Posted by: kelsijo97 | November 12, 2013

September/October 2013

Maurstad, Anita, Davis, Dona, & Cowles, Sarah. (2013). Co-being and intra-action in horse-human relationships: a multi-species ethnography of be(com)ing human and be(com)ing horse. Social Anthropology/Anthropologie Sociale, 21(3), 322-335.
A multi-species perspective identifies and offers ethnographic insight into a variety of everyday, practical experiences and the roles they may play in shaping human-horse relationships. Analysis of narrative data from 60 open-ended interviews with a wide variety of riders in Norway and the Midwestern USA identifies three central themes of co-being. These are expressed, felt and voiced as embodied moments of mutuality, engagements of two agentive individuals and as a kind of anthropo-zoo-genetic practice, where species domesticate each other through being together. Co-being as intra-acting describes how horse and human meet and change as a result of their meeting. © 2013 European Association of Social Anthropologists.
Anthropology and Sociology Department.
Anbalagan, Srivishnupriya, & Chaussee, Michael S. (2013). Transcriptional Regulation of a Bacteriophage Encoded Extracellular DNase (Spd-3) by Rgg in Streptococcus pyogenes. Plos One, 8(4).
The Streptococcus pyogenes transcriptional regulator Rgg controls the expression of virulence-associated genes encoded both within the core genome and within horizontally transmissible DNA such as temperate bacteriophage. Previously, we showed that Rgg binds to the non-coding DNA upstream of the bacteriophage gene encoding an extracellular DNase Spd-3. In the current study, we further characterized Rgg-mediated regulation of spd-3 expression. Two spd-3 transcripts were identified by northern blotting. The 5′ ends were 27 and 594 nucleotides upstream of the start codon as determined with primer extension analysis and 5′ RACE (rapid amplification of c-DNA ends), respectively. Results obtained with gel shift assays showed that purified Rgg bound specifically to non-coding DNA containing the promoters of both transcripts. Transcriptional fusion analyses confirmed the presence of Rgg-repressible promoters within these DNA regions. In addition, repression was associated with direct DNA binding by Rgg as determined with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with quantitative PCR (qPCR). The results show that the chromosomally encoded transcriptional regulator, Rgg, directly represses both bacteriophage promoters controlling the expression of Spd-3. The results provide new information regarding the regulation of prophage encoded virulence factors of S. pyogenes and highlight the complex evolutionary history of S. pyogenes and temperate bacteriophage.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Fen, Tian, Sharma, Shilpy, Jianqiu, Zou, Shiaw-Yih, Lin, Bin, Wang, Rezvani, Khosrow, . . . Dong, Zhang. (2013). BRCA1 promotes the ubiquitination of PCNA and recruitment of translesion polymerases in response to replication blockade. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(33), 13558-13563.
Breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) deficient cells not only are hypersensitive to double-strand breaks but also are hypersensitive to UV irradiation and other agents that cause replication blockade; however, the molecular mechanisms behind these latter sensitivities are largely unknown. Here, we report that BRCA1 promotes cell survival by directly regulating the DNA damage tolerance pathway in response to agents that create cross-links in DNA. We show that BRCA1 not only promotes efficient mono- and polyubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) by regulating the recruitment of replication protein A, Rad18, and helicase-like transcription factor to chromatin but also directly recruits translesion polymerases, such as Polymerase eta and Rev1, to the lesions through protein-protein interactions. Our data suggest that BRCA1 plays a critical role in promoting translesion DNA synthesis as well as DNA template switching.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Kabeiseman, Emily J., Cichos, Kyle, Hackstadt, T., Lucas, Andrea, & Moore, Elizabeth R. (2013). Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein 4 and Syntaxin 6 Interactions at the Chlamydial Inclusion. Infection and Immunity, 81(9), 3326-3337.
The predominant players in membrane fusion events are the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) family of proteins. We hypothesize that SNARE proteins mediate fusion events at the chlamydial inclusion and are important for chlamydial lipid acquisition. We have previously demonstrated that trans-Golgi SNARE syntaxin 6 localizes to the chlamydial inclusion. To investigate the role of syntaxin 6 at the chlamydial inclusion, we examined the localization and function of another trans-Golgi SNARE and syntaxin 6-binding partner, vesicle-associated membrane protein 4 (VAMP4), at the chlamydial inclusion. In this study, we demonstrate that syntaxin 6 and VAMP4 colocalize to the chlamydial inclusion and interact at the chlamydial inclusion. Furthermore, in the absence of VAMP4, syntaxin 6 is not retained at the chlamydial inclusion. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of VAMP4 inhibited chlamydial sphingomyelin acquisition, correlating with a log decrease in infectious progeny. VAMP4 retention at the inclusion was shown to be dependent on de novo chlamydial protein synthesis, but unlike syntaxin 6, VAMP4 recruitment is observed in a species-dependent manner. Notably, VAMP4 knockdown inhibits sphingomyelin trafficking only to inclusions in which it localizes. These data support the hypothesis that VAMP proteins play a central role in mediating eukaryotic vesicular interactions at the chlamydial inclusion and, thus, support chlamydial lipid acquisition and chlamydial development.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Li, X. F., Liu, S. T., Huang, H. B., …, Wang, Xuejun, Dou, Q. P., & Liu, J. B. (2013). Gambogic Acid Is a Tissue-Specific Proteasome Inhibitor In Vitro and In Vivo. Cell Reports, 3(1), 211-222.
Gambogic acid (GA) is a natural compound derived from Chinese herbs that has been approved by the Chinese Food and Drug Administration for clinical trials in cancer patients; however, its molecular targets have not been thoroughly studied. Here, we report that GA inhibits tumor proteasome activity, with potency comparable to bortezomib but much less toxicity. First, GA acts as a prodrug and only gains proteasome-inhibitory function after being metabolized by intracellular CYP2E1. Second, GA-induced proteasome inhibition is a prerequisite for its cytotoxicity and anticancer effect without off-targets. Finally, because expression of the CYP2E1 gene is very high in tumor tissues but low in many normal tissues, GA could therefore produce tissue-specific proteasome inhibition and tumor-specific toxicity, with clinical significance for designing novel strategies for cancer treatment.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Stewart, Brandie M., Baugh, Lee A., Gallivan, Jason P., & Flanagan, J. Randall. (2013). Simultaneous encoding of the direction and orientation of potential targets during reach planning: Evidence of multiple competing reach plans. Journal of Neurophysiology, 110(4), 807-816.
Reaches performed in many natural situations involve selecting a specific target from a number of alternatives. Recent studies show that before reaching, multiple potential reach targets are encoded in brain regions involved in action control and that, when people are required to initiate the reach before the target is specified, initial hand direction is biased by the spatial distribution of potential targets. These findings have led to the suggestion that the brain, during planning, simultaneously prepares multiple reaches to potential targets. In addition to hand direction, reach planning often involves specifying other parameters such as wrist orientation. For example, when posting a letter in a mail slot, both the location and orientation of the slot must be encoded to control hand direction and orientation. Therefore, if the brain prepares multiple reaches to potential targets and if these targets require the specification of hand direction and orientation, then both of these variables should be biased by the spatial distribution of potential targets. To test this prediction, we examined a task in which participants moved a hand-held rectangular tool toward multiple rectangular targets of varying location and orientation, one of which was selected, with equal probability as the actual target after movement initiation. We found that initial hand direction and orientation were biased by the spatial distributions of potential target locations and orientations, respectively. This result is consistent with the idea that the brain, in cases of target uncertainty, simultaneously plans fully specified reaching movements to all potential targets. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Su, Huabo, Li, Jie, Osinska, Hanna, Li, Faqian, Robbins, Jeffrey, Liu, Jinbao, . . . Wang, Xuejun. (2013). The COP9 Signalosome Is Required for Autophagy, Proteasome-Mediated Proteolysis, and Cardiomyocyte Survival in Adult Mice. Circulation. Heart failure, 6(5), 1049-1057.
