Posted by: katybug23 | October 5, 2010

September 2010

Kisner, Tamela, and Heidi Johnson-Anderson. “Simulation on a Shoestring Budget.” Nursing 40, no. 8 (2010): 32-35.

The article discusses strategies for developing a cost-effective simulation program for nursing education and training. Simulation as a teaching method has many advantages including the use of active learning, the promotion of critical thinking skills, the reduction of performance anxiety and the promotion of teamwork skills. The author describes various methods for simulating different disease states, or moulage, in the classroom.

School of Health Sciences

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Bloom, Michael V., and Mark K. Huntington. “Faculty, Resident, and Clinic Staff’s Evaluation of the Effects of Ehr Implementation.” Fam Med 42, no. 8 (2010): 562-6.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There have been few reports on the effect of electronic health record (EHR) implementation as seen by those most responsible for using the system in a residency program. Our objective was to investigate how faculty, residents, and both clinical and nonclinical staff view the effects of EHR implementation on a broad range of issues. METHODS: All 72 personnel were surveyed at 8 months (response rate 75%) and 12 months (response rate 57%) following full implementation of the EHR. The survey inquired into subjective perceptions of amount of time spent documenting and occurrence of documentation, effect on patient care, interference with other activities, effect on communication and relationships, coding/billing process, and overall efficiency. RESULTS: Since EHR implementation, faculty and residents perceived documentation as taking 13 minutes per patient. It was seen as interfering with personal and educational time. Perception of all personnel was that the EHR was having a negative effect on patient care. There was no detectable statistically significant change between the 8- and 12-month surveys. CONCLUSION: A perception of the promised improvement in patient care, provider communications, and billing efficiency due to EHR implementation was not realized in this population.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

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Harris, William S. “The Omega-3 Index: Clinical Utility for Therapeutic Intervention.” Curr Cardiol Rep 12, no. 6 (2010): 503-8.

Red blood cell levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are a reflection of tissue levels and are determined by a complex interplay of metabolism and nutrition. Low levels of EPA+DHA in erythrocytes are associated with increased risk for sudden cardiac death. If levels of EPA+DHA in erythrocytes are determined using a strictly defined and standardized method, then the clinical significance of differing levels (previously defined in major research studies using this methodology) may be understood and applied in patient care. The Omega-3 Index, which is the EPA+DHA content of erythrocytes expressed as a percent of total identified fatty acids, was originally suggested as a marker of increased risk for death from coronary heart disease, but it can also be viewed as an actual risk factor, playing a pathophysiologic role in the disease. Optimal levels appear to be 8% or greater. At this stage of its development, the Omega-3 Index appears to fulfill many of the requirements for both a risk marker and a risk factor. Using the Omega-3 Index in the design of clinical studies might allow for a more efficient use of research resources.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

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———. “Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Plaque Stabilization.” Curr Atheroscler Rep 12, no. 6 (2010): 357-8. 

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

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Huntington, Mark K., and Charles W. Shafer. “Ehr Implementation Adversely Affects Performance on Process Quality Measures in a Community Health Center.” Am J Med Qual 25, no. 5 (2010): 404-5.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

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Kenyon, DenYelle Baete, Renee E. Sieving, Sarah J. Jerstad, Sandra L. Pettingell, and Carol L. Skay. “Individual, Interpersonal, and Relationship Factors Predicting Hormonal and Condom Use Consistency among Adolescent Girls.” Journal of Pediatric Health Care 24, no. 4 (2010): 241-49.

Introduction: Few existing studies have considered influences of adolescents’ sexual partners on contraceptive consistency. This study examines the influence of personal characteristics, partner characteristics, and relationship factors on consistency of contraceptive use among an ethnically diverse sample of adolescent girls at high risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Method: Data are from 110 sexually active 13- to 17-year-old girls participating in a clinic-based intervention study aimed at reducing sexual risk behaviors. Personal characteristics were assessed at baseline (T1), and partner and relationship characteristics were assessed at 12 months (T2). Results: Multivariate analyses revealed that T2 hormonal contraceptive consistency was predicted by T1 hormonal consistency, girls’ desire to use birth control, having the same sexual partner at T1 and T2, perceived partner support for birth control, and communication with partner about sexual risk. T2 condom use consistency was negatively predicted by emergency contraceptive use history and perceived partner support for birth control. Discussion: Findings underscore the importance of nurses addressing both personal and relationship factors in their efforts to promote consistent contraceptive use among sexually active adolescent girls. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

