Posted by: princekhaled | November 8, 2009

November 2009

Darling, W. G., M. A. Pizzimenti, et al. (2009).
Volumetric effects of motor cortex injury on recovery of dexterous movements.
Experimental Neurology 220(1): 90-108.

Due to the heterogeneous nature of most brain injuries, the contributions of gray and white matter involvement to motor deficits and recovery potential remain obscure. We tested the hypothesis that duration of hand motor impairment and recovery of skilled arm and hand motor function depends on the volume of gray and white matter damage of the frontal lobe. Lesions of the primary motor cortex (M1), M1 + lateral premotor cortex (LPMC), M1 + LPMC + supplementary motor cortex (M2) or multifocal lesions affecting motor areas and medial prefrontal cortex were evaluated in rhesus monkeys. Fine hand motor function was quantitatively assessed pre-lesion and for 3–12 months post-lesion using two motor tests. White and gray matter lesion volumes were determined using histological and quantitative methods. Regression analyses showed that duration of fine hand motor impairment was strongly correlated (R2>0.8) with the volume of gray and white matter lesions, with white matter lesion volume being the primary predictor of impairment duration. Level of recovery of fine hand motor skill was also well correlated (R2>0.5) with gray and white matter lesion volume. In some monkeys post-lesion skill exceeded pre-lesion skill in one or both motor tasks demonstrating that continued post-injury task practice can improve motor performance after localized loss of frontal motor cortex. These findings will assist in interpreting acute motor deficits, predicting the time course and expected level of functional recovery, and designing therapeutic strategies in patients with localized frontal lobe injury or neurosurgical resection.

Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Laboratory of Neurological Sciences, The University of South Dakota, Sanford School of Medicine, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
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Dvorak, R. D., A. L. Del Gaizo, et al. (2009). (2009).

Tobacco use and body mass index: Mediated effects through physical inactivity.
Journal of Health Psychology 14(7): 919-923.

The current study examined associations between smoking and body mass index (BMI) utilizing a nationally representative sample of adults (N = 1547). Previous research has shown that smokers have lower BMI than non-smokers; however among smokers, tobacco use is positively associated with BMI. Previous authors have hypothesized this is due to poor behavioral habits among smokers. Building on this, we found that smoking was positively associated with physical inactivity, which mediated the association between tobacco use and BMI. Interpretation, limitations, and future directions are discussed.

The University of South Dakota, USA
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Filter, K. J., M. Tincani, et al. (2009).
Surveying Professionals’ Views of Positive Behavior Support and Behavior Analysis.
Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 11(4): 222-234.

Positive behavior support (PBS) is an empirically driven approach to improve quality of life influenced by the science of behavior analysis. Recent discussions have evolved around PBS, behavior analysis, and their relationship within education and human services fields. To date, few data have been offered to guide behaviorally oriented professionals with respect to PBS and behavior analysis as complementary approaches. In this article, the authors surveyed 847 behavioral professionals about their views of PBS and behavior analysis. Results indicate small but consistent differences between those who affiliate exclusively with either PBS or behavior analysis in regards to their ratings of the importance of service delivery methods, values, and research methods. Although statistically significant differences emerged, both groups provided generally favorable ratings for core components of PBS and behavior analysis. Historical analysis of differences and similarities are discussed, as are considerations for future relations between the two groups.

University of South Dakota
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Hanson, E. K., D. R. Beukelman, et al. (2010).
The impact of alphabet supplementation and word prediction on sentence intelligiblity of electronically distorted speech.
Speech Communication 52(2): 99-105.

Department of Communication Disorders, University of South Dakota, 414 East Clark St., Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
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Kelley, B. C. (2009).
Inspiration and intellect: Significant learning in musical forms and analysis.
New Directions for Teaching & Learning 2009(119): 35-41.

Positive behavior support (PBS) is an empirically driven approach to improve quality of life influenced by the science of behavior analysis. Recent discussions have evolved around PBS, behavior analysis, and their relationship within education and human services fields. To date, few data have been offered to guide behaviorally oriented professionals with respect to PBS and behavior analysis as complementary approaches. In this article, the authors surveyed 847 behavioral professionals about their views of PBS and behavior analysis. Results indicate small but consistent differences between those who affiliate exclusively with either PBS or behavior analysis in regards to their ratings of the importance of service delivery methods, values, and research methods. Although statistically significant differences emerged, both groups provided generally favorable ratings for core components of PBS and behavior analysis. Historical analysis of differences and similarities are discussed, as are considerations for future relations between the two groups.

Associate professor of music, Founding director of the Center for Teaching and Learning, University of South Dakota
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Lapointe, L. and M. Reisetter (2008).
Belonging online: Students’ perceptions of the value and efficacy of an online learning community.
International Journal on E-Learning 7(4): 641-665.

