Posted by: kelsijo97 | November 3, 2011

October 2011

Darling, Warren G., Pizzimenti, Marc A., and Morecraft, Robert J. “Functional Recovery Following Motor Cortex Lesions in Non-Human Primates:: Experimental Implications for Human Stroke Patients.” Journal of Integrative Neuroscience 10, no. 3 (2011).

This review discusses selected classical works and contemporary research on recovery of contralesional fine hand motor function following lesions to motor areas of the cerebral cortex in non-human primates. Findings from both the classical literature and contemporary studies show that lesions of cortical motor areas induce paresis initially, but are followed by remarkable recovery of fine hand/digit motor function that depends on lesion size and post-lesion training. Indeed, in recent work where considerable quantification of fine digit function associated with grasping and manipulating small objects has been observed, very favorable recovery is possible with minimal forced use of the contralesional limb. Studies of the mechanisms underlying recovery have shown that following small lesions of the digit areas of primary motor cortex (M1), there is expansion of the digit motor representations into areas of M1 that did not produce digit movements prior to the lesion. However, after larger lesions involving the elbow, wrist and digit areas of M1, no such expansion of the motor representation was observed, suggesting that recovery was due to other cortical or subcortical areas taking over control of hand/digit movements. Recently, we showed that one possible mechanism of recovery after lesion to the arm areas of M1 and lateral premotor cortex is enhancement of corticospinal projections from the medially located supplementary motor area (M2) to spinal cord laminae containing neurons which have lost substantial input from the lateral motor areas and play a critical role in reaching and digit movements. Because human stroke and brain injury patients show variable, and usually poorer, recovery of hand motor function than that of nonhuman primates after motor cortex damage, we conclude with a discussion of implications of this work for further experimentation to improve recovery of hand function in human stroke patients.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Li, Qin, and Burrell, Brian D. “Associative, Bidirectional Changes in Neural Signaling Utilizing Nmda Receptor- and Endocannabinoid-Dependent Mechanisms.” Learning & Memory 18, no. 9 (2011).

Persistent, bidirectional changes in synaptic signaling (that is, potentiation and depression of the synapse) can be induced by the precise timing of individual pre- and postsynaptic action potentials. However, far less attention has been paid to the ability of paired trains of action potentials to elicit persistent potentiation or depression. We examined plasticity following the pairing of spike trains in the touch mechanosensory neuron (T cell) and S interneuron (S cell) in the medicinal leech. Long-term potentiation (LTP) of T to S signaling was elicited when the T-cell spike train preceded the S-cell train. An interval 0 to +1 sec between the T- and S-cell spike trains was required to elicit long-term potentiation (LTP), and this potentiation was NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent. Long-term depression (LTD) was elicited when S-cell activity preceded T-cell activity and the interval between the two spike trains was -0.2 sec to -10 sec. This surprisingly broad temporal window involved two distinct cellular mechanisms; an NMDAR-mediated LTD (NMDAR-LTD) when the pairing interval was relatively brief (<-1 sec) and an endocannabinoid-mediated LTD (eCB-LTD) when longer pairing intervals were used (-1 to -10 sec). This eCB-LTD also required activation of a presynaptic transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)-like receptor, presynaptic Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores and activation of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs). These findings demonstrate that the pairing of spike trains elicits timing-dependent forms of LTP and LTD that are supported by a complex set of cellular mechanisms involving NMDARs and endocannabinoid activation of TRPV-like receptors.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Timms, Barry G., and Hofkamp, Luke E. “Prostate Development and Growth in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.” Differentiation; research in biological diversity 82, no. 4-5 (2011).

