Posted by: reganenosusd | March 21, 2016

February – March 2016

Garelik, Steven, & X. T. Wang. (2016). Multiple framing: Verbal, facial, and vocal cues in risky choice. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making.

Verbal framing effects have been widely studied, but little is known about how people react to multiple framing cues in risk communication, where verbal messages are often accompanied by facial and vocal cues. We examined joint and differential effects of verbal, facial, and vocal framing on risk preference in hypothetical monetary and life–death situations. In the multiple framing condition with the factorial design (2 verbal frames × 2 vocal tones × 4 basic facial expressions × 2 task domains), each scenario was presented auditorily with a written message on a photo of the messenger’s face. Compared with verbal framing effects resulting in preference reversal, multiple frames made risky choice more consistent and shifted risk preference without reversal. Moreover, a positive tone of voice increased risk‐seeking preference in women. When the valence of facial and vocal cues was incongruent with verbal frame, verbal framing effects were significant. In contrast, when the affect cues were congruent with verbal frame, framing effects disappeared. These results suggest that verbal framing is given higher priority when other affect cues are incongruent. Further analysis revealed that participants were more risk‐averse when positive affect cues (positive tone or facial expressions) were congruently paired with a positive verbal frame whereas participants were more risk‐seeking when positive affect cues were incongruent with the verbal frame. In contrast, for negative affect cues, congruency promoted risk‐seeking tendency whereas incongruency increased risk‐aversion. Overall, the results show that facial and vocal cues interact with verbal framing and significantly affect risk communication. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Pan, Y. Q., R. Z. Liu, Erin Terpstra, Yanqing Wang, Fangfang Qiao, J. Wang, . . . Bo Pan. (2016). Dysregulation and Diagnostic Potential of microRNA in Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Alzheimers Disease, 49(1), 1-12.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases and is considered to be the main cause of cognitive impairment in elderly people. The major symptom of AD is progressive dementia that eventually results in dysfunction of daily life. Due to the fact that AD has a long period of incubation before clinical symptoms emerge, the available therapeutic treatments can only improve the symptoms but not delay the progression of AD. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore effective diagnostic approaches to catch and better treat the disease before clinical symptoms appear. Recent research revealed that abnormal expression of certain miRNA could have a crucial role in the pathological process of neurodegenerative disease including AD. Furthermore, given that AD patients show increased level of miRNAs in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, miRNAs are considered promising non-invasive candidates for AD diagnosis and prognosis. Here, we reviewed the current research related to implications of miRNAs during the development of AD, summarized of actively used approaches to identifying potential miRNA biomarkers in body fluids, and discussed the diagnostic potential of microRNAs as biomarkers for AD.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Mdaki, Kennedy S., Tricia D. Larsen, Lucinda J. Weaver, & Michelle L. Baack. (2016). Age Related Bioenergetics Profiles in Isolated Rat Cardiomyocytes Using Extracellular Flux Analyses. PLoS ONE, 11(2), 1-16.

Mitochondrial dysfunction is increasingly recognized and studied as a mediator of heart disease. Extracellular flux analysis (XF) has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate cellular bioenergetics in the context of cardiac health and disease, however its use and interpretation requires improved understanding of the normal metabolic differences in cardiomyocytes (CM) at various stages of maturation. This study standardized XF analyses methods (mitochondrial stress test, glycolytic stress test and palmitate oxidation test) and established age related differences in bioenergetics profiles of healthy CMs at newborn (NB1), weaning (3WK), adult (10WK) and aged (12–18MO) time points. Findings show that immature CMs demonstrate a more robust and sustained glycolytic capacity and a relative inability to oxidize fatty acids when compared to older CMs. The study also highlights the need to recognize the contribution of CO2 from the Krebs cycle as well as lactate from anaerobic glycolysis to the proton production rate before interpreting glycolytic capacity in CMs. Overall, this study demonstrates that caution should be taken to assure that translatable developmental time points are used to investigate mitochondrial dysfunction as a cause of cardiac disease. Specifically, XF analysis of newborn CMs should be reserved to study fetal/neonatal disease and older CMs (≥10 weeks) should be used to investigate adult disease pathogenesis. Knowledge gained will aid in improved investigation of developmentally programmed heart disease and stress the importance of discerning maturational differences in bioenergetics when developing mitochondrial targeted preventative and therapeutic strategies for cardiac disease.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Harris, William S., Juhua Luo, James V. Pottala, Karen L. Margolis, Mark A. Espeland, & Jennifer G. Robinson. (2016). Red Blood Cell Fatty Acids and Incident Diabetes Mellitus in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study. PLoS ONE, 11(2), 1-17.

