Posted by: princekhaled | June 8, 2010

June 2010

Depre, C., Powell, S. R., & Wang, X. J. (2010).
The role of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular Research, 85(2), 251-252.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus
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Goodman, Barbara E. (2010).
Insights into digestion and absorption of major nutrients in humans. Advances in Physiology Education, 34(2), 44-53.

Nutrient digestion and absorption is necessary for the survival of living organisms and has evolved into the complex and specific task of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. While most people simply assume that their GI tract will work properly to use nutrients, provide energy, and release wastes, few nonscientists know the details about how various nutrients are digested and how the breakdown products traverse the cells lining the small intestine to reach the blood stream and to be used by the other cells of the body. There have been several recent discoveries of new transporters that likely contribute to the absorption of oligopeptides and fatty acids. In addition, details are being clarified about how transporters work and in what forms nutrients can be absorbed. The enzymes that digest basic carbohydrates, proteins, and fats have been identified in various segments of the GI tract, and details are becoming clearer about what types of bonds they hydrolyze. Usually, detailed information about the digestion of basic nutrients is presented and learned in biochemistry courses and detailed information about absorption via transepithelial transport of the breakdown products of digestion is studied in physiology courses. The goal of this Staying Current article is to combine the details of the biochemistry of digestion with the updated information about the physiology of nutrient absorption into one source for teachers of physiology. Insights are included about some of the diseases and conditions that can bring about malabsorption of food in the GI tract and their consequences.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus
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Hansen, Keith A., Chalpe, Abha, & Eyster, Kathleen M. (2010).
Management of Endometriosis – associated Pain. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynecology, 53(2), 439-448.

The article offers information in the management of endometriosis-associated pain. It states that medical or surgical therapies are approaches for addressing endometriosis-associated pain. It says that medical therapies rely on the disruption of normal cyclic ovarian hormone production, resulting in a non-conducive environment for endometriosis growth. It adds that genomics is a promising approach in characterizing endometriosis and creating therapies for endometriosis-associated pain.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus
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Hansen, Keith A., & Eyster, Kathlee M. (2010).
Genetics and Genomics of Endome triosis. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynecology, 53(2), 403-412.

The article focuses on the genomics and genetics of endometriosis. It states that endometriosis’ genetics is complicated and remains inexplicable, however most researchers think that it is familial in a polygenic and multifactorial way. It cites that genetic researches have showed an increased rate in close relations with the kind of inheritance most probably polygenic and multifactorial. It mentions that genomic researches continue to search differences in the disease’s gene expression.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus
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Kwong, Stephen M., Jensen, Slade O., Firth, Neville, & Weaver, Keith E. (2010).
Prevalence of Fst-Iike toxinȓantitoxin systems. Microbiology (13500872), 156( 4), 975-977.

In this article the author comments on the findings of various studies on presence of Fst-like toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems in Gram-negative bacteria. The author notes that the DNA sequence examples from various bacteria species showed that the occurrence of characteristic features are essential for the function of the prototype pAD1 TA system. The author says that Fst-like TA systems are common in Staphylococcus species, wherein its chromosomes contain at least two distinctive systems.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus
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Sabirzhanov, Boris, & Keifer, Joyce. (2010).
Cloning and Characterization of Glutamate Receptor Subunit 4 (GLUA4) and its Alternatively Spliced Isoforms in Turtle Brain. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, x(x), 1-14.

