Posted by: kelsijo97 | May 14, 2012

April 2012

Xu, Xianmin M.Chen, KaiKobayashi, SatoruTimm, Derek, & Liang, Qiangrong R.(2012). Resveratrol Attenuates Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyocyte Death via Inhibition of p70 S6 Kinase 1-Mediated Autophagy. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 341(1), 183-195.

Resveratrol is a plant-derived polyphenol that can attenuate the cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin (DOX), a powerful antibiotic widely used in cancer chemotherapy. However, the underlying protective mechanisms of resveratrol remain elusive. Here, we show that resveratrol inhibited DOX-induced autophagy and cardiomyocyte death, and autophagy suppression is an important mechanism that mediates the ability of resveratrol to protect against DOX cardiotoxicity. Indeed, resveratrol, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), and a short hairpin RNA directed against autophagy gene beclin 1 (shBCN1) each was able to attenuate DOX-induced autophagy and cardiomyocyte death, but resveratrol did not provide additional protection in the presence of 3-MA or shBCN1. In contrast, up-regulation of autophagy by beclin 1 overexpression not only exacerbated DOX cardiotoxicity but also abolished the protective effects of resveratrol. Intriguingly, p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) was activated by DOX, which was prevented by resveratrol. Knocking down S6K1 with small interfering RNA diminished DOX-induced autophagy and cardiotoxicity, but resveratrol failed to exert an additive effect. In addition, S6K1 overexpression impaired the ability of resveratrol to antagonize DOX-induced autophagy and cardiomyocyte death. Taken together, our data indicate that the protective effect of resveratrol against DOX cardiotoxicity largely depends on its ability to suppress DOX-induced autophagy via the inhibition of S6K1.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Fals Campus.

 

Wright, Casey D.Wu, Steven C.Dahl, Erika F.Sazama, Alan J., & O’connell, Timothy D. (2012). Nuclear localization drives alpha 1-adrenergic receptor oligomerization and signaling in cardiac myocytes. Cellular Signalling, 24(3), 794-802.

Conventional models of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling describe cell surface receptors binding to external ligands, such as hormones or circulating peptides, to induce intracellular signaling and a physiologic response. However, recent studies identify new paradigms indicating that GPCRs localize to and signal at the nucleus and that GPCR oligomers can influence receptor function. Previously, we reported that endogenous alpha 1-adrenergic receptors (alpha 1-ARs) localize to and signal at the nuclei in adult cardiac myocytes. In this study, we examined the mechanisms behind alpha 1-AR nuclear localization and how nuclear localization impacted receptor function. We verified that endogenous alpha 1-ARs localized to the nuclear membrane of intact nuclei isolated from wild-type adult cardiac myocytes. Next, we identified and disrupted putative nuclear localization sequences in both the alpha 1A- and alpha 1B-adrenergic receptors, which led to mis-localization of alpha 1-ARs in cultured adult cardiac myocytes. Using these mutants, we demonstrated that nuclear localization was required for alpha 1-signaling in adult cardiac myocytes. We also found that the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B inhibited alpha 1-AR signaling, indicating alpha 1-AR signaling must arise in the nucleus in adult cardiac myocytes. Finally, we found that co-localization of the alpha 1-subtypes at the nuclei in adult cardiac myocytes facilitated the formation of receptor oligomers that could affect receptor signaling. In summary, our data indicate that alpha 1-AR nuclear localization can drive the formation of receptor oligomers and regulate signaling in adult cardiac myocytes. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Worthington, Amy M., Berns, Chelsea M., & Swallow, John G. (2012). Size matters, but so does shape: quantifying complex shape changes in a sexually selected trait in stalk-eyed flies (Diptera: Diopsidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 106(1), 104-113.

The elaborate morphologies of sexually selected ornaments are ubiquitous across the animal kingdom. In studies investigating these traits, ornament size is frequently the focus, and empirical evidence supports its positive correlation with fitness. Yet shape plays an important role and, surprisingly, is often overlooked. Shape frequently changes with size, influenced by biomechanical, developmental, or performance constraints. Therefore, shape can provide additional insights into the morphological differences between individuals and the potential limits on sexual trait exaggeration. Here, we used landmark-based geometric morphometric methods on a sexually dimorphic species of stalk-eyed fly ( Teleopsis dalmanni) to examine patterns of sexual shape dimorphism. Our analyses reveal a significant difference in head shape between the sexes, with males exhibiting smaller eye bulbs, thinner stalks, and smaller heads than females. Additionally, as eyestalk length increases within each sex, a similar pattern of shape change was observed as that observed between sexes. This pattern of shape change may be the result of constraints acting against further ornament exaggeration, and we suggest that this may significantly impact the whole-organism performance in stalk-eyed flies.

Biology Department.

 

Whaley, KatieWinter, JordanEyster, Kathleen M., & Hansen, Keith A. (2012). Mullerian agenesis with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia syndrome.Fertility and sterility, 97(4), 948-949.

