Posted by: tadeterman | January 13, 2017

October 2016

Aboul-Enein, B. H., & W. Puddy. (2016). Contributions of Antoine Barthelemy Clot (1793-1868): A historiographical reflection of public health in Ottoman Egypt. Journal of Medical Biography, 24(3), 427-432.

This paper reviews the selected historiographic and contemporary literature that discussed the medical and public health contribution of Antoine Barthelemy Clot (Clot Bey) and how these contributions shaped modern public health in Ottoman Egypt, and the major features that led to the development of the public health infrastructure of early modern Egypt based on the contributions of Clot Bey. The literature discussed the establishment of Egypt’s first modern public health and medical schools under the direct administration and guidance of Clot Bey, and his major contribution in the fields of vaccination, quarantine, the development of a culturally congruent curriculum for medical students, and the public health policies and practices enacted during the reign of Muhammad Ali Pasha that addressed major communicable diseases affecting Egypt. With considerable support from the viceroy of Egypt despite popular resistance, Clot Bey significantly modernized Egyptian medicine, medical education and reformed the public health infrastructure. He became one of the preeminent medical figures of nineteenth century Ottoman Egypt.

School of Health Sciences.

Baack, Michelle L., B. J. Forred, T. D. Larsen, D. N. Jensen, A. L. Wachal, Muhammad A. Khan, & Peter F. Vitiello. (2016). Consequences of a Maternal High-Fat Diet and Late Gestation Diabetes on the Developing Rat Lung. Plos One, 11(8), 21.

Rationale Infants born to diabetic or obese mothers are at risk of respiratory distress and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), conceivably through fuel-mediated pathogenic mechanisms. Prior research and preventative measures focus on controlling maternal hyperglycemia, but growing evidence suggests a role for additional circulating fuels including lipids. Little is known about the individual or additive effects of a maternal high-fat diet on fetal lung development. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a maternal high-fat diet, alone and alongside late-gestation diabetes, on lung alveologenesis and vasculogenesis, as well as to ascertain if consequences persist beyond the perinatal period. Methods A rat model was used to study lung development in offspring from control, diabetes-exposed, high-fat diet-exposed and combination-exposed pregnancies via morphometric, histologic (alveolarization and vasculogenesis) and physiologic (echocardiography, pulmonary function) analyses at birth and 3 weeks of age. Outcomes were interrogated for diet, diabetes and interaction effect using ANOVA with significance set at p <= 0.05. Findings prompted additional mechanistic inquiry of key molecular pathways. Results Offspring exposed to maternal diabetes or high-fat diet, alone and in combination, had smaller lungs and larger hearts at birth. High-fat diet-exposed, but not diabetes-exposed offspring, had a higher perinatal death rate and echocardiographic evidence of PPHN at birth. Alveolar mean linear intercept, septal thickness, and airspace area (D-2) were not significantly different between the groups; however, markers of lung maturity were. Both diabetes-exposed and diet-exposed offspring expressed more T1 alpha protein, a marker of type I cells. Diet-exposed newborn pups expressed less surfactant protein B and had fewer pulmonary vessels enumerated. Mechanistic inquiry revealed alterations in AKT activation, higher endothelin-1 expression, and an impaired Txnip/VEGF pathway that are important for vessel growth and migration. After 3 weeks, mortality remained highest and static lung compliance and hysteresis were lowest in combination-exposed offspring. Conclusion This study emphasizes the effects of a maternal high-fat diet, especially alongside late-gestation diabetes, on pulmonary vasculogenesis, demonstrates adverse consequences beyond the perinatal period and directs attention to mechanistic pathways of interest. Findings provide a foundation for additional investigation of preventative and therapeutic strategies aimed at decreasing pulmonary morbidity in at-risk infants.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Barber, N. A., D. C. Taylor, & Venky Venkatachalam. (2016). Does the Product Really Matter? A Look at Mainstream Pro-Environmental Consumption Behavior. Journal of Food Products Marketing, 22(5), 521-554.

The overall objective of this article is to determine if the product matters in determining willingness to pay for pro-environmental products compared to non-pro-environmental products through experimental design. Ultimately, this research aims to use a posteriori or behavioral segmentation approach to cluster consumers using the price collected through a controlled auction experiment they would actually pay to purchase a pro-environmental product as opposed to a non-pro-environmental product, as well as profiling each segment according to (a) perceived product benefits; (b) values; (c) perceived consequences of purchase behavior; and (d) demographics based on self-reported survey data.

Beacom School of Business.

Barker, Matthew A. (2016). Current Issues with Hysterectomy. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, 43(3), 591-+.

Hysterectomy is one of the most common gynecologic surgeries. Early adoption of surgical advancements in hysterectomies has raised concerns over safety, quality, and costs. The risk of potential leiomyosarcoma in women undergoing minimally invasive hysterectomy led the US Food and Drug Administration to discourage the use of electronic power morcellator. Minimally invasive hysterectomies have increased substantially despite lack of data supporting its use over other forms of hysterectomy and increased costs. Health care reform is incentivizing providers to improve quality, improve safety, and decrease costs through standardized outcomes and process measures.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Bottger, T., C. W. Thiel, R. L. Cone, Y. Sun, & A. Faraon. (2016). Optical spectroscopy and decoherence studies of Yb3+:YAG at 968 nm. Physical Review B, 94(4), 13.