Ionotropic glutamate receptors sensitive to α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), GluAs, play an important role in neural development, synaptic plasticity, and neurodegeneration. Previous studies using an in vitro model of eyeblink classical conditioning in pond turtles suggested that acquisition of conditioning is associated with synaptic delivery of AMPA receptors containing GluA4 subunits. However, sequences of the GluA4 subunit, expression profile, and its alternatively spliced isoforms in turtle brain have not been previously determined. The sequence and domain structure of turtle GluA4 (tGluA4) and its splice variants was characterized. We found ten isoforms of tGluA4 including several previously unidentified truncated variants. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences of tGluA4 flip/flop, tGluA4c flip/flop, and tGluA4s showed they are highly similar to known isoforms of the GluA4 subunit identified in chick. Examination of the relative abundance of mRNA expression for the tGluA4 variants showed that the flip and flop versions of tGluA4 and tGluA4c, and a novel truncated variant, tGluA4trc1, which is also expressed as protein, are major forms in the adult turtle brain. Identification of these alternatively spliced isoforms of tGluA4 will provide a unique opportunity to assess their role in synaptic plasticity through the application of short interfering RNAs.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus
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Shokeen, Sonia, Johnson, Christopher M., Greenfield, Tony J., Manias, Dawn A., Dunny, Gary M., & Weaver, Keith E. (2010).
Structural analysis of the Anti-Q–Qs interaction: RNA-mediated regulation of E. faecalis plasmid pCF10 conjugation. Plasmid, 64(1), 26-35.

Abstract: Conjugation of the E. faecalis plasmid pCF10 is triggered in response to peptide sex pheromone cCF10 produced by potential recipients. Regulation of this response is complex and multi-layered and includes a small regulatory RNA, Anti-Q that participates in a termination/antitermination decision controlling transcription of the conjugation structural genes. In this study, the secondary structure of the Anti-Q transcript and its sites of interaction with its target, Qs, were determined. The primary site of interaction occurred at a centrally-located loop whose sequence showed high variability in analogous molecules on other pheromone-responsive plasmids. This loop, designated the specificity loop, was demonstrated to be important but not sufficient for distinguishing between Qs molecules from pCF10 and another pheromone-responsive plasmid pAD1. A loop 5′ from the specificity loop which carries a U-turn motif played no demonstrable role in Anti-Q–Qs interaction or regulation of the termination/antitermination decision. These results provide direct evidence for a critical role of Anti-Q–Qs interactions in posttranscriptional regulation of pCF10 transfer functions.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus
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Su, H. B., & Wang, X. J. (2010).

The ubiquitin-proteasome system in cardiac proteinopathy: a quality control perspective. Cardiovascular Research, 85(2), 253-262.

Protein quality control (PQC) depends on elegant collaboration between molecular chaperones and targeted proteolysis in the cell. The latter is primarily carried out by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, but recent advances in this area of research suggest a supplementary role for the autophagy-lysosomal pathway in PQC-related proteolysis. The (patho)physiological significance of PQC in the heart is best illustrated in cardiac proteinopathy, which belongs to a family of cardiac diseases caused by expression of aggregation-prone proteins in cardiomyocytes. Cardiac proteasome functional insufficiency (PFI) is best studied in desmin-related cardiomyopathy, a bona fide cardiac proteinopathy. Emerging evidence suggests that many common forms of cardiomyopathy may belong to proteinopathy. This review focuses on examining current evidence, as it relates to the hypothesis that PFI impairs PQC in cardiomyocytes and contributes to the progression of cardiac proteinopathies to heart failure.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus
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Vuong, Shawn M., Oliver, Harvey A., Scholl, Jamie L., Oliver, Kathryn M., & Forster, Gina L. (2010).
Increased anxiety-like behavior of rats during amphetamine withdrawal is reversed by CRF2 receptor antagonism. Behavioural Brain Research, 208(1), 278-281.

Withdrawal from psychostimulants increases anxiety states, and amphetamine-treated rats show increased CRF₂ receptors in the serotonergic cell body region, the dorsal raphe nucleus (dRN). In the current study, amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p., 14 days) pre-treated rats spent less time in open arms of the elevated plus maze compared saline pre-treated rats at both 24 h or 2 weeks of withdrawal, and CRF₂ receptor antagonism (ASV-30; 2 μg/0.5 μl) within the dRN reversed the effects of amphetamine withdrawal on anxiety-like behavior. Overall, results suggest that CRF₂ receptor antagonism may be a novel pharmacological target for anxiety states during drug withdrawal.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus
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Lavin, Angeline M., Davies, Thomas L., & Carr, David L. (2010).
The Impact Of Instructor Attire On Student Perceptions Of Faculty Credibility And Their Own Resultant Behavior. American Journal of Business Education, 3(6), 51-62.