To describe the association of mullerian agenesis with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Case report. University medical center. A 17-year-old woman with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia referred for evaluation of primary amenorrhea. History, physical examination, and ultrasound. Physical findings of these two syndromes. Physical examination and ultrasound demonstrated mullerian agenesis with findings of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. This is the first description of the association of mullerian agenesis with ectodermal dysplasia. This rare case might provide further insight into the development of the uterus and the ectoderm as well as its derivatives. Copyright A 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Weber, Amanda S.Grady, Anne M., & Koodali, Ranjit T. (2012). Lanthanide modified semiconductor photocatalysts CATALYSIS SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 2(4), 683-693.

Lanthanide ion modified semiconductor photocatalysts have been explored for photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants, dye molecules, for photo-splitting of water under both ultra-violet (UV) and visible light conditions. This review provides an in-depth analysis of lanthanide ion semiconductor photocatalysts with focus on titania based photocatalysts. The emphasis is on delineating the underlying factors responsible for the enhanced activities observed by several research groups and in providing guidance to researchers in this area.

 

Wang, Guojian, Huang, Yisheng, Zhang, Lizhen, Lin, Zhoubin, & Wang, Guofu. (2012). Growth and spectroscopic characteristics of Cr<sup>3+</sup>:KSc( WO<sub>4</sub>) <sub>2</sub> Crystal. Optical Materials, 34(7), 1120-1123.

Abstract: The Cr<sup>3+</sup>:KSc(WO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub> crystal was grown by top seed solution method. The absorption and luminescence spectra were investigated. The absorption cross section σ <sub>a</sub> is 1.16×10<sup>−19</sup> cm<sup>−2</sup> at 469nm for the <sup>4</sup>A<sub>2</sub> → <sup>4</sup>T<sub>1</sub> transition and 4.98×10<sup>−20</sup> cm<sup>−2</sup> at 684nm for the <sup>4</sup>A<sub>2</sub> → <sup>4</sup>T<sub>2</sub> transition, respectively. The emission cross section σ <sub>e</sub> of <sup>4</sup>T<sub>2</sub> → <sup>4</sup>A<sub>2</sub> transition is 4.86×10<sup>−20</sup> cm<sup>2</sup> at 916nm with FWHM of 200nm and fluorescence lifetime is 19.83μs. Based on the absorption and emission spectra, the crystal field strength Dq, the Racah parameters B and C, the effective phonon energy ħω and the Huang-Rhys factor S were calculated. Cr<sup>3+</sup> ions in KSc(WO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub> crystal occupy the weak crystal field sites and have stronger coupling to crystal lattice.

Physics Department.

 

Venesky, Matthew, Wilcoxen, Travis, Rensel, Michelle, Rollins-Smith, Louise, Kerby, Jacob, & Parris, Matthew. (2012). Dietary protein restriction impairs growth, immunity, and disease resistance in southern leopard frog tadpoles.Oecologia, 169(1), 23-31.

The immune system is a necessary, but potentially costly, defense against infectious diseases. When nutrition is limited, immune activity may consume a significant amount of an organism’s energy budget. Levels of dietary protein affect immune system function; high levels can enhance disease resistance. We exposed southern leopard frog [ Lithobates sphenocephalus (= Rana sphenocephala)] tadpoles to high and low protein diets crossed with the presence or absence of the pathogenic amphibian chytrid fungus ( Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis; Bd) and quantified: (1) tadpole resistance to Bd; (2) tadpole skin-swelling in response to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) injection (a measure of the T cell-mediated response of the immune system); (3) bacterial killing ability (BKA) of tadpole blood (a measure of the complement-mediated cytotoxicity of the innate immune system); and (4) tadpole growth and development. Tadpoles raised on a low-protein diet were smaller and less developed than tadpoles on a high-protein diet. When controlled for developmental stage, tadpoles raised on a low-protein diet had reduced PHA and BKA responses relative to tadpoles on a high-protein diet, but these immune responses were independent of Bd exposure. High dietary protein significantly increased resistance to Bd. Our results support the general hypothesis that host condition can strongly affect disease resistance; in particular, fluctuations in dietary protein availability may change how diseases affect populations in the field.

Biology Department.

 

Swanson, David LThomas, Nathan ELiknes, Eric T, & Cooper, Sheldon J (2012). Intraspecific correlations of Basal and maximal metabolic rates in birds and the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy. . PloS one, 7(3), e34271+.