The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia [BPH] in elderly men has intrigued anatomists, pathologists and scientists for centuries. Studies of morbid anatomy, clinical observations and contemporary cellular biology have contributed to an evolving interpretation of the causality of the disease. Insights into the detailed microanatomy and ductal architecture of the prostate during stages of fetal and early postnatal development suggest that mechanisms involved in the early growth period become aberrantly expressed in elderly men. Age, hormones and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are all contributing factors to the pathogenesis of BPH. Control of the microenvironment in normal and abnormal growth is a multifactorial process. Susceptibility to the disease may include clinical comorbid diseases, region-specific changes in cell-cell interactions and a variety of signaling pathways including a novel hypothesis regarding the role of the primary cilium as a regulator of signal transduction mechanisms. Recent work in animal models has shown that there are region-specific differences within the prostate that may be significant because of the dynamic and intricate interplay between the epithelium and mesenchyme. Because of the focal nature of BPH a closer examination of normal morphogenesis patterns, which defines the gland’s architecture, may facilitate a detailed understanding of the atypical growth patterns. Copyright 2011 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Zheng, Yuhuan, and Miskimins, W. Keith. “Far Upstream Element Binding Protein 1 Activates Translation of P27<Sup>Kip1</Sup> Mrna through Its Internal Ribosomal Entry Site.” International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 43, no. 11 (2011).

Abstract: The cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p27 plays an important role in controlling the eukaryotic cell cycle by regulating progression through G1 and entry into S phase. It is often elevated during differentiation and under conditions of cellular stress. In contrast, it is commonly downregulated in cancer cells and its levels are generally inversely correlated with favorable prognosis. The cellular levels of p27 are regulated, in part, by translational control mechanisms. The 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) of the p27 mRNA harbors an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) which may facilitate synthesis of p27 in certain conditions. In this study, Far Upstream Element (FUSE) Binding Protein 1 (FBP1) was shown to directly bind to the human p27 5′-UTR and to promote IRES activity. An eight-nucleotide element downstream of a U-rich region within the 5′-UTR was important for FBP1 binding and p27 IRES activity. Overexpression of FBP1 enhanced endogenous p27 levels and stimulated translation initiation. In contrast, repression of FBP1 by siRNA transfection downregulated endogenous p27 protein levels. Using rabbit reticulocyte lysates, FBP1 stimulated p27 mRNA translation in vitro. The central domain of FBP1, containing four K homology motifs, was required for p27 5′-UTR RNA binding and the N terminal domain was important for translational activation. These findings indicate that FBP1 is a novel activator of p27 translation upon binding to the 5′-UTR.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Husak, Jerry F., Ribak, G. A. L., Wilkinson, Gerald S., and Swallow, John G. “Sexual Dimorphism in Wing Beat Frequency in Relation to Eye Span in Stalk-Eyed Flies (Diopsidae).” Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 104, no. 3 (2011).

Although male ornaments may provide benefits to individuals bearing them, such structures may also entail fitness costs. Selection should favour aspects of the phenotype that act to reduce such costs, yet such compensatory traits are often ignored in studies of sexual selection. If a male ornament increases predation risk via reduced locomotor performance, then there may be selection for changes in morphological traits to compensate for behavioural or biomechanical changes in how individuals use their morphology (or both). We took a comparative approach aiming to test whether changes in wing beat frequency are evolutionarily correlated with increases in male ornamentation across stalk-eyed fly species. Previous studies have shown that increased male eye span is evolutionarily correlated with increased wing size; thus, we tested whether there is additional compensation via increases in size-adjusted wing beat frequency. The results obtained revealed that relative wing beat frequency is negatively related to relative eye span in males, and sexual dimorphism in wing beat frequency is negatively related to dimorphism in eye span. These findings, in addition to our finding that eye span dimorphism is positively related to aspect ratio dimorphism, suggest that male stalk-eyed flies compensate primarily by increasing wing size and shape, which may then have resulted in the subsequent evolutionary reduction in wing beat frequency. Thus, exaggerated ornaments can result in evolutionary modifications in wing morphology, which in turn lead to adjustments in flapping kinematics, illustrating the tight envelope of trade-offs when compensating for exaggerated ornaments.

Biology Department.

Liknes, Eric. T., and Swanson, David L. “Phenotypic Flexibility of Body Composition Associated with Seasonal Acclimatization in Passerine Birds.” Journal of Thermal Biology 36, no. 6 (2011).