Prior studies suggest that faculty members who are credible are more effective in the classroom in that they are evaluated more highly and their students achieve greater learning. This paper explores how the instructor’s attire impacts his or her perceived credibility, and how the students’ corresponding perception of instructor credibility impacts the students’ self-described behavior. Questionnaires depicting instructors of both genders each wearing three different outfits, including casual, business casual and professional attire, are used to assess business student opinions regarding the academician `s credibility and the students’ resultant effort and learning. The results indicate that faculty members can take comfort in that their level of preparation, knowledge and ability to prepare students for a career do impact their credibility in the eyes of the students, no matter their choice of attire. Instructor credibility, in turn, was found to have a significant positive relationship with all ten student effort and behavior variables that were examined. In particular, credibility had the most impact on the student `s preparation for each class, attentiveness, appreciation for instructor effort, and respect for the instructor. Positive significant relationships were also found between credibility and student evaluations of both the class and the instructor.

Beacom School of Business
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Yockey, Mark D., & Kruml, Susan M. (2009).
Everything is Relative, but Relative to What? Defining and Identifying Reference Points. Journal of Business & Management, 15(1), 95-109.

Reference points are an integral part of many organizational practices and theories. In spite of their widespread use, there has been very little theory development on reference points themselves. We investigate and propose a general theory of reference points. First, we develop a definition of reference points. We then identify reference point dimensions and how they contribute to reference point selection. Lastly, we propose a model of reference point selection and suggest how several moderators may affect the process.

Beacom School of Business
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Dahdul, Wasila M., Lundberg, John G., Westerfield, Monte, & Mabee, Paula M. (2010).
The Teleost Anatomy Ontology: Anatomical Representation for the Genomics Age. Systematic Biology, 59(4), 369-383.

The rich knowledge of morphological variation among organisms reported in the systematic literature has remained in free-text format, impractical for use in large-scale synthetic phylogenetic work. This noncomputable format has also precluded linkage to the large knowledgebase of genomic, genetic, developmental, and phenotype data in model organism databases. We have undertaken an effort to prototype a curated, ontology-based evolutionary morphology database that maps to these genetic databases (http://kb.phenoscape.org) to facilitate investigation into the mechanistic basis and evolution of phenotypic diversity. Among the first requirements in establishing this database was the development of a multispecies anatomy ontology with the goal of capturing anatomical data in a systematic and computable manner. An ontology is a formal representation of a set of concepts with defined relationships between those concepts. Multispecies anatomy ontologies in particular are an efficient way to represent the diversity of morphological structures in a clade of organisms, but they present challenges in their development relative to single-species anatomy ontologies. Here, we describe the Teleost Anatomy Ontology (TAO), a multispecies anatomy ontology for teleost fishes derived from the Zebrafish Anatomical Ontology (ZFA) for the purpose of annotating varying morphological features across species. To facilitate interoperability with other anatomy ontologies, TAO uses the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology as a template for its upper level nodes, and TAO and ZFA are synchronized, with zebrafish terms specified as subtypes of teleost terms. We found that the details of ontology architecture have ramifications for querying, and we present general challenges in developing a multispecies anatomy ontology, including refinement of definitions, taxon-specific relationships among terms, and representation of taxonomically variable developmental pathways.

Biology Department
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Koster, Karen, Balsamo, Ronald, Espinoza, Catherine, & Oliver, Melvin. (2010).
Desiccation sensitivity and tolerance in the moss Physcomitrella patens: assessing limits and damage. Plant Growth Regulation, 1-10.