The underlying assumption of the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy is that basal (BMR) and maximal aerobic metabolic rates are phenotypically linked. However, because BMR is largely a function of central organs whereas maximal metabolic output is largely a function of skeletal muscles, the mechanistic underpinnings for their linkage are not obvious. Interspecific studies in birds generally support a phenotypic correlation between BMR and maximal metabolic output. If the aerobic capacity model is valid, these phenotypic correlations should also extend to intraspecific comparisons. We measured BMR, M(sum) (maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate) and MMR (maximum exercise metabolic rate in a hop-flutter chamber) in winter for dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis; M(sum) and MMR only), and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus; BMR and M(sum) only) and examined correlations among these variables. We also measured BMR and M(sum) in individual house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in both summer, winter and spring. For both raw metabolic rates and residuals from allometric regressions, BMR was not significantly correlated with either M(sum) or MMR in juncos. Moreover, no significant correlation between M(sum) and MMR or their mass-independent residuals occurred for juncos or goldfinches. Raw BMR and M(sum) were significantly positively correlated for black-capped chickadees and house sparrows, but mass-independent residuals of BMR and M(sum) were not. These data suggest that central organ and exercise organ metabolic levels are not inextricably linked and that muscular capacities for exercise and shivering do not necessarily vary in tandem in individual birds. Why intraspecific and interspecific avian studies show differing results and the significance of these differences to the aerobic capacity model are unknown, and resolution of these questions will require additional studies of potential mechanistic links between minimal and maximal metabolic output.

Biology Department.

 

Suarez-Pinzon, Wilma L., & Rabinovitch, A. (2011). Combination Therapy With a Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor and a Proton Pump Inhibitor Induces beta-Cell Neogenesis From Adult Human Pancreatic Duct Cells Implanted in Immunodeficient Mice. Cell Transplantation, 20(9), 1343-1349.

Combination therapy with a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) raises endogenous levels of GLP-1 and gastrin, respectively, and restores pancreatic beta-cell mass and normoglycemia in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice with autoimmune diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether a DPP-4i and PPI combination could increase beta-cell mass in the adult human pancreas. Pancreatic cells from adult human pancreas donors were implanted in NOD-severe combined immunodeficient (NOD-scid) mice and the mice were treated with a DPP-4i and a PPI for 16 weeks. Human grafts were examined for insulin content and insulin-stained cells. Graft beta-cell function was assessed by intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) and by glucose control in human cell-engrafted mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to delete mouse pancreatic beta-cells. Plasma GLP-1 and gastrin levels were raised to two- to threefold in DPP-4i- and PPI-treated mice. Insulin content and insulin-stained cells in human pancreatic cell grafts were increased 9- to 13-fold in DPP-4i and PPI-treated mice and insulin-stained cells were colocalized with pancreatic exocrine duct cells. Plasma human C-peptide responses to IVGTT were significantly higher and STZ-induced hyperglycemia was more completely prevented in DPP-4i- and PPI-treated mice with grafts than in vehicle-treated mice with grafts. In conclusion, DPP-4i and PPI combination therapy raises endogenous levels of GLP-1 and gastrin and greatly expands the functional beta-cell mass in adult human pancreatic cells implanted in immunodeficient mice, largely from pancreatic duct cells. This suggests that a DPP-4i and PPI combination treatment may provide a pharmacologic therapy to correct the beta-cell deficit in type I diabetes.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Stoebner, Susan E., & Mani, Gopinath. (2012). Effect of processing methods on drug release profiles of anti-restenotic self-assembled monolayers. Applied Surface Science, 258(12), 5061-5072.

The use of anti-restenotic self-assembled monolayers (ARSAMs) has been previously demonstrated for delivering drugs from stents without polymeric carriers. ARSAMs have been prepared by coating an anti-restenotic drug (paclitaxel – PAT) on -COOH terminated phosphonic acid self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) coated Co-Cr alloy specimens. This study investigates the effect of different processing methods on the percentage of drug release from ARSAMs. The different methods that were used in this study to process ARSAMs include room temperature (RT) treatment, heat treatment (HT), cold treatment (CT) and quenching. The changes in polymorphism, chemical structure, morphology, and distribution of PAT on SAMs coated specimens were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. DSC showed dihydrate, dehydrated dihydrate, semi-crystalline, and mixed (amorphous and dihydrate) forms of PAT for RT, HT, CT, and quenched specimens, respectively. FTIR showed that the chemical structure of PAT was unaltered in all the specimens processed by various methods employed in this study. SEM showed a mixture of spherical, ovoid, and bean-shaped morphologies of PAT on RT, HT, and CT while particle-like and needle-shaped morphologies of PAT were observed on quenched specimens. AFM showed PAT was uniformly distributed on RT, HT and CT specimens while particle-like PAT was well distributed and needle-shaped PAT was sparsely distributed on quenched specimens. CT specimens showed greater density of PAT crystals when compared to other methods. Thus, this study demonstrated that processing methods have significant influence on the polymorphism, morphology, and distribution of PAT on SAMs coated Co-Cr alloy specimens. The in vitro drug elution studies for up to 56 days showed sustained release for all the different groups of specimens. CT showed lesser percentage of drug release when compared to that of other methods on the first day. The treatment at high temperatures (HT-100 degrees C or HT-140 degrees C) improved the stability of PAT on alloy surfaces and showed lesser percentage of drug release when compared to that of RT or HT-70 degrees C at different time points. Large data scatter was observed for the release profiles of quenched specimens. No other major differences in the percentage of drug release were observed for the specimens prepared by different processing methods. These factors should be taken into consideration when drug delivery platforms are developed for stents or other medical devices. (C) 2012 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.

