Posted by: reganenosusd | August 27, 2014

June 2014

Eyster, Kathleen M., Appt, S., Chalpe, Abha, Mark-Kappeler, Connie J., Register, T. C., & Clarkson, T. B. (2014). Effects of estradiol on transcriptional profiles in atherosclerotic iliac arteries in ovariectomized cynomolgus macaques. Menopause-the Journal of the North American Menopause Society, 21(2), 143-152.

Objective This study aimed to assess the in vivo effects of estradiol treatment on arterial gene expression in atherosclerotic postmenopausal female monkeys. Methods Eight ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys were fed atherogenic diets for 6.5 years. The left iliac artery was biopsied before randomization to the estradiol group (human equivalent dose of 1 mg/d, n = 4) or the vehicle group (n = 4) for 8 months. The right iliac artery was obtained at necropsy. Transcriptional profiles in pretreatment versus posttreatment iliac arteries were compared to assess the responses of atherosclerotic arteries to estradiol. Results Iliac artery plaque size did not differ between the estradiol group and the placebo group at baseline or during the treatment period. Nevertheless, estradiol treatment was associated with increased expression of 106 genes and decreased expression of 26 genes in the iliac arteries. Estradiol treatment increased the expression of extracellular matrix genes, including the 1 chain of type I collagen, the 2 chain of type VI collagen, and fibulin 2, suggestive of an increase in the proportion or phenotype of smooth muscles or fibroblasts in lesions. Also increased were components of the insulin-like growth factor pathway (insulin-like growth factor 1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5) and the Wnt signaling pathway (secreted frizzled-related protein 2, secreted frizzled-related protein 4, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6, and Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein 2). Conclusions Estradiol treatment of monkeys with established atherosclerosis affected iliac artery gene expression, suggesting changes in the cellular composition of lesions. Moreover, it is probable that the presence of atherosclerotic plaque affected the gene expression responses of arteries to estrogen.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Ouellette, Scot P.,Gauliard, Emilie, Antosova, Zuzana,& Ladant, Daniel. (2014). A Gateway((R)) -compatible bacterial adenylate cyclase-based two-hybrid system. Environmental Microbiology Reports, 6(3), 259-267.

The bacterial adenylate cyclase two-hybrid (BACTH) system has been widely used to characterize protein-protein interactions in the prokaryotic world. This system relies on the interaction-mediated reconstitution of adenylate cyclase activity in Escherichia coli by bringing together two complementary fragments of the catalytic domain of the adenylate cyclase toxin of Bordetella pertussis. A limiting factor in performing large-scale two-hybrid interaction screens with full-length open reading frames (ORFs) is the need to clone each ORF individually into the plasmids used to express the hybrid proteins. The Gateway((R)) (GW) cloning system (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY, USA) partially circumvents this limitation, and we describe here modifications to the BACTH system for compatibility with this recombineering technology. We validated and tested the functionality of the BACTH Gateway (BACTH(GW)) system using several models of protein-protein interactions, focusing particularly on those involved in bacterial cell division. We further modified the BACTH plasmids to incorporate a transmembrane (TM) segment downstream of the cyclase fragments to permit analysis of extracytoplasmic protein interactions. This approach was also useful to identify putative TM segments and to experimentally validate bioinformatically identified TM domains. The BACTH(GW) system will prove a useful addition to the study of protein-protein interactions.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Paulson, Alicia F., Prasad, M. S., Thuringer, Amanda H., & Manzerra, Pasquale. (2014). Regulation of cadherin expression in nervous system development. Cell Adhesion & Migration, 8(1), 19-28.

This review addresses our current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for classical cadherin expression during development of the vertebrate nervous system. The complexity of the spatial and temporal expression patterns is linked to morphogenic and functional roles in the developing nervous system. While the regulatory networks controlling cadherin expression are not well understood, it is likely that the multiple signaling pathways active in the development of particular domains also regulate the specific cadherins expressed at that time and location. With the growing understanding of the broader roles of cadherins in cell-cell adhesion and non-adhesion processes, it is important to understand both the upstream regulation of cadherin expression and the downstream effects of specific cadherins within their cellular context.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Zheng, Zhaoqing,& Keifer, Joyce. (2014). Sequential Delivery of Synaptic GluA1-and GluA4-containing AMPA Receptors ( AMPARs) by SAP97 Anchored Protein Complexes in Classical Conditioning. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 289(15), 10540-10550.