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Koerner, Susan Silverberg, Yumi Shirai, and DenYelle Baete Kenyon. “Sociocontextual Circumstances in Daily Stress Reactivity among Caregivers for Elder Relatives.” Journals of Gerontology Series     Psychological Sciences & Social Sciences 65B, no. 5 (2010): 561-72.

Using a daily diary design, we examined whether emotional and physical reactivity in the face of care-related stressors is more intense for caregivers (CGs) living with lower levels of available socioemotional support and higher numbers of extrinsic stressors. Sixty-three CGs reported their experiences based on the past 24 hr (i.e., number of caregiving tasks, care recipient problem behaviors, family disagreements regarding care, depressive symptoms, feelings of burden, physical symptoms) on eight consecutive survey days; they also reported on extrinsic stressors and available socioemotional support. Multilevel analyses indicated significant moderator effects: within-person patterns of reactivity to care-related stressors were especially strong for CGs with lower levels of available socioemotional support and higher numbers of extrinsic stressors. For example, managing additional care recipient problem behaviors on a given day was more strongly associated with increased depressive and physical health symptoms as well as feelings of burden for CGs with relatively high numbers of extrinsic stressors. Implications for intervention are discussed.

 Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

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 O’Connor, F. G., D. J. Casa, Michael F. Bergeron, R. Carter, P. Deuster, Y. Heled, J. Kark, L. Leon, B. McDermott, K. O’Brien, W. O. Roberts, and M. Sawka. “American College of Sports Medicine Roundtable on Exertional Heat Stroke – Return to Duty/Return to Play: Conference Proceedings.” Current Sports Medicine Reports 9, no. 5 (2010): 314-21.

 On October 22Y23, 2008, an ACSM Roundtable was convened at the Uniformed Services University ( Bethesda, MD) to discuss return-to-play or return-to-duty for people who have experienced exertional heat illness (EHI) and to develop consensus-based recommendations. The conference assembled experts from the civilian sports medicine community and the Department of Defense to discuss relevant EHI issues, such as potential long-term consequences, the concept of thermotolerance, and the role of thermal tolerance testing in return-to-play decisions. Although the group was unable to move forward with new consensus recommendations, they clearly documented critical clinical concerns and scientific questions, including the following: 1) no uniform core definitions of EHI; 2) limited validated criteria to assess recovery from exertional heat stroke (EHS); and 3) inadequate ability to predict who may be predisposed to a subsequent heat injury after EHS. Areas of potential future research are identified.

 Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

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 Wittkowsky, Ann K., Sarah A. Spinler, William Dager, Michael P. Gulseth, and Edith A. Nutescu. “Dosing Guidelines, Not Protocols, for Managing Warfarin Therapy.” American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 67, no. 18 (2010): 1554-57.

 In this article the author discusses the aspects of regulations on warfarin dosing by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (Joint Commission) with reference to an article by Darryl Rich in the previous issue. They explain that the use of strict warfarin dosing protocols has not been proved to cause an increase in patient safety. They comment that individualized dosage should be used instead of following strict protocols in anticoagulation therapy.

 Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

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Yallapu, Murali Mohan, Brij K. Gupta, Meena Jaggi, and Subhash C. Chauhan. “Fabrication of Curcumin Encapsulated Plga Nanoparticles for Improved Therapeutic Effects in Metastatic Cancer Cells.” Journal of Colloid & Interface Science 351, no. 1 (2010): 19-29.

