Posted by: kelsijo97 | March 12, 2013

April 2013

He, J. G., C. S. Huang, J. Jiang, & Lanhai Lv. (2013). Propofol exerts hippocampal neuron protective effects via up-regulation of metallothionein-3. Neurological Sciences, 34(2), 165-171.

Propofol is an intravenous anesthetic with neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia or hypoxia injury. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Recent years emerging evidence has demonstrated that metallothionein-3 (MT-3), a growth inhibitory factor that exists mainly in the central nervous system, exhibited neuroprotective effect in vivo. Here, we used a model of hypoxia/re-oxygenation (H/R) injury to examine the hippocampal neuroprotective effect of propofol, and explored the role of MT-3 in this action. H/R resulted in reduced cell viability and increased cell death in hippocampal neuron culture, as indicated by MTT assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay, respectively. Pretreatment of propofol at different concentrations (50, 150, and 250 mu mol/L) reversed H/R-induced neurotoxicity and increased MT-3 mRNA and protein expressions. Moreover, propofol failed to exert neuroprotective effect when MT-3 was silenced by the transfection with the specific siRNA, suggesting that MT-3 was the crucial mediator for propofol’s neuroprotective effect against H/R. In conclusion, our findings showed that propofol is neuroprotective in H/R model on hippocampal neuron cells and that it may act by up-regulation of MT-3.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Weaver, Keith E. (2012). The par toxin-antitoxin system from Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pAD1 and its chromosomal homologs. RNA biology, 9(12), 1498-1503.

The par post-segregational killing locus present on Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pAD1 was the first Type I toxin-antitoxin system described in Gram-positive bacteria. Translation of the 33 amino acid Fst toxin, encoded on RNA I, is suppressed by a 66 nucleotide regulatory RNA, RNA II. RNA I and RNA II are transcribed convergently and interact at dispersed regions of complementarity, establishing a stable complex that accumulates in plasmid-containing cells. RNA II is slowly removed from the complex, allowing translation of RNA I in plasmid-free segregants. Intramolecular structures are also important for regulating translation of RNA I. The Fst toxin contains a putative transmembrane domain and is believed to exert its function at the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, although its precise target and mode of action have yet to be determined. Numerous chromosomal homologs of pAD1 par have been identified in Gram-positive bacteria suggesting that this locus may play important roles in cellular function.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Brown, R. M., Cameron D. Siler, C. H. Oliveros, L. J. Welton, A. Rock, J. Swab, . . . A. C. Diesmos. (2013). The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range. Zookeys(266), 1-120.

We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study.

Biology Department.

 

Mabee, Paula, A. Deans, E. Huala, & S. E. Lewis. (2012). Phenotype Ontology Research Coordination Network meeting report: creating a community network for comparing and leveraging phenotype-genotype knowledge across species. Standards in Genomic Sciences, 6(3), 440-443.

Representing phenotype in a way that can be linked to thousands of molecular genetic and environmental databases is an unresolved research challenge. A recent meeting of the Phenotype Research Coordination Network (RCN) aimed to coordinate and leverage current efforts. The three day summit meeting was hosted by NESCent (The National Evolutionary Synthesis Center) in Durham, North Carolina on the 23rd – 25th of February, 2012.

Biology Department.

 

Swanson, David L., & Chris Merkord. (2013). Seasonal phenotypic flexibility of flight muscle size in small birds: a comparison of ultrasonography and tissue mass measurements. Journal of Ornithology, 154(1), 119-127.

Changes in flight muscle size are important mediators of phenotypic flexibility in birds, so the ability to track such changes over time in individual birds is a valuable tool for investigating phenotypic flexibility. Ultrasonography has been used to track changes in flight muscle size in shorebirds, but has not been previously used to track such changes in small birds, despite variation in flight muscle size being an important contributor to phenotypic flexibility in these birds. One prominent avian example of phenotypic flexibility is the seasonal phenotypes of small birds in response to climatic variation. The winter phenotype in these birds is characterized by increases in organismal metabolic rates and pectoralis muscle mass. We measured seasonal flight muscle size in House Sparrows (Passer domesticus, 25-30 g) using both ultrasonography and wet muscle mass and tested the correlation between ultrasonographic measures of breast muscle thickness and muscle mass. We further tested whether ultrasonographic measures of muscle thickness were sufficiently precise to detect seasonal variation in flight muscle mass. Muscle mass was significantly and positively associated with ultrasonographic measurements of breast muscle thickness for short-axis (SA), long-axis (LA), and combined SA and LA measurements. Breast muscle mass was significantly greater in winter than in summer (17.5 %) and muscle thickness also increased significantly in winter for both SA (9.1 %) and LA (7.5 %) measures. Thus, these data confirm that winter elevations of flight muscle mass consistently contribute to the winter phenotype in House Sparrows and that ultrasonography is effective in detecting seasonal changes in muscle mass in small birds.