Background: Subunit-specific synaptic delivery of AMPARs during associative learning is not well characterized. Results: SAP97-AKAP/PKA-GluA1 followed by SAP97-KSR1/PKC-GluA4 complexes function for surface delivery of AMPARs. Conclusion: SAP97 interacts with AKAP and KSR1 proteins to coordinate the sequential synaptic delivery of AMPAR subunits during in vitro classical conditioning. Significance: A cooperative interaction of multiple scaffolding proteins selectively delivers AMPARs to synapses during conditioning. Multiple signaling pathways are involved in AMPAR trafficking to synapses during synaptic plasticity and learning. The mechanisms for how these pathways are coordinated in parallel but maintain their functional specificity involves subcellular compartmentalization of kinase function by scaffolding proteins, but how this is accomplished is not well understood. Here, we focused on characterizing the molecular machinery that functions in the sequential synaptic delivery of GluA1- and GluA4-containing AMPARs using an in vitro model of eyeblink classical conditioning. We show that conditioning induces the interaction of selective protein complexes with the key structural protein SAP97, which tightly regulates the synaptic delivery of GluA1 and GluA4 AMPAR subunits. The results demonstrate that in the early stages of conditioning the initial activation of PKA stimulates the formation of a SAP97-AKAP/PKA-GluA1 protein complex leading to synaptic delivery of GluA1-containing AMPARs through a SAP97-PSD95 interaction. This is followed shortly thereafter by generation of a SAP97-KSR1/PKC-GluA4 complex for GluA4 AMPAR subunit delivery again through a SAP97-PSD95 interaction. These data suggest that SAP97 forms the molecular backbone of a protein scaffold critical for delivery of AMPARs to the PSD during conditioning. Together, the findings reveal a cooperative interaction of multiple scaffolding proteins for appropriately timed delivery of subunit-specific AMPARs to synapses and support a sequential two-stage model of AMPAR synaptic delivery during classical conditioning.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Zheng, W. H., Liu, J. S., & Swanson, David L. (2014). Seasonal Phenotypic Flexibility of Body Mass, Organ Masses, and Tissue Oxidative Capacity and Their Relationship to Resting Metabolic Rate in Chinese Bulbuls. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 87(3), 432-444.

Survival of small birds in fluctuating environments is facilitated by seasonal metabolic and morphological flexibility. Chinese bulbuls Pycnonotus sinensis show winter increases in resting metabolic rate (RMR), nutritional organ masses, and liver and muscle cellular aerobic capacity relative to summer. In this study, we build on these findings from previous studies by measuring seasonal adjustments in body mass (M-b), RMR, nutritional and exercise organ masses, and several physiological, biochemical, and hormonal markers over the entire annual cycle in wild-trapped Chinese bulbuls from Wenzhou, China. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationships between variation in organ masses and cellular aerobic capacity and variation in RMR in individual birds. M-b and RMR were higher in spring (March-May) and winter (December-February) than in summer (June-August). The dry masses of several nutritional organs and mitochondrial protein content, state 4 respiration, and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity in liver and muscle were all heightened in winter relative to other seasons. In addition, dry masses of heart and pectoral muscle, but not nutritional organs, and biochemical markers of cellular aerobic capacity in liver and muscle were positively correlated with RMR. Plasma triiodothyronine (T-3) concentration was higher in winter and spring than in summer and autumn, and it was positively correlated with RMR, mitochondrial protein content, state 4 respiration, and COX activity in liver and muscle. These results suggest that seasonal changes in nutritional and exercise organ masses and liver and muscle cellular aerobic capacity interact to promote seasonal metabolic flexibility in Chinese bulbuls. T-3 appears to promote these seasonal thermoregulatory adjustments.

Biology Department.

Dai, Feng-Rong,Sambasivam, Uma, Hammerstrom, Alex J.,& Wang, Zhenqiang. (2014). Synthetic Supercontainers Exhibit Distinct Solution versus Solid State Guest-Binding Behavior. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 136(20), 7480-7491.