The moss Physcomitrella patens is becoming the model of choice for functional genomic studies at the cellular level. Studies report that Physcomitrella survives moderate osmotic and salt stress, and that desiccation tolerance can be induced by exogenous ABA. Our goal was to quantify the extent of dehydration tolerance in wild type moss and to examine the nature of cellular damage caused by desiccation. We exposed Physcomitrella to humidities that generate water potentials from −4 (97% RH) to −273 MPa (13% RH) and monitored water loss until equilibrium. Water contents were measured on a dry matter basis to determine the extent of dehydration because fresh weights (FW) were found to be variable and, therefore, unreliable. We measured electrolyte leakage from rehydrating moss, assessed overall regrowth, and imaged cells to evaluate their response to drying and rehydration. Physcomitrella did not routinely survive water potentials <−13 MPa. Upon rehydration, moss dried to water contents >0.4 g g dm<SUP>−1</sup> maintained levels of leakage similar to those of hydrated controls. Moss dried to lower water contents leaked extensively, suggesting that plasma membranes were damaged. Moss protonemal cells were shrunken and their walls twisted, even at −13 MPa. Moss cells rehydrated after drying to −273 MPa failed to re-expand completely, again indicating membrane damage. ABA treatment elicited tolerance of desiccation to at least −273 MPa and limited membrane damage. Results of this work will form the basis for ongoing studies on the functional genomics of desiccation tolerance at the cellular level.

Biology Department
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Riley, Lynn, Mcglaughlin, Mitchell, & Helenurm, Kaius. (2010).

Genetic diversity following demographic recovery in the insular endemic plant Galium catalinense subspecies acrispum. Conservation Genetics, 1-11.

Galium catalinense (Rubiaceae) is a perennial shrub consisting of two subspecies endemic to California’s Channel Islands: Galium catalinense subsp. catalinense on Santa Catalina Island, and G. catalinense subsp. acrispum, a state-endangered taxon on San Clemente Island. A long history of overgrazing by introduced herbivores has contributed to population declines in G. catalinense subsp. acrispum. We surveyed 12 populations throughout the taxon’s range for genetic variation using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci to determine the genetic impact of this demographic bottleneck. At the taxon level, 65 alleles were identified with an average of 8.1 alleles per locus, although many alleles were rare; the effective number of alleles per locus averaged 2.6. Expected heterozygosity was 0.550. Individual populations had between six and eight polymorphic loci, with expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.36 to 0.60, and effective numbers of alleles ranging from 1.8 to 3.5 per locus. Populations fell into three or four genetic clusters, depending on type of analysis, which may represent refugia where the populations persisted during intense herbivory. There is little evidence of genetic bottlenecks or substantial inbreeding within populations. These findings, coupled with indications of recent migration between populations, suggest that G. catalinense subsp. acrispum is currently unlikely to be endangered by genetic factors, but small population sizes make the taxon vulnerable to future loss of genetic diversity. Management strategies based on these genetic data, population sizes, and the spatial distribution of populations are discussed.

Biology Department
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Swanson, David L., & Burdick, Seth L. (2010).
Overwintering Physiology and Hibernacula Microclimates of Blanchard’s Cricket Frogs at Their Northwestern Range Boundary. Copeia(2), 247-253.

Blanchard’s Cricket Frogs (Acris crepitans blanchardi) in the central portion of their range show minimal capacities for freezing tolerance and survive overwinter by using terrestrial hibernacula where they avoid freezing. However, frogs may exhibit greater freeze-tolerance capacity at high latitude range limits, where winter climate is more severe. We studied freezing tolerance, glucose mobilization during freezing, and hibernacula microclimates of cricket frogs in southeastern South Dakota, at the northwestern limit of their range. Cricket frogs from South Dakota generally survived freezing exposure at -1.5 to -2.5 degrees C for 6-h periods (80% survival), but uniformly died when exposed to these same temperatures for 24-h freezing bouts. Hepatic glucose levels and phosphorylase a activities increased significantly during freezing, but hepatic glucose levels during freezing remained low, only reaching levels approximating those prior to freezing in freeze-tolerant species. Moreover, muscle glucose and hepatic glycogen levels did not vary with freezing, suggesting little mobilization of glucose from hepatic glycogen stores during freezing, contrasting with patterns in freeze-tolerant frogs. Temperatures in soil cracks and burrows potentially used for hibernacula were variable, with some sites remaining above the freezing point of the body fluids throughout the winter, some sites dropping below the freezing point for only short periods, and some sites dropping below the freezing point for extended periods. These data suggest that cricket frogs in South Dakota, as in other portions of their range, survive overwinter by locating hibernacula that prevent freezing, although their toleration of short freezing bouts may expand the range of suitable hibernacula. These data also suggest that overwinter mortality may be high at the northern range boundary and might limit cricket frogs from expanding their range northward.