Background- The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is an evolutionarily conserved protein complex composed of 8 unique protein subunits (CSN1 through CSN8). We have recently discovered in perinatal mouse hearts that CSN regulates not only proteasome-mediated proteolysis but also macroautophagy. However, the physiological significance of CSN in a post-mitotic organ of adult vertebrates has not been determined. We sought to study the physiological role of CSN8/CSN in adult mouse hearts. Methods and Results-Csn8 was conditionally ablated in the cardiomyocytes of adult mice (CSN8(CKO)) using a temporally controlled Cre-LoxP system. Loss of CSN8 accumulated the neddylated forms of cullins and noncullin proteins, increased ubiquitinated proteins, and stabilized a surrogate substrate of the proteasome in the heart. Autophagic flux was significantly decreased, whereas autophagosomes were markedly increased in CSN8(CKO) hearts, indicative of impaired autophagosome removal. Furthermore, we observed increased oxidized proteins, massive necrotic cardiomyocytes, and morphological and functional changes characteristic of dilated cardiomyopathy in CSN8(CKO) mice. Conclusions- CSN deneddylates substrates more than cullins and is indispensable to cardiomyocyte survival in not only perinatal hearts but also adult hearts. CSN8/CSN regulates both proteasome-mediated proteolysis and the autophagic-lysosomal pathway, critical to the removal of oxidized proteins in the heart.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Werner, G., Coque, T. M., Franz, Cmap, …, & Weaver, Keith. (2013). Antibiotic resistant enterococci-Tales of a drug resistance gene trafficker. International Journal of Medical Microbiology, 303(6-7), 360-379.
Enterococci have been recognized as important hospital-acquired pathogens in recent years, and isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium are the third- to fourth-most prevalent nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Acquired resistances, especially against penicilin/ampicillin, aminoglycosides (high-level) and glycopeptides are therapeutically important and reported in increasing numbers. On the other hand, isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium are commensals of the intestines of humans, many vertebrate and invertebrate animals and may also constitute an active part of the plant flora. Certain enterococcal isolates are used as starter cultures or supplements in food fermentation and food preservation. Due to their preferred intestinal habitat, their wide occurrence, robustness and ease of cultivation, enterococci are used as indicators for fecal pollution assessing hygiene standards for fresh- and bathing water and they serve as important key indicator bacteria for various veterinary and human resistance surveillance systems. Enterococci are widely prevalent and genetically capable of acquiring, conserving and disseminating genetic traits including resistance determinants among enterococci and related Gram-positive bacteria. In the present review we aimed at summarizing recent advances in the current understanding of the population biology of enterococci, the role mobile genetic elements including plasmids play in shaping the population structure and spreading resistance. We explain how these elements could be classified and discuss mechanisms of plasmid transfer and regulation and the role and cross-talk of enterococcal isolates from food and food animals to humans. (C) 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Zou, Jianqiu, Rezvani, Khosrow, Wang, Hongmin, Lee, Kyung S., & Zhang, Dong. (2013). BRCA1 downregulates the kinase activity of Polo-like kinase 1 in response to replication stress. Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.), 12(14), 2255-2265.
In response to DNA damage or replication stress, proliferating cells are arrested at different cell cycle stages for DNA repair by downregulating the activity of both the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and other important cell cycle kinases, including Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) . The signaling pathway to inhibit CDKs is relatively well understood, and breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) and other DNA damage response (DDR) factors play a key role in this process. However, the DNA damage-induced inhibition of PLK1 is still largely a mystery. Here we show that DNA damage and replication stress stimulate the association between BRCA1 and PLK1. Most importantly, we demonstrate that BRCA1 downregulates the kinase activity of PLK1 by modulating the dynamic interactions of Aurora A, hBora, and PLK1. Together with previous findings, we propose that in response to replication stress and DNA damage, BRCA1 plays a critical role in downregulating the kinase activity of both CDKs and PLK1.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
Butler, Stephen A. (2013). Do you solve managerial problems in a straightforward, linear manner, or do you break the mold? Strategic Finance, 95(8), 48-53.
The article discusses lateral thinking, or the ability to envision different ways of solving a problem. Key elements to lateral thinking include a willingness to test assumptions, asking appropriate questions, bringing creativity to bear on a problem, then examining the solution to ensure it withstands logical analysis.
Beacom School of Business.
Blanchard, D. Caroline, Summers, Cliff H., & Blanchard, Robert J. (2013). The role of behavior in translational models for psychopathology: Functionality and dysfunctional behaviors. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 37(8), 1567-1577.
Highlights: [•] The health care burden of psychopathologies demands research relevant to solutions. [•] Animal models of psychopathologies are a weak link in the translatability of such research. [•] Their weakness reflects the lack of an adequate conception of the organization of behavior. [•] The adaptive functions of behavior may enable identification of cross-species parallels. [•] Permitting cross-talk between model and psychopathology that aids understanding of both.
Biology Department.
Bubak, Andrew N., Swallow, John G., & Renner, Kenneth J. (2013). Whole brain monoamine detection and manipulation in a stalk-eyed fly. Journal of neuroscience methods, 219(1), 124-130.
Understanding the physiological mechanisms that influence conflict resolution is of great importance because the outcome of contests over limited resources such as mates, territories, and food has significant fitness consequences. Male stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis dalmanni) compete over territory and mates and provide an excellent model system to study aggression. To investigate potential effects of serotonin (5-HT) on aggressive behavior in these flies, we developed a dissection and sample preparation method sufficiently sensitive to measure monoamine concentrations from whole brain samples of small insects. This new method allows the detection of monoamines from a single fly brain using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The method allows for the detection and quantification of octopamine (OA), 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), tyramine (TA), and serotonin (5-HT) and provides a means for assessing changes in stalk-eyed fly brain monoamine concentrations in response to drug administration in food media. We successfully elevated 5-HT levels approximately 8-fold that of control levels in stalk-eyed fly brains by oral administration of the 5-HT precursor 5-HTP. Furthermore, in size-matched competitions for a food resource, flies that had elevated 5-HT in response to 5-HTP pretreatment exhibited a high probability of winning the contests. These results suggest that 5-HT enhances aggression in the stalk-eyed fly and highlight the potential of our method for testing putative roles of monoamines in modulating self and rival assessment in conflict resolution. Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Biology Department.
Dahdul, Wasila M., Balhoff, J. P., Blackburn, D. C., Diehl, A. D., Haendel, M. A., Hall, B. K., . . . Mabee, Paula M. (2012). A Unified Anatomy Ontology of the Vertebrate Skeletal System. Plos One, 7(12).
The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.
Biology Department.
The origin of birds and powered flight is a classic major evolutionary transition. Research on their origin often focuses on the evolution of the wing with trends of forelimb elongation traced back through many nonavian maniraptoran dinosaurs. We present evidence that the relative forelimb elongation within avian antecedents is primarily due to allometry and is instead driven by a reduction in body size. Once body size is factored out, there is no trend of increasing forelimb length until the origin of birds. We report that early birds and nonavian theropods have significantly different scaling relationships within the forelimb and hindlimb skeleton. Ancestral forelimb and hindlimb allometric scaling to body size is rapidly decoupled at the origin of birds, when wings significantly elongate, by evolving a positive allometric relationship with body size from an ancestrally negative allometric pattern and legs significantly shorten by keeping a similar, near isometric relationship but with a reduced intercept. These results have implications for the evolution of powered flight and early diversification of birds. They suggest that their limb lengths first had to be dissociated from general body size scaling before expanding to the wide range of fore and hindlimb shapes and sizes present in today’s birds.
Biology Department.
Johnson, Laura A., Welch, Bill, & Whitfield, Steven M. (2013). Interactive effects of pesticide mixtures, predators, and environmental regimes on the toxicity of two pesticides to red-eyed tree frog larvae. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry, 32(10), 2379-2386.
Global amphibian declines have many corroborative causes, and the use of pesticides in agriculture is a likely contributor. In places with high pesticide usage, such as Costa Rica, agrochemical pesticides may interact with other factors to contribute to rapid species losses. Classical ecotoxicological studies rarely address the effects of a pesticide in combination with other stressors. The present study investigated the synergistic roles of 2 pesticides (chlorothalonil and endosulfan), predator stress, and environmental regimes (controlled laboratory environments versus ambient conditions) on the survival of red-eyed tree frog larvae ( Agalychnis callidryas). No synergistic effects of pesticide mixtures or predator stress were found on the toxicity of either chlorothalonil or endosulfan. Both pesticides, however, were considerably more toxic under realistic ambient temperature regimes than in a climate-controlled laboratory. Overall, endosulfan displayed the highest toxicity to tadpoles, although chlorothalonil was also highly toxic. The median lethal concentration estimated to kill 50% of a tested population (LC50) for endosulfan treatments under ambient temperatures was less than one-half of that for laboratory treatments (3.26 µg/L and 8.39 µg/L, respectively). Studies commonly performed in stable temperature-controlled laboratories may significantly underestimate toxicity compared with more realistic environmental regimes. Furthermore, global climatic changes are leading to warmer and more variable climates and may increase impacts of pesticides on amphibians.
Biology Department.
Schultz, Rebecca L., Kullman, E. L., Waters, R. P., Huang, H., Kirwan, J. P., Gerdes, A. M., & Swallow, John G. (2013). Metabolic Adaptations of Skeletal Muscle to Voluntary Wheel Running Exercise in Hypertensive Heart Failure Rats. Physiological Research, 62(4), 361-369.
The Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rat mimics the human progression of hypertension from hypertrophy to heart failure. However, it is unknown whether SHHF animals can exercise at sufficient levels to observe beneficial biochemical adaptations in skeletal muscle. Thirty-seven female SHHF and Wistar-Furth (WF) rats were randomized to sedentary (SHHFsed and WFsed) and exercise groups (SHHFex and WFex). The exercise groups had access to running wheels from 6-22 months of age. Hindlimb muscles were obtained for metabolic measures that included mitochondrial enzyme function and expression, and glycogen utilization. The SHHFex rats ran a greater distance and duration as compared to the WFex rats (P<0.05), but the WFex rats ran at a faster speed (P<0.05). Skeletal muscle citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase enzyme activity was not altered in the SHHFex group, but was increased (P<0.05) in the WFex animals. Citrate synthase protein and gene expression were unchanged in SHHFex animals, but were increased in WFex rats (P<0.05). In the WFex animals muscle glycogen was significantly depleted after exercise (P<0.05), but not in the SHHFex group. We conclude that despite robust amounts of aerobic activity, voluntary wheel running exercise was not sufficiently intense to improve the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle in adult SHHF animals, indicating an inability to compensate for declining heart function by improving peripheral oxidative adaptations in the skeletal muscle.
Biology Department.
Kibombo, Harrison S., Rasalingam, Shivatharsiny, & Koodali, Ranjit T. (2013). Facile template free method for textural property modulation that enhances adsorption and photocatalytic activity of aperiodic titania supported silica materials. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 142-143, 119-128.
Highlights: [•] Pore modulation of titania–silica was achieved using aprotic co-solvents. [•] Dark adsorption capacities of Rhodamine B were dependent on the pore volume. [•] Photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B was found to depend on pore diameter.
Chemistry Department.
Kibombo, Harrison S., Weber, Amanda S., Wu, Chia-Ming, Raghupathi, Krishna Reddy, & Koodali, Ranjit T. (2013). Effectively dispersed europium oxide dopants in TiO2 aerogel supports for enhanced photocatalytic pollutant degradation. Journal of Photochemistry & Photobiology A: Chemistry, 269, 49-58.
Highlights: [•] Eu2O3 doped TiO2 aerogels synthesized under high temperature supercritical drying. [•] High temperature supercritical drying disperses europium ions in TiO2 support. [•] Eu2O3 doping enhanced adsorption and photodegradation of salicylic acid. [•] Photodegradation due to amount of hydroxyl radicals produced.
Chemistry Department.
Netzer, Nathan L., Tanaka, Z., Chen, B., & Jiang, Chaoyang. (2013). Tailoring the SERS Enhancement Mechanisms of Silver Nanowire Langmuir-Blodgett Films via Galvanic Replacement Reaction. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 117(31), 16187-16194.
We report a new facile route for preparing surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SEAS) substrates with tailored enhancement mechanisms. Silver nanowires were assembled using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique and further processed via galvanic replacement reactions (GRRs). The GRRs provided an efficient method to decrease the spectral noise caused by the capping agent polyvinylpyrrolidone. A decrease in noise along with the addition of gold nanostructures to the system revealed Raman signals from nonfluorescent molecules associated with a charge-transfer mechanism. The GRR LB substrates exhibited ultrasensitive SERS ability with a detection limit as low as 8 nM using 4-aminothiophenol, partially due to the strong chemical binding between the SERS substrates and probe molecules. Furthermore, the GRRs provide a facile route in tailoring SERS substrates to target molecules in a controlled manner.
Chemistry Department.
Parayil, Sreenivasan Kaliyat, Kibombo, Harrison S., Wu, Chia-Ming, Peng, Rui, Kindle, Trevor, Mishra, S., . . . Koodali, Ranjit T. (2013). Synthesis-Dependent Oxidation State of Platinum on TiO2 and Their Influences on the Solar Simulated Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Water. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 117(33), 16850-16862.
Platinized TiO2 photocatalysts of different compositions of Pt-0 and PtO2 were prepared by modifying the synthesis procedures. The physicochemical properties of the composite materials were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements confirmed the presence of Pt species existing as PtO2 and/or mixtures of Pt-0 and PtO2. The composite material, Pt-TiO2-2%H, contained a high amount of metallic Pt-0 and PtO2 in close proximity with TiO2 that promoted an enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity under simulated solar light irradiation. Although Pt-TiO2-2%C and Pt-TiO2-2%T consisted of similar compositions of PtO2, these oxidized platinum species seem to appear further apart from TiO2 in Pt-TiO2-2%C than Pt-TiO2-2%T. This caused dramatic variation in their optical behaviors such as strong fluorescence quenching and lower photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity in the former photocatalyst. A photocatalyst prepared by the conventional photodeposition method was also prepared, characterized, and its photocatalytic activity assessed. This work provides an opportunity to understand the role of PtO2 for photocatalytic production of hydrogen from platinized TiO2 composites and the importance of heterojunctions in such photocatalysts for solar energy conversion.
Chemistry Department.
Rasalingam, Shivatharsiny, Peng, Rui, & Koodali, Ranjit T. (2013). An investigation into the effect of porosities on the adsorption of rhodamine B using titania–silica mixed oxide xerogels. Journal of Environmental Management, 128, 530-539.
Abstract: Aperiodic mesoporous titania–silica (TiO2·SiO2) xerogels with varying silica contents were synthesized under ambient conditions. The physico-chemical properties of the xerogels were examined by a variety of techniques that include powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption, Fourier Transform-Infra-Red spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopies (SEM and TEM), Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), zeta potential, and Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopic (DRS) studies. The adsorption of a model dye molecule, rhodamine B (RhB) was studied over the titania–silica xerogels and compared with titania and silica. It was determined that the pore volume of the xerogels mainly influences the adsorption of RhB. The xerogels exhibited good adsorption capacity with more than 90% dye removal at low dye concentrations. Our results suggest that low cost approaches to the synthesis of xerogels with tailored properties such as large pore volume could provide cost-effective solutions to mitigate environmental problems related to removal of water based toxic pollutants such as dyes by simple adsorption processes.
Chemistry Department.
Wang, Zhihula, Putta, Anjaneyula, Mottishaw, Jeffrey D., Wei, Qiang, Wang, H., & Sun, Haoran. (2013). Molecular Origin of Isomerization Effects on Solid State Structures and Optoelectronic Properties: A Comparative Case Study of Isomerically Pure Dicyanomethylene Substituted Fused Dithiophenes. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 117(33), 16759-16768.
Introduction of a strong electron-withdrawing dicyanomethylene (-CH-(CN)(2)) group onto a fused bithiophene frame is a useful strategy to convert fused bithiophene derivatives from p-type organic semiconductor materials into n-type materials. Here, through systematic studies of isomerically pure 7-dicyanomethylene-7H-cyclopenta-[1,2-b:4,3-b’]dithiophene (1), 4-dicyanomethylene-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b’]dithiophene (2), and 7-dicyanomethylene-7H-cyclopenta[1,2-b:3,4-b’]dithiophene (3) as well as their oligomers and polymers, we report that isomerization has the potential to fine-tune the optoelectronic properties of these materials including band gap (E-g), electron affinities (EAs), ionization potentials (IPs), electrochemical polymerization behaviors, and the solid state molecular packing, all of which are important for the performance of semiconductor devices. The monomers of these isomers exhibit noticeable difference in maximum absorption energies; and the oligomers and polymers composed of these monomers exhibit increased band gap difference as predicted by DFT calculation. Furthermore, the isomer 2 exhibits better electrochemical polymerization behavior as well as profound electrochromic switching in the near to middle infrared region. X-ray diffraction and quantum mechanical calculations reveal that the difference of dipole and quadrupole moments in these isomers is likely responsible for the difference in the solid state packing and subsequent polymer assembly.
Chemistry Department.
Yao, Ge, Berry, Mary T., May, P. Stanley, & Kilin, Dmitri. (2013). DFT Calculation of Russell-Saunders Splitting for Lanthanide Ions Doped in Hexagonal (beta)-NaYF4 Nanocrystals. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 117(33), 17177-17185.
A systematic investigation is reported of the optimized geometry and electronic structure of trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln(3+)) doped in hexagonal (beta)-NaYF4 nanocrystals in the basis of density functional theory with a spin polarization approach. A model Na(24)Y(23)Ln(1)F(96) nano-crystal with a single central lanthanide dopant (Ln(3+)) is used. Electron spins couple to give a total spin, S, and electron orbital angular momenta couple to give total orbital angular momentum, L. Spin-orbit coupling is neglected in this initial study. Several key observables are found to be strongly related to the number of unpaired f-electrons in the model. After geometry optimization, the phenomenon of the lanthanide contraction is observed, and the configurations of 4f-electron-like orbitals satisfy Hund’s Rule under the orbital decomposition. Spin-polarized density functional theory is applied to generate the Russell Saunders terms (L2s+1) terms of lanthanide ions. The energy differences between the first and the second terms are calculated and show good agreement with experimental measurements. The free-ion-like behavior of Ln(3+) ions in the nanocrystal is observed as well.