The proliferation of online course designs has changed the learning environments for many students and professors. Recommendations for best practice in online course design frequently include maximizing students’ online peer connections, with the intention of building a viable, if virtual, online learning community. However, students’ responses to and value for these virtual communities have been mixed. Graduate students taking online courses through a state university system were surveyed to determine their value for, and commitment to, this online learning community. Results, both quantitative and narrative, indicated that although some students found the virtual community helpful to their learning, others perceived the online peer connections as superfluous and inconvenient, and not supportive of their online learning processes. We suggest that the new reality created by online learning demands a reassessment of our understanding of the most productive student engagement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract)

University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD
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Qin, Y., Z. Peng, et al. (2009).
Discrepancies between clinical staging and pathological findings of operable cervical carcinoma with stage IB-IIB: A retrospective analysis of 818 patients.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 49(5): 542-544.

Cervical cancer is the only gynaecological cancer that is staged clinically. The clinical stage of cervical cancer relies largely on the pelvic examination. The aim of this study is to analyse the discrepancy between clinical stage and pathological results, and to explore the accuracy of pelvic examination.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota, USA
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Randall, B. (2009).
Blood and Tissue Spatter Associated with Chainsaw Dismemberment.
Journal of Forensic Sciences (Blackwell Publishing Limited) 54(6): 1310-1314.

In response to the unexpected paucity of blood/tissue spatter at the site where a body of an adult woman was dismembered by an electric chainsaw, we dismembered two large pig carcasses with a small electric chainsaw in a controlled environment. These experiments demonstrated first that a large carcass could be easily dismembered by a small electric chainsaw. When the chainsaw bar is held parallel to the ground the majority of the blood and tissue is deposited directly beneath the saw and bar and very little elsewhere. If the discharge chute of the saw however is not oriented directly at the ground, larger amounts of blood and tissue may be sprayed on lateral surfaces or deposited some distance from the chainsaw. The characteristic striations created on the surface of wood as it is cut by a chainsaw can also be found on bony surfaces cut by a chainsaw.

Department of Pathology, University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls, SD
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Sabirzhanova, I. B., B. E. Sabirzhanov, et al. (2009).
Activation of mammalian Tolloid-like 1 expression by hypoxia in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.
Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications 389(2): 338-342.

Abstract: Mammalian Tolloid-like 1 (mTll-1) is an astacin metalloprotease that is a member of the Tolloid family of proteins. mTll-1 cleaves chordin, an inhibitor of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and potentiates activity of the BMPs. Prenatal stress and glucocorticoids decrease mTll-1 expression whereas voluntary exercise increase mTll-1 gene expression in the mouse hippocampus. Here, we studied the underlying molecular mechanisms by which hypoxia regulates human mTll-1 gene expression. When cells were subjected to hypoxia, the expression of endogenous mTll-1 was upregulated in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Dual-luciferase assay and site-directed mutagenesis showed the presence of hypoxia responsive elements (HREs) at position 625 that was essential for activation of mTll-1 expression under hypoxic conditions. The binding of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) protein to the HREs was confirmed by gel shift assay. These results indicate that the HRE motif is directly involved in the activation of the mTll-1 transcription under hypoxic conditions.

Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of South Dakota School of Medicine, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
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Sanders, S., L. T. Dorfman, et al. (2008).
An evaluation of the GeroRich program for infusing social work curriculum with aging content.
Gerontology & Geriatrics Education 28(4): 22-38.

There is a national shortage of social workers who have the knowledge and skill competencies needed for practice with our rapidly growing older adult population. In the last decade, research has identified many reasons for the lack of interest in gerontological social work and steps that could be pursued within social work education to remedy the situation. The Geriatric Enrichment in Social Work Education (GeroRich) Program, funded through the John A. Hartford Foundation, engaged 67 social work programs throughout the United States in a process of curriculum change to increase the amount of gerontological content in the foundation social work curriculum. This study examined how the GeroRich program was instrumental in infusing gerontological content into the curriculum. Based on common outcome measures, the GeroRich program was found to be effective in (1) increasing the amount of gerontological content in the curriculum, (2) engaging faculty in the change process, and (3) exposing students to gerontological content. Relatively few variations were found among different program types or geographic settings. The model of curricular change implemented by the GeroRich program may be effective with other curriculum enrichment efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract)

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Smallfield, S. and A. J. Anderson (2008).
Addressing agricultural issues in health care education: An occupational therapy curriculum program description.
The Journal of Rural Health 24(4): 369-374.

