Posted by: kelsijo97 | November 22, 2011

November 2011

Bellis, Teri James, and Ross, Jody. “Performance of Normal Adults and Children on Central Auditory Diagnostic Tests and Their Corresponding Visual Analogs.” Journal of the American Academy of Audiology 22, no. 8 (2011).

Background: It has been suggested that, in order to validate a diagnosis of (C)APD (central auditory processing disorder), testing using direct cross-modal analogs should be performed to demonstrate that deficits exist solely or primarily in the auditory modality (McFarland and Cacace, 1995; Cacace and McFarland, 2005). This modality-specific viewpoint is controversial and not universally accepted (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association [ASHA], 2005; Musiek et al, 2005). Further, no such analogs have been developed to date, and neither the feasibility of such testing in normally functioning individuals nor the concurrent validity of cross-modal analogs has been established. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of cross-modal testing by examining the performance of normal adults and children on four tests of central auditory function and their corresponding visual analogs. In addition, this study investigated the degree to which concurrent validity of auditory and visual versions of these tests could be demonstrated. Research Design: An experimental repeated measures design was employed. Study Sample: Participants consisted of two groups (adults, n=10; children, n=10) with normal and symmetrical hearing sensitivity, normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no family or personal history of auditory/otologic, language, learning, neurologic, or related disorders. Data Collection and Analysis: Visual analogs of four tests in common clinical use for the diagnosis of (C)APD were developed (Dichotic Digits [Musiek, 1983]; Frequency Patterns [Pinheiro and Ptacek, 1971]; Duration Patterns [Pinheiro and Musiek, 1985]; and the Random Gap Detection Test [RGDT; Keith, 2000]). Participants underwent two 1 hr test sessions separated by at least 1 wk. Order of sessions (auditory, visual) and tests within each session were counterbalanced across participants. ANOVAs (analyses of variance) were used to examine effects of group, modality, and laterality (for the Dichotic/Dichoptic Digits tests) or response condition (for the auditory and visual Frequency Patterns and Duration Patterns tests). Pearson product-moment correlations were used to investigate relationships between auditory and visual performance. Results: Adults performed significantly better than children on the Dichotic/Dichoptic Digits tests.Results also revealed a significant effect of modality, with auditory better than visual, and a significant modality × laterality interaction, with a right-ear advantage seen for the auditory task and a left-visual-field advantage seen for the visual task. For the Frequency Patterns test and its visual analog, results revealed a significant modality × response condition interaction, with humming better than labeling for the auditory version but the reversed effect for the visual version. For Duration Patterns testing, visual performance was significantly poorer than auditory performance. Due to poor test-retest reliability and ceiling effects for the auditory and visual gap-detection tasks, analyses could not be performed. No cross-modal correlations were observed for any test. Conclusions: Results demonstrated that cross-modal testing is at least feasible using easily accessible computer hardware and software. The lack of any cross-modal correlations suggests independent processing mechanisms for auditory and visual versions of each task. Examination of performance in individuals with central auditory and pan-sensory disorders is needed to determine the utility of cross-modal analogs in the differential diagnosis of (C)APD.

Communication Disorders Department.

Bellis, Teri James, Billiet, Cassie, and Ross, Jody. “The Utility of Visual Analogs of Central Auditory Tests in the Differential Diagnosis of (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.” Journal of the American Academy of Audiology 22, no. 8 (2011).