Biomedical Engineering Program, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Simons, Jeffrey S.Dvorak, Robert D., Merrill, Jennifer E., & Read, Jennifer P. (2012). Dimensions and severity of marijuana consequences: Development and validation of the Marijuana Consequences Questionnaire (MACQ). Addictive Behaviors, 37(5), 613-621.

Abstract: The Marijuana Consequences Questionnaire (MACQ) is a 50-item self-report measure modeled after the Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire (YAACQ). College students (n =315) completed questionnaires online. A confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized 8-factor structure. The results indicate good convergent and discriminant validity of the MACQ. A brief, unidimensional, 21-item version (B-MACQ) was developed by a Rasch model. Comparison of item severity estimates of the B-MACQ items and the corresponding items from the YAACQ indicates that the severity of alcohol- and marijuana-problems is defined by a relatively unique pattern of consequences. The MACQ and B-MACQ provide promising new alternatives to assessing marijuana-related problems.

Psychology Department.

 

Shinozaki, Gen. (2012). The integrated model of serotonin transporter gene variation (5HTTLPR) and the glial cell transporter in stress vulnerability and depression. Medical Hypotheses, 78(3), 410-414.

The serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) promoter polymorphism (5HTTLPR) has been associated with individual stress responses such that individuals with childhood abuse history have higher rates of depression in later life if they are homozygous short (s/s) of the gene. It is hypothesized that these findings could be explained by an integrated model of a role of the glial cell transporter and a functional difference of 5HTTLPR in the capacity of absorbing serotonin from the synapse. A hypothetical integrated model of the SLC6A4 function and the role of glial cells are put forward to explain accumulating results of recent investigations exploring the relationship between the gene and the diverse mental activities including depression and stress response. A model based on SLC6A4 variation is proposed to explain individual differences in stress vulnerability/resilience. The role of the glial cell transporter surrounding the synapse is integrated in the model to understand the modulation of the neurotransmission. It is hypothesized that a synapse with less serotonin transporter contributes to unstable processing in neurotransmission as compared to a synapse with more serotonin transporter. As such, based on functional differences of 5HTTLPR in the expression of the serotonin transporter, it is asserted that individuals with the s/s genotype process neurotransmission differently and in a reactive way. This integrated model of 5HTTLPR and glial cells suggests that the efficacy of serotonin reuptake in the synapse may play a crucial role in variability of neurotransmission, which can lead to differences in the stress response and the pathophysiology of depression. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Shearer, Gregory C.Savinova, Olga V., & Harris, William S. (2012). Fish oil — How does it reduce plasma triglycerides? BBA – Molecular & Cell Biology of Lipids, 1821(5), 843-851.

Abstract: Long chain omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) are effective for reducing plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. At the pharmaceutical dose, 3.4g/day, they reduce plasma TG by about 25–50% after one month of treatment, resulting primarily from the decline in hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-TG) production, and secondarily from the increase in VLDL clearance. Numerous mechanisms have been shown to contribute to the TG overproduction, but a key component is an increase in the availability of FAs in the liver. The liver derives FAs from three sources: diet (delivered via chylomicron remnants), de novo lipogenesis, and circulating non-esterified FAs (NEFAs). Of these, NEFAs contribute the largest fraction to VLDL-TG production in both normotriglyceridemic subjects and hypertriglyceridemic, insulin resistant patients. Thus reducing NEFA delivery to the liver would be a likely locus of action for fish oils (FO). The key regulator of plasma NEFA is intracellular adipocyte lipolysis via hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), which increases as insulin sensitivity worsens. FO counteracts intracellular lipolysis in adipocytes by suppressing adipose tissue inflammation. In addition, FO increases extracellular lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase (LpL) in adipose, heart and skeletal muscle and enhances hepatic and skeletal muscle β-oxidation which contributes to reduced FA delivery to the liver. FO could activate transcription factors which control metabolic pathways in a tissue specific manner regulating nutrient traffic and reducing plasma TG. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Triglyceride Metabolism and Disease.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Sereda, Grigoriy, Marshall, Christopher, Libera, Joseph, Dreessen, James, Grady, Anne, & Turner, Mark. (2012). Effect of Atomic Layer Deposition Support Thickness on Structural Properties and Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane on Alumina- and Titania-Supported Vanadia. Catalysis Letters, 142(4), 399-407.

Engineered solid supports for vanadium catalysts were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of alumina and titania layers on silica. The thickness of these layers was found to have a significant effect on the structure of the solid supports, their interaction with vanadia, and their catalytic performance with regard to oxidative dehydrogenation of propane. The catalytic performance of supported vanadia catalysts is reported for both ALD-engineered and conventional solid supports (γ-AlO and TiO). The analysis results indicated that the engineered supports behave as a separate phase rather than a cross between the base silica and the deposited alumina or titania.

Chemistry Department.