Abstract: Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound, has shown promising chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities in cancer. Although phase I clinical trials have shown curcumin as a safe drug even at high doses, poor bioavailability and suboptimal pharmacokinetics largely moderated its anti-cancer activity in pre-clinical and clinical models. To improve its applicability in cancer therapy, we encapsulated curcumin in poly(lactic-co-glycolide) (PLGA) (biodegradable polymer) nanoparticles, in the presence of poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(L-lysine) stabilizers, using a nano-precipitation technique. These curcumin nano-formulations were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, drug encapsulation, drug compatibility and drug release. Encapsulated curcumin existed in a highly dispersed state in the PLGA core of the nanoparticles and exhibited good solid–solid compatibility. An optimized curcumin nano-formulation (nano-CUR6) has demonstrated two and sixfold increases in the cellular uptake performed in cisplatin resistant A2780CP ovarian and metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, respectively, compared to free curcumin. In these cells, nano-CUR6 has shown an improved anti-cancer potential in cell proliferation and clonogenic assays compared to free curcumin. This effect was correlated with enhanced apoptosis induced by the nano-CUR6 formulation. Herein, we have also shown antibody conjugation compatibility of our PLGA-NP formulation. Results of this study suggest that therapeutic efficacy of curcumin may be enhanced by such PLGA nanoparticle formulations, and furthermore tumor specific targeted delivery of curcumin is made feasible by coupling of anti-cancer antibody to the NPs.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

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Zheng, Hongming, X. T. Wang, and Liqi Zhu. “Framing Effects: Behavioral Dynamics and Neural Basis.” Neuropsychologia 48, no. 11 (2010): 3198-204.

Abstract: This study examined the neural basis of framing effects using life-death decision problems framed either positively in terms of lives saved or negatively in terms of lives lost in large group and small group contexts. Using functional MRI we found differential brain activations to the verbal and social cues embedded in the choice problems. In large group contexts, framing effects were significant where participants were more risk seeking under the negative (loss) framing than under the positive (gain) framing. This behavioral difference in risk preference was mainly regulated by the activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus, including the homologue of the Broca”s area. In contrast, framing effects diminished in small group contexts while the insula and parietal lobe in the right hemisphere were distinctively activated, suggesting an important role of emotion in switching choice preference from an indecisive mode to a more consistent risk-taking inclination, governed by a kith-and-kin decision rationality.

Psychology Department

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 Lushbough, Carol M., and V. P. Brendel. “An Overview of the Bioextract Server: A Distributed, Web-Based System for Genomic Analysis.” Adv Exp Med Biol 680 (2010): 361-9.

 Genome research is becoming increasingly dependent on access to multiple, distributed data sources, and bioinformatic tools. The importance of integration across distributed databases and Web services will continue to grow as the number of requisite resources expands. Use of bioinformatic workflows has seen considerable growth in recent years as scientific research becomes increasingly dependent on the analysis of large sets of data and the use of distributed resources. The BioExtract Server (http://bioextract.org) is a Web-based system designed to aid researchers in the analysis of distributed genomic data by providing a platform to facilitate the creation of bioinformatic workflows. Scientific workflows are created within the system by recording the analytic tasks preformed by researchers. These steps may include querying multiple data sources, saving query results as searchable data extracts, and executing local and Web-accessible analytic tools. The series of recorded tasks can be saved as a computational workflow simply by providing a name and description.

 Computer Science Department

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 Tyler, Jill. “Media Clubs: Social Class and the Shared Interpretations of Media Texts.” Southern Communication Journal 75, no. 4 (2010): 392-412.

 This study explores the discursive practices of media clubs—groups of friends who gather for the purpose of consuming, interpreting, and talking about media messages. Using participant observation, qualitative interviewing, and critical discourse analysis, this study explores media interpretation and explicates the ways in which the microinteractions of friends and the macrostructures of society are mutually constituted in everyday discourse. Five interpretive strategies are identified in the discourse of media clubs: (a) privileging personal experience, (b) negotiating similarity and agreement, (c) establishing moral stances, (d) maintaining the status quo, and (e) arguing aesthetic value. These strategies serve to solidify interpersonal relationships, which, in turn, constitute social hierarchies and structures, stabilizing social membership.

 Communication Studies Department

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 Banerjee, Subhash, Vagulejan Balasanthiran, Ranjit T. Koodali, and Grigoriy A. Sereda. “Pd- Mcm-48: A Novel Recyclable Heterogeneous Catalyst for Chemo- and Regioselective Hydrogenation of Olefins and Coupling Reactions.” Org Biomol Chem 8, no. 19 (2010): 4316-21.