Biology Department.

 

Molina, Anthony DeForest, & Cassandra L. McKeown. (2012). The Heart of the Profession: Understanding Public Service Values. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 18(2), 375-396.

When NASPAA adopted new accreditation standards in 2009, it effectively placed public service values at the heart of the public administration curriculum. The efficacy of this approach is directly tied to the use that administrators make of public service values in the field. To explore whether and how public service values influence administrative behavior and decision making, this study used survey and qualitative interview data from a sample of 52 Midwestern state and local public administrators. Additionally, it used grounded theory methodology to develop a theoretical model that explains the link between public service values and the administrative behavior and decision making of practitioners. Data and conclusions drawn from the interviews, along with the results from a survey of administrative values, led us to conclude that administrators utilize a combination of ethical, professional, democratic, and human values to maintain legitimacy. In the public administrative context, legitimacy was understood by administrators to include personal credibility, professional competence, respect for democratic principles, and the ability to maintain positive relationships with citizens and colleagues. The article concludes with suggestions for further incorporation of public service values into the public administration curriculum.

Political Science and Criminal Justice Department.

 

Dettrey, Bryan J., & Harvey D. Palmer. (2013). Reconsidering Individual-Level Heterogeneity in Economic Voting. Electoral Studies, x(0), x-x.

This paper proposes a general theory of individual-level heterogeneity in economic voting based on the perspective that the strength of the relationship varies with factors that influence the relevance of the economic evaluation to the vote choice. We posit that the electoral relevance of the economic evaluation increases with the strength of partisanship as well as political sophistication. Given the strong correlation between partisanship and sophistication, this theoretical perspective casts doubt on extant evidence that more sophisticated voters are more likely to hold the incumbent party electorally accountable for macroeconomic performance since this result might be an artifact of failing to control for the economic evaluation being more relevant to the vote choice of stronger partisans. Our statistical investigation of this question finds no significant evidence that sophistication conditions the economic voting relationship once the conditioning effect of partisanship is included in the model. This finding suggests that individual-level heterogeneity in the strength of the economic voting relationship is largely due to stronger partisans voting more consistently with their national economic evaluation than to more sophisticated voters being more policy-oriented by holding the incumbent party more electorally accountable for macroeconomic performance.

Political Science.

 

Wray, Tyler B., Rob D. Dvorak, & Sheila L. Martin. (2013). Demographic and economic predictors of mental health problems and contact with treatment resources among adults in a low-income primary care setting. Psychology, health & medicine, 18(2), 213-222.

The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of mental health-related problems in a low-income primary care setting, as well as the demographic and economic variables associated with these problems and contact with treatment resources. A total of 346 patient records were randomly selected among patients at an urban Iowa primary care clinic serving lower-income and uninsured individuals. Logistic models examined relationships among demographic factors, poverty level, and insurance status and three outcomes: Lifetime mental health problems, receipt of pharmacological intervention, and contact with psychosocial services. Female gender was associated with reporting mental health problems, and age and ethnicity interacted to predict reported mental health problems. Among those reporting mental health problems, female gender was predictive of contact with psychosocial services, while female gender with Caucasian ethnicity was predictive of receiving pharmacological intervention. Results support the need for primary care providers working with lower-income individuals to be active in discussing mental health issues with patients.

Psychology Department.

 

Coleman, R. L., S. Ali, C. F. Levenback, Maria C. Bell, K. De Geest, N. M. Spirtos, . . . C. L. Trimble. (2013). Is bilateral lymphadenectomy for midline squamous carcinoma of the vulva always necessary? An analysis from Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 173. Gynecologic Oncology, 128(2), 155-159.

