Posted by: princekhaled | February 8, 2009

February 2009

Aldrich AW(*) (2009).
Judging Books by Their Covers: Managing the Tensions between Paperback and Clothbound Purchases in Academic Libraries.
College & Research Libraries 70(1): 57-70.

Book purchases are a significant portion of an academic library’s budget. Selecting paperback rather than hardback editions can stretch collection development dollars. This study examines the collection development statements of forty-six academic libraries regarding the selection of paperback editions. Some libraries provide vague guidance, while others identify specific price differentials between the costs of paperback and hardback editions as a decision criterion. A new method of using price difference ratios is proposed and tested using four academic disciplines. The results suggest that libraries using such ratios can achieve greater control over costs while meeting collection development goals.

(*)I.D. Weeks Library, University of South Dakota

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Aparasu RR, Jano E, & Bhatara V(*) (2009).
Concomitant antipsychotic prescribing in US outpatient settings.
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, In Press, Corrected Proof

Background Clinicians use concomitant antipsychotic therapy for management of psychotic disorders despite a paucity of evidence for this practice.Objective To examine national patterns and determinants of concomitant antipsychotic therapy.Methods Concomitant antipsychotic therapy was defined as simultaneous use of 2 or more antipsychotic agents. Prescription data from the 2003-2004 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and the outpatient department portion of the 2003-2004 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey were used to characterize the prescribing of concomitant antipsychotic therapy and antipsychotic monotherapy (defined as use of a typical or atypical agent). Multiple logistic regression was applied to antipsychotic visits to examine the determinants of concomitant antipsychotic therapy based on patient and provider characteristics.Results Overall, concomitant antipsychotic therapy was documented in 9% of the visits involving antipsychotic agents, and monotherapy in 91% of the visits. The use of atypical agents, namely risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine, was common in both forms of therapy. Concomitant therapy was frequently used for psychoses and bipolar disorder. Logistic regression revealed that the odds of receiving concomitant antipsychotic therapy were higher for patients younger than 65 years, with greatest odds (odds ratio = 6.52) for patients 40 to 64 years old. Having a diagnosis of psychosis quadrupled (odds ratio = 4.33) the odds of receiving concomitant antipsychotic therapy. Physicians in metropolitan areas were more likely (odds ratio = 2.17) to use concomitant antipsychotic therapy than physicians in non-metropolitan areas.Conclusions Concomitant antipsychotic therapy continues to be prevalent and extensive in outpatient settings. With the use of concomitant antipsychotic therapy as a quality of care measure, there is a need to optimize prescribing of these potent combinations.

(*) Department of Psychiatry, University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls, SD 57105, USA

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Carpenter RE(*), Korzan WJ, Bockholt C, Watt MJ(**), Forster GL(**), & Renner KJ(*) (2009).
Corticotropin releasing factor influences aggression and monoamines: Modulation of attacks and retreats.
Neuroscience 158(2): 412-425.

Salmonids establish social hierarchies as a result of aggressive social interactions. The establishment of dominant or subordinate status is strongly linked to neuroendocrine responses mediated through the stress axis. In this study, we tested the effects of introcerebroventricular (icv) corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) on the behavioral outcome, plasma cortisol and monoamine function in trout subjected to a socially aggressive encounter. Rainbow trout were treated with an icv injection of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), 500 or 2000 ng ovine CRF, or not injected. Fish were allowed to interact with a similarly sized conspecific for 15 min. Following the behavioral interaction, plasma cortisol and central monoamine concentrations were analyzed. Trout treated with CRF were victorious in approximately 66% of the aggressive encounters against aCSF-treated opponents. Trout injected with CRF exhibited a reduction in the total number of attacks and decreased latency to attack. When trout were divided into winners and losers, only victorious CRF-treated fish exhibited a reduced latency to attack and fewer retreats. Social stress increased cortisol levels in both winners and losers of aggressive interaction. This effect was enhanced with the additional stress incurred from icv injection of aCSF. However, icv CRF in addition to social stress decreased plasma cortisol in both winners and losers. While aggression stimulated significant changes in serotonergic and dopaminergic activity, the magnitude and direction were dependent on limbic brain region, CRF dose, and outcome of social aggression. With broad effects on aggressive behavior, anxiety, stress responsiveness, and central monoaminergic activity, CRF plays an important role in modulating the behavioral components of social interaction.