Context: The relations between dietary and/or circulating levels of fatty acids and the development of type 2 diabetes is unclear. Protective associations with the marine omega-3 fatty acids and linoleic acid, and with a marker of fatty acid desaturase activity delta-5 desaturase (D5D ratio) have been reported, as have adverse relations with saturated fatty acids and D6D ratio. Objective: To determine the associations between red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid distributions and incident type 2 diabetes. Design: Prospective observational cohort study nested in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study. Setting: General population. Subjects: Postmenopausal women. Main Outcome Measures: Self-reported incident type 2 diabetes. Results: There were 703 new cases of type 2 diabetes over 11 years of follow up among 6379 postmenopausal women. In the fully adjusted models, baseline RBC D5D ratio was inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes [Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81–0.95) per 1 SD increase. Similarly, baseline RBC D6D ratio and palmitic acid were directly associated with incident type 2 diabetes (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04–1.25; and HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.14–1.35, respectively). None of these relations were materially altered by excluding incident cases in the first two years of follow-up. There were no significant relations with eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic or linoleic acids. Conclusions: Whether altered fatty acid desaturase activities or palmitic acid levels are causally related to the development of type 2 diabetes cannot be determined from this study, but our findings suggest that proportions of certain fatty acids in RBC membranes are associated with risk for type 2 diabetes.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Druzinsky, Robert E., James P. Balhoff, Alfred W. Crompton, …., Paula M. Mabee, Hans-Michael Muller, . . . Christine E. Wall. (2016). Muscle Logic: New Knowledge Resource for Anatomy Enables Comprehensive Searches of the Literature on the Feeding Muscles of Mammals. PLoS ONE, 11(2), 1-19.

Background: In recent years large bibliographic databases have made much of the published literature of biology available for searches. However, the capabilities of the search engines integrated into these databases for text-based bibliographic searches are limited. To enable searches that deliver the results expected by comparative anatomists, an underlying logical structure known as an ontology is required. Development and Testing of the Ontology: Here we present the Mammalian Feeding Muscle Ontology (MFMO), a multi-species ontology focused on anatomical structures that participate in feeding and other oral/pharyngeal behaviors. A unique feature of the MFMO is that a simple, computable, definition of each muscle, which includes its attachments and innervation, is true across mammals. This construction mirrors the logical foundation of comparative anatomy and permits searches using language familiar to biologists. Further, it provides a template for muscles that will be useful in extending any anatomy ontology. The MFMO is developed to support the Feeding Experiments End-User Database Project (FEED, ), a publicly-available, online repository for physiological data collected from in vivo studies of feeding (e.g., mastication, biting, swallowing) in mammals. Currently the MFMO is integrated into FEED and also into two literature-specific implementations of Textpresso, a text-mining system that facilitates powerful searches of a corpus of scientific publications. We evaluate the MFMO by asking questions that test the ability of the ontology to return appropriate answers (competency questions). We compare the results of queries of the MFMO to results from similar searches in PubMed and Google Scholar. Results and Significance: Our tests demonstrate that the MFMO is competent to answer queries formed in the common language of comparative anatomy, but PubMed and Google Scholar are not. Overall, our results show that by incorporating anatomical ontologies into searches, an expanded and anatomically comprehensive set of results can be obtained. The broader scientific and publishing communities should consider taking up the challenge of semantically enabled search capabilities.

Biology Department.

Jackson, K. H., J. Polreis, L. Sanborn, D. Chaima, & William S. Harris. (2016). Analysis of breast milk fatty acid composition using dried milk samples. International Breastfeeding Journal, 11, 7.