 A novel, heterogeneous Pd-MCM-48 catalyst has been developed by encapsulating palladium nanoparticles into the cubic phase of mesoporous MCM-48 matrix at room temperature. The catalyst demonstrated excellent chemo- and regioselectivity for the hydrogenation of olefins at room temperature within 30-80 min. The turnover frequency for the hydrogenation is very high (4400 h(-1)). Interestingly, selectivity of the catalyst was significantly influenced by the mode of addition of palladium precursor. Moreover, the catalyst was also very effective for the coupling reactions with the formation of carbon-carbon and carbon-nitrogen bonds under ligand-free and aerobic conditions.

 Chemistry Department

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 Kadarkaraisamy, Mariappan, Daniel P. Engelhart, Prem N. Basa, and Andrew G. Sykes.  “Hexafluorophosphate Salts of Bis and Tetrakis(2,2′-Bipyridine)Lead(Ii) Complexes.” Journal of Coordination Chemistry 63, no. 13 (2010): 2261-67.

 Both bis- and tetrakis-substituted 2,2′-bipyridine complexes of lead(II), [Pb(bpy)2](PF6)2 and [Pb(bpy)4](PF6)2 · bpy, respectively, have been characterized by X-ray crystallography as hexafluorophosphate salts when three equivalents of bipyridine is combined with Pb(NO3)2 in aqueous solution prior to metathesis. The tetrakis-substituted product, [Pb(bpy)4](PF6)2 · bpy, shows an unusual combination of intramolecular and intermolecular π-stacking of two of the bipyridine ligands throughout the crystal. Incomplete metathesis also produces a catenated, mixed-anion complex, [Pb(bpy)2(µ-NO3)](PF6), where the nitrate bridges lead(II) metal centers to form a 1-D coordination polymer. If metathesis is carried out using perchlorate, a known [Pb(bpy)2](ClO4)2 analog is produced along with [bpyH](ClO4), which has not been previously characterized by X-ray crystallography.

 Chemistry Department

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 Subramanian, Hariharaputhiran, Elizabeth G. Nettleton, Sridhar Budhi, and Ranjit T. Koodali. “Baeyer–Villiger Oxidation of Cyclic Ketones Using Fe Containing Mcm-48 Cubic Mesoporous Materials.” Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemistry 330, no. 1/2 (2010): 66-72.

 Abstract: Iron containing cubic mesoporous MCM-48 materials were prepared by a modified Stöber synthesis method. These materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen isotherms, diffuse-reflectance UV–Vis spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. These materials exhibited high catalytic activity towards the Baeyer–Villiger oxidation of cyclic ketones using benzaldehyde and molecular oxygen. The Fe-MCM-48 mesoporous materials showed excellent recyclability and the integrity of the cubic phase was preserved after the catalytic activity.

 Chemistry Department

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 Zhao, Dan., Adrian. Rodriguez, N. M. Dimitrijevic, T. Rajh, and Ranjit T. Koodali. “Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Photocatalytic Performance of Mesoporous W-Mcm-48.” Journal of Physical Chemistry C 114, no. 37 (2010): 15728-34.

 Tungsten-containing mesoporous MCM-48 was synthesized by a rapid and facile room-temperature procedure. The mesoporous structure and the local environment of tungsten species were studied by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption isotherms, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and Raman spectrometry. The long-range ordered mesoporous structure of MCM-48 was well preserved after tungsten incorporation. Tungsten oxide species were highly dispersed in the MCM-48 matrix, and no bulk crystalline WO3 was formed. The as-prepared W-MCM-48 materials show notable photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution from a methanol-water mixture under UV irradiation though bulk WO3 is not active for the reaction. The photocatalytic mechanism was studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy.

 Chemistry Department

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 Ribak, Gil, John G. Swallow, and D. R. Jones. “Drag-Based ‘Hovering’ in Ducks: The Hydrodynamics and Energetic Cost of Bottom Feeding.” Plos One 5, no. 9 (2010).