Improved winter cold tolerance is widespread among small birds overwintering in cold climates and is associated with improved shivering endurance and elevated summit metabolic rate (M(sum)). Phenotypic flexibility resulting in elevated M(sum), could result from either increased skeletal muscle mass (perhaps with support from similar adjustments in “nutritional organs”) and/or cellular metabolic intensity. We investigated seasonal changes in body composition of three species of passerine birds resident in cold winter climates, all of which show large seasonal variations in M(sum) ( > 25%); white-breasted nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis), black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus), and house sparrow (Passer domesticus). All three species displayed significant winter increases in pectoralis and heart masses, and supracor-acoideus mass also increased in winter chickadees. Gizzard mass increased in winter for all three species, but masses of other nutritional organs did not vary consistently with season. These data suggest that winter increases in pectoralis and heart masses are important contributors to elevated thermogenic capacity and cold tolerance, but seasonal variation in nutritional organ masses, other than gizzard, which is likely associated with dietary changes, are not universally associated with seasonal phenotypes. The winter increases in pectoralis and heart masses are consistent with data from other small passerines showing marked seasonal changes in cold tolerance and support the Variable Maximum Model of seasonal phenotypic flexibility, where physiological adjustments that promote improved cold tolerance, also result in elevated M(sum). (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Biology Department.

Venesky, M. D., Kerby, Jacob L., Storfer, A., and Parris, M. J. “Can Differences in Host Behavior Drive Patterns of Disease Prevalence in Tadpoles?” Plos One 6, no. 9 (2011).

Differences in host behavior and resistance to disease can influence the outcome of host-pathogen interactions. We capitalized on the variation in aggregation behavior of Fowler’s toads (Anaxyrus [ = Bufo] fowleri) and grey treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles and tested for differences in transmission of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and host-specific fitness consequences (i.e., life history traits that imply fitness) of infection in single-species amphibian mesocosms. On average, A. fowleri mesocosms supported higher Bd prevalences and infection intensities relative to H. versicolor mesocosms. Higher Bd prevalence in A. fowleri mesocosms may result, in part, from higher intraspecific transmission due to the aggregation of tadpoles raised in Bd treatments. We also found that, independent of species, tadpoles raised in the presence of Bd were smaller and less developed than tadpoles raised in disease-free conditions. Our results indicate that aggregation behavior might increase Bd prevalence and that A. fowleri tadpoles carry heavier infections relative to H. versicolor tadpoles. However, our results demonstrate that Bd appears to negatively impact larval growth and developmental rates of A. fowleri and H. versicolor similarly, even in the absence of high Bd prevalence.

Biology Department.

Eyster, Kathleen M., Appt, S. E., Mark-Kappeler, Connie J., Chalpe, Alpha, Register, T. C., and Clarkson, T. B. “Gene Expression Signatures Differ with Extent of Atherosclerosis in Monkey Iliac Artery.” Menopause-the Journal of the North American Menopause Society 18, no. 10 (2011).

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate global gene expression patterns in the common iliac arteries of monkeys with a varied extent of atherosclerosis. Methods: The left common iliac artery was removed from ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys (n = 12) after 6.5 years of consuming a diet containing fat and cholesterol at levels comparable with those consumed in Western populations. Arterial gene expression was analyzed using DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: Significant differential expression of 986 genes was observed in iliac arteries containing moderate to large atherosclerotic plaques compared with normal/minimally affected reference group arteries. Atherosclerosis-associated genes included cytokines, chemokines, components of signal transduction pathways, and transcriptional activators and repressors, as well as other functional categories. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction confirmed a differential expression of genes chosen from a variety of functional categories. Specifically, the expression of genes for estrogen receptor-1, claudin 11, and brain heart protocadherin 7 was reduced, whereas the expression of genes for apolipoprotein E, growth differentiation factor 15, superoxide dismutase-2, SET domain bifurcated 2, phospholipase A2 group IIA, phospholipase A2 group VII, and ring finger protein 149 was increased in atherosclerotic arteries. Conclusions: The gene expression environment in arteries containing atherosclerotic plaques is profoundly different from that of relatively unaffected arteries and reflects the cellular and molecular complexity of atherosclerosis and associated arterial remodeling processes.

Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Basa, Prem N., Bhowmick, Arundhati, Schulz, Mariah M., and Sykes, Andrew G. “Site-Selective Imination of an Anthracenone Sensor: Selective Fluorescence Detection of Barium(Ii).” The Journal of organic chemistry 76, no. 19 (2011).

Site-selective imination of anthraquinone-based macrocyclic crown ethers using titanium tetrachloride as the catalyst yields imines where only the external carbonyl group of the anthraquinone forms Schiff-bases. The following aromatic amines yield monomeric compounds (aniline, 4-nitroaniline, 4-pyrrolaniline, and 1,3-phenylenediamine). Reaction of 2 equiv of the macrocyclic anthraquinone host with 1,2- and 1,4-phenylenediamine yields dimeric imine compounds. The 1,2-diimino host acts as a luminescence sensor, exhibiting enhanced selectivity for Ba(II) ion. Spectroscopic data indicate that two barium ions coordinate to the sensor. Due to E/Z isomerization of the imine, the monomeric complexes are nonluminescent. Restricted rotation about the 1,2 oriented C═N groups or other noncovalent/coordinate-covalent interactions acting between neighboring crown ether rings may inhibit E/Z isomerization in this example, which is different from current examples that employ coordination of a metal cation with a chelating imine nitrogen atom to suppress E/Z isomerization and activate luminescence. The 1,4-diimino adduct, where the crown rings remain widely separated, remains nonluminescent.

Chemistry Department.

He, H. S., Dubey, M., Zhong, Y. H., Shrestha, M., and Sykes, Andrew G. “2-(1-Acetyl-2-Oxopropyl)-5,10,15,20-Tetraphenylporphyrin and Its Transition-Metal Complexes.” European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, no. 25 (2011).

The 2-(1-acetyl-2-oxopropyl)-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin free base (H(2)TPP-AOP) and its transition-metal complexes (MTPP-AOP, M = Cu(2+), Zn(2+)) have been synthesized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the 1-acetyl-2-oxopropyl (AOP) group is attached to a beta-pyrrolic position through the methylene group. The mean plane of the AOP is almost perpendicular to the porphyrin ring. The zinc(II) complex crystallizes as a five-coordinate species with one methanol/water solvate in the axial position, whereas the copper(II) complex is four-coordinate. These compounds exhibit strong absorption in the UV and visible regions. The fluorescence lifetimes are 1.85 and 8.0 ns for the free base and zinc(II) complex, respectively. Density functional calculations indicate that these porphyrins are energetically suitable for electron injection from their lowest-unoccupied molecular orbitals to the conduction band of the titanium dioxide semiconductor. However, the energy conversion efficiencies of the three porphyrin-sensitized solar cells are low, that is, 0.14, 0.015 and 0.021% for ZnTPP-AOP, CuTPP-AOP and H(2)TPP-AOP, respectively. The poor photovoltaic performance is ascribed to the low dye-loading of these porphyrins on the titanium dioxide surface. The neighbouring phenyl groups exert sufficient steric hindrance on the AOP to limit its binding to the TiO(2) semiconductor.

Chemistry Department.

Paudel, H. P., Zhong, L. L., Bayat, K., Baroughi, M. F., Smith, S., Lin, Culkon K., Jiang, Chaoyang Y., Berry, Mary T., and May, P. Stanley. “Enhancement of near-Infrared-to-Visible Upconversion Luminescence Using Engineered Plasmonic Gold Surfaces.” Journal of Physical Chemistry C 115, no. 39 (2011).