Background: The effect of breast milk fatty acid (FA) composition, particularly levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on infant health outcomes is unclear. Part of the reason for this is difficulties in collecting, storing and shipping milk samples to the laboratory. Here we report the validation of a dried milk spot (DMS) system to measure FA composition to help overcome these obstacles. Milk FA were measured by gas chromatography and reported as percent of total FA; the FA of primary interest in this study were DHA and industrially produced trans FA (iTFA). Experiments were carried out using pooled milk samples from US (n = 5) and Malawian women (n = 50). Experiments compared liquid vs. DMS samples (n = 55), assessed stability of FA composition under different storage conditions (n = 5), and compared the results from two different labs using the same methods (n = 5). Results: Both % DHA and % iTFA levels in liquid and DMS samples were strongly correlated (R-2 = 0.99 and 0.99, respectively, P < 0.0001). The % DHA in DMS samples was stable for up to four weeks at room temperature and up to three years at -80 degrees C; only slight deviations from the acceptable range of variability (+/- 15 %) occurred in the 4 degrees C and -20 degrees C conditions for % DHA. The % iTFA was stable under all conditions. All % DHA and % iTFA were within 15 % of the referent when analyzed in two laboratories. Conclusions: Valid FA composition values can be obtained from DMS samples using this robust collection and transport system which should facilitate studies of the role of milk FA composition in infant development.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Ujvari, G., T. Stevens, A. Svensson, …., Mark R. Sweeney, M. Gocke, . . . M. Zech. (2015). Two possible source regions for central Greenland last glacial dust. Geophysical Research Letters, 42(23), 10.

Dust in Greenland ice cores is used to reconstruct the activity of dust-emitting regions and atmospheric circulation. However, the source of dust material to Greenland over the last glacial period is the subject of considerable uncertainty. Here we use new clay mineral and < 10 mu m Sr-Nd isotopic data from a range of Northern Hemisphere loess deposits in possible source regions alongside existing isotopic data to show that these methods cannot discriminate between two competing hypothetical origins for Greenland dust: an East Asian and/or central European source. In contrast, Hf isotopes (< 10 mu m fraction) of loess samples show considerable differences between the potential source regions. We attribute this to a first-order clay mineralogy dependence of Hf isotopic signatures in the finest silt/clay fractions, due to absence of zircons. As zircons would also be absent in Greenland dust, this provides a new way to discriminate between hypotheses for Greenland dust sources.

Earth Sciences Department.

Jiang, L. L., D. Zang, S. G. Yi, …., Xuejun Wang, & J. B. Liu. (2016). A microRNA-mediated decrease in eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha promotes cell survival during PS-341 treatment. Scientific Reports, 6, 12.

MicroRNAs (miRs) play pivotal roles in carcinogenesis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that performs the folding, modification and trafficking of proteins targeted to the secretory pathway. Cancer cells often endure ER stress during tumor progression but use the adaptive ER stress response to gain survival advantage. Here we report: (i) A group of miRs, including miR-30b-5p and miR-30c-5p, are upregulated by proteasome inhibitor PS-341 treatment, in HepG2 and MDA-MB-453 cells. (ii) Two representative PS-341-induced miRs: miR-30b-5p and miR-30c-5p are found to promote cell proliferation and antiapoptosis in both tumor cells. (iii) eIF2 alpha is confirmed as the congenerous target of miR-30b-5p and miR-30c-5p, essential to the anti-apoptotic function of these miRs. (iv) Upregulation of miR-30b-5p or miR-30c-5p, which occurs latter than the increase of phosphorylated eIF2 alpha (p-eIF2 alpha) in the cell under ER stress, suppresses the p-eIF2 alpha/ATF4/CHOP pro-apoptotic pathway. (v) Inhibition of the miR-30b-5p or miR-30c-5p sensitizes the cancer cells to the cytotoxicity of proteasome inhibition. In conclusion, we unravels a new miRs-based mechanism that helps maintain intracellular proteostasis and promote cell survival during ER stress through upregulation of miR-30b-5p and miR-30c-5p which target eIF2 alpha and thereby inhibit the p-eIF2 alpha/ATF4/CHOP pro-apoptotic pathway, identifying miR-30b-5p and miR-30c-5p as potentially new targets for anti-cancer therapies.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Savinov, Alexi Y., Maryam Salehi, M. C. Yadav, I. Radichev, J. L. Millan, & O. V. Savinova. (2015). Transgenic Overexpression of Tissue-Nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase (TNAP) in Vascular Endothelium Results in Generalized Arterial Calcification. Journal of the American Heart Association, 4(12), 13.