 Diving ducks use their webbed feet to provide the propulsive force that moves them underwater. To hold position near the bottom while feeding, ducks paddle constantly to resist the buoyant force of the body. Using video sequences from two orthogonal cameras we reconstructed the 3-dimensional motion of the feet through water and estimated the forces involved with a quasi-steady blade-element model. We found that during station holding, near the bottom, ducks use drag based propulsion with the webbed area of the foot moving perpendicular to the trajectory of the foot. The body was pitched at 76 +/- 3.47 degrees below the horizon and the propulsive force was directed 26 +/- 1.9 degrees ventral to the body so that 98% of the propulsive force in the sagittal plane of the duck worked to oppose buoyancy. The mechanical work done by moving both feet through a paddling cycle was 1.1 +/- 0.2 J which was equivalent to an energy expenditure of 3.7 +/- 0.5 W to hold position while feeding at 1.5 m depth. We conclude that in shallow water the high energetic cost of feeding in ducks is due to the need to paddle constantly against buoyancy even after reaching the bottom. The mechanical energy spent on holding position near the bottom, while feeding, is approximately 2 fold higher than previous estimates that were made for similar bottom depths but based on the presumed motion of the body instead of motion of the feet.

 Biology Department

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 Riley, Lynn, M. E. McGlaughlin, and Kaius Helenurm. “Genetic Diversity Following Demographic Recovery in the Insular Endemic Plant Galium Catalinense Subspecies Acrispum.” Conservation Genetics 11, no. 5 (2010): 2015-25.

 Galium catalinense (Rubiaceae) is a perennial shrub consisting of two subspecies endemic to California’s Channel Islands: Galium catalinense subsp. catalinense on Santa Catalina Island, and G. catalinense subsp. acrispum, a state-endangered taxon on San Clemente Island. A long history of overgrazing by introduced herbivores has contributed to population declines in G. catalinense subsp. acrispum. We surveyed 12 populations throughout the taxon’s range for genetic variation using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci to determine the genetic impact of this demographic bottleneck. At the taxon level, 65 alleles were identified with an average of 8.1 alleles per locus, although many alleles were rare; the effective number of alleles per locus averaged 2.6. Expected heterozygosity was 0.550. Individual populations had between six and eight polymorphic loci, with expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.36 to 0.60, and effective numbers of alleles ranging from 1.8 to 3.5 per locus. Populations fell into three or four genetic clusters, depending on type of analysis, which may represent refugia where the populations persisted during intense herbivory. There is little evidence of genetic bottlenecks or substantial inbreeding within populations. These findings, coupled with indications of recent migration between populations, suggest that G. catalinense subsp. acrispum is currently unlikely to be endangered by genetic factors, but small population sizes make the taxon vulnerable to future loss of genetic diversity. Management strategies based on these genetic data, population sizes, and the spatial distribution of populations are discussed.

 Biology Department

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Swallow, J. G., A. K. Wroblewska, R. P. Waters, K. J. Renner, S. L. Britton, and L. G. Koch. “Phenotypic and Evolutionary Plasticity of Body Composition in Rats Selectively Bred for High Endurance Capacity.” J Appl Physiol 109, no. 3 (2010): 778-85.

We investigated the effects of genetic selection and prolonged wheel access (8 wk) on food consumption and body composition in lines of rats selected for high and low intrinsic (untrained) endurance running capacity (HCR and LCR, respectively) to test the generality of phenotypic correlations between physical activity levels, aerobic capacity, and body composition. HCR rats ran more minutes per day on activity wheels than LCR rats, supporting the hypothesis that voluntary activity and physiological capacity are genetically correlated (self-induced adaptive plasticity). Both treatments (selection and wheel access) significantly affected food consumption. HCR rats consumed and digested more food than LCR rats. Access to running wheels did not result in changes in overall body mass, but lean body mass increased and percent body fat decreased in both lines. Selection for high endurance capacity resulted in hypertrophy of the heart and kidneys and decreased long intestine length. We found significant phenotypic flexibility in a number of organ masses after wheel running. Specifically, access to running wheels resulted in hypertrophy of the heart, liver, kidney, stomach, and small and large intestines in LCR and HCR rats. The selected line wheel access interaction was significantly greater in HCR rats in relative mass for the heart and lung. Compared with LCR rats, HCR rats fortify wheel running with increased food consumption along with greater hypertrophy of key organs for O2 transport.