The F-2(7/2) <-> F-2(5/2) optical transitions of Yb3+ doped into (YAlO12)-Al-3-O-5 (YAG) were studied for potential quantum information and photonic signal processing applications. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy located the energy levels of the ground F-2(7/2) and excited F-2(5/2) manifolds, allowing inconsistencies between previous assignments of crystal field splittings in the literature to be resolved. These measurements reveal an unusually large splitting between the first and second levels in both the ground and excited multiplets, potentially providing for reduced sensitivity to thermally induced decoherence and spin-lattice relaxation. Spectral hole burning through two-level saturation was observed, determining the excited state lifetime to be 860 mu s and resolving ambiguities in previous fluorescence measurements that were caused by the large radiation trapping effects in this material. Optical decoherence measurements using two-pulse photon echoes gave a homogeneous linewidth of 18 kHz for an applied magnetic field of 1 T, narrowing to 5 kHz at 2.5 T. The observed decoherence was described by spectral diffusion attributed to Yb3+-Yb3+ magnetic dipole interactions. Laser absorption determined an inhomogeneous linewidth of 3.6 GHz for this transition in this 0.05%-doped crystal, which is narrower than for any other rare-earth-ion transition previously studied in the YAG host. The temperature dependence of the transition energy and linewidth of the lowest F-2(7/2) to lowest F-2(5/2) transition centered at 968.571 nm measured from 4 K to 300 K was well described by phonon scattering at higher temperatures, with an additional anomalous linear temperature-dependent broadening at temperatures below 80 K. Two magnetically inequivalent subgroups of Yb3+ ions were identified when a magnetic field was applied along the < 111 > axis, as expected for the D-2 sites in the cubic symmetry crystal, with ground and excited state effective g-values of g(g) = 3.40 (3.34) and g(e) = 1.04 (2.01), respectively. Together with the convenient diode laser wavelength of this transition, our study suggests that Yb3+:YAG is a promising material system for spectral hole burning and quantum information applications.

Physics Department.

Brown, S. L., Dayton J. Vogel, J. B. Miller, T. M. Inerbaev, R. J. Anthony, U. R. Kortshagen, . . . E. K. Hobbie. (2016). Enhancing Silicon Nanocrystal Photoluminescence through Temperature and Microstructure. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 120(33), 18909-18916.

Routes to enhancing the photoluminescence (PL) of colloidal silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) typically focus On changes in surface chemistry and the associated improvements in quantum yield. Here, we report a new more indirect approach that instead exploits the structure of the host matrix. Specifically, we demonstrate that changes in microstructure associated with a thermotropic phase transition in unbound ligand can increase the excitation fluence through scattering, yielding dramatic improvements in PL intensity without any discernible changes in fluorescence lifetime or quantum yield. Using size-purified plasma synthesized SiNCs prepared as solid and liquid samples, we use experiment and computation to examine both intrinsic size-resolved differences in the temperature-dependent PL and an anomalous contribution linked to matrix microstructure. Beyond revealing a potential new route to improved PL intensity, our results further clarity the role of surface states and the challenges that they present.

Chemistry Department.

Bubak, A. N., A. R. Gerken, Michael J. Watt, J. D. Costabile, Kenneth J. Renner, & J. G. Swallow. (2016). Assessment strategies and fighting patterns in animal contests: a role for serotonin? Current Zoology, 62(3), 257-263.

Accurate assessment of the probability of success in an aggressive confrontation with a conspecific is critical to the survival and fitness of the individuals. Various game theory models have examined these assessment strategies under the assumption that contests should favor the animal with the greater resource-holding potential (RHP), body size typically being the proxy. Mutual assessment asserts that an individual can assess their own RHP relative to their opponent, allowing the inferior animal the chance to flee before incurring unnecessary costs. The model of self-determined persistence, however, assumes that an individual will fight to a set personal threshold, independent of their opponent’s RHP. Both models have been repeatedly tested using size as a proxy for RHP, with neither receiving unambiguous support. Here we present both morphological and neurophysiological data from size-matched and mismatched stalk-eyed fly fights. We discovered differing fighting strategies between winners and losers. Winners readily escalated encounters to higher intensity and physical contact and engaged in less low-intensity, posturing behaviors compared with losers. Although these fighting strategies were largely independent of size, they were associated with elevated levels of 5-HT. Understanding the neurophysiological factors responsible for mediating the motivational state of opponents could help resolve the inconsistencies seen in current game theory models. Therefore, we contend that current studies using only size as a proxy for RHP may be inadequate in determining the intricacies of fighting ability and that future studies investigating assessment strategies and contest outcome should include neurophysiological data.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Cao, Y. H., K. L. Wang, X. M. Wang, Z. R. Gu, Q. H. Fan, W. Gibbons, . . . M. Shrestha. (2016). Hierarchical porous activated carbon for supercapacitor derived from corn stalk core by potassium hydroxide activation. Electrochimica Acta, 212, 839-847.

Hierarchical porous activated carbon (AC) was obtained from corn stalk pith with a hierarchical macroporous nature, which is composed of cells of soft and spongy texture. The high specific surface area (2495 m(2) g(-1)) of the activated carbon (AC) was produced by the activation of corn stalk core (CSC) using potassium hydroxide at 700 degrees C. SEM, TEM and XRD were used to test the microstructure and crystallographic orientation of the carbon samples. The cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were measured based on CSC-700. This sample had relatively low inner resistance of 1.0 Omega. The specific capacitance was 323 F g(-1) in 6 mol L-1 KOH electrolyte at a current density of 0.1 A g(-1), and it still maintained very good cyclic stability with capacitance retention ratio of 97.9% (from 265.0 to 262.4 F g(-1)) at current density of 1.0A g(-1) for 1000 cycles. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Chemistry Department.

Fercho, Kelene, & Lee A. Baugh. (2016). Cognitive attribution of the source of an error in object-lifting results in differences in motor generalization. Experimental Brain Research, 234(9), 2667-2676.