Biology Department
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Sternadori, Miglena M., & Wise, Kevin. (2010).
Men and women read news differently: The effects of story structure on the cognitive processing of text. Journal of Media Psychology: Theories, Methods, and Applications, 22(1), 14-25.

This study explored how the structure of written news affects men and women differently in terms of cognition. In a 2 (Structure) × 2 (Story) × 2 (Sex) mixed design, participants read two inverted pyramid and two chronological news stories, each on a different topic. Dependent measures included secondary task reaction times (STRTs), cued recall, recognition accuracy, and text comprehension. Women had slower reaction times than men across stories, but a significant interaction showed their use of cognitive resources was less affected by variations in story structure. These results are discussed in the context of a comprehensibility interpretation of the STRT measure. The findings suggest that the common use of the inverted pyramid structure, which has been criticized as difficult to comprehend, may not explain the decrease in female news readers.

Contemporary Media Department
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Holdhusen, David. (2010).

A History of the Choral Music Activities at Gustavus Adolphus College from 1862-1933. Journal of Historical Research in Music Education, 31(2), 118-131.

The article discusses the historical events that led to the birth of Gustavus Choir and provides an insight into how a collegiate choral ensemble is developed. It points to Gustavus Adolphus College as a liberal arts college in Saint Peter, Minnesota where F. Melius Christiansen started a cappella choral singing in the U.S. It mentions G. Adolph Nelson’s innate musicality and pioneering spirit that led to the formation of the Gustavus Choir, a choral ensemble said to be rooted in the a cappella traditions of Lutheran colleges in Midwestern U.S.

Music Department
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Mei, Dongming, Zhang, C., Thomas, K., & Gray, F. (2010).
Early results on radioactive background characterization for Sanford Laboratory and DUSEL experiments. Astroparticle Physics, 34(1), 33-39.

Abstract: Measuring external sources of background for a deep underground laboratory at the Homestake Mine is an important step for the planned low-background experiments. The naturally occurring γ-ray fluxes at different levels in the Homestake Mine are studied using NaI detectors and Monte Carlo simulations. A simple algorithm is developed to convert the measured γ-ray rates into γ-ray fluxes. A good agreement between the measured and simulated γ-ray fluxes is achieved with the knowledge of the chemical composition and radioactivity levels in the rock. The neutron fluxes and γ-ray fluxes are predicted by Monte Carlo simulations for different levels including inaccessible levels that are under construction for the planned low-background experiments.

Physics Department
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Thiel, C. W., Macfarlane, R. M., Böttger, T., Sun, Yongchen., Cone, R. L., & Babbitt, W. R. (2010).

Optical decoherence and persistent spectral hole burning in Er. Journal of Luminescence, 130(9), 1603-1609.

Abstract: Developing new resonant optical materials for spatial-spectral holography and quantum information applications requires detailed knowledge of the decoherence and population relaxation dynamics for the quantum states involved in the optical transitions, motivating the need for fundamental material studies. We report recent progress in studying these properties in erbium-doped lithium niobate at liquid helium temperatures. The influence of temperature, applied magnetic fields, measurement timescale, and dopant concentration were probed using photon echo spectroscopy and time-resolved spectral hole burning on the 1532nm transition of Er<sup>3+</sup>:LiNbO<sub>3</sub>. Effects of spectral diffusion due to interactions between Er<sup>3+</sup> ions and between the Er<sup>3+</sup> ion and <sup>7</sup>Li and <sup>93</sup>Nb nuclear spins in the host lattice were observed. In addition, long-lived persistent spectral storage of seconds to minutes was observed due to non-equilibrium population redistribution among superhyperfine states.