Chemistry Department.
Semmler, Shane M., & Bobby, Jacob. (2013). Consumer Materialism: An Ideological Critique and a Dialogic Response. Western Journal of Communication, 77(5), 559-581.
By constructively critiquing consumer materialism as a fantastic ideological form (Zizek, 1997), this article answered Rogers’s (1998) call to develop communication theories that resurrect a place for the natural, affirm that humans are embedded in a nonhuman world, listen to nonhuman agents, and deconstruct binaries like subject/object, social/natural, and ideational/material. Through the lens of Zizek’s (1989, 1997) interpretation of Lacanian fantasy, it was revealed that consumer materialism reproduces itself in consumer advertising (intersubjectivity), planned obsolescence (problematic of the fall), popular film (empty gesture), the Gross Domestic Product (symptom), and efforts to resist materialism manifested in presidential Earth Day commemorations (problematic of the fall and empty gesture). This essay concluded by articulating a transhuman, material, dialogic (Rogers, 1998) concept of productive-consumption as a means of transcending the signified Desire of the Other at consumer materialism’s ideological core. Productive-consumption was illustrated with wilderness travel, food production, and meal preparation.
Communication Studies Department.
Kone, K. Y., Druon, C., Gnimpieba, Etienne Z., Delmotte, M., Duquenoy, A., & Laguerre, J. C. (2013). Power density control in microwave assisted air drying to improve quality of food. Journal of Food Engineering, 119(4), 750-757.
Currently, the new trend is the development of microwave hot air drying control in order to solve the problem of hot spots on the product. So in this study, a microwave/hot air drying system with the ability of automatic power density control was developed for tomato drying. Three power densities (3, 5 and 7 W/g) at 40 degrees C air temperature were applied and the output, reflected microwave power and the mass of the sample were registered online. Two different drying strategies were implemented. The first consisted of a microwave drying without specific power control. The second one introduced power control. A feedback control based on specific power related to the actual sample mass resulted in the best power control and the improvement of product quality compared to the dry sample without power control. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Computer Science Department.
Aslam, M., Lio, Y. L., & Jun, C. H. (2013). Repetitive acceptance sampling plans for burr type XII percentiles. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 68(1-4), 495-507.
Under truncated life tests, two types of repetitive acceptance sampling plans are proposed to ensure the quality of products in terms of percentile lifetime when the lifetime follows the Burr type XII distribution. The proposed acceptance sampling plans, including the ordinary repetitive acceptance sampling plan and the repetitive version of a group acceptance sampling plan, are developed to meet producer’s and consumer’s risks at two specified lifetime percentiles, simultaneously. Useful tables have been established for a wide range of Burr type XII distributions which include the log-logistic distribution for practical utilization. Finally, some examples are provided for illustration.
Mathematics Department.
Dutkay, Dorin Ervin, Picioroaga, Gabriel, & Song, Myung-Sin. (2014). Orthonormal bases generated by Cuntz algebras. Journal of Mathematical Analysis & Applications, 409(2), 1128-1139.
Abstract: We show how some orthonormal bases can be generated by representations of the Cuntz algebra; these include Fourier bases on fractal measures, generalized Walsh bases on the unit interval and piecewise exponential bases on the middle third Cantor set.
Mathematics Department.
Barker, D., Wei, W. Z., Mei, D. M., & Zhang, C. (2013). Ionization efficiency study for low energy nuclear recoils in germanium. Astroparticle Physics, 48, 8-15.
We used the internal conversion ( transition) of germanium-72 to indirectly measure the low energy nuclear recoils of germanium. Together with a reliable Monte Carlo package, in which we implement the internal conversion process, the data was compared to the Lindhard (k =0.159) and Barker–Mei models. A shape analysis indicates that both models agree well with data in the region of interest within 4%. The most probable value (MPV) of the nuclear recoils obtained from the shape analysis is 17.5±0.12 (sys) ±0.035 (stat) keV with an average path-length of 0.014 m.
Physics Department.
Yang, Gang, Mei, Dongming, Govani, Jayesh, Wang, Guojran, & Khizar, Muhammed. (2013). Effect of annealing on contact performance and electrical properties of p-type high purity germanium single crystal. Applied Physics a-Materials Science & Processing, 113(1), 207-213.
Van de Pauw Hall measurement is an effective method to characterize the properties of semiconductors, such as bulk concentration, mobility, and resistivity, all of which are used to describe the purity level in the semiconductors. However, the performance of the ohmic contacts has a direct impact on the reliability and accuracy of the results obtained from the Van de Pauw Hall measurement. In the present work, the influences of different annealing techniques on the performance of the InSn ohmic contacts have been investigated using a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) crystal sample. The results show that the preferred annealing condition is at 400 A degrees C for 1 hour, which has provided a significant improvement of the InSn contact quality and microscopic homogenization of the impurities in the HPGe crystal. The carrier concentration, charge mobility, and resistivity of the sample annealed at 400 A degrees C for 1 hour are 5.772×10(10)/cm(3), 1.883×10(4)xA cm(2)/Vs, and 5.795×10(3)x Omega cm at 77 K, respectively.
Physics Department.
Dvorak, Robert D., Wray, Tyler B., Kuvaas, Nicholas J., & Kilwein, Tess M. (2013). Mania and sexual risk: Associations with behavioral self-regulation. Journal of Affective Disorders, 150(3), 1076-1081.
Abstract: Introduction: Risky sexual behavior among young adults is a central public health concern. Hallmark cognitive effects of mania involve grandiose extrinsic goal-setting, which may be part of a tendency to approach rewarding cues while underestimating potential negative consequences. Poor impulse control also reflects a tendency to seek reward and rely on emotional decision-making. In contrast, effortful control is associated with adaptive decision making. Methods: Participants (n=595) completed measures of impulsivity, risk for mania, and risky sexual behavior. Relationships between risk for mania, behavioral self-regulation, and risky sexual behavior were examined in a negative binomial hurdle model. Results: For the hurdle portion, sensation-seeking was positively associated with the likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior. Effortful control was inversely associated with the likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior, but only among those high in risk for mania. Among those endorsing engagement in risky sex, urgency was positively, and effortful control negatively, associated with frequency of risky sex. Risk for mania was positively associated with frequency of risky sex, but only for those low in effortful control. Limitations: Findings were among a homogeneous, young adult, nonclinical population, limiting generalizability. Examining these associations among a clinical population in an active manic episode is warranted. Conclusion: Results suggest high levels of effortful control may diminish the hallmark effects of mania on cognition thereby reducing engagement in risky sexual behavior. Treatments targeting emotion-based rash action and effortful decision making may be particularly important for those experiencing manic symptoms.
Psychology Department.
Ansarullah, A., Lu, Yan, Holstein, Martha, DeRuyter, Brittany, Rabinovitch, Alex, & Guo, Zhiguang. (2013). Stimulating beta-Cell Regeneration by Combining a GPR119 Agonist with a DPP-IV Inhibitor. Plos One, 8(1).
Background: Activating G-protein coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) by its agonists can stimulate glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release. GLP-1 is rapidly degraded and inactivated by dipeptidylpeptidase-IV (DPP-IV). We studied the efficiency of combining PSN632408, a GPR119 agonist, with sitagliptin, a DPP-IV inhibitor, on beta-cell regeneration in diabetic mice. Materials & Methods: Diabetes in C57BL/6 mice was induced by streptozotocin. PSN632408 and sitagliptin alone or in combination were administered to diabetic mice for 7 weeks along with BrdU daily. Nonfasting blood glucose levels were monitored. After treatment, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), plasma active GLP-1 levels, beta-cell mass along with alpha- and beta-cell replication, and beta-cell neogenesis were evaluated. Results: Normoglycemia was not achieved in vehicle-treated mice. By contrast, 32% (6 of 19) of PSN632408-treated diabetic mice, 36% (5 of 14) sitagliptin-treated diabetic mice, and 59% (13 of 22) diabetic mice treated with PSN632408 and sitagliptin combination achieved normoglycemia after 7 weeks treatment. Combination therapy significantly increased plasma active GLP-1 levels, improved glucose clearance, stimulated both alpha- and beta-cell replication, and augmented beta-cell mass. Furthermore, treatment with combination therapy induced beta-cell neogenesis from pancreatic duct-derived cells. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that combining a GPR119 agonist with a DPP-IV inhibitor may offer a novel therapeutic strategy for stimulating beta-cell regeneration and reversing diabetes.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Chen, Kai, Kobayashi, Satoru, Xu, Xianmin, Viollet, B., & Liang, Qiangrong. (2013). AMP Activated Protein Kinase Is Indispensable for Myocardial Adaptation to Caloric Restriction in Mice. Plos One, 8(3).