Biology Department

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Burke, Andrew R., Kenneth J. Renner, Gina L. Forster, and Michael J. Watt. “Adolescent Social Defeat Alters Neural, Endocrine and Behavioral Responses to Amphetamine in Adult Male Rats.” Brain Research 1352 (2010): 147-56.

 Abstract: The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which governs components of reward and goal-directed behaviors, undergoes final maturation during adolescence. Adolescent social stress contributes to adult behavioral dysfunction and is linked to adult psychiatric and addiction disorders. Here, behavioral, corticosterone and limbic dopamine responses to amphetamine were examined in adult male rats previously exposed to repeated social defeat stress during mid-adolescence. Amphetamine (2.5mg/kg, ip) was administered after a novel environment test, with behavior observed in the same context for 90min thereafter. Adult rats that had been defeated in adolescence showed increased locomotion in the novel environment but reduced amphetamine-induced locomotion relative to non-defeated age matched controls. Monoamine and corticosterone responses to amphetamine were examined following a second amphetamine injection 3days later. In previously defeated rats, corticosterone and medial prefrontal cortex dopamine responses to amphetamine were blunted while dopamine responses in the nucleus accumbens core were elevated. Our results suggest that experience of social defeat stress during adolescent development can contribute to altered behavioral and endocrine responses to amphetamine in adulthood. Furthermore, these effects are paralleled by changes in amphetamine-induced dopamine responses in corticolimbic systems implicated in addiction disorders.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus

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Elias, Abdallah F., Michael S. Chaussee, Emily J. McDowell, and Mark K. Huntington. “Community-Based Intervention to Manage an Outbreak of Mrsa Skin Infections in a County Jail.” Journal of Correctional Health Care 16, no. 3 (2010): 205-15.

This article describes a community-based intervention to manage an outbreak of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) skin infections in a midwestern county jail. A systematic investigation conducted by a family medicine residency program identified 64 total cases and 19 MRSA cases between January 1 and December 31, 2007. Factors contributing to MRSA transmission included inadequate surveillance, lack of antibacterial soap, and a defective laundry process. All 19 isolates were CA-MRSA and all seven tested by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were USA300. Four of the seven isolates showed variation of their PFGE patterns. A primary care approach using community-based resources effectively reduced the number of cases in this heterogeneous outbreak of CA-MRSA, with the last MRSA being isolated in October 2007. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)

 Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus

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Scholl, Jamie L., Kenneth J. Renner, Gina L. Forster, and Shanaz Tejani-Butt. “Central Monoamine Levels Differ between Rat Strains Used in Studies of Depressive Behavior.” Brain Research 1355 (2010): 41-51.

Abstract: Previous studies have shown that the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain may be a genetic model of depression when their behaviors are compared to Sprague-Dawley (SD) or Wistar (WIS) rats. Significant differences in dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and norepinephrine (NE) transporter site densities have been reported when comparing WKY to both SD and WIS rats. Susceptibility of WKY rats to anxiety and depressive behavior may be related to underlying differences in monoamine levels in various regions of the brain. Levels of monoamines (DA, 5-HT and NE) and their metabolites were measured in monoaminergic cell body, cortical and limbic brain regions using HPLC with electrochemical detection and compared between WKY, WIS and SD rats. In regions where strain differences in monoamine levels were observed (the basolateral amygdala, subregions of the hippocampus and the nucleus accumbens shell), WKY rats consistently had lower levels than SD rats. Similarly, WKY rats had lower monoamine levels compared to WIS, although these differences were observed in a more restricted number of brain regions. Interestingly, WIS rats showed reduced levels of the 5-HT metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in several regions including the prefrontal cortex, subregions of the hippocampus and subregions of the hypothalamus, suggesting decreased 5-HT turnover when compared to both WKY and SD rats. Overall, these results imply that decreased monoamine levels, combined with alterations in transporter sites, may be related to the predisposition of WKY rats towards depressive behavior.

 Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus

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