Physics Department
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Thiel, C. W., Sun, Yongchen., Böttger, T., Babbitt, W. R., & Cone, R. L. (2010).
Optical decoherence and persistent spectral hole burning in Tm. Journal of Luminescence, 130(9), 1598-1602.

Abstract: We report studies of decoherence and spectral hole burning for the 794nm optical transition of thulium-doped lithium niobate. In addition to transient spectral holes due to the <sup>3</sup>H<sub>4</sub> and <sup>3</sup>F<sub>4</sub> excited states of Tm<sup>3+</sup>, persistent spectral holes with lifetimes of up to minutes were observed when a magnetic field of a few hundred Gauss was applied. The observed anti-hole structure identified the hole burning mechanism as population storage in the <sup>169</sup>Tm nuclear hyperfine levels. In addition, the magnetic field was effective in suppressing spectral diffusion, increasing the phase memory lifetime from 11μs at zero field to 23μs in a field of 320 Gauss applied along the crystal’s c-axis. Coupling between Tm<sup>3+</sup> and the <sup>7</sup>Li and <sup>93</sup>Nb spins in the host lattice was also observed and a quadrupole shift of 22kHz was measured for <sup>7</sup>Li at 1.7K. A Stark shift of 18kHzcm/V was measured for the optical transition with the electric field applied parallel to the c-axis. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
Copyright of Journal of Luminescence is the property of Elsevier Science and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Physics Department
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Adams, Heather R., Beck, Christopher A., Levy, Erika, Pearce, David A., & Mink, Jonathan W. (2010).
Genotype does not predict severity of behavioural phenotype in juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (Batten disease). Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 52(7), 637-643.

Aim The primary aim of this investigation was to examine genotype and clinical phenotype differences in individuals with juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL) who were homozygous for a common disease-causing deletion or compound heterozygous. The secondary aim was to cross-validate the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Unified Batten Disease Rating Scale (UBDRS), a disease-specific JNCL rating scale. Method Sixty individuals (28 males, 32 females; mean age 15y 1mo, SD 4y 9mo, range 5y 8mo–31y 1mo) with JNCL completed the UBDRS. Results No significant genotype and clinical phenotype differences were identified when comparing individuals homozygous for the deletion with a heterogeneous group of compound heterozygous individuals. There were significant correlations among related behaviour items and scales on the CBCL and UBDRS (Spearman’s rho ranging from 0.39 [ p<0.05] to 0.72 [ p<0.01]). Behaviour and physical function ratings were uncorrelated, supporting divergent validity of these two constructs in JNCL. Interpretation Previous reports of genotype and clinical phenotype differences were unsupported in this investigation, which did not find differences between individuals homozygous or heterozygous for the CLN3 deletion. The CBCL, an already validated measure of behaviour problems, appears valid for use in JNCL and cross-validates well with the UBDRS.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus
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Ebbesson, S. O. E., Devereux, R. B., Cole, S., Harris, William S., Howard, W. J., & Laston, S. (2010).
Heart rate is associated with red blood cell fatty acid concentration: The Genetics of Coronary Artery Disease in Alaska Natives (GOCADAN) study. American Heart Journal, 159(6), 1020-1025.

Background Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) is associated with a reduction in deaths from coronary heart disease, arrhythmia, and sudden death. Although these FAs were originally thought to be antiatherosclerotic, recent evidence suggests that their benefits are related to reducing risk for ventricular arrhythmia and that this may be mediated by a slowed heart rate (HR). Methods The study was conducted in Alaskan Eskimos participating in the Genetics of Coronary Artery Disease in Alaska Natives (GOCADAN) Study, a population experiencing a dietary shift from unsaturated to saturated fats. We compared HR with red blood cell (RBC) FA content in 316 men and 391 women ages 35 to 74 years. Results Multivariate linear regression analyses of individual FAs with HR as the dependent variable and specific FAs as covariates revealed negative associations between HR and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; P=.004) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; P=.009) and positive associations between HR and palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7; P=.021), eicosanoic acid (20:1n9; P=.007), and dihomo-y-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3n-6; P=.021). Factor analysis revealed that the omega-3 FAs were negatively associated with HR (P=.003), whereas a cluster of other, non-omega-3 unsaturated FAs (16:1, 20:1, and 20:3) was positively associated. Conclusions Marine omega-3 FAs are associated with lower HR, whereas palmitoleic and DGLA, previously identified as associated with saturated FA consumption and directly related to cardiovascular mortality, are associated with higher HR. These relations may at least partially explain the relations between omega-3 FAs, ventricular arrhythmia, and sudden death. (Am Heart J 2010; 159:1020-5.)