To lift an object, the motor system must predict the weight of the object and use this information to program appropriate lifting forces. If this prediction is erroneous, people may assign blame for the error to either themselves or an external source-a process called credit assignment. In the present study, we explored the role of credit assignment on weight predictions during a lifting task. Participants were told that the EMG surface electrodes attached to their lifting hand were either part of a “passive” system that recorded muscular activity, or part of an “active” system that would apply energy to the muscle, influencing weight perception. Participants performed 90 lifts of the training blocks, followed by 10 lifts of a newly encountered larger test block. In between training and test trials, the experimenter turned off the recording system and removed the surface electrodes for participants in the “active” group. For each lift, we determined the initial peak rate of change of vertical load force rate and load-phase duration, estimates of predicted object weight. Analysis of the first 10 training lifts and the last 10 training lifts revealed no effect of Active versus Passive EMG on weight predictions. However, after removing the EMG equipment, participants in the “active” group failed to scale their predictive load forces in the same manner as those in the “passive” condition when lifting a novel block. We conclude that cognitive information may play a role in credit assignment, influencing weight prediction when lifting novel objects.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Hanson, Elizabeth K., Emily Goldhammer, & Tanya Bethard. (2016). Telephone talk: effects of two access methods on phone call success. AAC: Augmentative & Alternative Communication, 32(3), 219-226.

The slower and unnatural timing of speech inherent to speech-generating devices (SGDs) can be a barrier to successful aided telephone calls. The timing of message delivery when using an SGD may vary depending on the type of access method used. We measured the difference in the success rate of telephone calls made with an SGD either using switch scanning or direct selection with eye gaze. The scripted calls, asking for directions, were placed to 100 randomly selected businesses. Analysis showed a statistically significant difference in the success rate between the two conditions, with eye gaze access resulting in more successful calls. Findings from this study suggest that people who use SGDs for phone calls may improve the timing of message delivery by using eye gaze access compared to switch scanning.

Communication Disorders Department.

Hanson, Jessica D., Jamie L. Jensen, Kelly Campbell, Kaushal Raj Chaudhary, & Susan E. Puumala. (2016). EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SUBSTANCE-EXPOSED PREGNANCIES AT ONE GREAT LAKES HOSPITAL THAT SERVES A LARGE NUMBER OF AMERICAN INDIANS. American Indian & Alaska Native Mental Health Research: The Journal of the National Center, 23(4), 44-62.

Objective: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of substance-exposed pregnancies at a hospital in the Great Lakes region of the U.S. Method: Data were collected via retrospective chart abstractions of patients who were seen for delivery at one Great Lakes region hospital during a 1-year period who were given at least one of the International Classification of Diseases codes related to substance use. Results: A total of 342 medical records were included in the analysis, and, while much race/ethnicity data were missing, a large percentage of those in our analysis identified as American Indian. The prevalence of substance-exposed pregnancies at this hospital during a 1-year period was 34.5%. The majority (84.8%) were tobacco users, and many were found to have multiple substance exposures. Also, 48.5% were found to have a mental health diagnosis in addition to substance use. Conclusions: Data from this project can be used in prevention efforts, including preconception care for women at risk for substance use and mental health issues.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Hargreaves Heap, Shaun P., Abhijit Ramalingam, & Brock V. Stoddard. (2016). Endowment inequality in public goods games: A re-examination. Economics Letters, 146, 4-7.

We present a clean test of whether inequality in endowments affects contributions to a public good. It is a clean test because, to our knowledge, it is the first to control for possible endowment effects. We find that the key adverse effect of inequality arises because the rich reduce their contributions when there is inequality.

Beacom School of Business.

 

Harris, William S., Serge Masson, Simona Barlera, Valentina Milani, Silvana Pileggi, Maria Grazia Franzosi, . . . Roberto Latini. (2016). Red blood cell oleic acid levels reflect olive oil intake while omega-3 levels reflect fish intake and the use of omega-3 acid ethyl esters: The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto Miocardico–Heart Failure trial. Nutrition Research, 36(9), 989-994.

The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto Miocardico–Heart Failure (GISSI-HF) study reported benefits of n-3 fatty acid (FA) treatment on cardiovascular (CV) events, but the effects of treatment on a putative CV disease risk factor, the red blood cell (RBC) n-3 FA level (the omega-3 index), have not been examined in this context. We hypothesized that treatment with prescription omega-3 acid ethyl esters (O3AEE) would increase the omega-3 index to the proposed cardioprotective value of 8%. RBCs were collected from a subset of patients participating in the GISSI-HF study (n = 461 out of 6975 randomized), at baseline and after 3 months of treatment with either an olive oil placebo or O3AEE (1 g/d). RBC FA levels were expressed as a percentage of total FA. Patients also reported their typical olive oil and fish intakes. RBC oleic acid levels were directly correlated with reported frequency of olive oil consumption, and the omega-3 index was correlated with reported fish intake ( P for trends <0.001 for both). After treatment, the omega-3 index increased from 4.8 ± 1.7% to 6.7 ± 1.9% but was unchanged in the placebo group (4.7 ± 1.7 to 4.8 ± 1.5%) ( P < .0001 for changes between groups). At 3 months, more patients reached the proposed target omega-3 index level of 8%-12% in the treated vs placebo group (22.6% vs. 1.3%, P < .0001), however, what omega-3 index levels were ultimately achieved after four years in this trial are unknown.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Hoover, K. M., A. N. Bubak, I. J. Law, Jazmine D. W. Yaeger, Kenneth J. Renner, J. G. Swallow, & M. J. Greene. (2016). The organization of societal conflicts by pavement ants Tetramorium caespitum: an agent-based model of amine-mediated decision making. Current Zoology, 62(3), 277-284.