Background-Ectopic vascular calcification is a common condition associated with aging, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and/or chronic kidney disease. Smooth muscle cells are the best characterized source of osteogenic progenitors in the vasculature; however, recent studies suggest that cells of endothelial origin can also promote calcification. To test this, we sought to increase the osteogenic potential of endothelial cells by overexpressing tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), a key enzyme that regulates biomineralization, and to determine the pathophysiological effect of endothelial TNAP on vascular calcification and cardiovascular function. Methods and Results-We demonstrated previously that mice transgenic for ALPL (gene encoding human TNAP) develop severe arterial medial calcification and reduced viability when TNAP is overexpressed in smooth muscle cells. In this study, we expressed the ALPL transgene in endothelial cells following endothelial-specific Tie2-Cre recombination. Mice with endothelial TNAP overexpression survived well into adulthood and displayed generalized arterial calcification. Genes associated with osteochondrogenesis (Runx2, Bglap, Spp1, Opg, and Col2a1) were upregulated in the aortas of endothelial TNAP animals compared with controls. Lesions in coronary arteries of endothelial TNAP mice showed immunoreactivity to Runx2, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and collagen II as well as increased deposition of sialoproteins revealed by lectin staining. By 23 weeks of age, endothelial TNAP mice developed elevated blood pressure and compensatory left ventricular hypertrophy with preserved ejection fraction. Conclusions-This study presented a novel genetic model demonstrating the osteogenic potential of TNAP-positive endothelial cells in promoting pathophysiological vascular calcification.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Edmunds, R. C., B. F. Su, J. P. Balhoff, B. F. Eames, Waslia M. Dahdul, …., . . . M. Westerfield. (2016). Phenoscape: Identifying Candidate Genes for Evolutionary Phenotypes. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 33(1), 13-24.

Phenotypes resulting from mutations in genetic model organisms can help reveal candidate genes for evolutionarily important phenotypic changes in related taxa. Although testing candidate gene hypotheses experimentally in nonmodel organisms is typically difficult, ontology-driven information systems can help generate testable hypotheses about developmental processes in experimentally tractable organisms. Here, we tested candidate gene hypotheses suggested by expert use of the Phenoscape Knowledgebase, specifically looking for genes that are candidates responsible for evolutionarily interesting phenotypes in the ostariophysan fishes that bear resemblance to mutant phenotypes in zebrafish. For this, we searched ZFIN for genetic perturbations that result in either loss of basihyal element or loss of scales phenotypes, because these are the ancestral phenotypes observed in catfishes (Siluriformes). We tested the identified candidate genes by examining their endogenous expression patterns in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. The experimental results were consistent with the hypotheses that these features evolved through disruption in developmental pathways at, or upstream of, brpf1 and eda/edar for the ancestral losses of basihyal element and scales, respectively. These results demonstrate that ontological annotations of the phenotypic effects of genetic alterations in model organisms, when aggregated within a knowledgebase, can be used effectively to generate testable, and useful, hypotheses about evolutionary changes in morphology.

Biology Department.

Raynie, Douglas E. (2016). Surfactant-Mediated Extractions, Part I: Cloud-Point Extraction. Lc Gc North America, 34(1), 14-+.

Chemistry Department.

Dixon, Mark D., & J. C. Stella. (2016). Temporal variability in hydrology modifies the influence of geomorphology on wetland distribution along a desert stream: a commentary on Dong et al. (2016). Journal of Ecology, 104(1), 31-32.

Biology Department.

Geske, Savannah, Randal Quevillon, Cindy Struckman-Johnson, & Keith Hansen. (2016). Comparisons of Contraceptive Use between Rural and Urban Teens. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 29(1), 33-41.