Background: Cacace and McFarland (2005) have suggested that the addition of cross-modal analogs will improve the diagnostic specificity of (C)APD (central auditory processing disorder) by ensuring that deficits observed are due to the auditory nature of the stimulus and not to supra-modal or other confounds. Others (e.g., Musiek et al, 2005) have expressed concern about the use of such analogs in diagnosing (C)APD given the uncertainty as to the degree to which cross-modal measures truly are analogous and emphasize the nonmodularity of the CANs (central auditory nervous system) and its function, which precludes modality specificity of (C)APD. To date, no studies have examined the clinical utility of cross-modal (e.g., visual) analogs of central auditory tests in the differential diagnosis of (C)APD. Purpose: This study investigated performance of children diagnosed with (C)APD, children diagnosed with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), and typically developing children on three diagnostic tests of central auditory function and their corresponding visual analogs. The study sought to determine whether deficits observed in the (C)APD group were restricted to the auditory modality and the degree to which the addition of visual analogs aids in the ability to differentiate among groups. Research Design: An experimental repeated measures design was employed. Study Sample: Participants consisted of three groups of right-handed children (normal control, n=10; ADHD, n=10; (C)APD, n=7) with normal and symmetrical hearing sensitivity, normal or corrected-tonormal visual acuity, and no family or personal history of disorders unrelated to their primary diagnosis. Participants in Groups 2 and 3 met current diagnostic criteria for ADHD and (C)APD. Data Collection and Analysis: Visual analogs of three tests in common clinical use for the diagnosis of (C)APD were used (Dichotic Digits [Musiek, 1983]; Frequency Patterns [Pinheiro and Ptacek, 1971]; and Duration Patterns [Pinheiro and Musiek, 1985]). Participants underwent two 1 hr test sessions separated by at least 1 wk. Order of sessions (auditory, visual) and tests within each session were counterbalanced across participants. ANCOVAs (analyses of covariance) were used to examine effects of group, modality, and laterality (Dichotic/Dichoptic Digits) or response condition (auditory and visual patterning). In addition, planned univariate ANCOVAs were used to examine effects of group on intratest comparison measures (REA, HLD [Humming-Labeling Differential]). Results: Children with both ADHD and (C)APD performed more poorly overall than typically developing children on all tasks, with the (C)APD group exhibiting the poorest performance on the auditory and visual patterns tests but the ADHD and (C)APD group performing similarly on the Dichotic/Dichoptic Digits task. However, each of the auditory and visual intratest comparison measures, when taken individually, was able to distinguish the (C)APD group from both the normal control and ADHD groups, whose performance did not differ from one another. Conclusions: Results underscore the importance of intratest comparison measures in the interpretation of central auditory tests (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association [ASHA], 2005; American Academy of Audiology [AAA], 2010). Results also support the “non-modular” view of (C)APD in which cross-modal deficits would be predicted based on shared neuroanatomical substrates. Finally, this study demonstrates that auditory tests alone are sufficient to distinguish (C)APD from supra-modal disorders, with cross-modal analogs adding little if anything to the differential diagnostic process.

Communication Disorders Department.

Burke, A. R., Watt, Michael J., and Forster, Gina L. “Adolescent Social Defeat Increases Adult Amphetamine Conditioned Place Preference and Alters D2 Dopamine Receptor Expression.” Neuroscience 197 (2011): 269-79.

Components of the brain’s dopaminergic system, such as dopamine receptors, undergo final maturation in adolescence. Exposure to social stress during human adolescence contributes to substance abuse behaviors. We utilized a rat model of adolescent social stress to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying this correlation. Rats exposed to repeated social defeat in adolescence (P35-P39) exhibited increased conditioned place preference (CPP) for amphetamine (1 mg/kg) in adulthood (P70). In contrast, rats experiencing foot-shock during the same developmental period exhibited amphetamine CPP levels similar to non-stressed controls. Our previous experiments suggested adolescent defeat alters dopamine activity in the mesocorticolimbic system. Furthermore, dopamine receptors have been implicated in the expression of amphetamine CPP. Therefore, we hypothesized that alteration to dopamine receptor expression in the mesocorticolimbic system may be associated with to heightened amphetamine CPP of adult rats exposed to adolescence defeat. We measured D1 and D2 dopamine receptor protein content in the medial prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens (NAc), and dorsal striatum following either adolescent social defeat or foot-shock stress and then adult amphetamine CPP. In controls, amphetamine CPP training reduced D2 receptor protein content in the NAc core. However, this down-regulation of NAc core D2 receptors was blocked by exposure to social defeat but not foot-shock stress in adolescence. These results suggest social defeat stress in adolescence alters the manner in which later amphetamine exposure down-regulates D2 receptors. Furthermore, persistent alterations to adult D2 receptor expression and amphetamine responses may depend on the type of stress experienced in adolescence. Copyright A 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Elhai, Jon D., Naifeh, James A., Forbes, David, Ractliffe, Kendra C., and Tamburrino, Marijo. “Heterogeneity in Clinical Presentations of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Medical Patients: Testing Factor Structure Variation Using Factor Mixture Modeling.” Journal of Traumatic Stress 24, no. 4 (2011): 435-43.