(*)Department of Biology, University of South Dakota, 414 East Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069-2390, USA
(**)Neuroscience Group, Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA

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Elhai JD(*), Grubaugh AL, Richardson JD, Egede LE, & Creamer M (2008).
Outpatient Medical and Mental Healthcare Utilization Models Among Military Veterans: Results from the 2001 National Survey of Veterans.
Journal of Psychiatric Research, 42(10), 858-867.

Using Andersen’s (1995) [Andersen RM. Revisiting the behavioral model and access to medical care: does it matter? Journal of Health and Social Behavior 1995;36:1-10] behavioral model of healthcare use as our theoretical framework, we examined predisposing (i.e., sociodemographic), enabling (i.e., access resources), and need (i.e., illness) models of outpatient medical and mental healthcare utilization among a national sample of US veterans. Participants were 20,048 nationally representative participants completing the 2001 National Survey of Veterans. Outcomes were healthcare use variables for the past year, including the number of Veterans Affairs (VA) and non- VA outpatient healthcare visits, and whether VA and non-VA mental health treatment was used. Univariate results demonstrated that numerous predisposing, enabling and need variables predicted both VA and non-VA healthcare use intensity and mental healthcare use. In multivariate analyses, predisposing, enabling and need variables demonstrated significant associations with both types of healthcare use, but accounted for more variance in mental healthcare use. Need variables provided an additive effect over predisposing and enabling variables in accounting for medical and mental healthcare use, and accounted for some of the strongest effects. The results demonstrate that need remains an important factor that drives healthcare use among veterans and does not seem to be overshadowed by socioeconomic factors that may create unfair disparities in treatment access.

(*)Disaster Mental Health Institute, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD, US

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Enterline AJ & Jepsen EM(*) (2009).
Chinazambia and Boliviafranca: A Simulation of Domestic Politics and Foreign Policy.
International Studies Perspectives 10(1): 49-59.

Despite a longstanding focus on the systemic distribution of power in the study of international relations, scholarship during the past 20 years increasingly emphasizes the role of domestic politics in foreign-policy-decision making. This simulation enables participants to experience negotiating an international issue a territorial dispute between two fictitious states, Chinazambia and Boliviafranca in the context of this two-level game between domestic and international environments. The simulation furnishes a vantage point from which students can assess realist, liberal, and alternative theoretical perspectives on international relations as they affect policy making. The simulation is flexible and can be executed under a variety course contexts, as well as time and participation constraints. Additionally, the simulation provides ample opportunity for a number of enriching postsimulation activities.

(*)University of South Dakota

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Fairholm MR & Fairholm GW (2009).
Understanding Leadership Perspectives : Theoretical and Practical
Approaches (1st ed.).

New York: Springer [BOOK].

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Furches M, Wallace L, & Helenurm K(*) (2009).
High Genetic Divergence Characterizes Populations of the Endemic Plant Lithophragma Maximum (Saxifragaceae) on San Clemente Island.
Conservation Genetics 10(1): 115-26.

Narrowly-ranging species frequently harbor less genetic variability relative to widespread relatives and face graver extinction threats due to the heightened impacts of stochastic events on ecological and genetic diversity. In this study, we examined the impact of historical and current threats to the maintenance of genetic variation in Lithophragma maximum (Saxifragaceae), a perennial herb endemic to San Clemente Island, California. This species exists as small populations confined to canyons along 4 km of the southeast coastline of the island. In 15 populations analyzed with 10 microsatellite markers, we identified an average of 2.05 alleles per locus and 58.7% polymorphic loci. Significant departures from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium existed in six populations; five of these exhibited heterozygote deficiency. Bayesian inference of genetic structure indicated a significant amount of structure among populations and canyons and infrequent gene flow even over very short distances. We also identified a significant and positive correlation between genetic and geographic distances, indicative of isolation by distance. There was no evidence of recent bottlenecks in any of the sampled populations, but older bottlenecks were detected in two populations. These results suggest that populations of L. maximum have historically been small and isolated, which is likely due to the rugged habitat in which this species occurs and limited pollen and seed dispersal. Given the high degree of structure observed across populations, we suggest that conservation efforts should focus on preserving populations in multiple canyons, maintaining large population sizes to preserve genetic variation, and controlling the spread of invasive species in areas where L. maximum occurs.

