences in Academic Settings.
Journal of Experimental Education 77(2): 125-146.

Cognitive, motivational, and affective characteristics define classroom contexts, yet flow theory (e.g., M. Csikszentmihalyi, 1975) is 1 of only a few theoretical perspectives that interrelate these characteristics. The authors adapted constructs and methods from flow theory to examine the motivational, cognitive, and affective quality of experience in elementary mathematics classrooms. Students completed experience-sampling forms following 12 class sessions, measuring all 3 aspects. Results indicated that although flow theory explains some patterns of experience, others were counter to it. In particular, individual affect was influenced by the interaction of challenge and skill. However, social affect and efficacy are more impacted by perceived skill than by challenge, and the importance of the experience is more strongly informed by the challenge.

(*)Division of Counseling and Psychology in Education, University of South Dakota

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Schweinle W(*), Cofer C, & Schatz S(**) (2009).
Men’s Empathic Bias, Empathic Inaccuracy, and Sexual Harassment.
Sex Roles 60(1/2): 142-150.

This study investigated the relationship between men’s sexual harassment of women and men accuracy and bias when inferring women’s critical or rejecting thoughts and feelings. Eighty married men from the Arlington, Texas, USA community participated. Results indicated that men’s sexual harassment behavior is negatively related to men’s accuracy in determining when women have critical or rejecting thoughts or feelings. Further, men’s sexual harassment behavior is positively related to men’s bias to overattribute criticism and rejection. This pattern of findings suggests that male sexual harassers tend to over-infer women’s criticism and rejection and make these inferences at the wrong times. These findings also support recent speculation that men’s sexual harassment of women is related to aggression rather than seduction.

(*)Department of Health Sciences , University of South Dakota , 414 E Clark Street Vermillion 57069 USA
(**)Department of Psychology , University of South Dakota , Vermillion USA

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Scott WD, Dearing E, Reynolds WR(*), Lindsay JE, Baird GL, & Hamill S (2008).
Cognitive self-regulation and depression: Examining academic self-efficacy and goal characteristics in youth of a Northern Plains Tribe.
Journal of Research on Adolescence 18(2): 379-394.

The relationship between cognitive self-regulatory processes and depression was examined in American Indian adolescents from a Northern Plains tribe. Students completed measures of negative life events, self-efficacy, goals, and depressive symptoms. Results indicated that academic self-efficacy was strongly associated with depression. Academic self-efficacy also correlated with intrinsically motivating goal representations, such that students who indicated high academic self-efficacy had goals that were more important to them, goals they thought more about, and goals they viewed as wanted by the self instead of as imposed on by others. However, we did not find the hypothesized mediational model in which academic self-efficacy influenced depression indirectly by influencing goal characteristics. Rather, this indirect model varied by grade, and differed from what we expected. Specifically, for older adolescents, higher levels of academic self-efficacy predicted goals that were more likely to be identified as the adolescent’s own, and in turn, these self- as opposed to other-oriented goals predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms. Results are discussed as providing support for continued investigations into the role of specific cognitive self-regulatory processes in youth adjustment.

(*)University of South Dakota

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Siewert AL(*), Stein Q(*), Flanagan J(*), & Hansen KA(*) (2008).
Blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism.
Fertility & Sterility 90(5): 2016-2016.

Objective: To describe a woman with blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Design: Case report. Setting: University medical center. Patient(s): One 25-year-old woman. Intervention(s): Pedigree, hormone assays, and donor embryo transfer. Main Outcome Measure(s): Pregnancy. Result(s): The patient with hypergonadtropic hypogonadism obtained an ongoing pregnancy after donor embryo transfer. Conclusion(s): Blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome is associated with evidence of premature ovarian failure. The syndrome is a sex-limited, autosomal dominant trait that causes selective loss of ovarian function in affected females. This report emphasizes the importance of a thorough family history and pedigree analysis in the evaluation of a patient with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism.

(*)Sanford School of Medicine at the University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, South Dakota

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Tydlacka S, Chuan-En W, Xuejun W(*), Shihua L, & Xiao-Jiang L (2008).
Differential Activities of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in Neurons versus Glia May Account for the Preferential Accumulation of Misfolded Proteins in Neurons.
Journal of Neuroscience 28(49): 13285-13295.

A variety of neurological disorders and polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are caused by misfolded proteins. The common feature of these diseases is late-onset cellular degeneration that selectively affects neurons in distinct brain regions. polyQ diseases, including Huntington’s disease (HD), present a clear case of selective neurodegeneration caused by polyQ expansion-induced protein misfolding, which also leads to predominant inclusions in neuronal nuclei. It remains unclear how these ubiquitously expressed disease proteins selectively kill neurons. In HD, mutant huntingtin accumulates in both neurons and glia, but more neuronal cells display huntingtin aggregates. These aggregates colocalize with components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), which plays a critical role in clearing misfolded proteins. Using fluorescent reporters that reflect cellular UPS activity, we found that UPS activity in cultured neurons and glia decreases in a time-dependent manner. Importantly, UPS activity is lower in neurons than in glia and also lower in the nucleus than the cytoplasm. By expressing the UPS reporters in glia and neurons in the mouse brain, we also observed an age-dependent decrease in UPS activity, which is more pronounced in neurons than glial cells. Although brain UPS activities were similar between wild-type and HD 150Q knock-in mice, inhibiting the UPS markedly increases the accumulation of mutant htt in cultured glial cells. These findings suggest that the lower neuronal UPS activity may account for the preferential accumulation of misfolded proteins in neurons, as well as their selective vulnerability.

(*)Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine of the University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069

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Vitt JE(*) (2008).
Troubleshooting 101: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.
Journal of Chemical Education 85(12): 1660-1662.

The article provides information on an instrumental analysis experiment for troubleshooting. It is stated that troubleshooting is a relevant skill bombarded with difficulties due to time constraints. The study is aiming for students to develop their troubleshooting skills. The procedure involving the analysis of ethanol by its reaction with dichromate is presented. Chemical reaction, spectrometry, oxidants, carcinogens, sulfuric acid, and absorbance spectra are mentioned. The study concludes that troubleshooting can be performed successfully by the students in one or two laboratories given that proper measures are made available.

(*)Department of Chemistry, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069

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