Ant colonies self-organize to solve complex problems despite the simplicity of an individual ant’s brain. Pavement ant Tetramorium caespitum colonies must solve the problem of defending the territory that they patrol in search of energetically rich forage. When members of 2 colonies randomly interact at the territory boundary a decision to fight occurs when: 1) there is a mismatch in nestmate recognition cues and 2) each ant has a recent history of high interaction rates with nestmate ants. Instead of fighting, some ants will decide to recruit more workers from the nest to the fighting location, and in this way a positive feedback mediates the development of colony wide wars. In ants, the monoamines serotonin (5-HT) and octopamine (OA) modulate many behaviors associated with colony organization and in particular behaviors associated with nestmate recognition and aggression. In this article, we develop and explore an agent-based model that conceptualizes how individual changes in brain concentrations of 5-HT and OA, paired with a simple threshold-based decision rule, can lead to the development of colony wide warfare. Model simulations do lead to the development of warfare with 91% of ants fighting at the end of 1 h. When conducting a sensitivity analysis, we determined that uncertainty in monoamine concentration signal decay influences the behavior of the model more than uncertainty in the decision-making rule or density. We conclude that pavement ant behavior is consistent with the detection of interaction rate through a single timed interval rather than integration of multiple interactions.

Biology Department.

Ikiugu, Moses N., & Ranelle M. Nissen. (2016). Intervention Strategies Used by Occupational Therapists Working in Mental Health and Their Theoretical Basis. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 32(2), 109-129.

The theoretical basis of occupational therapy interventions was investigated in two mental health facilities in the Midwestern United States. Using retrospective cohort and grounded theory designs, 121 medical records were reviewed and five occupational therapy practitioners were interviewed. Theoretical reasoning was not explicitly documented, but according to analysis, the behavioral/cognitive-behavioral model, client-centered models, and the model of human occupation were the most frequently used theories to guide interventions. Lack of documentation of theory use has significant implications for the value accorded to occupational therapy skills in health care. A larger study is recommended to increase external generalizability of the findings.

School of Health Sciences.

King, Georgina E., Nicholas J. G. Pearce, Helen M. Roberts, Victoria C. Smith, John A. Westgate, David R. Gaylord, & Mark R. Sweeney. (2016). Identification of a Kulshan caldera correlative tephra in the Palouse loess of Washington State, northwest USA. Quaternary Research, 86(2), 232-241.

The Kulshan caldera formed at ∼1.15 Ma on the present-day site of Mt. Baker, Washington State, northwest USA and erupted a compositionally zoned (dacite-rhyolite) magma and a correlative eruptive, the Lake Tapps tephra. This tephra has previously been described, but only from the Puget Lowland of NW Washington. Here an occurrence of a Kulshan caldera correlative tephra is described from the Quaternary Palouse loess at the Washtucna site (WA-3). Site WA-3 is located in east-central Washington, ∼340 km southeast of the Kulshan caldera and ∼300 km east-southeast of the Lake Tapps occurrence in the Puget Lowland. Major- and trace element chemistry and location of the deposit at Washtucna within reversed polarity sediments indicates that it is not correlative with the Mesa Falls, Rockland, Bishop Ash, Lava Creek B or Huckleberry Ridge tephras. Instead the Washtucna deposit is related to the Lake Tapps tephra by fractional crystallisation, but is chemically distinct, a consequence of its eruption from a compositionally zoned magma chamber. The correlation of the Washtucna occurrence to the Kulshan caldera-forming eruption indicates that it had an eruptive volume exceeding 100 km 3 , and that its tephra could provide a valuable early-Pleistocene chronostratigraphic marker in the Pacific Northwest.

Earth Sciences Department.

Lampert, Sara. (2016). Black Swan/White Raven: the racial politics of Elizabeth Greenfield’s American concert career, 1851-1855. American Nineteenth Century History, 17(1), 75-102.

In 1851, the former slave turned singer Elizabeth Greenfield traveled from her home of Philadelphia to Buffalo, New York, to pursue a career as a concert singer. This article explores the terms and reception of Greenfield’s tours of the northern United States and Upper Canada in the early 1850s, where she performed before predominantly white audiences. While white critics celebrated Greenfield in highly racialized terms as an untrained natural wonder, black activists like Frederick Douglass focused on the racist management of her career and criticized Greenfield for the segregation of her concerts. Told through analysis of reviews and promotional literature, the story of Greenfield’s early career makes visible the race and gender politics operating at the intersection of popular entertainment and black movements for racial uplift and equality in the antebellum North.

History Department.

 

Larson, Eric A., Paul A. Thompson, Z. K. Anderson, Keith A. Anderson, Roxana A. Lupu, Vicki Tigner, & Wendell W. Hoffman. (2016). Decreasing the critical value of hemoglobin required for physician notification reduces the rate of blood transfusions. International Journal of General Medicine, 9, 133-136.