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus
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Hu, Yueshan, & Davies, Gareth E. (2010).
Berberine inhibits adipogenesis in high-fat diet-induced obesity mice. Fitoterapia, 81(5), 358-366.

Our previous studies illustrated that berberine inhibited adipogenesis in murine-derived 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and human white preadipocytes. In this study, the effects of berberine on the adipogenesis of high-fat diet-induced obesity (FD) or normal diet (ND) mice and possible transcriptional impact are investigated. The results demonstrated that in FD mice, berberine reduced mouse weight gain and food intake and serum glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels accompanied with a down-regulation of PPARγ expression and an up-regulation of GATA-3 expression. Berberine had no adverse effects on ND mice. These encouraging findings suggest that berberine has excellent pharmacological potential to prevent obesity.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus
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Kobayashi, Satoru, Volden, Paul, Timm, Derek, Kai, Mao, Xianmin, Xu, & Qiangrong, Liang. (2010).
Transcription Factor GATA4 Inhibits Doxorubicin-induced Autophagy and Cardiomyocyte Death. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 285(1), 793-804.

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent anti-tumor drug known to cause heart failure. The transcription factor GATA4 antagonizes DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. However, the protective mechanism remains obscure. Autophagy is the primary cellular pathway for lysosomal degradation of long-lived proteins and organelles, and its activation could be either protective or detrimental depending on specific pathophysiological conditions. Here we investigated the ability of GATA4 to inhibit autophagy as a potential mechanism underlying its protection against DOX toxicity in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. DOX markedly increased autophagic flux in cardiomyocytes as indicated by the difference in protein levels of LC3-II (microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 form 2) or numbers of autophagic vacuoles in the absence and presence of the lysosomal inhibitor bafilomycin A1. DOX-induced cardiomyocyte death determined by multiple assays was aggravated by a drug or genetic approach that activates autophagy, but it was attenuated by manipulations that inhibit autophagy, suggesting that autophagy contributes to DOX cardiotoxicity. DOX treatment depleted GATA4 protein levels, which predisposed cardiomyocytes to DOX toxicity. Indeed, GATA4 gene silencing triggered autophagy that rendered DOX more toxic, whereas GATA4 overexpression inhibited DOX-induced autophagy, reducing cardiomyocyte death. Mechanistically, GATA4 up-regulated gene expression of the survival factor Bcl2 and suppressed DOX-induced activation of autophagy-related genes, which may likely be responsible for the anti-apoptotic and anti-autophagic effects of GATA4. Together, these findings suggest that activation of autophagy mediates DOX cardiotoxicity, and preservation of GATA4 attenuates DOX cardiotoxicity by inhibiting autophagy through modulation of the expression of Bcl2 and autophagy-related genes.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus
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Li, Y., & Yang, D. Q. (2010).
The ATM Inhibitor KU-55933 Suppresses Cell Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis by Blocking Akt In Cancer Cells with Overactivated Akt. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, 9(1), 113-125.