(*)University of South Dakota Department of Biological Sciences Vermillion SD 57069 USA

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Goodman BE(*) (2008).
Channels active in the excitability of nerves and skeletal muscles across the neuromuscular junction: basic function and pathophysiology.
Advances in Physiology Education 32(2): 127-135.

Ion channels are essential for the basic physiological function of excitable cells such as nerve, skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells. Mutations in genes that encode ion channels have been identified to cause various diseases and disorders known as channelopathies. An understanding of how individual ion channels are involved in the activation of motoneurons and their corresponding muscle cells is essential for interpreting basic neurophysiology in nerves, the heart, and skeletal and smooth muscle. This review article is intended to clarify how channels work in nerves, neuromuscular junctions, and muscle function and what happens when these channels are defective. Highlighting the human diseases that result from defective ion channels is likely to be interesting to students in helping them choose to learn about channel physiology.

(*)Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota.

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Grey K(*), Moss B(*), & Burrell B(*) (2008).
Molecular Identification and Expression of the Nmda Receptor Nr1 Subunit in the Leech.
Invertebrate Neuroscience. ? (No.?): 1-10.

A aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is involved in a number of physiological and pathophysiological processes in vertebrates, but there have been few studies examining the role of invertebrate NMDA receptors. In the leech, pharmacological evidence suggests that NMDARs contribute to synaptic plasticity, but there has been no molecular identification of NMDA receptors. In this report, a partial cDNA encoding the leech NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor (HirNR1) is presented. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction from single neurons of the leech central nervous system confirms HirNR1 expression in the Retzius (R), Anterior Pagoda (AP), Pressure (P), and Touch (T) neurons. Immunoblotting with an anti-NR1 antibody yielded a ~110Â kDa protein, similar to the expected weight of the NR1 subunit (~116Â kDa). Finally, pairing pre- and postsynaptic activity elicited long-term potentiation in synapses between neurons expressing NR1 mRNA (P-to-AP synapse) and this potentiation was blocked by the NMDAR antagonist AP5.

(*)University of South Dakota Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Neuroscience Group, Sanford School of Medicine Vermillion SD 57069 USA

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Kadarkaraisamy M(*), Caple G(*), Gorden AR(*), Squire MA, & Sykes AG(*) (2008).
Large Amplitude, Proton- and Cation-Activated Latch-Type Mechanical Switches: O-Protonated Amides Stabilized by Intramolecular, Low-Barrier Hydrogen Bonds within Macrocycles.
Inorganic Chemistry 47(24): 11644-55.

Large amplitude molecular switches have been developed using oxonium ions as the novel switching mechanism. Macrocycles that contain a polyether ring that are preorganized and of optimum geometry such that strong, linear Low-Barrier Hydrogen Bonds (LBHB, 2.4 to 2.6 A in length) are formed between a protonated amide oxygen and a cyclic ether, that lend significant iminol character to the amide. Deprotonation yields a large conformational change between closed and open forms, mindful of a new hinged, latch-type mechanical proton switch. Numerous open and closed forms have been characterized by X-ray crystallography, and the intramolecular hydrogen bond that forms between the protonated amide oxygen and the cyclic polyether oxygen accounts for the stability of these new acids. The open form of the deprotonated adducts persist in solution as indicated by the magnitude of coupling constants and other Nuclear Overhauser Effect experiments. Different saturated and unsaturated solid acids have been characterized including products derived from acetonitrile, propionitrile, caprylonitrile, acrylonitrile and adiponitrile, and also by reaction with primary amides in the case of phenyl and norbornene derivatives. We have also demonstrated that metal cations can replace the proton in the switching mechanism, characteristic of nascent synthetic pores.

(*)Department of Chemistry, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069

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Ling TJ(*), Forster GL(**), Watt MJ(**), Korzan WJ, Renner KJ(*)(**), & Summers CH(*)(**) (2009).
Social status differentiates rapid neuroendocrine responses to restraint stress.
Physiology & Behavior 96(2): 218-232.