Objective. To determine which patients with near midline lesions may safely undergo unilateral groin dissection based on clinical exam and lymphoscintigraphy (LSG) results. Methods. Patients participating in GOG-173 underwent sentinel lymph node (SLN) localization with blue dye, and radiocolloid with optional LSG before definitive inguinal-femoral lymphadenectomy (LND). This analysis interrogates the reliability of LSG alone relative to primary tumor location in those patients who had an interpretable LSG and at least one SLN identified. Primary tumor location was categorized as lateral (>2 cm from midline), midline, or lateral ambiguous (LA) if located within 2 cm, but not involving the midline. Results. Two-hundred-thirty-four patients met eligibility criteria. Sixty-four had lateral lesions, and underwent unilateral LND. All patients with LA (N=65) and midline (N=105) tumors underwent bilateral LND. Bilateral drainage by LSG was identified in 14/64 (22%) patients with lateral tumors, 38/65 (58%) with LA tumors and in 73/105 (70%) with midline tumors. At mapping, no SLNs were found in contralateral groins among those patients with IA and midline tumors who had unilateral-only LSGs. However, in these patients groin metastases were found in 4/32 patients with midline tumors undergoing contralateral dissection; none were found in 27 patients with IA tumors. Conclusion. The likelihood of detectable bilateral drainage using preoperative LSG decreases as a function of distance from midline. Patients with LA primaries and unilateral drainage on LSG may safely undergo unilateral SLN. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Fleischman, D., John P. Berdahl, J. Zaydlarova, S. Stinnett, M. P. Fautsch, & R. R. Allingham. (2012). Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure Decreases with Older Age. Plos One, 7(12).

Purpose: Clinical studies implicate low cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) or a high translaminar pressure difference in the pathogenesis of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and normal tension glaucoma (NTG). This study was performed to examine the effect of age, sex, race and body mass index (BMI) on CSFP. Methods: Electronic medical records from all patients who had a lumbar puncture (LP) performed at the Mayo Clinic from 1996-2009 were reviewed. Information including age, sex, race, height and weight, ocular and medical diagnoses, intraocular pressure (IOP) and LP opening pressure was obtained. Patients using medications or with medical diagnoses known to affect CSFP, and those who underwent neurosurgical procedures or where more than one LP was performed were excluded from analysis. Results: Electronic medical records of 33,922 patients with a history of having an LP during a 13-year period (1996-2009) were extracted. Of these, 12,118 patients met all entry criteria. Relative to mean CSFP at age group 20-49 (mean 11.5 +/- 2.8 mmHg), mean CSFP declined steadily after age 50, with percent reduction of 2.5% for the 50-54 age group (mean 11.2 +/- 2.7 mmHg, p<0.002) to 26.9% for the 90-95 group (mean 8.4 +/- 2.4 mmHg, p<0.001). Females had lower CSFP than males throughout all age groups. BMI was positively and independently associated with CSFP within all age groups. Conclusion: There is a sustained and significant reduction of CSFP with age that begins in the 6th decade. CSFP is consistently lower in females. BMI is positively and independently associated with CSFP in all age groups. The age where CSFP begins to decline coincides with the age where the prevalence of POAG increases. These data support the hypothesis that reduced CSFP may be a risk factor for POAG and may provide an explanation for the mechanism that underlies the age-related increase in the prevalence of POAG and NTG.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Harris, William S. (2013). Are n-3 fatty acids still cardioprotective? Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 16(2), 141-149.

Purpose of review Several recent randomized trials and subsequent meta-analyses have questioned the value of n-3 fatty acid supplementation in cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Recent findings This report focuses on four clinical trials published between 2010 and 2012 that have failed to show benefits of n-3 fatty acids, and on one meta-analysis from 2012 that used a controversial statistical approach in reaching a conclusion of no effect. Summary The question of the extent to which n-3 fatty acid supplementation reduces risk for cardiovascular disease remains open. Future studies must be properly powered, use doses of n-3 fatty acids significantly higher than those provided in background diets, focus on patient populations with low n-3 fatty acid tissue levels, treat for longer periods of time, and consider the effects of these agents in the great majority of patients who are not on guideline-directed therapeutic regimens. The strong evidence-base from prospective cohort studies and the ever-deepening understanding of the cellular effects of long-chain n-3 fatty acids together support the need for these nutrients in reducing cardiovascular risk. Short-term findings from randomized controlled trials need to be interpreted in the light of all the evidence.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Horn, H. F., Z. Brownstein, D. R. Lenz, S. Shivatzki, Kyle J. Roux, S. Kozlov, . . . K. B. Avraham. (2013). The LINC complex is essential for hearing. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 123(2), 740-750.