Red blood cell transfusions have been cited as one of the most overused therapeutic interventions in the USA. Excessively aggressive transfusion practices may be driven by mandatory physician notification of critical hemoglobin values that do not generally require transfusion. We examined the effect of decreasing the critical value of hemoglobin from 8 to 7 g/dL at our institution. Along with this change, mandatory provider notification for readings between 7 and 8 g/dL was rescinded. Transfusion rates were compared retrospectively during paired 5-month periods for patients presenting in three key hemoglobin ranges (6.00-6.99, 7.00-7.99, and 8.00-8.99 g/dL). A change in transfusion practices was hypothesized in the 7-8 g/dL range, which was no longer labeled critical and for which mandated physician calls were rescinded. Transfusion rates showed a statistically significant 8% decrease (P <= 0.0001) during the 5-month period post change in our transfusion practices. This decrease in the 7.00-7.99 g/dL range was significantly greater than the 2% decrease observed in either the 6-6.99 g/dL (P=0.0017) or 8-8.99 g/dL (P <= 0.0001) range. Cost savings of up to $ 700,000/year were extrapolated from our results showing 491 fewer units of red blood cells transfused during the 5-month post change. These cost savings do not take into account the additional impact of complications associated with blood transfusions.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Louw, A., Kory Zimney, C. O’Hotto, & S. Hilton. (2016). The clinical application of teaching people about pain. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 32(5), 385-395.

Teaching people about the neurobiology and neurophysiology of their pain experience has a therapeutic effect and has been referred to as pain neuroscience education (PNE). Various high-quality randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews have shown increasing efficacy of PNE decreasing pain, disability, pain catastrophization, movement restrictions, and healthcare utilization. Research studies, however, by virtue of their design, are very controlled environments and, therefore, in contrast to the ever-increasing evidence for PNE, little is known about the clinical application of this emerging therapy. In contrast, case studies, case series, and expert opinion and perspectives by authorities in the world of pain science provide clinicians with a glimpse into potential real clinical application of PNE in the face of the ever-increasing chronic pain epidemic. By taking the material from the randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, case series, case studies, and expert opinion, this article aims to provide a proposed layout of the clinical application of PNE. The article systematically discusses key elements of PNE including examination, educational content, and delivery methods, merging of PNE with movement, goal setting, and progression. This perspectives article concludes with a call for research into the clinical application of PNE.

School of Health Sciences.

Macapagal, K., R. Coventry, Jae A. Puckett, G. Phillips, & B. Mustanski. (2016). Geosocial Networking App Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Serious Romantic Relationships. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(6), 1513-1524.

Geosocial networking (GSN) mobile phone applications (“apps”) are used frequently among men who have sex with men (MSM) to socialize and meet sexual partners. Though GSN apps are used by some MSM in partnered relationships, little is known about how the use of GSN apps among MSM in serious romantic relationships can influence couples’ sexual and relationship health. MSM in serious relationships (N=323; M age = 40 years) were recruited through a popular GSN app for MSM. Participants completed open-ended items regarding the costs and benefits of app use to their relationships, discussions of app use with their partners, and preferences for relationship education related to app use. Reported benefits of app use included improving sex and communication with one’s primary partner and fulfilling unmet sexual needs. Although approximately half had not discussed app use with their partners, citing app use as a”non-issue,” many cited various drawbacks to app use, including jealousy and being a distraction from the relationship. Few described sexual health concerns as a drawback to meeting partners through apps. Regarding relationship education preferences, most wanted help with general communication skills and how to express one’s sexual needs to a partner. Although GSN app use can enhance relationships and sex among partnered MSM, unclear communication about app use may contribute to negative relationship outcomes and could prevent partners from having sexual needs met. Relationship and sexual health education programs for male couples should consider addressing social media and technology use in their curricula.

Psychology Department.

Moon, H., Soonhee Roh, Y. S. Lee, & R. T. Goins. (2016). Disparities in Health, Health Care Access, and Life Experience Between American Indian and White Adults in South Dakota. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 3(2), 301-308.

Objectives The objective of this study is to investigate the factors associated with depressive symptoms and chronic illnesses in American Indians compared with White adults born in the post-World War II period, 1946 to 1964, and living in South Dakota. Design A cross-sectional design of American Indian and White adults aged 50 and older in South Dakota (Brookings, Vermillion, Sioux Falls, and all others areas of South Dakota) between January 2013 and May 2013 was used. American Indian and White adults (born between 1946 and 1964; N = 349). Data included sociodemographic factors and measures of chronic physical health condition, health care access, adverse childhood experiences, body mass index (BMI), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Technology Acceptance Model, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Depressive Symptoms. Results American Indian adults reported more chronic diseases and conditions, a lower self-perceived physical health, were more likely to be overweight or obese, had more adverse childhood experience (ACE), and reported a lower level of alcohol intake compared to White adults. BMI was significantly associated with an increased number of chronic conditions for both groups, and American Indians’ better perception of their physical health was significantly associated with lower total number of chronic conditions. Self-perceived mental health, a better level of access to health care, and a higher degree of social support were significantly inversely associated with the number of depressive symptoms for American Indian adults, while a greater level of ACE was significantly associated with an increased number of depressive symptoms for this group. Conclusion The current study not only support previous studies but also contributes to understanding the disparities in and risk factors potentially impacting American Indians’ physical and mental health. Our findings highlight the need to investigate the American Indians’ perceptions and knowledge about health care accessibility including availability as well as perceived barriers including social sensitivity and trust. Health professionals might need to pay attention to BMI, ACE, and social relationship among American Indian adults to improve physical and mental health.

School of Health Sciences.

Nowakowski, A. J., S. M. Whitfield, E. A. Eskew, …., Jacob L. Kerby, M. A. Donnelly, & B. D. Todd. (2016). Infection risk decreases with increasing mismatch in host and pathogen environmental tolerances. Ecology Letters, 19(9), 1051-1061.