Caloric restriction (CR) is a robust dietary intervention known to enhance cardiovascular health. AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been suggested to mediate the cardioprotective effects of CR. However, this hypothesis remains to be tested by using definitive loss-of-function animal models. In the present study, we subjected AMPK alpha 2 knockout (KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates to a CR regimen that reduces caloric intake by 20%-40% for 4 weeks. CR decreased body weight, heart weight and serum levels of insulin in both WT and KO mice to the same degree, indicating the effectiveness of the CR protocol. CR activated cardiac AMPK signaling in WT mice, but not in AMPK alpha 2 KO mice. Correspondingly, AMPK alpha 2 KO mice had markedly reduced cardiac function during CR as determined by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements. The compromised cardiac function was associated with increased markers of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and myocyte apoptosis. Mechanistically, CR down-regulated the expression of ATP5g2, a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase, and reduced ATP content in AMPK alpha 2 KO hearts, but not in WT hearts. In addition, CR accelerated cardiac autophagic flux in WT mice, but failed to do so in AMPK alpha 2 KO mice. These results demonstrated that without AMPK, CR triggers adverse effects that can lead to cardiac dysfunction, suggesting that AMPK signaling pathway is indispensible for energy homeostasis and myocardial adaptation to CR, a dietary intervention that normally produces beneficial cardiac effects.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Dolisca, Sarah-Bianca, Mehta, Mitali, Pearce, David A., Mink, Jonathan W., & Maria, Bernard L. (2013). Batten Disease: Clinical Aspects, Molecular Mechanisms, Translational Science, and Future Directions. Journal of Child Neurology, 28(9), 1074-1100.
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, collectively the most common neurodegenerative disorders of childhood, are primarily caused by an autosomal recessive genetic mutation leading to a lysosomal storage disease. Clinically, these diseases manifest at varying ages of onset, and associated symptoms include cognitive decline, movement disorders, seizures, and retinopathy. The underlying cell biology and biochemistry that cause the clinical phenotypes of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses are still being elaborated. The 2012 Neurobiology of Disease in Children Symposium, held in conjunction with the 41st Annual Meeting of the Child Neurology Society, aimed to (1) provide a survey of the currently accepted forms of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses and their associated genetic mutations and clinical phenotypes; (2) highlight the specific pathology of Batten disease; (3) discuss the contemporary understanding of the molecular mechanisms that lead to pathology; and (4) introduce strategies that are being translated from bench to bedside as potential therapeutics.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Drack, Arlene V., Miller, Jake N., & Pearce, David A. (2013). A Novel c.1135_1138delCTGT Mutation in CLN3 Leads to Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis. Journal of Child Neurology, 28(9), 1112-1116.
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is the most common childhood neurodegenerative disorder in the world, with an incidence of 1 in 100 000 live births. More than 400 mutations in at least 14 different genes are linked to multiple clinical variants. These progressive genetic disorders primarily manifest in the central nervous system due to an extensive loss of neurons, primarily in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices. Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is the most common form and is primarily due to mutations in CLN3, which encodes a protein of unknown function. The most common such mutation in CLN3 is a 1.02-kb deletion that results in a frameshift and subsequent premature termination codon. Here we describe a patient with juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis who has a novel c.1135_1138delCTGT mutation in CLN3. This deletion induces a frameshift and premature termination codon in CLN3 messenger ribonucleic acid that is likely recognized by nonsense-mediated decay and degraded, subsequently leading to decreased CLN3 protein abundance.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Finn, Rozzy, Kovacs, Attila D., & Pearce, David A. (2013). Treatment of the Ppt1-/- Mouse Model of Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis With the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) Receptor Antagonist Memantine. Journal of child neurology, 28(9), 1159-1168.
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, a family of neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders, represent the most common cause of pediatric-onset neurodegeneration. The infantile form has a devastatingly early onset and one of the fastest-progressing disease courses. Despite decades of research, the molecular mechanisms driving neuronal loss in infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis remain unknown. We have previously shown that N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors in the Ppt1(-/-) mouse model of this disease exhibit a hyperfunctional phenotype and postulate that aberrant glutamatergic activity may contribute to neural pathology in both the mouse model and human patients. To test this hypothesis, we treated Ppt1(-/-) mice with the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine and assessed their response to the drug using an accelerating rotarod. At 20 mg/kg, memantine treatment induced a delayed but notable improvement in Ppt1(-/-) mice. Much remains to be assessed before moving to patient trials, but these results suggest memantine has potential as a treatment.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Getty, Amanda, Kovacs, Attila D., Lengyel-Nelson, Timea, Cardillo, Andrew, Hof, Caitlin, Chan, Chin Hung, & Pearce, David A. (2013). Osmotic Stress Changes the Expression and Subcellular Localization of the Batten Disease Protein CLN3. Plos One, 8(6).
Juvenile CLN3 disease (formerly known as juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis) is a fatal childhood neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the CLN3 gene. CLN3 encodes a putative lysosomal transmembrane protein with unknown function. Previous cell culture studies using CLN3-overexpressing vectors and/or anti-CLN3 antibodies with questionable specificity have also localized CLN3 in cellular structures other than lysosomes. Osmoregulation of the mouse Cln3 mRNA level in kidney cells was recently reported. To clarify the subcellular localization of the CLN3 protein and to investigate if human CLN3 expression and localization is affected by osmotic changes we generated a stably transfected BHK (baby hamster kidney) cell line that expresses a moderate level of myc-tagged human CLN3 under the control of the human ubiquitin C promoter. Hyperosmolarity (800 mOsm), achieved by either NaCl/urea or sucrose, dramatically increased the mRNA and protein levels of CLN3 as determined by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. Under isotonic conditions (300 mOsm), human CLN3 was found in a punctate vesicular pattern surrounding the nucleus with prominent Golgi and lysosomal localizations. CLN3-positive early endosomes, late endosomes and cholesterol/sphingolipid-enriched plasma membrane microdomain caveolae were also observed. Increasing the osmolarity of the culture medium to 800 mOsm extended CLN3 distribution away from the perinuclear region and enhanced the lysosomal localization of CLN3. Our results reveal that CLN3 has multiple subcellular localizations within the cell, which, together with its expression, prominently change following osmotic stress. These data suggest that CLN3 is involved in the response and adaptation to cellular stress.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Harpin, Scott, Kenyon, DenYelle B., Kools, Susan, Bearinger, Linda H., & Ireland, Marjorie. (2013). Correlates of emotional distress in out‐of‐home youth. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 26(2), 110-118.
Problem: Adolescents in out-of-home placement have a high prevalence of mental health distress, and their vulnerability to poor mental health outcomes continues during placement. Risk and protective factors may influence mental health outcomes; however, little is known about their relationship to mental health distress in this population. Methods: Using data from a population-based survey conducted in schools, mental health distress, along with other risk and protective factors, was evaluated in young people who reported living in out-of-home placements (n = 5,516) and a comparison group (n = 5,500). Multivariate analysis was used to determine the strength of association between risk and protective factors and mental health distress in the youth reporting out-of-home placement. Findings: Comparisons of risk and protective factors indicated that out-of-home youth had greater risks (suicidal risk, mental health distress) and fewer protective factors (feeling parents care about them, other adults care, and school connectedness) than those in the comparison group. Multivariate analyses showed significant associations (38% explained variance) between mental health distress and the risk and protective factors,with the exception of other adult connectedness. Conclusions: Findings from this population-based school survey of young people reiterate that youth in out-of-home placements have higher levels of mental health distress and lower levels of protective factors compared to other youth. These results offer insights for those working with out-of-home or precariously housed young people. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Harris, William S., Kennedy, Kevin F., O’Keefe, James H., Jr., & Spertus, John A. (2013). Red blood cell fatty acid levels improve GRACE score prediction of 2-yr mortality in patients with myocardial infarction. International journal of cardiology, 168(1), 53-59.