Aberrant activation of Akt plays a pivotal role in cancer development. ATM, a protein deficient in patients with ataxia-telangiectasia disease, is traditionally considered as a nuclear protein kinase that functions as a signal transducer in response to DNA damage. It has recently been shown that ATM is also a cytoplasmic protein that mediates the full activation of Akt in response to insulin. Our study shows that a specific ATM inhibitor, KU-55933, blocks the phosphorylation of Akt induced by insulin and insulin-like growth factor I in cancer cells that exhibit abnormal Akt activity. Moreover, KU-55933 inhibits cancer cell proliferation by inducing G(1) cell cycle arrest. It does so through the downregulation of the synthesis of cyclin D1, a protein known to be elevated in a variety of tumors. In addition, KU-55933 treatment during serum starvation triggers apoptosis in these cancer cells. Our results suggest that KU-55933 may be a novel chemotherapeutic agent targeting cancer resistant to traditional chemotherapy or immunotherapy due to aberrant activation of Akt. Furthermore, KU-55933 completely abrogates rapamycin-induced feedback activation of Akt. Combination of KU-55933 and rapamycin not only induces apoptosis, which is not seen in cancer cells treated only with rapamycin, but also shows better efficacy in inhibiting cancer cell proliferation than each drug alone. Therefore, combining KU-55933 with rapamycin may provide a highly effective approach for improving mammalian target of rapamycin-targeted anticancer therapy that is currently hindered by rapamycin-induced feedback activation of Akt. Mol Cancer Ther; 9(1); 113-25. (C) 2010 AACR.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus
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Benson, Nicholas, & Newman, Isadore. (2010).
Potential utility of actuarial methods for identifying specific learning disabilities. Psychology in the Schools, 47(6), 538-550.

This article describes how actuarial methods can supplant discrepancy models and augment problem solving and Response to Intervention (RTI) efforts by guiding the process of identifying specific learning disabilities (SLD). Actuarial methods use routinized selection and execution of formulas derived from empirically established relationships to make predictions that fall within a plausible range of possible future outcomes. In the case of SLD identification, the extent to which predictions are reasonable can be evaluated by their ability to categorize large segments of the population into subgroups that vary considerably along a spectrum of risk for academic failure. Although empirical comparisons of actuarial methods to clinical judgment reveal that actuarial methods consistently outperform clinical judgment, multidisciplinary teams charged with identifying SLD currently rely on clinical judgment. Actuarial methods provide educators with an empirically verifiable indicator of student need for special education and related services that could be used to estimate the relative effects of exclusionary criteria. This indicator would provide a defensible endpoint in the process of identifying SLD as well as a means of informing and improving the SLD identification process.

School of Education
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Bright, Larry K., & Mahdi, Ghada S. (2010).
Out of Crisis: Reflections of an Iraqi and an American on Advocacy for Andragogy. Adult Learning, 21(1/2), 37-40.

In this article, the authors reflects on the significance of inclusive education in collaborating the American and Arab cultures. One author mentions that education is a critical aspect in fostering and securing long term peace and stability. One author explores the theoretical principles of andragogy, how it is considered a paradigm, and how it could enhance the exchange of cultural knowledge and friendship.

School of Education
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Erford, Bradley T., Duncan, Kelly, & Savin-Murphy, Janet. (2010).
Brief Psychometric Analysis of the Self-Efficacy Teacher Report Scale. Measurement & Evaluation in Counseling & Development (Sage Publications Inc. ), 43(2), 79-90.

This study provides preliminary analysis of reliability and validity of scores on the Self-Efficacy Teacher Report Scale, which was designed to assess teacher perceptions of self-efficacy of students aged 8 to 17 years.

School of Education
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Ikiugu, Moses N. (2010).
Analyzing and Critiquing Occupational Therapy Practice Models Using Mosey’s Extrapolation Method. Occupational Therapy in Health Care, 24(3), 193-205.

Over time, there has been a persistent gap between theory and practice in occupational therapy. In this paper, it is suggested that this gap could be decreased by enhancing therapists’ knowledge and understanding of the nature of theory. Mosey’s (1996a) 9-step extrapolation method of developing theoretical conceptual practice models is proposed as one way of improving clinicians’ understanding of the structure of theoretical conceptual practice models and knowing how to analyze and critique them to determine their usefulness in specific clinical contexts. This understanding will hopefully translate into increased utilization of theoretical conceptual practice models to guide every day practice.

School of Health Sciences.

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