The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has caused the greatest known wildlife pandemic, infecting over 500 amphibian species. It remains unclear why some host species decline from disease-related mortality whereas others persist. We introduce a conceptual model that predicts that infection risk in ectotherms will decrease as the difference between host and pathogen environmental tolerances (i.e. tolerance mismatch) increases. We test this prediction using both local-scale data from Costa Rica and global analyses of over 11 000 Bd infection assays. We find that infection prevalence decreases with increasing thermal tolerance mismatch and with increasing host tolerance of habitat modification. The relationship between environmental tolerance mismatches and Bd infection prevalence is generalisable across multiple amphibian families and spatial scales, and the magnitude of the tolerance mismatch effect depends on environmental context. These findings may help explain patterns of amphibian declines driven by a global wildlife pandemic.

Biology Department.

Ouellette, Scot P., Kelsey J. Rueden, & Elizabeth A. Rucks. (2016). Tryptophan Codon-Dependent Transcription in Chlamydia pneumoniae during Gamma Interferon-Mediated Tryptophan Limitation. Infection and Immunity, 84(9), 2703-2713.

In evolving to an obligate intracellular niche, Chlamydia has streamlined its genome by eliminating superfluous genes as it relies on the host cell for a variety of nutritional needs like amino acids. However, Chlamydia can experience amino acid starvation when the human host cell in which the bacteria reside is exposed to interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), which leads to a tryptophan (Trp)-limiting environment via induction of the enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). The stringent response is used to respond to amino acid starvation in most bacteria but is missing from Chlamydia. Thus, how Chlamydia, a Trp auxotroph, responds to Trp starvation in the absence of a stringent response is an intriguing question. We previously observed that C. pneumoniae responds to this stress by globally increasing transcription while globally decreasing translation, an unusual response. Here, we sought to understand this and hypothesized that the Trp codon content of a given gene would determine its transcription level. We quantified transcripts from C. pneumoniae genes that were either rich or poor in Trp codons and found that Trp codon-rich transcripts were increased, whereas those that lacked Trp codons were unchanged or even decreased. There were exceptions, and these involved operons or large genes with multiple Trp codons: downstream transcripts were less abundant after Trp codon-rich sequences. These data suggest that ribosome stalling on Trp codons causes a negative polar effect on downstream sequences. Finally, reassessing previous C. pneumoniae microarray data based on codon content, we found that upregulated transcripts were enriched in Trp codons, thus supporting our hypothesis.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Panaitof, S. C., Jazmine D. W. Yaeger, J. P. Speer, & Kenneth J. Renner. (2016). Biparental behavior in the burying beetle Nicrophorus orbicollis: a role for dopamine? Current Zoology, 62(3), 285-291.

Burying beetles Nicrophorus orbicollis exhibit facultative biparental care of young. To reproduce, a male-female burying beetle pair bury and prepare a small vertebrate carcass as food for its altricial young. During a breeding bout, male and female behavior changes synchronously at appropriate times and is coordinated to provide effective care for offspring. Although the ecological and evolutionary factors that shape this remarkable reproductive plasticity are well characterized, the neuromodulation of parental behavior is poorly understood. Juvenile hormone levels rise dramatically at the time beetle parents accept and feed larvae, remain highly elevated during the stages of most active care and fall abruptly when care is terminated. However, hormonal fluctuations alone cannot account for this elaborate control of reproduction. The biogenic amines octopamine (OA), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT) mediate a diversity of insect reproductive and social behaviors. In this study, we measured whole brain monoamine levels in individual male and female burying beetles and compared OA, DA, and 5-HT profiles between breeding (parental) and nonbreeding, unmated beetles. Remarkably, after 24 h of care, when parental feeding rates begin to peak, DA brain levels increase in breeding beetles when compared to nonbreeding controls. In contrast, brain OA and 5-HT levels did not change significantly. These results provide the first evidence for a potential role of DA in the modulation of burying beetle parental behavior.

Biology Department.

Rund, Samuel S. C., Yoo Boyoung, Camille Alam, Taryn Green, Melissa T. Stephens, Erliang Zeng, . . . Michael E. Pfrender. (2016). Genome-wide profiling of 24 hr diel rhythmicity in the water flea, Daphnia pulex: network analysis reveals rhythmic gene expression and enhances functional gene annotation. BMC Genomics, 17, 1-20.

Background: Marine and freshwater zooplankton exhibit daily rhythmic patterns of behavior and physiology which may be regulated directly by the light:dark (LD) cycle and/or a molecular circadian clock. One of the best-studied zooplankton taxa, the freshwater crustacean Daphnia, has a 24 h diel vertical migration (DVM) behavior whereby the organism travels up and down through the water column daily. DVM plays a critical role in resource tracking and the behavioral avoidance of predators and damaging ultraviolet radiation. However, there is little information at the transcriptional level linking the expression patterns of genes to the rhythmic physiology/behavior of Daphnia. Results: Here we analyzed genome-wide temporal transcriptional patterns from Daphnia pulex collected over a 44 h time period under a 12:12 LD cycle (diel) conditions using a cosine-fitting algorithm. We used a comprehensive network modeling and analysis approach to identify novel co-regulated rhythmic genes that have similar network topological properties and functional annotations as rhythmic genes identified by the cosine-fitting analyses. Furthermore, we used the network approach to predict with high accuracy novel gene-function associations, thus enhancing current functional annotations available for genes in this ecologically relevant model species. Our results reveal that genes in many functional groupings exhibit 24 h rhythms in their expression patterns under diel conditions. We highlight the rhythmic expression of immunity, oxidative detoxification, and sensory process genes. We discuss differences in the chronobiology of D. pulex from other well-characterized terrestrial arthropods. Conclusions: This research adds to a growing body of literature suggesting the genetic mechanisms governing rhythmicity in crustaceans may be divergent from other arthropod lineages including insects. Lastly, these results highlight the power of using a network analysis approach to identify differential gene expression and provide novel functional annotation.