Study Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine if barriers in rural areas might decrease an adolescent’s likelihood of obtaining effective contraception. Previous studies have reported mixed results in comparisons of rural and urban contraception use. Design: Electronic survey. Setting: Midwestern Public University. Participants: Undergraduate and graduate women. Interventions: Questionnaire. Main Outcome Measures: Participants retrospectively recalled their contraceptive use and barriers to contraceptive use between the 9th and 12th grades. Results: A Barriers to Contraception Use Scale was created using exploratory factor analysis and yielded 31 questions with 1 underlying factor: barriers. Participants were identified as rural or urban using the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) definition and the participant’s self-identification. Overall, rural participants endorsed more barriers to accessing contraceptives than urban participants using the OMB definition (chi(2) (2; n = 388) = 2.04; P < .05), and self-identification (chi(2) (2; n = 398) = 2.37; P < .05). However, no differences were found in contraception use according to the OMB definition, t (380) = -1.90; P = .06, or self-identification, t (380) = -2.11; P > .05. The Barriers to Contraception Use Scale total score predicted whether an individual would have a prescription for contraceptives 70.5% of the time compared to the base rate of 54.1%. Conclusion: Although no rural-urban differences in actual contraception use were found, rural participants reported more barriers to accessing contraception, and those who endorsed more barriers were less likely to obtain contraceptives while in high school. Pregnancy prevention programs should thus take these barriers into account when developing future interventions.

Psychology Department.

Deitsch, E., E. M. Hibbard, & Jason L. Petersen. (2016). The UVS9 gene of Chlamydomonas encodes an XPG homolog with a new conserved domain. DNA Repair, 37, 33-42.

Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a key pathway for removing DNA damage that destabilizes the DNA double helix. During NER a protein complex coordinates to cleave the damaged DNA strand on both sides of the damage. The resulting lesion-containing oligonucleotide is displaced from the DNA and a replacement strand is synthesized using the undamaged strand as template. Ultraviolet (UV) light is known to induce two primary forms of DNA damage, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer and the 64 photoproduct, both of which destabilize the DNA double helix. The uvs9 strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was isolated based on its sensitivity to UV light and was subsequently shown to have a defect in NER. In this work, the UVS9 gene was cloned through molecular mapping and shown to encode a homolog of XPG, the structure-specific nuclease responsible for cleaving damaged DNA strands 3′ to sites of damage during NER. 3′ RACE revealed that the UVS9 transcript is alternatively polyadenylated. The predicted UVS9 protein is nearly twice as long as other XPG homologs, primarily due to an unusually long spacer region. Despite this difference, amino acid sequence alignment of UVS9p with XPG homologs revealed a new conserved domain involved in TFIIH interaction. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Gaher, Raluca M., C. O’Brien, P. Smiley, & Austin M. Hahn. (2016). Alexithymia, Coping Styles and Traumatic Stress Symptoms in a Sample of Veterans Who Experienced Military Sexual Trauma. Stress and Health, 32(1), 55-62.

The current study examined the association between alexithymia and coping styles (planning, positive reinterpretation and growth, social-emotion coping, and denial), and trauma symptoms in a clinical sample of 170 male and female veterans who experienced sexual trauma during military service. Denial was the only coping style positively associated with trauma symptoms, and it mediated the relationship between alexithymia and trauma symptoms. Alexithymia was negatively associated with planning. Likewise, alexithymia was negatively associated with social-emotional coping and with positive reinterpretation and growth. The results speak to the significant role that alexithymia has in predicting individual coping styles. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Psychology Department.

Harris, William S., K. F. Kennedy, T. M. Maddox, S. Kutty, & J. A. Spertus. (2016). Multiple differences between patients who initiate fish oil supplementation post-myocardial infarction and those who do not: the TRIUMPH Study. Nutrition Research, 36(1), 65-71.