The phase-dependent host-guest binding behavior of a new family of synthetic supercontainers has been probed in homogeneous solution and at liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and solid-gas interfaces. The synthetic hosts, namely, type II metal-organic supercontainers (MOSCs), are constructed from the assembly of divalent metal ions, 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate (BDC) linker, and sulfonylcalix[4]arene-based container precursors. One member of the MOSCs, MOSC-II-tBu-Ni, which is derived from Ni(II), BDC, and p-tert-butylsulfonylcalix[4] arene (TBSC), crystallizes in the space group R (3) over bar and adopts pseudo face-centered cubic (fcc) packing, whereas other MOSCs, including TBSC analogue MOSC-II-tBu-Co, p-tert-pentylsulfonylcalix[4]arene (TPSC) analogues MOSC-II-tPen-Ni/Co, and p-tert-octylsulfonylcalix[4]arene (TOSC) analogues MOSC-II-tOc-Ni/Mg/Co, all crystallize in the space group I4/m and assume a pseudo body-centered cubic (bcc) packing mode. This solid-state structural diversity is nevertheless not reflected in their solution host-guest chemistry, as evidenced by the similar binding properties of MOSC-II-tBu-Ni and MOSC-II-tBu-Co in solution. Both MOSCs show comparable binding constants and adsorb ca. 7 equiv of methylene blue (MB) and ca. 30 equiv of aspirin in chloroform. In contrast, the guest-binding behavior of the MOSCs in solid state reveals much more variations. At the solid-liquid interface, MOSC-II-tBu-Co adsorb ca. S equiv of MB from an aqueous solution at a substantially faster rate than MOSC-II-tBu-Ni does. However, at the solid-gas interface, MOSC-II-tBu-Ni has higher gas uptake than MOSC-II-tBu-Co, contradicting their overall porosity inferred from the crystal structures. This discrepancy is attributed to the partial collapse of the solid-state packing of the MOSCs upon solvent evacuation. It is postulated that the degree of porosity collapse correlates with the molecular size of the MOSCs, i.e., the larger the MOSCs, the more severe they suffer from the loss of porosity. The same principle can rationalize the negligible N-2 and O-2 adsorption seen in the larger MOSC-II-tPen-Co and MOSC-II-tOC-Ni/Mg/Co molecules. MOSC-II-tPen-Ni features an intermediate molecular size and endures a partial structural collapse in such a way that the resulting pore dimension permits the inclusion of kinetically smaller O-2 (3.46 angstrom) but excludes larger N-2 (3.64 angstrom), explaining the observed remarkable O-2/N-2 adsorption selectivity.

Chemistry Department.

Feng-Rong, Dai,Sambasivam, Uma, Hammerstrom, Alex J.,& Zhenqiang, Wang. (2014). Synthetic Supercontainers Exhibit Distinct Solution versus Solid State Guest-Binding Behavior. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 136(20), 7480-7491.

The phase-dependent host-guest binding behavior of a new family of synthetic supercontainers has been probed in homogeneous solution and at liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and soUd-gas interfaces. The synthetic hosts, namely, type II metalorganic supercontainers (MOSCs), are constructed from the assembly of divalent metal ions, 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate (BDC) linker, and sulfonylcalix[4]arene-based container precursors. One member of the MOSCs, MOSC-II-tBu-Ni, which is derived fi-om Ni(Il), BDC, and ]7-tert-butylsulfonylcalix[4]arene (TBSC), crystallizes in the space group R3 and adopts pseudo facecentered cubic (fee) packing, whereas other MOSCs, including TBSC analogue MOSC-II-tBu-Co, p-tert-pentylsulfonylcalix- [4]arene (TPSC) analogues MOSC-II-tPen-Ni/Co, and j)-iert-octylsulfonylcalix[4]arene (TOSC) analogues MOSC-II-tOc-Ni/ Mg/Co, all crystallize in the space group IA/m and assume a pseudo body-centered cubic (bcc) packing mode. This solid-state structural diversity is nevertheless not reflected in their solution host-guest chemistry, as evidenced by the similar binding properties of MOSC-II-tBu-Ni and MOSC-II-tBu-Co in solution. Both MOSCs show comparable binding constants and adsorb ca. 7 equiv of methylene blue (MB) and ca. 30 equiv of aspirin in chloroform. In contrast, the guest-binding behavior of the MOSCs in solid state reveals much more variations. At the solid-liquid interface, MOSC-II-tBu-Co adsorb ca. 5 equiv of MB from an aqueous solution at a substantially faster rate than MOSC-II-tBu-Ni does. However, at the solid-gas interface, MOSCII- tBu-Ni has higher gas uptake than MOSC-II-tBu-Co, contradicting their overall porosity inferred from the crystal structures. This discrepancy is attributed to the partial collapse of the solid-state packing of the MOSCs upon solvent evacuation. It is postulated that the degree of porosity collapse correlates with the molecular size of the MOSCs, i.e., the larger the MOSCs, the more severe they suffer fi-om the loss of porosity. The same principle can rationalize the negligible N2 and O2 adsorption seen in the larger MOSC-II-tPen-Co and MOSC-II-tOC-Ni/Mg/Co molecules. MOSC-II-tPen-Ni features an intermediate molecular size and endures a partial structural collapse in such a way that the resulting pore dimension permits the inclusion of kinetically smaller O2 (3.46 A) but excludes larger N2 (3.64 A), explaining the observed remarkable O2/N2 adsorption selectivity.