Selker, H. P., William S. Harris, C. E. Rackley, J. B. Marsh, R. Ruthazer, J. R. Beshansky, . . . L. H. Opie. (2016). Very early administration of glucose-insulin-potassium by emergency medical service for acute coronary syndromes: Biological mechanisms for benefit in the IMMEDIATE Trial. American Heart Journal, 178, 168-175.

Aims In the IMMEDIATE Trial, intravenous glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) was started as early as possible for patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome by ambulance paramedics in communities. In the IMMEDIATE Biological Mechanism Cohort substudy, reported here, we investigated potential modes of GIK action on specific circulating metabolic components. Specific attention was given to suppression of circulating oxygen-wasting free fatty acids (FFAs) that had been posed as part of the early GIK action related to averting cardiac arrest. Methods We analyzed the changes in plasma levels of FFA, glucose, C-peptide, and the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index. Results With GIK, there was rapid suppression of FFA levels with estimated levels for GIK and placebo groups after 2 hours of treatment of 480 and 781 mu mol/L (P < .0001), even while patterns of FFA saturation remained unchanged. There were no significant changes in the HOMA index in the GIK or placebo groups (HOMA index: placebo 10.93, GIK 12.99; P=.07), suggesting that GIK infusions were not countered by insulin resistance. Also, neither placebo nor GIK altered endogenous insulin secretion as reflected by unchanging C-peptide levels. Conclusion These mechanistic observations support the potential role of FFA suppression in very early cardioprotection by GIK. They also suggest that the IMMEDIATE Trial GIK formula is balanced with respect to its insulin and glucose composition, as it induced no endogenous insulin secretion.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Simons, Jeffrey S., Thomas A. Wills, Noah N. Emery, & Philip J. Spelman. (2016). Keep calm and carry on: Maintaining self-control when intoxicated, upset, or depleted. Cognition & Emotion, 30(8), 1415-1429.

This study tested within-person associations between intoxication, negative affect, and self-control demands and two forms of self-control failure, interpersonal conflict, and neglecting responsibilities. Effortful control was hypothesised to act as a buffer, reducing individual susceptibility to these within-person effects. In contrast, reactivity was hypothesised to potentiate the within-person associations. 274 young adults aged 18–27 (56% women, 93% white) completed experience sampling assessments for up to 49 days over the course of 1.3 years. Results indicated independent within-person effects of intoxication, negative affect, and self-control demands on the outcomes. Hypothesised moderating effects of reactivity were not supported. Effortful control did not moderate the effects of self-control demands as expected. However, effortful control exhibited a protective effect when individuals were intoxicated or upset to reduce the likelihood of maladaptive behavioural outcomes.

Psychology Department.

Tang, R. G., F. G. Jiang, J. C. Wen, Ying Deng, & Y. Y. Sun. (2016). Managing bacterial biofilms with chitosan-based polymeric nitric oxides: Inactivation of biofilm bacteria and synergistic effects with antibiotics. Journal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers, 31(4), 393-410.

In this study, we developed a new approach in the preparation of chitosan-based polymeric nitric oxides. Chitosan film (unreacted chitosan) reacted with glutaraldehyde to introduce aldehyde groups onto the material surface (glutaraldehyde-treated chitosan). Glutaraldehyde-treated chitosan reacted with a small-molecule nitric oxide donor, 3,3-bis(aminoethyl)-1-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-triazene, to covalently immobilize nitric oxide-releasing moieties onto the polymer (chitosan-based polymeric nitric oxide). Chitosan-based polymeric nitric oxide showed sustained release of nitric oxide. The activation energies and rate constants of nitric oxide release were determined. The released nitric oxide provided potent antimicrobial effects against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria living in biofilms, and the chitosan-based polymeric nitric oxide film showed added/synergistic effects with common antibiotics. At 4 degrees C, the chitosan-based polymeric nitric oxide could be stored for more than 1month, without significantly losing nitric oxide-releasing capabilities. Furthermore, chitosan-based polymeric nitric oxide showed excellent biocompatibility with mammalian cells, pointing to great potentials of the new materials for a wide range of biomedical applications.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

Wang, Yanqing, & Brian D. Burrell. (2016). Differences in chloride gradients allow for three distinct types of synaptic modulation by endocannabinoids. Journal of Neurophysiology, 116(2), 619-628.

Endocannabinoids can elicit persistent depression of excitatory and inhibitory synapses, reducing or enhancing (disinhibiting) neural circuit output, respectively. In this study, we examined whether differences in Cl- gradients can regulate which synapses undergo endocannabinoid-mediated synaptic depression vs. disinhibition using the well-characterized central nervous system (CNS) of the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana. Exogenous application of endocannabinoids or capsaicin elicits potentiation of pressure (P) cell synapses and depression of both polymodal (N-poly) and mechanical (N-mech) nociceptive synapses. In P synapses, blocking Cl- export prevented endocannabinoid-mediated potentiation, consistent with a disinhibition process that has been indicated by previous experiments. In N-mech neurons, which are depolarized by GABA due to an elevated Cl- equilibrium potentials (E-Cl), endocannabinoid-mediated depression was prevented by blocking Cl- import, indicating that this decrease in synaptic signaling was due to depression of excitatory GABAergic input (disexcitation). N-poly neurons are also depolarized by GABA, but endocannabinoids elicit depression in these synapses directly and were only weakly affected by disruption of Cl- import. Consequently, the primary role of elevated E-Cl may be to protect N-poly synapses from disinhibition. All forms of endocannabinoid-mediated plasticity required activation of transient potential receptor vanilloid (TRPV) channels. Endocannabinoid/TRPV-dependent synaptic plasticity could also be elicited by distinct patterns of afferent stimulation with low-frequency stimulation (LFS) eliciting endocannabinoid-mediated depression of N poly synapses and high-frequency stimulus (HFS) eliciting endocannabinoid-mediated potentiation of P synapses and depression of N-mech synapses. These findings demonstrate a critical role of differences in Cl- gradients between neurons in determining the sign, potentiation vs. depression, of synaptic modulation under normal physiological conditions.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Yang, X. Y., Y. Xu, A. Brooks, B. Guo, Keith W. Miskimins, & S. Y. Qian. (2016). Knockdown delta-5-desaturase promotes the formation of a novel free radical byproduct from COX-catalyzed omega-6 peroxidation to induce apoptosis and sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to chemotherapy drugs. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 97, 342-350.