Context: Medical and allied health professionals who work in agricultural states frequently address the needs of clients who live and work in rural and frontier environments. The primary occupations of those living in rural areas include farming, ranching, or other agriculture-related work. Farming is consistently ranked as one of the most high-risk occupations for work-related injuries and accidents; therefore, it is critical that health education programs include content to prepare future medical and health professionals to work with this population. Purpose and Description: This paper describes the rural issues component of the occupational therapy curriculum at The University of South Dakota. This rural issues module is designed to provide occupational therapists with training about the physical, temporal, and sociocultural aspects of production agriculture and the impact these have on the health and well-being of the agricultural population. It also addresses the occupational therapy implications for farmers and ranchers who have disabilities. Student assessments of the course content have been above average. Conclusion: Training in agricultural health enables our occupational therapy students to be well prepared for work in the rural and frontier areas of South Dakota and other rural locations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract)

Department of Occupational Therapy, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD, US.
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Weaver, K. E., S. G. Reddy, et al. (2009).
Identification and characterization of a family of toxin—antitoxin systems related to the Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pAD1 par addiction module.
Microbiology (13500872) 155(9): 2930-2940.

The article presents a study which identifies and characterizes a family of toxin which is related to an Enterococcus faecalis plasmid. Processes performed include homology searches, peptide alignment comparison and genetic context examination. Results of the study reveals Fst belonging to nine related peptides and plasmids of six species of Gram-positive bacteria, the peptide regions are important for biological function, and all peptides are encoded with features similar to pAD1 par.

Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
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Zhang, W.-H. and X.-T. Wang (2008).
Self-framing, risk perception and risky choice.
Acta Psychologica Sinica 40(6): 633-641.

This study introduces and extends recent developments in the studies of framing effects in behavioral decision making, and examines the effects of self-framing on risky choice and its underlying mechanism. Until recently, framing studies had largely focused on how externally framed (phrased) choice problems affected risk preference. Little attention was given to how decision makers mentally frame decision problems themselves. Recent works by Wang and others found significant effects of self-framing of choice outcomes on risk preference of the decision maker. In the present study, we addressed several unanswered questions. Previous studies showed that a large proportion of the participants use both positive and negative frames to encode expected choice outcomes. Would the difference in the hedonic tone of self frames for different choice options (i.e., sure thing vs. a gamble of equal expected value) affect risk preference of the decision maker? We predicted that the positive hedonic tone of self-framing would increase the attractiveness of the framed option. Thus, the option that was more positively framed would be more likely to be chosen. Second, we examined the mechanism of self-framing effects with regard to how risk perception mediates the effects. We predicted that opportunity and threat perception would mediate the effects of self-framing on risky choice. One hundred and sixteen university students participated in the study. Adopting a within-subject design, each participant was provided with three risky choice problems presented in managerial, health, and investment contexts. After viewing a graphic display (pie chart or histogram) of a decision problem, participants discretionally described expected choice outcomes (self framing) in a sentence completion task. For each choice problem, the participants were asked to rate perceived opportunities and threats associated with each of the two options, either a sure thing or a gamble. The participants were then asked to make a choice between a sure-thing option and its gamble equivalent. Chi-square analysis was conducted to test self-framing effects; logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between self-framing, risk (opportunity and threat) perception and risky choice. The study found that the hedonic tone of self-framing affected the final choice of the participant: the more positive the hedonic tone of self framing of a choice option (either a sure option or a gamble) was, the more likely the option would be chosen. This effect of self framing was partially mediated by the decision maker’s perception of opportunities and threats. This study enriched our understanding of framing effects. When decision makers are allowed to encode and frame the expected outcomes of a risky choice problem by themselves, the small difference in the hedonic tone of self-generated frames of alternative options may influence risk perception and risky choice. That is, the hedonic tone of self-framing as an encoding of decision information affects risk (opportunity and threat) perception, which in turn affects the risk preference and choice of the decision maker. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract)

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Keifer, Joyce, Boris E. Sabirzhanov, Zhaoqing. Q. Zheng, Wei Li, and Timothy G. Clark.
Cleavage of Probdnf to Bdnf by a Tolloid-Like Metalloproteinase Is Required for Acquisition of in Vitro Eyeblink Classical Conditioning.
Journal of Neuroscience, 29 (2009): 14956-64.