Chemistry Department.

Messersmith, Jessica J.,Lockie, Jill, Jorgensen, Lindsey,Bauer Vaith, Shana, & Falk, Elizabeth. (2014). Legislation Impacting Audiology and the Provision of Audiological Services: A Review of Legislation Across the United States. American Journal of Audiology, 23(1), 142-150.

Purpose: The purpose of this review was to investigate the legislation about the provision of audiology services. Specifically, the goal of the review was to investigate the similarities and differences in legislation regarding the identification of, and audiology services provided to, children with hearing loss. Method: A systematic review was conducted to collect state-specific legislation regarding the audiology licensure requirements, requirements about the identification and management of children with hearing loss, and insurance coverage regulations. Compiled data were analyzed for similarities and differences between state regulations and legislature. Results: All states require audiologists to hold licensure; however, many differences exist between the requirements of acquiring and maintaining the license. Some states regulate the identification and management of children with hearing loss, whereas others do not. Additionally, states differ in their regulation of services provided to children with hearing loss, who can provide these services, and what is covered by insurance. Conclusion: It is critical for audiologists to understand the requirements of their state in the provision of audiology services. Specifically, it is important for audiologists to understand how the laws may impact the services they provide to children with hearing loss.

Communication Disorders Department.

Ehlers, Sarah. (2014). Mourning the Modernist Undead: Robert Duncan’s Company and the Felt Silence of the Lost Generation. Contemporary Literature, 55(1), 89-117.

The article offers criticism of the poem “September 1961” by Robert Duncan. The author discusses the development of the American Poetry and preoccupation with silence and loss of speech. It explores Duncan’s process of mourning over the death of H. D., his process for constructing his poems amid perceived loss of his mentors.

English Department.

Robles, Elias, Emery, Noah N., Vargas, Perla A., Moreno, Araceli, Marshall, Brent, Grove, Richard C., & Zhang, Huateng. (2014). Patterns of Responding on a Balloon Analogue Task Reveal Individual Differences in Overall Risk-Taking: Choice Between Guaranteed and Uncertain Cash. Journal of General Psychology, 141(3), 207-227.

ABSTRACT. We explored the utility of analyzing within- and between-balloon response patterns on a balloon analogue task (BAT) in relation to overall risk scores, and to a choice between a small guaranteed cash reward and an uncertain reward of the same expected value. Young adults (n = 61) played a BAT, and then were offered a choice between $5 in cash and betting to win $0 to $15. Between groups, pumping was differentially influenced by explosions and by the number of successive unexploded balloons, with risk takers responding increasingly on successive balloons after an explosion. Within-balloons, risk takers showed a characteristic pattern of constant high rate, while non-risk takers showed a characteristic variable lower rate. Overall, results show that the higher number of pumps and explosions that characterize risk takers at a molar level, result from particular forms of adaptation to the positive and negative outcomes of choices seen at a molecular level. Color versions of one or more of the figures in the article can be found online at www.tandfonline.com/vgen.

Psychology Department [graduate student].

Pottala, James V., Djira, G. D., Espeland, M. A., Ye, J., Larson, M. G., & Harris, William S. (2014). Structural Equation Modeling for Analyzing Erythrocyte Fatty Acids in Framingham. Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine.