Male Anolis carolinensis that win aggressive interactions mobilize neuroendocrine responses to social stress more rapidly than defeated lizards. We initially examined temporal patterns of neuroendocrine response to restraint stress in lizards of unknown status, and then investigated whether winning males respond more rapidly to this non-social stressor. Size-matched male pairs interacted to establish social status, and then were returned to individual home cages for 3 days. Plasma and brains were collected from non-restrained dominants and subordinates, and from a non-interacting control group. Additional groups of dominants and subordinates underwent 90 s restraint stress, with plasma and brains collected either immediately or 300 s after restraint. In lizards of unknown social status restraint stimulated rapid monoaminergic responses in nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and locus ceruleus, with delayed responses seen in VTA and raphé. Non-restrained dominants and subordinates had lower levels of raphé serotonergic activity and lower hippocampal dopaminergic activity 3 days after interacting, compared to controls. Dominants had higher corticosterone levels, both immediately and 300 s after restraint, than either non-restrained dominants or restrained subordinates. Restraint induced higher raphé serotonergic activity in dominants. However, subordinates also showed rapid responses to restraint; exhibiting lower hippocampal dopamine (DA) levels than non-restrained subordinates. At 300 s after the stress, amygdalar serotonin levels increased in dominants, while subordinates showed higher amygdalar DA levels. These results suggest that stressful aggressive interactions will not only alter basal neurochemical activity, but also influence neuroendocrine responses to non-social stressors according to individual social status.

(*)Department of Biology, University of South Dakota, 414 East Clark St, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
(**)Neuroscience Group, Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, 414 East Clark St, Vermillion, SD, USA

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Lukkes JL(*), Mokin MV(*), Scholl JL(*), & Forster GL(*) (2009).
Adult Rats Exposed to Early-Life Social Isolation Exhibit Increased Anxiety and Conditioned Fear Behavior, and Altered Hormonal Stress Responses.
Hormones & Behavior 55(1): 248-56.

Social isolation of rodents during development is thought to be a relevant model of early-life chronic stress. We investigated the effects of early-life social isolation on later adult fear and anxiety behavior, and on corticosterone stress responses, in male rats. On postnatal day 21, male rats were either housed in isolation or in groups of 3 for a 3Â week period, after which, all rats were group-reared for an additional 2Â weeks. After the 5-week treatment, adult rats were examined for conditioned fear, open field anxiety-like behavior, social interaction behavior and corticosterone responses to restraint stress. Isolates exhibited increased anxiety-like behaviors in a brightly-lit open field during the first 10Â min of the test period compared to group-reared rats. Isolation-reared rats also showed increased fear behavior and reduced social contact in a social interaction test, and a transient increase in fear behavior to a conditioned stimulus that predicted foot-shock. Isolation-reared rats showed similar restraint-induced increases in plasma corticosterone as group-reared controls, but plasma corticosterone levels 2Â h after restraint were significantly lower than pre-stress levels in isolates. Overall, this study shows that isolation restricted to an early part of development increases anxiety-like and fear behaviors in adulthood, and also results in depressed levels of plasma corticosterone following restraint stress.

(*)Neuroscience Group, Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, 414 East Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA

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Lukkes JL(*), Summers CH(*)(**), Scholl JL(*)(**), Renner KJ(*)(**), & Forster GL(*) (2009).
Early Life Social Isolation Alters Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Responses in Adult Rats.
Neuroscience 158(2): 845-55.

Stress induced by early life social isolation leads to long-lasting alterations in stress responses and serotonergic activity. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a neurotransmitter that mediates stress responses and alters serotonergic activity. We tested the hypothesis that the stress of early life isolation enhances responses to CRF in adulthood by determining the effect of CRF infusions into the dorsal raphe nucleus (dRN) on 5-HT release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of adult rats using in vivo microdialysis. Juvenile male rats were either isolated or housed in groups of three for a 3-week period beginning on postnatal day 21 after which, all rats were group-reared for an additional 2 weeks. Following the isolation/re-socialization procedure, infusion of 100 ng CRF into the dRN decreased 5-HT release in the NAc of group-reared rats. This treatment did not significantly affect 5-HT release in the NAc of isolation-reared animals. In contrast, infusion of 500 ng CRF into the dRN transiently increased 5-HT release in the NAc of both group-reared and isolated animals with isolated animals showing a more prolonged serotonergic response. Western blot and immunofluorescent staining for CRF receptors in the dRN showed that CRF<sub>2</sub> receptor levels were increased in the dRN of isolation-reared animals when compared with group-reared rats. Taken together, the results suggest that isolation during the early part of development causes alterations in both CRF receptor levels and CRF-mediated serotonergic activity. These effects may underlie the increased sensitivity to stress observed in isolates.