The tolloid/bone morphogenetic protein-1 family of metalloproteinases have an important role in the regulation of embryonic pattern formation and tissue morphogenesis. Studies suggest that they participate in mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in adults, but very little is known about their function. Recently, we isolated a reptilian ortholog of the tolloid gene family designated turtle tolloid-like gene (tTll). Here, we examined the role of tTLL in an in vitro model of eyeblink classical conditioning using an isolated brainstem preparation to assess its role in synaptic plasticity during conditioning. Analysis by real-time reverse transcription-PCR shows that an extracellularly secreted form of tTLL, tTLLs, is transiently expressed in the early stages of conditioning during conditioned response acquisition, whereas a cytosolic form, tTLLc, is not. Short interfering RNA (siRNA)-directed gene knockdown and rescue of tTLL expression demonstrate that it is required for conditioning. Significantly, we show that tTLLs cleaves the precursor proBDNF into mature BDNF in cleavage assay studies, and application of recombinant tTLLs protein alone to preparations results in induction of mature BDNF expression. The mature form of BDNF is minimally expressed in preparations treated with anti-tTLL siRNA, and the synaptic incorporation of both GluR1- and GluR4-containing AMPA receptors is significantly reduced, resulting in suppression of conditioning. This is the first study to demonstrate that expression of an extracellularly secreted tolloid-like metalloproteinase is regulated in the early stages of classical conditioning and functions in the conversion of proBDNF to mature BDNF. The mature form of BDNF is required for synaptic delivery of AMPA receptors and acquisition of conditioned responses.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States
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Paudel, H. P., K. Bayat, M. F. Baroughi, P. Stanley May, and D. W. Galipeau.
Geometry Dependence of Field Enhancement in 2d Metallic Photonic Crystals.
Optics Express, 17 (2009): 22179-89.

Geometry dependence of surface plasmon resonance of 2D metallic photonic crystals (PCs) was assessed using rigorous 3D finite difference time domain analysis. PCs of noble metallic rectangular and cylindrical nanopillars in square and triangular lattices on thick noble metal film were simulated for maximum field enhancement. It was found that the period, size and thickness of the nanopillars can be tuned to excite of surface plasmons at desired wavelengths in visible and near-infrared ranges. Maximum electric field enhancement near the nanopillars was found to be greater than 10X. The detail analysis of PCs tuned for 750 nm wavelength showed that thickness of nanopillars was the most sensitive parameter for field enhancement, and triangular lattice PCs had the wider enhancement bandwidth than square lattice PCs. Results showed that these PCs are sensitive with incident angle (theta) but not with polarization angle (phi). (C) 2008 Optical Society of America

Chemistry Department, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States
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Zheng, H., Yi-Fan Li, W. Wang, and K. P. Patel.
Enhanced Angiotensin-Mediated Excitation of Renal Sympathetic Nerve Activity within the Paraventricular Nucleus of Anesthetized Rats with Heart Failure.
American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 297 (2009): R1364-R74.

Enhanced angiotensin-mediated excitation of renal sympathetic nerve activity within the para-ventricular nucleus of anesthetized rats with heart failure. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 297: R1364-R1374, 2009. First published August 26, 2009; doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00149.2009.-Chronic heart failure (HF) is characterized by increased sympathetic drive. Enhanced angiotensin II (ANG II) activity may contribute to the increased sympathoexcitation under HF condition. The present study examined sympathoexcitation by 1) the effects of ANG II in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) on renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and 2) the altered ANG II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor expression during HF. Left coronary artery ligation was used to induce HF. In the anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, microinjection of ANG II (0.05-1 nmol) into the PVN increased RSNA, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) in both sham-operated and HF rats. The responses of RSNA and HR were significantly enhanced in rats with HF compared with sham rats (RSNA: 64 +/- 8% vs. 33 +/- 4%, P < 0.05). Microinjection of AT(1) receptor antagonist losartan into the PVN produced a decrease of RSNA, MAP, and HR in both sham and HF rats. The RSNA and HR responses to losartan in HF rats were significantly greater (RSNA: -25 +/- 4% vs. -13 +/- 1%, P < 0.05). Using RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, we found that there were significant increases in the AT(1) receptor mRNA (Delta 186 +/- 39%) and protein levels (Delta 88 +/- 20%) in the PVN of rats with HF (P < 0.05). The immunofluorescence of AT(1) receptors was significantly higher in the PVN of rats with HF. These data support the conclusion that an increased angiotensinergic activity on sympathetic regulation, due to the upregulation of ANG II AT(1) receptors within the PVN, may contribute to the elevated sympathoexcitation that is observed during HF.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, United States

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Randall, Brad B.
Blood and Tissue Spatter Associated with Chainsaw Dismemberment.
Journal of Forensic Sciences, 54 (2010): 1310-1314.

In response to the unexpected paucity of blood/tissue spatter at the site where a body of an adult woman was dismembered by an electric chainsaw, we dismembered two large pig carcasses with a small electric chainsaw in a controlled environment. These experiments demonstrated first that a large carcass could be easily dismembered by a small electric chainsaw. When the chainsaw bar is held parallel to the ground the majority of the blood and tissue is deposited directly beneath the saw and bar and very little elsewhere. If the discharge chute of the saw however is not oriented directly at the ground, larger amounts of blood and tissue may be sprayed on lateral surfaces or deposited some distance from the chainsaw. The characteristic striations created on the surface of wood as it is cut by a chainsaw can also be found on bony surfaces cut by a chainsaw.

Medical School.  Sioux Falls
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