Research has shown that several types of erythrocyte fatty acids (i.e., omega-3, omega-6, and trans) are associated with risk for cardiovascular diseases. However, there are complex metabolic and dietary relations among fatty acids, which induce correlations that are typically ignored when using them as risk predictors. A latent variable approach could summarize these complex relations into a few latent variable scores for use in statistical models. Twenty-two red blood cell (RBC) fatty acids were measured in Framingham (N = 3196). The correlation matrix of the fatty acids was modeled using structural equation modeling; the model was tested for goodness-of-fit and gender invariance. Thirteen fatty acids were summarized by three latent variables, and gender invariance was rejected so separate models were developed for men and women. A score was developed for the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) latent variable, which explained about 30% of the variance in the data. The PUFA score included loadings in opposing directions among three omega-3 and three omega-6 fatty acids, and incorporated the biosynthetic and dietary relations among them. Whether the PUFA factor score can improve the performance of risk prediction in cardiovascular diseases remains to be tested.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

Bledsoe, Adam,Baloun, Brett, Murray, Jeffrey,& Atiq, Muslim. (2014). Retrieval of a sharp foreign body from the stomach: a novel approach. Endoscopy, 46, E105-E106.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Evans, Rick L.,Pottala, James V., & Egland, Kristi A.(2014). Classifying Patients for Breast Cancer by Detection of Autoantibodies against a Panel of Conformation-Carrying Antigens. Cancer Prevention Research, 7(5), 545-555.

Patients with breast cancer elicit an autoantibody response against cancer proteins, which reflects and amplifies the cellular changes associated with tumorigenesis. Detection of autoantibodies in plasma may provide a minimally invasive mechanism for early detection of breast cancer. To identify cancer proteins that elicit a humoral response, we generated a cDNA library enriched for breast cancer genes that encode membrane and secreted proteins, which are more likely to induce an antibody response compared with intracellular proteins. To generate conformation-carrying antigens that are efficiently recognized by patients’ antibodies, a eukaryotic expression strategy was established. Plasma from 200 patients with breast cancer and 200 age-matched healthy controls were measured for autoantibody activity against 20 different antigens designed to have conformational epitopes using ELISA. A conditional logistic regression model was used to select a combination of autoantibody responses against the 20 different antigens to classify patients with breast cancer from healthy controls. The best combination included ANGPTL4, DKK1, GAL1, MUC1, GFRA1, GRN, and LRRC15; however, autoantibody responses against GFRA1, GRN, and LRRC15 were inversely correlated with breast cancer. When the autoantibody responses against the 7 antigens were added to the base model, including age, BMI, race and current smoking status, the assay had the following diagnostic capabilities: c-stat (95% CI), 0.82 (0.78-0.86); sensitivity, 73%; specificity, 76%; and positive likelihood ratio (95% CI), 3.04 (2.34-3.94). The model was calibrated across risk deciles (HosmerLemeshow, P = 0.13) and performed well in specific subtypes of breast cancer including estrogen receptor positive, HER-2 positive, invasive, in situ and tumor sizes > 1 cm. Cancer Prev Res; 7(5); 545-55. (C) 2014 AACR.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

May, Philip A., Hamrick, Kari J., ….., Hoyme, H. Eugene, & Gossage, J. Phillip. (2014). Dietary intake, nutrition, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Reproductive Toxicology, 46(x), 31-39.

Highlights: [•] Dietary intake of women in South Africa is compared to recommended intakes for specific nutrients. [•] For most nutrients, all mothers were significantly below Dietary Reference Intakes. [•] Mothers of FASD children had significantly lower intakes of calcium, DPA, riboflavin, and choline than controls. [•] Lower nutrient intake correlates with binge drinking. [•] Nutritional inadequacies with prenatal alcohol exposure increase the risk for FASD.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

O’Neil, Amanda,& Schumacher, Bette. (2014). Application of a Pectin Barrier for Medical Adhesive Skin Injury (Epidermal Stripping) in a Premature Infant. Journal of Wound Ostomy and Continence Nursing, 41(3), 219-221.