 

Sereda, Grigoriy A., Moorthy, Ramkumar, Basa, Prem N., Sykes, Andrew G., Purohit, Kaushalkumar, Rajpara, Vikul B., et al. (2012). Unexpected Diastereoselective Acetylation of 1,8-Dimethoxyanthracene Adducts with Maleic Anhydride and Dimethyl Maleate EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY /(4), 810-816.

FriedelCrafts acetylation of adducts between 1,8-dimethoxyanthracene and maleic anhydride or dimethyl maleate proceeds with a strong preference toward the syn diastereomer. This stereoselectivity is especially prominent for the anhydride counterpart. Dependence of the observed selectivity on the adduct structure is rationalized by the analysis of computed HOMO energies of the reactants and relative energies of the intermediate s-complexes. The possible undesired intermolecular condensation of the anhydride did not take place because of steric hindrance. Structures of the reaction products were unambiguously confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). The reported stereoselectivity of acetylation provides facile access to compounds with the functionalized benzene ring in a syn arrangement with respect to the pendant carboxyl substituents.

Chemistry Department.

 

Roux, Kyle. J.Kim, Doe In, Raida, M., & Burke, B. (2012). A promiscuous biotin ligase fusion protein identifies proximal and interacting proteins in mammalian cells. Journal of Cell Biology, 196(6), 801-810.

We have developed a new technique for proximity-dependent labeling of proteins in eukaryotic cells. Named BiolD for proximity-dependent biotin identification, this approach is based on fusion of a promiscuous Escherichia coil biotin protein ligase to a targeting protein. BiolD features proximity-dependent biotinylation of proteins that are near-neighbors of the fusion protein. Biotinylated proteins may be isolated by affinity capture and identified by mass spectrometry. We apply BiolD to lamin-A (LaA), a well-characterized intermediate filament protein that is a constituent of the nuclear lamina, an important structural element of the nuclear envelope (NE). We identify multiple proteins that associate with and/or are proximate to LaA in vivo. The most abundant of these include known interactors of LaA that are localized to the NE, as well as a new NE-associated protein named SLAP75. Our results suggest BiolD is a useful and generally applicable method to screen for both interacting and neighboring proteins in their native cellular environment.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Quinn, S. N., Bakos, G. A., Hartman, J., Torres, G., …., Perumpilly, Gopan, et al. (2012). HAT-P-25b: A HOT-JUPITER TRANSITING A MODERATELY FAINT G STAR. Astrophysical Journal, 745(1).

We report the discovery of HAT-P-25b, a transiting extrasolar planet orbiting the V = 13.19 G5 dwarf star GSC 1788-01237, with a period P = 3.652836 +/- 0.000019 days, transit epoch T-c = 2455176.85173 +/- 0.00047 (BJD-barycentric Julian dates throughout the paper are calculated from Coordinated Universal Time, UTC), and transit duration 0.1174 +/- 0.0017 days. The host star has a mass of 1.01 +/- 0.03 M-circle dot, radius of 0.96(-0.04)(+0.05)R(circle dot), effective temperature 5500 +/- 80 K, and metallicity [Fe/H] = +0.31 +/- 0.08. The planetary companion has a mass of 0.567 +/- 0.022 M-J and radius of 1.190(-0.056)(+0.081) R-J yielding a mean density of 0.42 +/- 0.07 g cm(-3).

Physics Department.

 

 

Parodi, Claudia, Luna, Kenneth V., & Helmer, Ángela. (2012). El leísmo en América y en España: bifurcación de una norma. Bulletin of Hispanic Studies (1475-3839), 89(3), 217-236.

En el presente trabajo, analizamos la trayectoria del leísmo en América Latina. En España, la distribución dialectal así como la historia del leísmo han sido estudiadas a fondo, mientras que la diacronía del leísmo en América es poco conocida y apenas existen trabajos sobre el tema. Por medio de un análisis sistemático de textos tanto españoles, pertenecientes a los siglos XII-XVIII, como latinoamericanos, específicamente mexicanos y peruanos de los siglos XVI-XXI, hemos seguido el recorrido de este fenómeno en Latinoamérica desde su inicio hasta su (casi) desaparición en el español estándar latinoamericano. En el estudio, tomamos también en cuenta la norma académica y su influencia en el habla de América, así como las razones sociales que pudieron haber conllevado a su eliminación.

Modern Languages Department.

 

Lynch, Douglas W.Verma, RashmiLarson, EricGeis, Michael C., & Jassim, Ali D.(2012). Primary cutaneous mantle cell lymphoma with blastic features: report of a rare case with special reference to staging and effectiveness of chemotherapy. Journal of cutaneous pathology, 39(4), 449-453.