Hereditary hearing loss is the most common sensory deficit. We determined that progressive high-frequency hearing loss in 2 families of Iraqi Jewish ancestry was due to homozygosity for the protein truncating mutation SYNE4 c.228delAT. SYNE4, a gene not previously associated with hearing loss, encodes nesprin-4 (NESP4), an outer nuclear membrane (ONM) protein expressed in the hair cells of the inner ear. The truncated NESP4 encoded by the families’ mutation did not localize to the ONM. NESP4 and SUN domain-containing protein 1 (SUN1), which localizes to the inner nuclear membrane (INM), are part of the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINE) complex in the nuclear envelope. Mice lacking either Nesp4 or Sun1 were evaluated for hair cell defects and hearing loss. In both Nesp4(-/-) and Sun1(-/-) mice, OHCs formed normally, but degenerated as hearing matured, leading to progressive hearing loss. The nuclei of OHCs from mutant mice failed to maintain their basal localization, potentially affecting cell motility and hence the response to sound. These results demonstrate that the LINC complex is essential for viability and normal morphology of OHCs and suggest that the position of the nucleus in sensory epithelial cells is critical for maintenance of normal hearing.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Johnston, D. T., P. A. Deuster, William S. Harris, H. MacRae, & M. N. Dretsch. (2013). Red blood cell omega-3 fatty acid levels and neurocognitive performance in deployed US Servicemembers. Nutritional Neuroscience, 16(1), 30-38.

Objective: To explore the cross-sectional relationships between blood eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid (HSOmega-3 Index (R)) and sleep disorders, depression, anxiety, and neurocognitive performance in Servicemembers deployed to Iraq. Methods: Servicemembers with mild-to-moderate depression by the Patient Health Questionnarie-9 from two US military camps were invited to participate in this study. A battery of validated psychosocial (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Zung Depression, Zung Anxiety, Epworth Sleepiness, and Combat Experiences scales) and computerized neurocognitive tests were completed by each participant. Five neurocognitive domain scores were calculated – Processing Speed, Complex Attention, Reaction Time, Cognitive Flexibility (CF), and Executive Function (EF). A drop of blood was also collected on an anti-oxidant-treated filter paper card and sent for HS-Omega-3 Index (R) analysis. An analysis of variance contrast was used to test for linear trends between quartiles of the HS-Omega-3 Index (R) for both EF and CF. Results: The mean HS-Omega-3 Index (R) was 3.5 +/- 0.7% (n = 78). The HS-Omega-3 Index (R) was not significantly associated with scores for anxiety, depression, or sleep, whether assessed as continuous or dichotomous variables, but was directly associated with CF and EF (P < 0.02 and 0.01, respectively), especially in the 81% who reported poor sleep quality. In those with poor sleep quality (n = 63), EF and CF were higher (P = 0.005) in subjects with Omega-3 levels above versus below the mean. Conclusion: Optimal neurocognitive performance is essential during deployment. Our finding that EF and CF were positively related to HS-Omega-3 Index (R) suggests that improving omega-3 status through an increase in omega-3 intake may improve neurocognitive performance and confer an element of resilience to poor sleep.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Lebrun, C. M., M. Mrazik, A. S. Prasad, B. Joel Tjarks, Jason C. Dorman, Michael F. Bergeron, . . . V. D. Valentine. (2013). Sport concussion knowledge base, clinical practises and needs for continuing medical education: a survey of family physicians and cross-border comparison. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 47(1), 54-59.