(*)Neuroscience Group, Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, 414 East Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069-2390, USA
(**)Department of Biology, University of South Dakota, 414 East Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069-2390, USA

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Moore AC(*) & Wells KA (2009).
Connecting 24/5 to Millennials: Providing Academic Support Services from a Learning Commons.
The Journal of Academic Librarianship, In Press, Corrected Proof

This study investigates user preferences for reference and technical support, services, and facilities featured in an academic library and Learning Commons through a 23-item questionnaire distributed to building entrants during one 24-hour period on March 14, 2006. Results revealed a strong preference for face-to-face assistance (including roving), suggested enhancements, and documented user demographics.

(*)I.D. Weeks and Lommen Health Sciences Libraries, University of South Dakota, 414 East Clark Street, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069, U.S.A.

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Sanders S, Dorfman LT, & Ingram JG(*) (2008).
An Evaluation of the Gerorich Program for Infusing Social Work Curriculum with Aging Content.
Gerontology & Geriatrics Education 28(4): 22-38.

There is a national shortage of social workers who have the knowledge and skill competencies needed for practice with our rapidly growing older adult population. In the last decade, research has identified many reasons for the lack of interest in gerontological social work and steps that could be pursued within social work education to remedy the situation. The Geriatric Enrichment in Social Work Education (GeroRich) Program, funded through the John A. Hartford Foundation, engaged 67 social work programs throughout the United States in a process of curriculum change to increase the amount of gerontological content in the foundation social work curriculum. This study examined how the GeroRich program was instrumental in infusing gerontological content into the curriculum. Based on common outcome measures, the GeroRich program was found to be effective in (1) increasing the amount of gerontological content in the curriculum, (2) engaging faculty in the change process, and (3) exposing students to gerontological content. Relatively few variations were found among different program types or geographic settings. The model of curricular change implemented by the GeroRich program may be effective with other curriculum enrichment efforts.

(*)Social Work Program, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069

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Scholl JL(*)(**), Feng N(**), Watt MJ(*), Renner KJ(*)(**), & Forster GL(*) (2009).
Individual Differences in Amphetamine Sensitization, Behavior and Central Monoamines.
Physiology & Behavior 96(3): 493-504.

Repeated amphetamine treatment results in behavioral sensitization in a high percentage of rats. Alterations to plasma corticosterone, neural monoamines and stress behavior can accompany amphetamine sensitization. Whether these changes occur following repeated amphetamine treatment in the absence of behavioral sensitization is not known. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were treated with amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline once daily for 6 days. Amphetamine-induced locomotion and stereotypy, open-field anxiety behavior, plasma corticosterone and limbic monoamines were measured during withdrawal. Sixty-two percent of amphetamine-treated rats showed behavioral sensitization over the test periods. Only amphetamine-sensitized rats showed increased latency to enter the center of the open-field, as well as increased plasma corticosterone when compared to saline-treated controls. Amphetamine-sensitized rats showed increased dopamine concentrations in the shell of the nucleus accumbens and increased serotonin concentrations in the dorsal hippocampus, which were not observed in amphetamine-treated non-sensitized rats. These findings suggest that anxiety behavior, plasma corticosterone and limbic monoamines concentrations are altered by repeated amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg) treatment, and that these neuroendocrine and behavioral changes are often associated with sensitization to the psychostimulant effects of amphetamine.

(*)Basic Biomedical Sciences & Neuroscience Group, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, 414 E. Clark St. Vermillion, SD, 57069, USA
(**)Department of Biology & Neuroscience Group, University of South Dakota, 414 E. Clark St. Vermillion, SD, 57069, USA

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Sereda GA (2009).
Organic solvent-free synthesis of Cy39 iodide.
Tetrahedron Letters 50(9): 973-974.

The iodide salt of the pyrylium dye Cy39 (Cy39I, 1) has been suggested as an alternative of its perchlorate salt, which is widely used for biolabeling applications. A new efficient organic solvent-free procedure for synthesis of 1, allowing for a greener approach to the cyanine dyes, is suggested. The unique combination of solubility and thermostability of both the starting materials and the target Cy39 salt made the performance of the synthesis in an aqueous solution as well as reusing of unreacted starting materials possible.

(*)Department of Chemistry, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069

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Storlie E, Ihry R, Baehr L, & Davis E(*) (2009).
Genomic Regions Influencing Gene Expression of the Hmw Glutenins in Wheat.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 118(2): 295-303.

Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) produces glutenin storage proteins in the endosperm. The HMW glutenins confer distinct viscoelastic properties to bread dough. The genetics of HMW glutenin proteins have been extensively studied, and information has accumulated about individual subunits, chromosomal locations and DNA sequences, but little is known about the regulators of the HMW glutenins. This investigation addressed the question of glutenin regulators. Expression of the glutenins was analyzed using QRT-PCR in ditelosomic (dt) Chinese Spring (CS) lines. Primers were designed for each of 4 CS glutenin genes and a control, non-storage protein endosperm-specific gene Agp-L (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase). Each line represents CS wheat, lacking one chromosome arm. The effect of a missing arm could feasibly cause an increase, decrease or no change in expression. For each HMW glutenin, results indicated there were, on average, 8 chromosome arms with an up-regulatory effect and only one instance of a down-regulatory effect. There were significant correlations between orthologous and paralogous HMW glutenins for effects of chromosome groups B and D. Some or all the glutenin alleles shared regulatory loci on chromosome arms 2BS, 7BS, 4DS, 5DS and 6DS, and Agp-L shared regulatory loci with glutenins on arms 7AS, 7BS, 2DS, 3DS, 4DS and 5DS. These results suggest a few chromosome arms contain putative regulatory genes affecting the expression of conserved cis elements of 4 HMW glutenin and Agp-L genes in CS. Regulation by common genes implies the regulators have diverged little from the common wheat ancestor, and furthermore, some regulation may be shared by endosperm-specific-genes. Significant common regulators have practical implications.

(*)University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine Vermillion SD 57069 USA

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Su H(*), Huang W(*), & Wang X(*) (2009).
The COP9 signalosome negatively regulates proteasome proteolytic function and is essential to transcription.
International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 41(3): 615-624.

The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is an evolutionarily conserved protein complex formed by eight subunits (CSN1 through CSN8). Deneddylating cullin family proteins is considered the bona fide function of the CSN. It has been proposed that the CSN regulates the assembly and disassembly of the cullin-based ubiquitin ligases via its deneddylation activity. Here we report that down-regulation of CSN8 by RNA interference destabilized differentially other CSN subunits and reduced the amount of CSN holo-complexes, leading to increases in neddylated cullin proteins and reduction of F-box protein Skp2 in HEK293 cells. Moreover, suppression of CSN8 enhanced the degradation of a proteasome surrogate substrate and cyclin kinase inhibitor p21<sup>cip</sup>. Reduced transcript levels of cyclin kinase inhibitor p21<sup>cip</sup> and p27<sup>kip</sup> were also observed upon down-regulation of CSN8. These data suggest that the homeostatic level of CSN8/CSN suppresses proteasome proteolytic function and regulates transcription.

(*)Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences and Cardiovascular Research Institute, Sanford School of Medicine of the University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA

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Subramanian H(*) & Koodali R(*) (2008).
Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation of Cyclic Ketones over Iron-Containing Mesoporous Mcm-48 Silica Materials.
Reaction Kinetics and Catalysis Letters 95(2): 239-45.

A MCM-48 mesoporous material was found to be a highly active catalyst for the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of several cyclic ketones. The catalyst could be reused several times without any loss of activity.

(*)University of South Dakota Department of Chemistry Vermillion SD 57069 USA

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Swanson DL(*) & Garland Jr. T (2009).
The Evolution of High Summit Metabolism and Cold Tolerance in Birds and Its Impact on Present-Day Distributions.
Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution 63(1): 184-94.

Summit metabolic rate ( M<sub>sum</sub>, maximum cold-induced metabolic rate) is positively correlated with cold tolerance in birds, suggesting that high M<sub>sum</sub> is important for residency in cold climates. However, the phylogenetic distribution of high M<sub>sum</sub> among birds and the impact of its evolution on current distributions are not well understood. Two potential adaptive hypotheses might explain the phylogenetic distribution of high M<sub>sum</sub> among birds. The cold adaptation hypothesis contends that species wintering in cold climates should have higher M<sub>sum</sub> than species wintering in warmer climates. The flight adaptation hypothesis suggests that volant birds might be capable of generating high M<sub>sum</sub> as a byproduct of their muscular capacity for flight; thus, variation in M<sub>sum</sub> should be associated with capacity for sustained flight, one indicator of which is migration. We collected M<sub>sum</sub> data from the literature for 44 bird species and conducted both conventional and phylogenetically informed statistical analyses to examine the predictors of M<sub>sum</sub> variation. Significant phylogenetic signal was present for log body mass, log mass-adjusted M<sub>sum</sub>, and average temperature in the winter range. In multiple regression models, log body mass, winter temperature, and clade were significant predictors of log M<sub>sum</sub>. These results are consistent with a role for climate in determining M<sub>sum</sub> in birds, but also indicate that phylogenetic signal remains even after accounting for associations indicative of adaptation to winter temperature. Migratory strategy was never a significant predictor of log M<sub>sum</sub> in multiple regressions, a result that is not consistent with the flight adaptation hypothesis.