An engineered plasmonic gold surface, specifically designed to couple with 980 nm radiation, is shown to enhance near-infrared-to-visible upconversion luminescence from a monolayer of beta-NaYF(4): 17%Yb, 3%Er nanocrystals in poly(methyl methacrylate) on that gold surface. Confocal imaging of upconversion luminescence from the surface is used to characterize the nature of the enhancement. It is shown that the luminescence data were acquired below the so-called “high power limit” for excitation, but some saturation was evident, as the observed power dependence was less than quadratic. Over the range of excitation power densities used, the intrinsic enhancement factor for upconversion from the patterned surface was greater than a factor of 3 but decreased slowly with increasing excitation power. The red and green upconversion were enhanced by similar factors, which would support the intensification of the excitation field by the plasmonic surface as being the mechanism of enhancement. In the absence of other enhancement or quenching mechanisms, the data imply an approximate 2-fold magnification of the excitation field intensity relative to smooth gold.

Chemistry Department.

Sweeney, Mark R., McDonald, Eric V., and Etyemezian, Vicken. “Quantifying Dust Emissions from Desert Landforms, Eastern Mojave Desert, USA.” Geomorphology 135, no. 1/2 (2011).

Abstract: The measurement of natural dust emissions from desert landforms is crucial in environmental hazard assessment and field checking the accuracy of global dust models. More than 500 individual dust measurements from eight common desert landforms in southern California were collected using the PI-SWERL (Portable In Situ Wind Erosion Lab). The largest emitters of dust are dry washes (13.787 to 0.007mgm<sup>−2</sup> s<sup>−1</sup>), dunes, playa margins, distal alluvial fans, and lacustrine beaches. Low emitters include salt-crusted playas (0.692 to 0.002mgm<sup>−2</sup> s<sup>−1</sup>), silt–clay-crusted playas, and desert pavements. High emissions are a function of saltating sand that bombards the surface, liberating dust-sized particles for entrainment. Low dust emissions are primarily a function of surface crusting, gravel armoring, and vegetation density. PI-SWERL measurements reveal that emission rates can vary by at least three orders of magnitude, reflecting local variability in soil texture and continuity of surface crusts. Shear-stress partitioning models can be applied to dust data measured by the PI-SWERL to account for large surface roughness features, such as vegetation. The results presented here give an approximation of the contributions to atmospheric dust loading by landforms in the Mojave Desert, and can potentially be used to improve atmospheric dust models.

Earth Sciences Department.

González-Olivares, Eduardo, Mena-Lorca, Jaime, Rojas-Palma, Alejandro, and Flores, José D. “Erratum to “Dynamical Complexities in the Leslie–Gower Predator–Prey Model as Consequences of the Allee Effect on Prey” [Appl. Math. Modell. (2011) 366–381].” Applied Mathematical Modelling 36, no. 2 (2012).

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to correct two mistakes in [Appl. Math. Modell. (2011) 366–381], which are: the function defining the time rescaling given and the inclusion of a parameter outside of model. For a modified Leslie–Gower type predator–prey model considering the Allee effect on prey, a change of variables and a new time rescaling generating a diffeomorphism is proved; a topologically equivalent system to the original one is obtained, which is the same studied in the mentioned paper; we claim that the results and conclusions obtained are correct and the errors have not further implications.

Mathematics Department.

Haagerup, U., and Picioroaga, Gabriel. “New Presentations of Thompson’s Groups and Applications.” Journal of Operator Theory 66, no. 1 (2011).

We find new presentations for the Thompson’s groups F, the derived group F’ and the intermediate group D. These presentations have a common ground in that their relators are the same and only the generating sets differ. As an application of these presentations we extract the following consequences: the cost of the group F’ is 1 hence the cost cannot decide the (non)amenability question of F; the II(1) factor L(F’) is inner asymptotically abelian and the reduced C*-algebra of F is not residually finite dimensional.

Mathematics Department.

Gehman, V. M., Seibert, S. R., Rielage, K., Hime, A., Sun, Y., Mei, D. M., Maassen, J., and Moore, D. “Fluorescence Efficiency and Visible Re-Emission Spectrum of Tetraphenyl Butadiene Films at Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths.” Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section A 654, no. 1 (2011).