Context Evolving concussion diagnosis/management tools and guidelines make Knowledge Transfer and Exchange (KTE) to practitioners challenging. Objective Identify sports concussion knowledge base and practise patterns in two family physician populations; explore current/preferred methods of KTE. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Family physicians in Alberta, Canada (CAN) and North/South Dakota, USA. Participants CAN physicians were recruited by mail: 2.5% response rate (80/3154); US physicians through a database: 20% response rate (109/545). Intervention/instrument Online survey. Main and secondary outcome measures Diagnosis/management strategies for concussions, and current/preferred KTE. Results Main reported aetiologies: sports/recreation (52.5% CAN); organised sports (76.5% US). Most physicians used clinical examination (93.8% CAN, 88.1% US); far fewer used the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT1/SCAT2) and balance testing. More US physicians initially used concussion-grading scales (26.7% vs 8.8% CAN, p=0.002); computerised neurocognitive testing (19.8% vs 1.3% CAN; p<0.001) and Standardised Assessment of Concussion (SAC) (21.8% vs 7.5% CAN; p=0.008). Most prescribed physical rest (83.8% CAN, 75.5% US), while fewer recommended cognitive rest (47.5% CAN, 28.4% US; p=0.008). Return-to-play decisions were based primarily on clinical examination (89.1% US, 73.8% CAN; p=0.007); US physicians relied more on neurocognitive testing (29.7% vs 5.0% CAN; p<0.001) and recognised guidelines (63.4% vs 23.8% CAN; p<0.001). One-third of Canadian physicians received KTE from colleagues, websites and medical school training. Leading KTE preferences included Continuing Medical Education (CME) courses and online CME. Conclusions Existing published recommendations regarding diagnosis/management of concussion are not always translated into practise, particularly the recommendation for cognitive rest; predicating enhanced, innovative CME initiatives.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Morriswood, B., K. Havlicek, L. Demmel, Kyle J. Roux, & G. Warren. (2013). Novel Bilobe Components in Trypanosoma brucei Identified Using Proximity-Dependent Biotinylation. Eukaryotic Cell, 12(2), 356-367.

The trypanosomes are a family of parasitic protists of which the African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, is the best characterized. The complex and highly ordered cytoskeleton of T. brucei has been shown to play vital roles in its biology but remains difficult to study, in large part owing to the intractability of its constituent proteins. Existing methods of protein identification, such as bioinformatic analysis, generation of monoclonal antibody panels, proteomics, affinity purification, and yeast two-hybrid screens, all have drawbacks. Such deficiencies-troublesome proteins and technical limitations-are common not only to T. brucei but also to many other protists, many of which are even less well studied. Proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID) is a recently developed technique that allows forward screens for interaction partners and near neighbors in a native environment with no requirement for solubility in nonionic detergent. As such, it is extremely well suited to the exploration of the cytoskeleton. In this project, BioID was adapted for use in T. brucei. The trypanosome bilobe, a discrete cytoskeletal structure with few known protein components, represented an excellent test subject. Use of the bilobe protein TbMORN1 as a probe resulted in the identification of seven new bilobe constituents and two new flagellum attachment zone proteins. This constitutes the first usage of BioID on a largely uncharacterized structure, and demonstrates its utility in identifying new components of such a structure. This remarkable success validates BioID as a new tool for the study of unicellular eukaryotes in particular and the eukaryotic cytoskeleton in general.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Savinov, Alexi Y., & A. Y. Strongin. (2013). Targeting the T-cell membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase-CD44 axis in a transferred type 1 diabetes model in NOD mice. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 5(2), 438-442.

This study tested the hypothesis that membrane-tethered type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP)-induced proteolysis of T cell CD44 is important for defining the migration and function of autoreactive T cells, including diabetogenic, insulin-specific and K-d-restricted IS-CD8(+) cells. To confirm the importance of MT1-MMP proteolysis of CD44 in type 1 diabetes (T1D), the anti-diabetic effects of three MMP inhibitors (3(S)-2,2-dimethyl-4[4-pyridin-4-yloxy-benzenesulfonyl]-thiomorpholine-3 -carboxylic acid hydroxamate [AG3340], 2-(4-phenoxyphenylsulfonylmethyl) thiirane [SB-3CT] and epigallocatechin-3-gallate [EGCG]) were compared using an adoptive diabetes transfer model in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Only AG3340 was capable of inhibiting both the activity of MT1-MMP and the shedding of CD44 in T cells; and the transendothelial migration and homing of IS-CD8(+) T cells into the pancreatic islets. SB-3CT and EGCG were incapable of inhibiting T cell MT1-MMP efficiently. As a result, AG3340 alone, but not SB-3CT or EGCG, delayed the onset of transferred diabetes in NOD mice. In summary, the results of the present study emphasize that the MT1-MMP-CD44 axis has a unique involvement in T1D development. Accordingly, we suggest that a potent small-molecule MT1-MMP antagonist is required for the design of novel therapies for T1D.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M., M. Groen-Blokhuis, J. J. Hottenga, S. Franic, J. J. Hudziak, E. A. Ehli, . . . D. I. Boomsma. (2013). The Young Netherlands Twin Register (YNTR): Longitudinal Twin and Family Studies in Over 70,000 Children. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16(1), 252-267.

The Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) began in 1987 with data collection in twins and their families, including families with newborn twins and triplets. Twenty-five years later, the NTR has collected at least one survey for 70,784 children, born after 1985. For the majority of twins, longitudinal data collection has been done by age-specific surveys. Shortly after giving birth, mothers receive a first survey with items on pregnancy and birth. At age 2, a survey on growth and achievement of milestones is sent. At ages 3, 7, 9/10, and 12 parents and teachers receive a series of surveys that are targeted at the development of emotional and behavior problems. From age 14 years onward, adolescent twins and their siblings report on their behavior problems, health, and lifestyle. When the twins are 18 years and older, parents are also invited to take part in survey studies. In sub-groups of different ages, in-depth phenotyping was done for IQ, electroencephalography, MRI, growth, hormones, neuropsychological assessments, and cardiovascular measures. DNA and biological samples have also been collected and large numbers of twin pairs and parents have been genotyped for zygosity by either micro-satellites or sets of short nucleotide polymorphisms and repeat polymorphisms in candidate genes. Subject recruitment and data collection is still ongoing and the longitudinal database is growing. Data collection by record linkage in the Netherlands is beginning and we expect these combined longitudinal data to provide increased insights into the genetic etiology of development of mental and physical health in children and adolescents.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Yamashita, K., Y. Yoshioka, H. Pan, M. Taira, Y. Abe, H. Kamada, . . . Y. Tsutsumi. (2013). Biochemical and hematologic effects of polyvinylpyrrolidone-wrapped fullerene C-60 after oral administration. Pharmazie, 68(1), 54-57.

The fullerene C-60 is used in consumer products such as cosmetics owing to its antioxidative effects and is being developed for nanomedical applications. However, knowledge regarding the safety of fullerene C-60, especially after oral administration, is sparse. Here, we examined the safety of fullerene C-60 in mice after 7 d of exposure to orally administered polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-wrapped fullerene C-60 (PVP-fullerene C-60). Mice treated with PVP-fullerene C-60 showed few changes in the plasma levels of various markers of kidney and liver injury and experienced no significant hematologic effects. Furthermore, the histology of the colon of PVP-fullerene C-60-treated mice was indistinguishable from that of control mice. These results suggest that PVP-fullerene C-60 lacks toxicity after high-dose oral administration and indicate that PVP-fullerene C-60 can be considered safe for oral medication. These data provide basic information that likely will facilitate the production of safe and effective forms of fullerene C-60.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Brown-Rice, Kathleen A., & Susan Furr. (2013). Preservice Counselors’ Knowledge of Classmates’ Problems of Professional Competency. Journal of Counseling & Development, 91(2), 224-233.

Master’s-level students ( N= 389) in programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs were surveyed to determine their knowledge of classmates’ problems of professional competency (PPC). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data, and a principal components analysis and Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were applied to reduce and investigate the pattern of correlations among participants’ responses. Findings suggest that the majority of preservice counselors are aware of classmates with PPC and report frustration with faculty for not addressing problematic peers.

School of Education.

 

Erford, Bradley T., Taryn Richards, Elizabeth Peacock, Kelly Duncan, & Catherine Y. Chang. (2013). Counseling and Guided Self-Help Outcomes for Clients With Bulimia Nervosa: A Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials From 1980 to 2010. Journal of Counseling & Development, 91(2), 152-172.

This meta-analysis included 111 clinical trials exploring the effectiveness of counseling/psychotherapy and guided self-help approaches in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. In general, single-group studies supported higher efficacy of counseling/psychotherapy, whereas wait-list, treatment-as-usual, and placebo studies indicated both approaches were equally effective at termination (posttest) and follow-up in altering binging, purging, laxative use, and self-reported bulimia or body dissatisfaction perceptions in nearly all comparisons.

School of Education.

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