(*)Department of Biology, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069

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Wang XT, Kruger DJ, & Wilke A (2009).
Life History Variables and Risk-Taking Propensity.
Evolution and Human Behavior 30(2): 77-84.

We examined the effects of life-history variables on risk-taking propensity, measured by subjective likelihoods of engaging in risky behaviors in five evolutionarily valid domains of risk, including between-group competition, within-group competition, environmental challenge, mating and resource allocation, and fertility and reproduction. The effects of life-history variables on risk-taking propensity were domain specific, except for the expected sex difference, where men predicted greater risk-taking than women in all domains. Males also perceived less inherent risk in actions than females across the five domains. Although the age range in the sample was limited, older respondents showed lower risk propensity in both between- and within-group competition. Parenthood reduced risk-taking propensity in within- and between-group competitions. Higher reproductive goal setting (desiring more offspring) was associated with lower risk-taking propensity. This effect was strongest in the risk domains of mating and reproduction. Having more siblings reduced risk-taking propensity (contrary to our initial prediction) in the domains of environmental challenge, reproduction, and between-group competition. Later-born children showed a higher propensity to engage in environmental and mating risks. Last, shorter subjective life expectancy was associated with increased willingness to take mating and reproductive risks. These results suggest that life-history variables regulate human risk-taking propensity in specific risk domains.

(*)Department of Psychology, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA

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Weaver KE(*), Kwong SM, Firth N, & Francia MV (2009).
The Replicons of Gram-Positive Bacteria: A Family of Broadly Distributed but Narrow Host Range Plasmids.
Plasmid  61(2): 94-109.

The pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmids of Enterococcus faecalis and the multiresistance plasmids pSK1 and pSK41 of Staphylococcus aureus are among the best studied plasmids native to Gram-positive bacteria. Although these plasmids seem largely restricted to their native hosts, protein sequence comparison of their replication initiator proteins indicates that they are clearly related. Homology searches indicate that these replicons are representatives of a large family of plasmids and a few phage that are widespread among the low G+C Gram-positive bacteria. We propose to name this family the family of replicons after the annotated conserved domain that the initiator protein contains. Detailed sequence comparisons indicate that the initiator protein phylogeny is largely congruent with that of the host, suggesting that the replicons have evolved along with their current hosts and that intergeneric transfer has been rare. However, related proteins were identified on chromosomal regions bearing characteristics indicative of ICE elements, and the phylogeny of these proteins displayed evidence of more frequent intergeneric transfer. Comparison of stability determinants associated with the replicons suggests that they have a modular evolution as has been observed in other plasmid families.

(*)Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, 414 East Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA

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Xinbo S(*), Zhengbing C(*), & Yuyu S(*) (2009).
N-Chloro-alkoxy-s-triazine-Based Antimicrobial Additives: Preparation, Characterization, and Antimicrobial and Biofilm-Controlling Functions.
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 48(2): 607-612.

A series of N-chloro-alkoxy-s-triazine antimicrobial additives were synthesized in this study. The structures of the samples were confirmed with FTIR, 1H NMR, and thermal analyses. The N-chlorinated alkoxy-s-triazines provided potent antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus(S. aureus,Gram-positive bacteria) and Escherichia coli(E. coli, Gram-negative bacteria) under waterborne test conditions. The N-chlorinated alkoxy-s-triazines were incorporated into polyurethane, one of the most widely used polymer materials, as antimicrobial additives through solvent casting. Upon contact, the resultant films provided a total kill of S. aureusand E. coli, and they successfully prevented the formation of bacterial biofilms on film surfaces, pointing to great potential of the new N-chloro-alkoxy-s-triazine antimicrobial additive approach for a broad range of antimicrobial and Biofilm-controlling applications.

(*)Biomedical Engineering Program, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, South Dakota 57107

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