Recent research has demonstrated that colon cancer cell proliferation can be suppressed in the cells that overexpress COX-2 via generating 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid (a free radical byproduct) during dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, an omega-6 fatty acid) peroxidation from knocking down cellular delta-5-desaturase (D5D, the key enzyme for converting DGLA to the downstream omega-6, arachidonic acid). Here, this novel research finding is extended to pancreatic cancer growth, as COX-2 is also commonly overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. The pancreatic cancer cell line, BxPC-3 (with high COX-2 expression and mutated p53), was used to assess not only the inhibitory effects of the enhanced formation of 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid from cellular COX-2-catalyzed DGLA peroxidation but also its potential synergistic and/or additive effect on current chemotherapy drugs. This work demonstrated that, by inducing DNA damage through inhibition of histone deacetylase, a threshold level of 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid achieved in DGLA-treated and D5D-knockdown BxPC-3 cells subsequently induce cancer cell apoptosis. Furthermore, it was shown that a combination of D5D knockdown along with DGLA treatment could also significantly sensitize BxPC-3 cells to various chemotherapy drugs, likely via a p53-independent pathway through downregulating of anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g., Bcl-2) and activating pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g., caspase 3, 9). This study reinforces the supposition that using commonly overexpressed COX-2 for molecular targeting, a strategy conceptually distinct from the prevailing COX-2 inhibition strategy used in cancer treatment, is an important as well as viable alternative to inhibit cancer cell growth. Based on the COX-2 metabolic cascade, the outcomes presented here could guide the development of a novel omega-6-based dietary care strategy in combination with chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Inc.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 Zhang, Lei, Maria B. Hapon, Alicia A. Goyeneche, Rekha Srinivasan, Carlos D. Gamarra-Luques, Eduardo A. Callegari, . . . Carlos M. Telleria. (2016). Mifepristone increases mRNA translation rate, triggers the unfolded protein response, increases autophagic flux, and kills ovarian cancer cells in combination with proteasome or lysosome inhibitors. Molecular Oncology, 10(7), 1099-1117.

The synthetic steroid mifepristone blocks the growth of ovarian cancer cells, yet the mechanism driving such effect is not entirely understood. Unbiased genomic and proteomic screenings using ovarian cancer cell lines of different genetic backgrounds and sensitivities to platinum led to the identification of two key genes upregulated by mifepristone and involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR): the master chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), glucose regulated protein (GRP) of 78 kDa, and the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous transcription factor (CHOP). GRP78 and CHOP were upregulated by mifepristone in ovarian cancer cells regardless of p53 status and platinum sensitivity. Further studies revealed that the three UPR-associated pathways, PERK, IRE1 alpha, and ATF6, were activated by mifepristone. Also, the synthetic steroid acutely increased mRNA translation rate, which, if prevented, abrogated the splicing of XBP1 mRNA, a non-translatable readout of IRE1 alpha activation. Moreover, mifepristone increased LC3-II levels due to increased autophagic flux. When the autophagic lysosomal pathway was inhibited with chloroquine, mifepristone was lethal to the cells. Lastly, doses of proteasome inhibitors that are inadequate to block the activity of the proteasomes, caused cell death when combined with mifepristone; this phenotype was accompanied by accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins denoting proteasome inhibition. The stimulation by mifepristone of ER stress and autophagic flux offers a therapeutic opportunity for utilizing this compound to sensitize ovarian cancer cells to proteasome or lysosome inhibitors. (C) 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Zhu, G. X., Yu Huang, G. Bhave, Y. Z. Wang, Z. B. Hu, & X. W. Liu. (2016). In situ growth of fluorescent silicon nanocrystals in a monolithic microcapsule as a photostable, versatile platform. Nanoscale, 8(34), 15645-15657.

A facile, one-step method was developed for the in situ formation of fluorescent silicon nanocrystals (SiNC) in a microspherical encapsulating matrix. The obtained SiNC encapsulated polymeric microcapsules (SiPM) possess uniform size (0.1-2.0 mu m), strong fluorescence, and nanoporous structure. A unique two stage, time dependent reaction was developed, as the growth of SiNC was slower than the formation of polymeric microcapsules. The resulting SiPM with increasing reaction time exhibited two levels of stability, and correspondingly, the release of SiNC in aqueous media showed different behavior. With reaction time <1 h, the obtained low-density SiPM (LD-SiPM) as matrix microcapsules, would release encapsulated SiNC on demand. With >1 h reaction time, resulting high-density SiPM (HD-SiPM) became stable SiNC reservoirs. SiPM exhibit stable photoluminescence. The porous structure and fluorescence quenching effects make SiPM suitable for bioimaging, drug loading and sorption of heavy metals (Hg2+ as shown) as an intrinsic indicator. SiPM were able to reduce metal ions, forming SiPM/metal oxide and SiPM/metal hybrids, and their applications in bio-sensing and catalysis were also demonstrated.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

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