The utility of fish oil supplements (FOS) in patients who survive an acute myocardial infarction (MI) remains controversial, with randomized trials showing less benefit than observational studies would suggest. The differences in the characteristics of MI patients who use FOS in routine clinical care are unknown but may help explain this discrepancy. We used data from a 24-site registry study in which extensive information was available on 4340 MI patients at admission and 1, 6, and 12 months postdischarge. After excluding those using FOS at admission (n = 651), those who died before the 1-month follow-up visit (n = 63), and those with missing data at 1 month (n = 1228), 2398 remained. Of them, 377 (16%) started FOS within 1 month of their MI. We analyzed 53 patient characteristics associated with FOS use. We observed differences (P < .001) in 20 demographic, socioeconomic, treatment, disease severity, and health status domains. The FOS users were more likely than nonusers to be white, married, financially secure, highly educated, and eating fish. They also had a higher ejection fraction at discharge, were more likely to have had in hospital percutaneous coronary interventions, and were more likely to have participated in cardiac rehabilitation programs. The FOS users were less likely to have a history of diabetes, alcohol abuse, stroke, MI, and angina. In conclusion, post-MI patients who initiate FOS within 1 month of discharge in routine clinical practice differ substantially from those who do not. These differences are strongly associated with a better post-MI prognosis and may illuminate several sources of unmeasured confounding in observational studies. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Allgrunn, Michael, & Christopher C. Douglas. (2015). The Impact of Smoking Bans on Bar and Restaurant Values. Journal of Economics (03616576), 41(2), 67-81.

The state of Florida implemented an indoor smoking ban in 2003 that exempted bars. Using a data set containing the sales price of bars and restaurants in Florida that spans 1999-2011, we utilize a difference-in-difference framework to examine whether or not a smoking ban impacts the value of bars and restaurants and in what direction. We find that the value of restaurants decreased following the smoking ban, while the value of bars increased. These results suggest that a smoking ban has a negative impact on a business’ value.

Beacom School of Business.

Wilson, Kevin. (2015). A Visit. Missouri Review, 38(4), 74-92.

English Department.

Clark, Brent B., C. Robert, & S. A. Hampton. (2016). The Technology Effect: How Perceptions of Technology Drive Excessive Optimism. Journal of Business and Psychology, 31(1), 87-102.

We propose that constant exposure to advances in technology has resulted in an implicit association between technology and success that has conditioned decision makers to be overly optimistic about the potential for technology to drive successful outcomes. Three studies examine this phenomenon and explore the boundaries of this “technology effect.” In Study 1, participants (N = 147) made simulated investment decisions where the information about technology was systematically varied. In Study 2 (N = 143), participants made decisions in a resource dilemma where technology was implicated in determining the amount of a resource available for harvest. Study 3 (N = 53 and N = 60) used two implicit association tests to examine the assumption that people associate technology with success. Results supported our assumption about an implicit association between technology and success, as well as a “technology effect” bias in decision making. Signals of high performance trigger the effect, and the effect is more likely when the technology invoked is unfamiliar. Excessive optimism that technology will result in success can have negative consequences. Individual investment decisions, organizational decisions to invest in R&D, and societal decisions to explore energy and climate change solutions might all be impacted by biased beliefs about the promise of technology. We are the first to systematically examine the optimistic bias in the technology effect, its scope, and boundaries. This research raises decision makers’ awareness and initiates research examining how the abstract notion of technology can influence perceptions of technological advances.

Beacom School of Business.

Love, Heather A. (2016). Cybernetic Modernism and the Feedback Loop: Ezra Pound’s Poetics of Transmission. Modernism-Modernity, 23(1), 89-111.

English Department.

Raizada, Amol, Nachiket Apte, & Scott Pham. (2016). Q Fever Endocarditis. Texas Heart Institute Journal, 43(1), 91-93.

Q fever is a zoonotic disease with a reservoir in mammals, birds, and ticks. Acute cases in human beings can be asymptomatic, or they can present with a flu-like illness, pneumonia, or hepatitis. Approximately 5% of cases progress to chronic Q fever. Endocarditis, the most typical manifestation of chronic Q fever, is usually associated with small vegetations that occur in patients who have had prior valvular damage or who are immunocompromised. We present what we think is the first reported case of superior mesenteric artery embolism from Q fever endocarditis of the aortic valve, in a 39-year-old woman who needed surgical embolectomy and subsequent aortic valve replacement.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Davies, Thomas L., Angeline M. Lavin, & David H. Moen. (2015). THE EFFECT OF RECENT INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE MISSTEPS ON TAXPAYER PERCEPTIONS. Journal of Business & Accounting, 8(1), 102-116.