The present study used factor mixture modeling to explore empirically defined subgroups of psychological trauma victims based on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and latent class analysis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. We sampled 310 medical patients with a history of trauma exposure. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the 4-factor emotional numbing PTSD model yielded the best model fit. Using latent factor means derived from this model and the 4-factor dysphoria PTSD model (indexing severity on PTSD factors), 3 latent classes of participants were identified using factor mixture modeling. The 3-class model fit the data very well and was validated against external measures of anxiety and rumination. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Elias, A. F., Dunn, Joel, and Huntington, Mark K. “Tuberculosis and Profound Hypovitaminosis D in an Infant.” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 30, no. 11 (2011): 1008-10.

A young infant presented with a febrile respiratory illness, irritability, and failure to thrive. Clinical evaluation identified that he had profound hypovitaminosis D with severe hypocalcemia and active pulmonary tuberculosis. We review the literature and discuss the current state of knowledge of the interrelationship between Mycobacterium infection and vitamin D status, and its implication to pediatricians.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Fayer, Liz, Zalud, Garreth, Baron, Mark, Anderson, Cynthia M., and Duggan, Timothy J. “Student Perceptions of the Use of Inquiry Practices in a Biology Survey Laboratory Course.” Journal of College Science Teaching 41, no. 2 (2011): 82-88.

Extensive research has shown inquiry in science education to be best practice; however , most universities currently do not include inquiry practices in their coursework. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of inquiry that students in a Biology Survey Laboratory course considered to be the most supportive of their learning at a small, rural, midwestern university. A survey instrument, developed using the inquiry level rubric designed by Bruck, Bretz, and Towns (2008) and consisting of 36 Likert-scale items plus four demographic items, was used to collect data (N = 190). When considering the most appropriate level of inquiry to support their learning of biology, students perceived that they would learn best with open or authentic inquiry levels.

School of Education.

Flynn, Stephen V., and Black, Linda L. “An Emergent Theory of Altruism and Self-Interest.” Journal of Counseling & Development 89, no. 4 (2011): 459-69.

Beliefs about altruism and self-interest of 25 participants were examined through a grounded theory methodology. Altruism was defined as the promotion of needs of others and self-interest as the promotion of needs of self. Data sources included interviews, focus group, journal analysis, artifacts, and a measure of altruism. The relationship between altruism and self-interest emerged and was composed of 12 themes. Themes described a dynamic theory that was systemic, values oriented, and interactional. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)

School of Education.

He, H. S., Zhong, Yihan H., Si, Liping P., and Sykes, Andrew. “Structural, Photophysical and Theoretical Studies of Two Dodecachlorinated Porphyrins.” Inorganica Chimica Acta 378, no. 1 (2011): 30-35.

Two dodecachlorinated porphyrins, 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octachloro-5,10,15,20-tetra(4-chlorophenyl)porphyrin free base (TCl(12)PPH(2)) and its nickel compound (TCl(12)PPNi), have been synthesized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis shows that porphyrin rings are heavily distorted and exhibit saddled conformations. The Soret and Q bands of two compounds are red-shifted compared to their non-chlorinated counterparts. Theoretical calculations reveal that the optical band gap of TCl(12)PPH(2) is reduced, whereas that of TCl(12)PPNi remains almost the same as to its non-chlorinated nickel compound due to the concurrent lowering of HOMO and LUMO energy levels. The frontier molecular orbitals are degenerated due to the decrease of symmetry of the molecules. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

Johnson, K. J., Carozza, S. E., Mueller, B. A., Puumala, Susan E., Reynolds, P., Von Behren, J., and Spector, L. G. “Birth Characteristics and Childhood Carcinomas.” British Journal of Cancer 105, no. 9 (2011): 1396-401.