BACKGROUND: Premature infants require, as part of their care, devices such as monitors and temperature probes to be attached to their skin. However, because of immaturity of the skin, they are especially vulnerable to medical adhesive-related skin injury. CASE: This case discusses the application of a hydrocolloid (pectin) barrier between the adhesive surface of a silver reflective patch covering thermistor probe and the neonate’s skin resulting in medical adhesive skin injury (epidermal stripping). CONCLUSIONS: The use of this pectin barrier proved to be a suitable surface to secure the temperature probe and avoid further medical adhesive-related skin injury.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Pottala, James V., Yaffe, K., Robinson, J. G., Espeland, M. A., Wallace, R., & Harris, William S. (2014). Higher RBC EPA plus DHA corresponds with larger total brain and hippocampal volumes WHIMS-MRI Study. Neurology, 82(5), 435-442.

Objective:To test whether red blood cell (RBC) levels of marine omega-3 fatty acids measured in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study were related to MRI brain volumes measured 8 years later.Methods:RBC eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and MRI brain volumes were assessed in 1,111 postmenopausal women from the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study. The endpoints were total brain volume and anatomical regions. Linear mixed models included multiple imputations of fatty acids and were adjusted for hormone therapy, time since randomization, demographics, intracranial volume, and cardiovascular disease risk factors.Results:In fully adjusted models, a 1 SD greater RBC EPA + DHA (omega-3 index) level was correlated with 2.1 cm(3) larger brain volume (p = 0.048). DHA was marginally correlated (p = 0.063) with total brain volume while EPA was less so (p = 0.11). There were no correlations between ischemic lesion volumes and EPA, DHA, or EPA + DHA. A 1 SD greater omega-3 index was correlated with greater hippocampal volume (50 mm(3), p = 0.036) in fully adjusted models. Comparing the fourth quartile vs the first quartile of the omega-3 index confirmed greater hippocampal volume (159 mm(3), p = 0.034).Conclusion:A higher omega-3 index was correlated with larger total normal brain volume and hippocampal volume in postmenopausal women measured 8 years later. While normal aging results in overall brain atrophy, lower omega-3 index may signal increased risk of hippocampal atrophy. Future studies should examine whether maintaining higher RBC EPA + DHA levels slows the rate of hippocampal or overall brain atrophy.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Wachira, John K., Larson, M. K., & Harris, William S. (2014). n-3 Fatty acids affect haemostasis but do not increase the risk of bleeding: clinical observations and mechanistic insights. British Journal of Nutrition, 111(9), 1652-1662.

n-3 Fatty acids (EPA and DHA, from fish oil) are essential fatty acids that are approved for the treatment of severe hypertriacylglycerolaemia and, in some countries, used for reducing the risk of CVD. Because of their inhibitory effects on platelet function, some practitioners have, perhaps unnecessarily, discontinued their use in patients undergoing invasive procedures or being treated with anti-platelet or anticoagulation drugs. Thus, the aim of the present study was to review the effects of n-3 fatty acids on bleeding complications in a wide variety of clinical settings, and to summarise their biochemical mechanism of action in platelet function and coagulation. We surveyed recent publications that either directly studied the effects of n-3 fatty acids on the risk of bleeding or focused on different end-points and also reported the effects on bleeding. n-3 Fatty acid treatment had no effect on the risk of clinically significant bleeding in either monotherapy or combination therapy settings. Although originally believed to operate primarily via the cyclo-oxygenase system, these fatty acids have been shown to affect multiple signalling pathways and thrombotic processes beyond simply affecting platelet aggregation. The present overview found no support for discontinuing the use of n-3 fatty acid treatment before invasive procedures or when given in combination with other agents that affect bleeding. On the contrary, the use of these fatty acids in several settings improved clinical outcomes.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Flynn, Stephen V., Olson, Seth D., & Yellig, Adriana D. (2014). American Indian Acculturation: Tribal Lands to Predominately White Postsecondary Settings. Journal of Counseling& Development, 92(3), 280-293.

Grounded theory provided a framework for examining 25 acculturating American Indian college students, 12 relatives of acculturating American Indians, and 7 postsecondary administrators. Acculturation was defined as the transformative process resulting from the integration of tribal culture and predominately White culture. Data sources included individual interviews, focus groups, and artifact analysis. The 16 emergent themes form an acculturation theory centered on a strength-based acculturation process affecting American Indians’ transition to predominately White postsecondary settings.

School of Education. [Flynn and Yellig no longer are at USD]

 

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