BACKGROUND: Blood omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid levels have been associated with reduced risk for total mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD), but their relationships with mortality in the setting of myocardial infarction (MI) are unknown.; OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid levels measured at admission and 2-year mortality in MI patients, independent of the GRACE risk score, a traditional mode of risk stratification.; DESIGN: Admission RBC fatty acid levels were measured in patients enrolled in a prospective, 24-center MI registry (TRIUMPH). Two-year mortality was modeled with Cox proportional hazards regression to assess the extent to which the inclusion of fatty acid levels would improve, over and above the GRACE score, risk stratification for 2-year mortality.; RESULTS: RBC fatty acid data were available from 1144 patients who did not report taking fish oil supplements after discharge. Two RBC fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic n-6 (DPA)] were univariate predictors of total mortality. The combined fatty acid c-statistic (0.60, p<0.001) improved the c-statistic of the GRACE score alone from 0.747 (p<0.001) to 0.768 (p<0.05 vs. GRACE alone). The net reclassification index improved by 31% (95% CI, 15% to 48%) and the relative incremental discrimination index improved by 19.8% (7.5% to 35.7%).; CONCLUSION: RBC EPA and DPA n-6 levels improved the prediction of 2-yr mortality over and above the GRACE score in MI patients. Copyright 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Kriscenski-Perry, Elizabeth, Kovács, Attila D., & Pearce, David A. (2013). Seizure Susceptibility, Phenotype, and Resultant Growth Delay in the nclf and mnd Mouse Models of Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses. Journal of Child Neurology, 28(9), 1137-1141.
We examined flurothyl gas–induced seizure latencies and phenotype in 2 mouse models of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses: the nclf (Cln6 mutant) variant late-infantile model and the mnd (Cln8 mutant) Northern epilepsy model. Mnd mice on postnatal days 35 to 42 had increased latency to loss of posture compared with wild-type controls. Nclf, mnd, and wild-type mice on postnatal days 21 days to 25 displayed similar latency profiles during repeated seizure induction (kindling) and retesting; seizure phenotypes were different, however. Kindled wild-type mice reexposed to flurothyl after a 28-day recovery displayed brainstem generalized seizures exclusively. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses mutants demonstrated a lack of brainstem seizures at retesting after 28 days. Repeated induction of generalized seizures delayed weight gain in both nclf and mnd mice compared with wild-type mice. These and our previous results suggest that abnormal seizure-related neuronal connectivity and/or plasticity are shared characteristics of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Lal, Yasir, & Van Heukelom, Joel. (2013). Dabigatran: a cause of hematologic emergency. The American journal of the medical sciences, 346(3), 190-193.
Dabigatran etexilate, a direct thrombin inhibitor, has become an alternative to warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. There remains a concern about its overdose and life-threatening hemorrhage because of unavailability of appropriate coagulation tests to monitor and antidotes to reverse its effects. There are no clinical data about its safety in patients with fluctuating renal function. Multiple bleeding events reported with dabigatran have prompted the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to further investigate these reports. Four clinical cases with life-threatening bleeding, strategies that were used to achieve hemostasis and a brief literature review to demonstrate the hematologic emergency caused by dabigatran are presented in this study.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Lang, K. C., Thompson, Paul A., & Wolf, S. L. (2013). The EXCITE Trial: Reacquiring Upper-Extremity Task Performance With Early Versus Late Delivery of Constraint Therapy. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 27(7), 654-663.
Objective. This study examines performance of Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) tasks in terms of the ability of EXCITE trial participants (who had suffered a stroke 3-9 months before recruitment) to complete the task within the timed interval. Methods. Data were collected from participants who received constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) 3 to 9 months poststroke (CIMT-I, n = 106) or 15 to 21 months poststroke (CIMT-D, n = 116). Performance on the 15 timed WMFT tasks was converted into binary values, and changes in completion of the tasks were analyzed with generalized estimating equation methods, under the assumption of a binomial or Poisson process for completion. Results. During CIMT, the CIMT-I group showed significant within-group improvements in 3 fine-movement tasks and in total noncompleted tasks (noncompletes), whereas the CIMT-D group did not (P .0036). CIMT-I improvement was significantly greater than CIMT-D improvement for the lifting pencil task and total noncompletes. During the year following CIMT, neither group showed significant changes in completion of WMFT tasks. Over all time intervals, only the CIMT-I group displayed significant improvement in several tasks and total noncompletes. Between groups, there were significant and almost-significant differences between the improvements of the 2 groups in 3 tasks requiring fine distal movement. Conclusion. Receiving CIMT earlier appears to improve reacquisition and retention of WMFT tasks, especially those requiring fine motor skills. Combined with earlier findings, these results indicate that improvements in existing motor abilities are possible with both immediate and delayed CIMT, but early CIMT is necessary for significant reacquisition of tasks.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Martín-Montalvo, Alejandro, Gonzalez-Mariscal, Isabel, Pomares-Viciana, Teresa, Padilla-López, Sergio, Ballesteros, Manuel, Vazquez-Fonseca, Luis, . . . Santos-Ocana, Carlos. (2013). The Phosphatase Ptc7 Induces Coenzyme Q Biosynthesis by Activating the Hydroxylase Coq7 in Yeast. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 288(39), 28126-28137.
The study of the components of mitochondrial metabolism has potential benefits for health span and lifespan because the maintenance of efficient mitochondrial function and antioxi-dant capacity is associated with improved health and survival. In yeast, mitochondrial function requires the tight control of several metabolic processes such as coenzyme Q biosynthesis, assuring an appropriate energy supply and antioxidant functions. Many mitochondrial processes are regulated by phosphor-ylation cycles mediated by protein kinases and phosphatases. In this study, we determined that the mitochondrial phosphatase Ptc7p, a Ser/Thr phosphatase, was required to regulate coenzyme Q6 biosynthesis, which in turn activated aerobic metabolism and enhanced oxidative stress resistance. We showed that Ptc7p phosphatase specifically activated coenzyme Q6 biosynthesis through the dephosphorylation of the demethoxy-Q6 hydroxylase Coq7p. The current findings revealed that Ptc7p is a regulator of mitochondrial metabolism that is essential to maintain proper function of the mitochondria by regulating energy metabolism and oxidative stress resistance.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Metkus, T. S., Timpone, J., Leaf, D., Goetz, M. B., Harris, William S., & Brown, T. T. (2013). Omega-3 fatty acid therapy reduces triglycerides and interleukin-6 in hypertriglyeridemic HIV patients. Hiv Medicine, 14(9), 530-539.
Objectives Cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis are common in HIV-infected patients and residual systemic inflammation is thought to contribute to both of these disorders. We performed a randomized placebo-controlled trial of omega-3-acid (O3A) ethyl esters in HIV-infected patients with hypertriglyceridaemia, hypothesizing that O3A would decrease serum levels of triglycerides, markers of systemic inflammation, and markers of bone turnover. Methods HIV-infected patients (n=48 recruited at three sites) with CD4 count >200cells/L, suppressed viral load, and triglycerides >200mg/dL were randomized to placebo or 3.6g/d of O3A. Fasting lipid profiles and markers of inflammation and bone turnover were assessed at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment. Results Baseline HIV status, lipid profile, bone metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors were similar between the groups. Inflammatory markers were similar between the treatment groups at baseline, except for interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-, which were higher in the O3A group. The concentration of triglycerides in patients receiving O3A decreased by a median (interquartile range (IQR)) of -34 (-149, 9.5) mg/dL vs. a median increase of 46.5 (-51, 123) mg/dL in the placebo group (P=0.01). The median percentage change in IL-6 was greater in the O3A group compared with the placebo group [-39% (-63, 12%) vs. 29% (10, 177%), respectively; P=0.006]. Similar results were observed for TNF-, but not other inflammatory or bone turnover markers. Conclusions O3A ethyl esters decreased the concentrations of triglycerides, IL-6 and TNF- in patients with well-controlled HIV infection and hypertriglyceridaemia. Larger studies are required to confirm these findings and investigate their clinical significance.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Miller, J. N., & Pearce, David A. (2013). A Novel c.776_777insA Mutation in CLN1 Leads to Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis. Journal of Child Neurology, 28(9), 1106-1111.
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses are the most common autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorders in children, with a worldwide incidence of 1 in 100000 live births. Multiple clinical variants are caused by more than 400 mutations in at least 14 different genes. These progressive genetic disorders primarily manifest in the central nervous system because of an extensive loss of neurons, specifically in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices. Patients with mutations in CLN1, which encodes palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1), primarily manifest with infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (Haltia-Santavuori disease). Affected children usually present between 1 and 2 years of age and typically die by 8 to 13 years of age. We describe a patient with infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis with a novel c.776_777insA mutation in CLN1. This insertion induces a frameshift and a premature stop codon late within the CLN1 messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript which is likely recognized by nonsense-mediated translation repression, decreasing PPT1 abundance.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Rae, J. M., Regan, M. M., Thibert, J. N., Gersch, C., Thomas, D., Leyland-Jones, Brian, . . . Van Poznak, C. (2013). Concordance Between CYP2D6 Genotypes Obtained From Tumor-Derived and Germline DNA. Jnci-Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 105(17), 1332-1334.
Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors (FFPETs) are a valuable source of DNA for genotype association studies and are often the only germline DNA resource from cancer clinical trials. The anti-estrogen tamoxifen is metabolized into endoxifen by CYP2D6, leading to the hypothesis that patients with certain CYP2D6 genotypes may not receive benefit because of their inability to activate the drug. Studies testing this hypothesis using FFPETs have provided conflicting results. It has been postulated that CYP2D6 genotype determined using FFPET may not be accurate because of somatic tumor alterations. In this study, we determined the concordance between CYP2D6 genotypes generated using 3 tissue sources (FFPETs; formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded unaffected lymph nodes [FFPELNs]; and whole blood cells [WBCs]) from 122 breast cancer patients. Compared with WBCs, FFPET and FFPELN genotypes were highly concordant (>94%), as were the predicted CYP2D6 metabolic phenotypes (>97%). We conclude that CYP2D6 genotypes obtained from FFPETs accurately represent the patient’s CYP2D6 metabolic phenotype.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Roux, Kyle J. (2013). Marked by association: techniques for proximity-dependent labeling of proteins in eukaryotic cells. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 70(19), 3657-3664.
Various methods have been established for the purpose of identifying and characterizing protein-protein interactions (PPIs). This diverse toolbox provides researchers with options to overcome challenges specific to the nature of the proteins under investigation. Among these techniques is a category based on proximity-dependent labeling of proteins in living cells. These can be further partitioned into either hypothesis-based or unbiased screening methods, each with its own advantages and limitations. Approaches in which proteins of interest are fused to either modifying enzymes or receptor sequences allow for hypothesis-based testing of protein proximity. Protein crosslinking and BioID (proximity-dependent biotin identification) permit unbiased screening of protein proximity for a protein of interest. Here, we evaluate these approaches and their applications in living eukaryotic cells.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Sharma, Jitendra, Nanda, Ashish, Jung, Richard S., Mehta, Sonal, Pooria, Javad, & Hsu, Daniel P. (2013). Risk of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Journal of neurointerventional surgery, 5(6), 543-545.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We report the incidence and risk factors for contrast-induced nephropathy after the use of iodinated contrast for endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke.; METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed in 194 consecutive patients who underwent endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke between January 2006 and January 2011. No patients were excluded from treatment for elevated creatinine (Cr). Each patient received approximately 150 ml intra-arterial non-ionic low-osmolar contrast agent (Optiray 320) during the endovascular procedure. Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) was defined according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria as a relative increase of serum Cr 50% above the baseline or an absolute increase of 0.3 mg/dl at 48 h following the endovascular procedure.; RESULTS: Of 194 patients (mean age 6514 years), 52% were women (n=100) and 25% (n=48) were diabetic. Baseline Cr levels for 191 patients ranged between 0.4 and 2.7 mg/dl. Three patients on chronic hemodialysis had baseline Cr levels ranging between 5.3 and 6.1 mg/dl. Cr was ≤1.5 mg/dl in 163 patients (84%) and ≥1.5 mg/dl in 31 (16%). Three of the 191 patients (1.5%) developed CIN as noted from Cr measurements between baseline and within 48 h. One patient who developed an elevated Cr level had a known history of chronic renal insufficiency (Cr >1.5 mg/dl) and two had baseline Cr levels within the normal range. An additional CT angiogram was obtained in 44 patients, none of which developed CIN. Female gender and diabetes were not associated with a higher risk of developing CIN.; CONCLUSIONS: The risk of developing CIN is low among patients with acute stroke who undergo emergency endovascular treatment. Treatment of acute stroke should be performed irrespective of Cr levels.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Shinozaki, Gen, Kumar, Y., Rosen, B. H., Rundell, J. R., Mrazek, D. A., & Kung, S. (2013). “Diminished” association between the serotonin transporter linked polymorphism (5HTTLPR) and body mass index in a large psychiatric sample. Journal of Affective Disorders, 151(1), 397-400.
Background: The role of the promoter polymorphism (5HTTLPR) of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) in psychiatric illnesses has been studied extensively. Serotonergic function also regulates many central nervous system, including appetite and feeding behaviors. The 5HTTLPR short allele was found to be associated with increased body mass index and obesity risk among the general population. No data is available to support generalizability of such association among psychiatric population. Methods: We examined the relationship between BMI and the 5HTTLPR genotype in a large sample of 1831 psychiatric patients at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, using a retrospective chart review. Results: Average BMI among groups with the short/short (2829 +/- 7.27 kg/m(2)), the short/long (28.07 +/- 6.45 kg/m(2)) and the long/long (28.15 +/- 7.51 kg/m(2)) genotypes of 5HTTLPR were not statistically different. This negative association persisted even with the sub-analysis of the Caucasians. However, we observed an increased rate of obesity among our psychiatric patient sample compared to the general population of Minnesota (36.6% versus 27.6%, p=0.0001 for males, 30.3% versus 24.4%, p=0.0001 for Females). Also, sub-analysis showed female inpatients to have a significantly higher average BMI than outpatients (28.64 +/- 8.08 kg/m(2) versus 27.13 +/- 692 kg/m(2), p=0.026). This confirmed a significant association between mental health disorder and BMI. Limitations: Retrospective study design with limited control for potential confounders. Conclusions: In this large sample of psychiatric patients we found no significant association between 5HTTLPR genotype and BMI, which is different from the case with general population reported in the literature. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Shinozaki, Gen, Romanowicz, M., Mrazek, D. A., & Kung, S. (2013). HTR2A gene-child abuse interaction and association with a history of suicide attempt among Caucasian depressed psychiatric inpatients. Journal of Affective Disorders, 150(3), 1200-1203.
Background: The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5HTTLPR) has been associated with vulnerability for depression after exposure to stressful life event as well as with difference in treatment response to SSRI. Although the A/A genotype of the serotonin receptor SNP (rs7997012) was associated with better citalopram response than the G/C, in the STAR*D sample, the effects of this SNP in the moderation of child abuse history on the characteristics of mental illnesses are not well understood. We examined if there are similar gene-environment interaction with he SNP. Methods: Retrospective chart review of 250 Caucasian depressed psychiatric inpatients, who had genotype for rs7997012. Subjects with each genotype were subcategorized into 2 groups with/without history of child abuse. The history of suicide attempts of each group was compared. Results: A trend for an interaction was found between the HTR2A genotype and child abuse history influencing the prevalence of suicide attempts. Although each genotype did not show significant difference in the risk of suicide attempt when there was no abuse history, the A carriers (A/A+A/G) showed significantly higher rate of suicide attempt compared to the G/C, when there is a history of child abuse (48.4%, versus 22.7% respectively, p=0.0050). The likelihood ratio test from the logistic model showed a trend for an interaction between the A/A genotype and abuse history (Odds Ratio 2.10, chi(2)=2.49, p=0.11). Limitations: Retrospective study design and small sample size with borderline significance. Conclusions: Our findings showed a potential interaction between the HTR2A gene and stressful life events. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Shinozaki, Gen, Romanowicz, Magdalena, Passov, Victoria, Rundell, James, Mrazek, David, & Kung, Simon. (2013). State dependent gene–environment interaction: Serotonin transporter gene–child abuse interaction associated with suicide attempt history among depressed psychiatric inpatients. Journal of Affective Disorders, 147(1-3), 373-378.
Background: The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5HTTLPR) and child abuse history have been associated with an increased suicide risk for general population, but such association is not clear among psychiatric depressed inpatients. Methods: A chart review identified 422 depressed inpatients genotyped for 5HTTLPR. Child abuse and suicide attempt history were recorded. The relationship between 5HTTLPR, child abuse, and suicide attempts were analyzed. Results: There was a significant relationship between 5HTTLPR and history of suicide attempt (the long/ long versus the short carriers, 47.9% versus 31.8%, p = 0.0015). There was also a significant main effect from child abuse history (abused versus not abused, 45.1% versus 28.6%, p = 0.0001). The likelihood ratio test showed a significant result for the l/l genotype group with child abuse history (odds ratio 4.11, χ² = 23.5, p < 0.0001). No significant result was obtained from other groups. Limitations: This is a retrospective study based on chart review. Replication with more standardized research setting for measurements of child abuse history and suicide attempt history is needed. The rs25531 variant among a long allele (long-A and long-G) of 5HTTLPR was not genotyped. Conclusions: In addition to the direct effect from 5HTTLPR and child abuse history, an interaction between the 5HTTLPR gene and child abuse history influenced psychiatric profiles of depressed inpatients. Contrary to the widely recognized “reactivity” associated with the short allele, our patients with the l/l genotype and child abuse history showed significantly severer psychiatric pathology than short carriers with child abuse history. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Sun, Yuliang, Dey, Nandini, Brammer, Melissa, De, Pradip, & Leyland-Jones, Brian. (2013). Bevacizumab confers additional advantage to the combination of trastuzumab plus pertuzumab in trastuzumab-refractory breast cancer model. Cancer Chemotherapy & Pharmacology, 72(4), 733-745.