Background:Carcinomas in children are rare and have not been well studied.Methods:We conducted a population-based case-control study and examined associations between birth characteristics and childhood carcinomas diagnosed from 28 days to 14 years during 1980-2004 using pooled data from five states (NY, WA, MN, TX, and CA) that linked their birth and cancer registries. The pooled data set contained 57 966 controls and 475 carcinoma cases, including 159 thyroid and 126 malignant melanoma cases. We used unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Results:White compared with ‘other’ race was positively associated with melanoma (OR=3.22, 95% CI 1.33-8.33). Older maternal age increased the risk for melanoma (OR<sub>per 5-year age increase</sub>=1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.44), whereas paternal age increased the risk for any carcinoma (OR=1.10<sub>per 5-year age increase</sub>, 95% CI 1.01-1.20) and thyroid carcinoma (OR<sub>per 5-year age increase</sub>=1.16, 95% CI 1.01-1.33). Gestational age <37 vs 37-42 weeks increased the risk for thyroid carcinoma (OR=1.87, 95% CI 1.07-3.27). Plurality, birth weight, and birth order were not significantly associated with childhood carcinomas.Conclusion:This exploratory study indicates that some birth characteristics including older parental age and low gestational age may be related to childhood carcinoma aetiology.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Koepsell, Laura, Remund, Tyler, Bao, Jing, Neufeld, Daniel, Fong, Hao, and Deng, Ying. “Tissue Engineering of Annulus Fibrosus Using Electrospun Fibrous Scaffolds with Aligned Polycaprolactone Fibers.” Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A 99, no. 4 (2011): 564-75.

In tissue engineering, it is important to fabricate a three-dimensional scaffold that resemble the extracellular matrix (ECM) and topographical appearance of native tissue. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that varying microstructures of electrospun fibrous scaffolds by manipulating the relative degree of fiber alignment would influence the behaviors of porcine annulus fibrosus cells. Five types of electrospun fibrous scaffolds with polycaprolactone fibers having random or partially aligned arrangements have been prepared and investigated. The scaffold microstructures have been examined, and in vitro experiments have been carried out to assess cell-material interaction, cell proliferation, and ECM production. The results indicate that the scaffold with oriented fibers provides strong guidance to the cell orientation and ECM distribution. In addition, albeit the tensile moduli of electrospun fibrous scaffolds are lower than that of native tissue, they are comparable to those reported in literature; hence, the constructs cultured with optimized conditions including the scaffold material selection and dynamic mechanical conditioning would have the potential to possess the moduli closer to that of native tissue. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2011. Copyright 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

Lubbers, Charles A. (2011). An assessment of predictors of student peer evaluations of team work in the capstone campaigns course. Public Relations Review, 37(5), 492-498.

Abstract: The role of peer evaluations of team work in the capstone, campaigns class is investigated. An assessment of the scores on a 16-item, quantitative assessment of student contributions to their team in a campaigns class indicated that students are extremely positive when evaluating their team members. Means for the 16 evaluation items ranged from 1.44 to 2.19 on a 1–7 scale. The evaluation items were regressed with two overall evaluation measures in the form of the “pay” students would receive from other individuals or the group mean payment. The statistically significant predictors for both dependent variables are identified.

Contemporary Media Department.

May, Philip A., Tabachnick, Barbara G., Gossage, J. Phillip, Kalberg, Wendy O., Marais, Anna-Susan, Robinson, Luther K., Manning, Melanie, Buckley, David, and Hoyme, H. Eugene. “Maternal Risk Factors Predicting Child Physical Characteristics and Dysmorphology in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.” Drug & Alcohol Dependence 119, no. 1/2 (2011): 18-27.

Abstract: Background: Previous research in South Africa revealed very high rates of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), of 46–89 per 1000 among young children. Maternal and child data from studies in this community summarize the multiple predictors of FAS and partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS). Method: Sequential regression was employed to examine influences on child physical characteristics and dysmorphology from four categories of maternal traits: physical, demographic, childbearing, and drinking. Then, a structural equation model (SEM) was constructed to predict influences on child physical characteristics. Results: Individual sequential regressions revealed that maternal drinking measures were the most powerful predictors of a child”s physical anomalies (R <sup>2</sup> =.30, p <.001), followed by maternal demographics (R <sup>2</sup> =.24, p <.001), maternal physical characteristics (R <sup>2</sup> =.15, p <.001), and childbearing variables (R <sup>2</sup> =.06, p <.001). The SEM utilized both individual variables and the four composite categories of maternal traits to predict a set of child physical characteristics, including a total dysmorphology score. As predicted, drinking behavior is a relatively strong predictor of child physical characteristics (β =0.61, p <.001), even when all other maternal risk variables are included; higher levels of drinking predict child physical anomalies. Conclusions: Overall, the SEM model explains 62% of the variance in child physical anomalies. As expected, drinking variables explain the most variance. But this highly controlled estimation of multiple effects also reveals a significant contribution played by maternal demographics and, to a lesser degree, maternal physical and childbearing variables.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Ranek, Mark J., Cotten, S. W., and Willis, M. S. “Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, Md, Phd Discoverer of Vitamin C and a Pioneer of Cellular Respiration, Muscle Physiology, and Cancer Development.” Labmedicine 42, no. 11 (2011): 694-98.