We describe a case of blastic primary cutaneous mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) in an 83-year-old male with a complex medical history. The patient presented to his primary care physician with a nodular erythematous skin eruption on his thighs. Histopathologic examination showed a diffuse lymphoid infiltrate of intermediate to large cells that involved the dermis and subcutis but spared the epidermis. Immunohistochemical staining showed expression of CD20, CD5 and cyclin-D1. The lymphoma cells were negative for CD10 and CD23. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed a characteristic translocation [t(11;14)(q13;q32)], which is diagnostic of MCL. Cutaneous involvement by MCL is typically secondary because of widespread disease, and primary cutaneous MCL can only be diagnosed in the absence of extracutaneous involvement. Primary cutaneous MCL is extremely rare and requires proper clinical staging. In this case, clinical staging revealed no evidence of bone marrow or peripheral blood involvement, and positron emission tomography (PET) scan revealed weak, abnormal uptake only in a few cervical lymph nodes. Because of the lack of disseminated involvement, we favor the lesion to be a primary cutaneous MCL. Lynch DW, Verma R, Larson E, Geis MC, Jassim AD. Primary cutaneous mantle cell lymphoma with blastic features: report of a rare case with special reference to staging and effectiveness of chemotherapy. Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux FallsCampus.

 

Li, W., & Keifer, Joyce. (2012). RAPID ENRICHMENT OF PRESYNAPTIC PROTEIN IN BOUTONS UNDERGOING CLASSICAL CONDITIONING IS MEDIATED BY BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR. Neuroscience, 203, 50-58.

Presynaptic structural modifications are thought to accompany activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and learning. This may involve the conversion of nonfunctional synapses into active ones or the generation of entirely new synapses. Here, using an in vitro neural analog of classical conditioning, we investigated presynaptic structural changes restricted to auditory nerve synapses that convey the conditioned stimulus (CS) by tract tracing using fluorescent tracers combined with immunostaining for the synaptic vesicle-associated protein synaptophysin. The results show that the size of presynaptic auditory boutons increased and the area and fluorescence intensity of punctate staining for synaptophysin were enhanced after conditioning. This occurred only for auditory nerve boutons apposed to the dendrites but not the somata of abducens motor neurons. Conditioning increased the percentage of boutons that were immunopositive for synaptophysin and enhanced the number of synaptophysin puncta they contained. Pretreatment with antibodies against brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) inhibited these conditioning-induced structural changes. There was also a net increase in the number of boutons apposed to abducens motor neurons after conditioning or BDNF treatment. These data indicate that the rapid enrichment of presynaptic boutons with proteins required for neurotransmitter recycling and release occurs during classical conditioning and that these processes are mediated by BDNF. (C) 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillon Campus.

 

Lauritzen, B., Timoney, N., Gisin, N., Afzelius, M., De Riedmatten, H., Sun, Y., et al. (2012). Spectroscopic investigations of Eu3+:Y2SiO5 for quantum memory applications. Physical Review B, 85(11).

Rare-earth-ion-doped solids are promising materials as light-matter interfaces for quantum applications. Europium doped into an yttrium orthosilicate crystal in particular has interesting coherence properties and a suitable ground-state energy-level structure for a quantum memory for light. In this paper we report on spectroscopic investigations of this material from the perspective of implementing an atomic frequency comb (AFC)-type quantum memory with spin-wave storage. For this goal we determine the order of the hyperfine levels in the F-7(0) ground state and D-5(0) excited state, and we measure the relative strengths of the optical transitions between these levels. We also apply spectral hole burning techniques in order to prepare the system as a well-defined Lambda system, as required for further quantum memory experiments. Furthermore, we measure the optical Rabi frequency on one of the strongest hyperfine transitions, a crucial experimental parameter for the AFC protocol. From this we also obtain a value for the transition dipole moment which is consistent with that obtained from absorption measurements.

Physics Department.

 

Kruer, M. C.Boddaert, N.Schneider, S. A.Houlden, H.Bhatia, K. P.Gregory, A., et al. (2012). Neuroimaging features of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology, 33(3), 407-414.

SUMMARY: NBIA characterizes a class of neurodegenerative diseases that feature a prominent extrapyramidal movement disorder, intellectual deterioration, and a characteristic deposition of iron in the basal ganglia. The diagnosis of NBIA is made on the basis of the combination of representative clinical features along with MR imaging evidence of iron accumulation. In many cases, confirmatory molecular genetic testing is now available as well. A number of new subtypes of NBIA have recently been described, with distinct neuroradiologic and clinical features. This article outlines the known subtypes of NBIA, delineates their clinical and radiographic features, and suggests an algorithm for evaluation.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Kovash, Curtiss S., Hoefelmeyer, James D., & Logue, Brian A. (2012). TiO2 compact layers prepared by low temperature colloidal synthesis and deposition for high performance dye-sensitized solar cells. Electrochimica Acta, 67, 18-23.