Purpose: We investigated antitumor activity of trastuzumab (T)/T-DM1 + pertuzumab (P) + bevacizumab (B) in T-sensitive (BT474) and T-resistant (BT474HerR) BC models in order to test whether or not the addition of an anti-angiogenic drug can provide a supplementary advantage to the antitumor activity of double HER2-mAB combination. Methods: In addition to the antitumor activity (xenograft model), we tested antiproliferative effect, and HER2-mediated signals of different antibodies (T or P or T-DM1) in HER2-amplified T-sensitive, T-resistant and HER2-amplified/ PIK3CA mutated (HCC1954) BT cell lines by 3D ON-TOP clonogenic growth assay and Western blots. Results: Data show (1) T, T-DM1 or P blocked p-AKT (>60 %), p-ERK (>50 %) following heregulin in only T-sensitive cells, (2) T/T-DM1 + P, T/T-DM1 + B, and P + B reduced tumor growth as compared to any single-agent treatment, (3) T + P + B achieved almost complete regression of tumor growth, decreased cell proliferation, and inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis, in both models, (4) antitumor activity of T + P + B was associated with the pharmacodynamic knockdown of p-AKT, and (5) T-DM1 + P caused complete regression of tumor volume in both models. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that B imparts a significant advantage when combined with T + P in the resistant model, in contrast to T-DM1 + P, as the triple combination of T-DM1 + P + B and the double combination of T-DM1 + P showed a comparable antitumor activity. Our study reveals the preclinical evidence in favor of the inclusion of B when combined with T + P in T-resistant BC patients.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Vermeer, Paola D., Colbert, Paul L., Wieking, Bryant G., Vermeer, Daniel W., & Lee, John H. (2013). Targeting ERBB Receptors Shifts Their Partners and Triggers Persistent ERK Signaling through a Novel ERBB/EFNB1 Complex. Cancer research, 73(18), 5787-5797.
Most squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC) overexpress ERBB1/EGFR, but EGF receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapies have yielded disappointing clinical results in treatment of this cancer. Here, we describe a novel interaction between EGFR and the ligand EphrinB1 (EFNB1), and we show that EFNB1 phosphorylation and downstream signaling persists in the presence of cetuximab. Mechanistically, cetuximab drives a shift in EGFR dimerization partners within the signaling complex, suggesting that targeted drugs may trigger partner rearrangements that allow persistent pathway activation. EFNB1 attenuation slowed tumor growth and increased survival in a murine model of HNSCC, suggesting a substantial contribution of EFNB1 signaling to HNSCC development. Together, our findings suggest that EFNB1 is part of the EGFR signaling complex and may mediate drug resistance in HNSCC as well as other solid tumors. Cancer Res; 73(18); 5787-97. 2013 AACR.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Weber, Krystal, & Pearce, David A. (2013). Large Animal Models for Batten Disease: A Review. Journal of Child Neurology, 28(9), 1123-1127.
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, collectively referred to as Batten disease, make up a group of inherited childhood disorders that result in blindness, motor and cognitive regression, brain atrophy, and seizures, ultimately leading to premature death. So far more than 10 genes have been implicated in different forms of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Most related research has involved mouse models, but several naturally occurring large animal models have recently been discovered. In this review, we discuss the different large animal models and their significance in Batten disease research.
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Benson, Nicholas, Hulac, David M., & Bernstein, Joshua D. (2013). An Independent Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Integrated: What Do the Process Approach Subtests Measure? Psychological Assessment, 25(3), 692-705.
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Integrated contains the WISC-IV core and supplemental subtests along with process approach subtests designed to facilitate a process-oriented approach to score interpretation. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which WISC-IV Integrated subtests measure the constructs they are purported to measure. In addition to examining the measurement and scoring model provided in the manual, this study also tested hypotheses regarding Cattell-Horn-Carroll abilities that might be measured along with other substantive questions regarding the factor structure of the WISC-IV Integrated and the nature of abilities measured by process approach subtests. Results provide insight regarding the constructs measured by these subtests. Many subtests appear to be good to excellent measures of psychometric g (i.e., the general factor presumed to cause the positive correlation of mental tasks). Other abilities measured by subtests are described. For some subtests, the majority of variance is not accounted for by theoretical constructs included in the scoring model. Modifications made to remove demands such as memory recall and verbal expression were found to reduce construct-irrelevant variance. The WISC-IV Integrated subtests appear to measure similar constructs across ages 6-16, although strict factorial invariance was not supported.
School of Education.
Benson, Nicholas, & Taub, Gordon E. (2013). Invariance of Woodcock-Johnson III Scores for Students With Learning Disorders and Students Without Learning Disorders. School Psychology Quarterly, 28(3), 256-272.
The purpose of this study was to test the invariance of scores derived from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Ability (WJ HI COG) and Woodcock- Johnson HI Tests of Academic Achievement (WJ III ACH) across a group of students diagnosed with learning disorders (n = 994) and a matched sample of students without known clinical diagnoses (n = 994). This study focused on scores reflecting broad cognitive abilities and areas of academic achievement in which children may demon- strate learning disabilities. Results of this study support the conclusion that the WJ III COG and WJ III ACH measure similar constructs for students with learning disabilities and students without learning disabilities. However, large and pervasive between- groups differences were found with regard to intercepts. Intercepts can be defined as predicted group means for individual tests, in which predicted group means are based on the factor loadings of these tests on the latent variable they are intended to measure. As many intercepts are not equivalent, it is possible that observed scores may not accurately reflect differences in the construct of interest when testing children with learning disabilities. However, tests displaying the largest intercept differences also displayed the largest group differences in observed scores, providing some support for the conclusion that these differences reflect construct-relevant between-group differences. Implications of this research are discussed.
School of Education.
Kindle, Karen J., & Schmidt, Cynthia M. (2013). DEVELOPING PRESERVICE TEACHERS: A SELF-STUDY OF INSTRUCTOR SCAFFOLDING. Reading Improvement, 50(3), 83-100.
In this collaborative self-study, two teacher educators examined transcripts of preservice teachers’ inquiry groups focused on assessment and tutoring of struggling readers as part of a reading methods course. The analysis identified instances of scaffolding by the course instructor that influenced preservice teachers’ development. Types of scaffolding included a shift in instructor stance from authority to expert peer, strategic prompts to promote inquiry, modeling professional language, and the transfer of responsibility from instructor to preservice teachers.
School of Education.
Newland, Lisa A., Hui-Hua, Chen, & Coyl-Shepherd, Diana D. (2013). ASSOCIATIONS AMONG FATHER BELIEFS, PERCEPTIONS, LIFE CONTEXT, INVOLVEMENT, CHILD ATTACHMENT AND SCHOOL OUTCOMES IN THE U.S. AND TAIWAN. Fathering: A Journal of Theory, Research, & Practice about Men as Fathers, 11(1), 3-30.
This study was designed to examine connections among father beliefs, perceptions, context, and involvement, and school-aged children’s attachment and school outcomes in the U.S. and Taiwan (n = 274 father-child dyads). Fathers completed questionnaires regarding their family demographics, education-related beliefs, perceptions, and involvement, and children’s school achievement. Children completed a pictorial measure of attachment and standardized socio-emotional assessments. Father involvement was related to father beliefs and perceptions and to children’s attachment-related secure exploration. Children’s positive and negative school outcomes were related to father beliefs, perceptions, involvement, and children’s attachment. School outcomes were uniquely predicted from nationality, attachment, father-teacher relationship quality, and fathers’ beliefs about teachers, motivation for involvement, perceptions of invitations for involvement, efficacy, and school-based involvement, as well as from family income and mother involvement. Results are discussed in the context of “relationship-focused” education.
School of Education.
Jackson, Darla W. (2013). Lawyers Can’t Be Luddites Anymore: Do Law Librarians Have a Role in Helping Lawyers Adjust to the New Ethics Rules Involving Technology? Law Library Journal, 105(3), 395-404.
In August 2012, the American Bar Association, recognizing the influence of technology, amended the Model Rules of Professional Conduct. These changes to the standards of professional conduct require attorneys to have some basic technological competence. Ms. Jackson focuses on specific areas in which law librarians may find opportunities to share both newly developed and well-established technological expertise with attorneys.
School of Law.

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