Basic Biomedicine, Vermillion Campus.

Roh, Soonhee, Jang, Yuri, Chiriboga, David, Kwag, Kyung, Cho, Sunhee, and Bernstein, Kunsook. “Perceived Neighborhood Environment Affecting Physical and Mental Health: A Study with Korean American Older Adults in New York City.” Journal of Immigrant & Minority Health 13, no. 6 (2011): 1005-12.

This study examined how subjective perceptions of the neighborhood environment (e.g., perceived ethnic density, safety, social cohesion, and satisfaction) influenced the physical and mental health of Korean American older adults. Using data from 420 residents of the New York City metropolitan area ( M = 71.6, SD = 7.59), health perceptions and depressive symptoms were estimated with hierarchical regression models entered in the order of (1) demographics and acculturation, (2) health-related variables, and (3) perceived neighborhood environment. After controlling for the effects of the individual-level variables, perceived neighborhood environment was found to make a significant contribution to both outcomes. Individuals less satisfied with their overall neighborhood environment were more likely to have negative perceptions of health and depressive symptoms. A strong linkage between perceived neighborhood safety and depressive symptoms was also observed. Findings from the study highlight the importance of subjective evaluations of neighborhood environment and provide implications for health promotion.

Scholl of Health Sciences.

Sharma, Neeru M., Zheng, Hong, Mehta, Parmender P., Li, Yi-Fan, and Patel, Kaushik P. “Decreased Nnos in the Pvn Leads to Increased Sympathoexcitation in Chronic Heart Failure: Role for Capon and Ang Ii.” Cardiovascular Research 92, no. 2 (2011): 348-57.

Aims Previously, we showed an enhanced excitatory (N-methyl d-aspartate receptor-NR1) and decreased inhibitory neuronal nitric oxide (NO) synthase (nNOS) influence within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of rats with chronic heart failure (CHF). Although NR1 and nNOS are normally linked, they can be disconnected by nNOS sequestering with nNOS-associated protein (CAPON). The aim of this study was to elucidate the underlying mechanism for the disconnection between increased expression of NR1 and decreased nNOS in the PVN of rats with CHF which leads to enhanced sympathoexcitation. Methods and results CAPON expression was augmented while nNOS expression was decreased in the PVN of rats with CHF (6–8 weeks after left coronary artery ligation). Angiotensin II (Ang II) type I receptor (AT1) antagonist losartan (Los) treatment in rats with CHF reduced renal sympathetic nerve activity with concomitant normalization of protein expression of CAPON and nNOS in the PVN. Los treatment also reversed the blunting of endogenous NO-mediated sympatho-inhibition in rats with CHF. Moreover, Ang II-induced increase in CAPON expression in NG108 neuronal cells was also ameliorated by Los. Conclusion Blocking AT1 receptors prevents the overexpression of CAPON and concomitant decrease in nNOS in the PVN, resulting in attenuation of sympathoexcitation commonly observed in CHF. Taken together, our data highlight the importance of altered expression and subsequent interaction of nNOS and CAPON within the PVN, leading to increased sympathoexcitation in CHF. Identifying this crucial nNOS/CAPON interaction regulated by AT1 receptors may provide an important potential therapeutic target in CHF.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Su, Huabo, and Wang, Xuejun. “Autophagy and P62 in Cardiac Protein Quality Control.” Autophagy 7, no. 11 (2011): 1382-3.

This is an addendum to a recent report which demonstrates for the first time that autophagic flux is increased in the heart of a well-established mouse model of cardiac proteinopathy and p62 is transcriptionally upregulated in cardiomyocytes and hearts overexpressing human cardiomyopathy-linked misfolded proteins. The p62 plays a critical and protective role in aggresome formation and autophagic activation in cardiomyocytes overexpressing misfolded proteins.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

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