Abstract: Compact layers are used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to passivate transparent conducting oxides (TCOs). TCO passivation increases DSSC performance by reducing electrical loss from recombination at the TCO-electrolyte interface and by improving electrical contact between the TCO and TiO2 photoelectrode. A novel process for synthesis of 4.5nm colloidal TiO2 compact layer particles via acid hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide was developed. DSSCs fabricated with the colloidal TiO2 compact layer, with no compact layer, and those with an RF-sputtered compact layer were evaluated. Relative to a DSSC with no compact layer, the colloidal compact layer improved the short-circuit current density, fill factor, and solar energy conversion efficiency by 17.6%, 4.4%, and 25.3%, respectively. Relative to the sputtered compact layer, the colloidal compact layer improved the short-circuit current density and solar energy conversion efficiency by 5.5% and 5.3%, respectively, with no significant change in the fill factor. The improved DSSC characteristics were attributed to increased shunt resistance due to decreased electrolyte reduction at the TCO-electrolyte interface and decreased series resistance due to improved electrical contact between the TCO and the TiO2 photoelectrode.

Chemistry Department.

 

Jang, Yuri, Park, Nan Sook, Kim, Giyeon, Kwag, Kyung Hwa, Roh, Soonhee, & Chiriboga, David A. (2012). The association between self-rated mental health and symptoms of depression in Korean American older adults. Aging & Mental Health, 16(4), 481-485.

Objective: The study examined the association of self-rated mental health (SRMH) with three measures of depressive symptoms (the short form CES-D, GDS-SF, and PHQ-9) in Korean American older adults. Method: The sample consisted of 420 community-dwelling Korean American older adults (M age = 71.6, SD = 7.59) in the New York City metropolitan area. Hierarchical regression models of SRMH were estimated with an array of predictors: (a) sociodemographic characteristics, (b) physical health-related variables, and (c) each of the three depressive symptom measures. Results: The three measures of depressive symptoms were interrelated, and each of them made a significant contribution to the multivariate models of SRMH. The amount of variance explained by the short-form CES-D, GDS-SF, and PHQ-9 was 11%, 10%, and 16%, respectively. Conclusion: Findings show a moderately strong linkage between the measures of depressive symptoms and SRMH and invite further research on SRMH in diverse populations.

School of Health Sciences.

 

Han, YulunDai, FengrongSykes, Andrew G.May, P. StanleyBerry, Mary T.Meng, Qingguo, et al. (2012). catena-Poly 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium dichlorido(methanol-kappaO)(propan-2-ol-kappaO)lanthanate(III) -di-mu-chlorido. Acta crystallographica. Section E, Structure reports online, 68(Pt 3), m292-293.

The title compound, (C(8)H(15)N(2))[LaCl(4)(CH(3)OH)(C(3)H(7)OH)], consists of one 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium (BMI(+)) cation and one hexa-hedral tetra-chlorido(methanol)(propan-2-ol)lanthanate anion. The La(III) ion is eight-coordinate, with the La(III) ion bridged by a pair of Cl atoms, so forming chains propagating along the a-axis direction. Each La(III) ion is further coordinated by two isolated Cl atoms, one methanol and one propan-2-ol mol-ecule. The coordinated methanol and propan-2-ol mol-ecules of the anion form O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds with the Cl atoms of inversion-related anions. The BMI(+) cation froms C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds with the Cl atoms of the anion. The anions are located in the C faces of the triclinic unit cell, with an inversion center in the middle of the La(2)Cl(2) ring of the polymeric chain.

Chemistry Department.

 

Fiegen, Michael M.Benson, Kevin D.Hanson, Jessica D.Prasek, JenniferHansen, Keith A., & Vaneerden, Peter. (2012). The prevalence of urinary incontinence in American Indian women from a South Dakota tribe. International urogynecology journal, 23(4), 473-479.

The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the prevalence and associated risk factors for urinary incontinence in a Northern Plains tribe of American Indian women. The Urogenital Distress Inventory-Short Form was used to assess urinary incontinence in a sample of American Indian women from one tribe. This was a cross-sectional convenience sampling of 234 eligible participants. Participant’s ages ranged from 18 to 80years. Stata/Se 9.1 software was used in statistical analysis. The overall prevalence of urinary stress incontinence was 15.4%, urgency incontinence 2.14%, and mixed incontinence 20.5%. Both stress and urgency incontinence was found to be low in this sample population. A reduced prevalence of stress and urgency incontinence is seen in our sample. Our study group showed a high prevalence of known risk factors associated with urinary incontinence. We intend to extend our study for further understanding of this patient population.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Cwach, Kevin T.Sandbulte, Heather R.Klonoski, Joshua M., & Huber, Victor C.(2012). Contribution of murine innate serum inhibitors toward interference within influenza virus immune assays. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, 6(2), 127-135.