Abstract: A large number of current and future experiments in neutrino and dark matter detection use the scintillation light from noble elements as a mechanism for measuring energy deposition. The scintillation light from these elements is produced in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) range, from 60 to 200nm. Currently, the most practical technique for observing light at these wavelengths is to surround the scintillation volume with a thin film of tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) to act as a fluor. The TPB film absorbs EUV photons and re-emits visible photons, detectable with a variety of commercial photosensors. Here we present a measurement of the re-emission spectrum of TPB films when illuminated with 128, 160, 175, and 250nm light. We also measure the fluorescence efficiency as a function of incident wavelength from 120 to 250nm.

Physics Department.

Boden, Daniel, Borrego, Maura, and Newswander, Lynita. “Student Socialization in Interdisciplinary Doctoral Education.” Higher Education 62, no. 6 (2011).

Interdisciplinary approaches are often seen as necessary for attacking the most critical challenges facing the world today, and doctoral students and their training programs are recognized as central to increasing interdisciplinary research capacity. However, the traditional culture and organization of higher education are ill-equipped to facilitate interdisciplinary work. This study employs a lens of socialization to study the process through which students learn the norms, values, and culture of both traditional disciplines and integrated knowledge production. It concludes that many of the processes of socialization are similar, but that special attention should be paid to overcoming organizational barriers to interdisciplinarity related to policies, space, engagement with future employers, and open discussion of the politics of interdisciplinarity.

Political Science and Criminal Justice Department.

Herman, Steve, Archambeau, Olga G., Deliramich, Aimee N., Kim, Bryan S. K., Chiu, Pearl H., and Frueh, B. Christopher. “Depressive Symptoms and Mental Health Treatment in an Ethnoracially Diverse College Student Sample.” Journal of American College Health 59, no. 8 (2011).

Objectives: To study (a) the prevalence of depressive symptoms and (b) the utilization of mental health treatment in an ethnoracially diverse sample consisting primarily of Asian Americans, European Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders. Participants: Five hundred eighty-nine college students. Method: A questionnaire packet that included the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was administered to students in introductory psychology courses. Results: (a) There were no differences among ethnoracial groups in levels of depressive symptoms as measured by the CES-D; (b) 71% of participants with high levels of depressive symptoms had not received any mental health treatment in the previous 12 months; and (c) European Americans were 3.7 times more likely to have received mental health treatment in the previous 12 months than other students. Conclusion: Outreach efforts designed to improve utilization of mental health treatment services by depressed college students, especially by members of ethnoracial minority groups, should be increased.

Psychology Department (student)

Wang, X. T., and Dvorak, Robert D. “Sweet Future: Fluctuating Blood Glucose Levels Affect Future Discounting.” Psychological Science 21, no. 2 (2010).

This study explored metabolic mechanisms of future (delay) discounting, a choice phenomenon where people value present goods over future goods. Using fluctuating blood glucose as an index of body-energy budget, optimal discounting should regulate choice among rewards as a function of temporal caloric requirement. We identified this novel link between blood glucose levels measured in the lab and future-discounting rates of participants, who made choices between a “smaller and sooner” reward and a “larger but later” option, with possible actual monetary rewards. A group of participants who drank a soft drink that contained sugar showed a reduced rate of future discounting afterward, when we controlled for sex, age, body mass index, and the taste of the drink. In contrast, a group of participants who drank a soft drink that contained artificial sweetener showed an increased rate of future discounting. Blood glucose levels not only varied as a result of caloric intake but also regulated the rate of future discounting, according to participants’ dynamic body-energy budget.

Psychology Department.

Alves, R. V., and Asfora, W. T. “Deep Brain Stimulation for Dejerine-Roussy Syndrome: Case Report.” Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery 54, no. 4 (2011).