Background Prior to detection of an antibody response toward influenza viruses using the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI), sera are routinely treated to inactivate innate inhibitors using both heat inactivation (56 degrees C) and recombinant neuraminidase [receptor-destroying enzyme (RDE)]. Objectives We revisited the contributions of innate serum inhibitors toward interference with influenza viruses in immune assays, using murine sera, with emphasis on the interactions with influenza A viruses of the H3N2 subtype. Methods We used individual serum treatments: 56 degrees C alone, RDE alone, or RDE + 56 degrees C, to treat sera prior to evaluation within HAI, microneutralization, and macrophage uptake assays. Results Our data demonstrate that inhibitors present within untreated murine sera interfere with the HAI assay in a manner that is different from that seen for the microneutralization assay. Specifically, the gamma class inhibitor alpha(2)- Macroglobulin (A2-M) can inhibit H3N2 viruses within the HAI assay, but not in the microneutralization assay. Based on these findings, we used a macrophage uptake assay to demonstrate that these inhibitors can increase uptake by macrophages when the influenza viruses express an HA from a 1968 H3N2 virus isolate, but not a 1997 H3N2 isolate. Conclusions The practice of treating sera to inactivate innate inhibitors of influenza viruses prior to evaluation within immune assays has allowed us to effectively detect influenza virus- specific antibodies for decades. However, this practice has yielded an under- appreciation for the contribution of innate serum inhibitors toward host immune responses against these viruses, including contributions toward neutralization and macrophage uptake.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Berdahl, John P.Fleischman, DavidZaydlarova, JanaStinnett, SandraAllingham, R. Rand, & Fautsch, Michael P. (2012). Body mass index has a linear relationship with cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 53(3), 1422-1427.

Purpose. To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), as low BMI and low CSFP have recently been described as risk factors for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods. This was a retrospective review of the electronic medical records of patients who had CSFP measured by lumbar puncture and data to calculate BMI at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN). Exclusion criteria included diagnoses, surgical procedures and medications known to affect CSFP. Mean CSFP for each unit BMI was calculated. The probabilities were two-tailed, and the alpha level was set at P < 0.05. Patients with documented BMI, CSFP, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were analyzed for the relationship between IOP and BMI. Results. A total of 4235 patients, primarily of Caucasian descent, met the entry criteria. Median BMI was 26 and the mean CSFP was 10.9 2.6 mm Hg. The increase in CSFP with increasing BMI was linear with an r(2) = 0.20 (P < 0.001). CSFP increased by 37.7% from BMI 18 (8.6 2.1 mm Hg) to BMI 39 (14.1 2.5 mm Hg). The r(2) (0.21) of the model of BMI and sex was similar to the r(2) of a BMI-only model (0.20). There was no relation between IOP and BMI within a subgroup of the study population (r (2) = 0.005; P = 0.14). Conclusions. CSFP has a positive, linear relationship with BMI. IOP is not influenced by BMI. If CSFP influences the risk for POAG, then individuals with a lower BMI may have an increased risk for developing POAG. Similarly, a higher BMI may be protective.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Baugh, Lee A., & Flanagan, J. R. (2012). Motor Memory: When Plans Speak Louder Than Actions. Current Biology, 22(5), R155-R157.

A new study demonstrates that separate motor memories can be learned and remembered for two physically identical movements, provided that those movements have different goals.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Åse, Fagerlund, Ilona, Autti-Rämö, Mirjam, Kalland, Pekka, Santtila, Eugene, Hoyme, Sarah, Mattson, et al. (2012). Adaptive behaviour in children and adolescents with foetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a comparison with specific learning disability and typical development. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 21(4), 221-231.

Foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is a leading cause of intellectual disability in the western world. Children and adolescents with FASD are often exposed to a double burden in life, as their neurological sequelae are accompanied by adverse living surroundings exposing them to further environmental risk. In the present study, the adaptive abilities of a group of children and adolescents with FASD were examined using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS) and compared to those of a group of IQ-matched children with specific learning disorder (SLD) as well as with typically developing controls (CON). The results showed significantly different adaptive abilities among the groups: Children with FASD performed worse than IQ-matched children with SLD, who in turn performed worse than typically developing children on all domains (communication, daily living skills and socialization) on the VABS. Compared to the other groups, social skills declined with age in the FASD group. These results support previous studies of adaptive behaviour deficits in children with FASD and provide further evidence of the specificity of these deficits. On a societal level, more efforts and resources should be focused on recognizing and diagnosing FASD and supporting communication skills, daily living skills and most of all social skills across diagnostic groups within FASD. Without adequate intervention, adolescents and young adults with FASD run a great risk of marginalization and social maladjustment, costly not only to society but also to the lives of the many young people with FASD.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Akerib, D. S., Bai, X., …., Mei, D., …, & Zhang, C. (2012). Data acquisition and readout system for the LUX dark matter experiment. Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section a-Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment, 668, 1-8.

LUX is a two-phase (liquid/gas) xenon time projection chamber designed to detect nuclear recoils from interactions with dark matter particles. Signals from the LUX detector are processed by custom-built analog electronics which provide properly shaped signals for the trigger and data acquisition (DAQ) systems. The DAQ is composed of commercial digitizers with firmware customized for the LUX experiment. Data acquisition systems in rare-event searches must accommodate high rate and large dynamic range during precision calibrations involving radioactive sources, while also delivering low threshold for maximum sensitivity. The LUX DAQ meets these challenges using real-time baseline suppression that allows for a maximum event acquisition rate in excess of 1.5 kHz with virtually no deadtime. This paper describes the LUX DAQ and the novel acquisition techniques employed in the LUX experiment. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Physics Department.

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