Background: The term “central post-stroke pain” is more appropriate to describe neuropathic pain following a cerebrovascular accident. Most patients complain of burning and other symptoms like lacerating and shooting pain. Treatment options for central pain are limited in number and efficacy. Case Report: This paper reports on a 47-year-old man with central post-stroke pain refractory to treatment. The patient underwent insertion of a deep brain stimulator utilizing the Leksell frame. The target was the left centromedian thalamic nuclei. He had a qualitative symptomatic improvement. Conclusion: Deep brain stimulation can be a useful tool when all other modalities have failed. It is a minimally invasive neurosurgical procedure that may improve the quality of life in carefully selected (often desperate) patients with central post-stroke pain.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Fagerlund, Åse, Autti-Rämö, Ilona, Hoyme, H. Eugene, Mattson, Sarah N., and Korkman, Marit. “Risk Factors for Behavioural Problems in Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.” Acta Paediatrica 100, no. 11 (2011).

Aim: To examine risk and protective factors associated with behavioural problems of children and adolescents following prenatal alcohol exposure. Methods: A total of 73 children and adolescents with foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were assessed for internalizing, externalizing and total behavioural problems using the Child Behavior Checklist. Linear regression models were used to determine the effects of diagnostic and environmental risk and protective factors on behaviour, while controlling for age, sex and IQ. Results: Length of time spent in residential care was the most pervasive risk factor associated with internalizing, externalizing and total behavioural problems. A low dysmorphology score was related to more internalizing and total problems. Conclusions: Children and adolescents prenatally exposed to alcohol faced greater risk of substantive behavioural problems (i) if they were less visibly alcohol affected and (ii) the longer time they had spent in residential care. The results underscore the clinical importance of appropriate services and care for less visibly affected children with FASD and highlight the need to attend to children with FASD being raised in institutions.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Harris, William S., Brouwer, I. A., and Mozaffarian, D. “N-6 Fatty Acids and Risk for Chd: Consider All the Evidence.” British Journal of Nutrition 106, no. 6 (2011).

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Jensen, Brian C., O’Connell, Timothy D., and Simpson, Paul C. “Alpha-1-Adrenergic Receptors: Targets for Agonist Drugs to Treat Heart Failure.” Journal of Molecular & Cellular Cardiology 51, no. 4 (2011).

Abstract: Evidence from cell, animal, and human studies demonstrates that α1-adrenergic receptors mediate adaptive and protective effects in the heart. These effects may be particularly important in chronic heart failure, when catecholamine levels are elevated and β-adrenergic receptors are down-regulated and dysfunctional. This review summarizes these data and proposes that selectively activating α1-adrenergic receptors in the heart might represent a novel and effective way to treat heart failure. This article is part of a special issue entitled “Key Signaling Molecules in Hypertrophy and Heart Failure.”

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Sironen, A., Kotaja, N., Mulhern, H., Wyatt, T. A., and Lee, Lance. “Loss of Spef2 Function in Mice Results in Spermatogenesis Defects and Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia.” Biology of Reproduction 85, no. 4 (2011).

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) results from defects in motile cilia function. Mice homozygous for the mutation big giant head (bgh) have several abnormalities commonly associated with PCD, including hydrocephalus, male infertility, and sinusitis. In the present study, we use a variety of histopathological and cell biological techniques to characterize the bgh phenotype, and we identify the bgh mutation using a positional cloning approach. Histopathological, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopic analyses demonstrate that the male infertility results from shortened flagella and disorganized axonemal and accessory structures in elongating spermatids and mature sperm. In addition, there is a reduced number of elongating spermatids during spermatogenesis and mature sperm in the epididymis. Histological analyses show that the hydrocephalus is characterized by severe dilatation of the lateral ventricles and that bgh sinuses have an accumulation of mucus infiltrated by neutrophils. In contrast to the sperm phenotype, electron microscopy demonstrates that mutant respiratory epithelial cilia are ultrastructurally normal, but video microscopic analysis shows that their beat frequency is lower than that of wild-type cilia. Through a positional cloning approach, we identified two sequence variants in the gene encoding sperm flagellar protein 2 (SPEF2), which has been postulated to play an important role in spermatogenesis and flagellar assembly. A causative nonsense mutation was validated by Western blot analysis, strongly suggesting that the bgh phenotype results from the loss of SPEF2 function. Taken together, the data in this study demonstrate that SPEF2 is required for cilia function and identify a new genetic cause of PCD in mice.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

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