The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is responsible for enforcing federal tax laws as well as collecting taxes owed by millions of taxpayers each year. As a result, the fiscal health of the country is impacted by the agency’s effectiveness in fulfilling its responsibilities. In recent years, most discretionary programs and related agencies, including the IRS, have experienced budget cuts in order to keep the national deficit from becoming larger. Less funding has caused the IRS to reduce its workforce as well as cut back on training those who remain. During this same time, well-publicized alleged missteps by the agency have raised concerns about its ability to accomplish its mission of collecting revenue when a significant tax gap already exists. This study reports on how the recent scandals within the IRS have impacted taxpayer perceptions of its overall performance, which can ultimately influence taxpayer compliance and likely add to the tax gap.

Beacom School of Business.

Witek, M., Miles D. Koppang, & G. M. Swain. (2016). Aliphatic Polyamine Oxidation Reaction Mechanism at Boron-doped Microcrystalline and Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Electrodes. Electroanalysis, 28(1), 151-160.

The oxidation reaction mechanism of several aliphatic polyamines was studied using diamond electrodes with different doping levels and non-diamond carbon impurity content. The important roles of surface boron and localized non-diamond carbon sites in the polyamine oxidation reaction mechanism were confirmed. A well defined oxidation peak was seen for all the amines that was dependent on the onset potential for water discharge. E-p(ox) shifted negative and the i(p)(ox) increased with increasing solution pH. i(p)(ox) also increased with increasing boron doping level or surface boron site density. FIA-EC analysis revealed a reproducible response for the aliphatic polyamines in a binary solvent (7/93%) acetonitrile/borate buffer, pH11.2. Optimum signal-to-background ratios for the aliphatic polyamines were seen at potentials between 650 and 670mV.

Chemistry Department.

Jones, Lindsey, Peter A. Kindle, Natasha Auch, Jessica Graupmann, Alicia Ray, Stephanie Utech, & Jenna Visser. (2013). Advice for BSW Students from Alumni of Rural Programs. Journal of Baccalaureate Social Work, 18, 157-172.

Students enrolled or interested in baccalaureate social work programs with a rural focus have access to scant research-based resources to consult for career and educational advice. This study explores open-ended advice provided by a nonprobability sample of BSW alumni (N=120). Online surveys were solicited from alumni from four different colleges with a rural emphasis. Major themes included the advice to examine areas of the social work field, to obtain a graduate social work degree, to take personal responsibility to assess individual suitability for social work, to expect poor pay and work stressors, and to develop strong self-care defenses.

School of Health Sciences.

Wang, X. T., Lay See Ong, & Jolene H. Tan. (2015). Sense and sensibility of ownership: Type of ownership experience and valuation of goods. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, 58, 171-177.

This study examined how the type of ownership experience affects the valuation of a good. We hypothesized that the sense of ownership is a psychological derivative of resource acquisition and allocation. We predicted a valuation order of stable ownership or no-ownership < alternating (interchanging) ownership < sudden reversals in ownership. One hundred and sixty-six participants played an object-acquisition “game”, a computer simulation of gaining or losing the ownership of an object (e.g., a pen, a mug, or a flashlight) with different outcome sequences, preprogramed but unbeknownst to the participants. After each game, the participant valued the target object by indicating their willingness-to-pay price, if the last outcome was a loss, or willingness-to-accept price, if the last outcome was a gain. The valuation of an object was highest after experiencing a final reversal in ownership from losses to a final gain or from gains to a final loss, followed by alternating ownership and stable (patrimonial) ownership or constant non-ownership. Wins or losses are not created equal due to different trajectories in how people come to own (lose) objects. The results also suggest that loss aversion is better understood as a specific result of ownership experience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Messler, Erick C., Aaron A. Lee, Randal P. Quevillon, & Raluca M. Simons. (2016). Parents do matter, but why? Examining two mediators of the association between parental approval and negative consequences of alcohol use. Journal of Substance Use, 21(2), 179-184.

College student drinking is a public health concern with potentially serious consequences. A growing body of literature indicates perceived parental approval of alcohol use is associated with drinking outcomes in college populations, and that parent-based interventions may be a viable way to reduce alcohol use on campus. However, researchers have not yet identified the mechanism responsible for this relationship. In this study, a path model was used to look at the relationship between perceived parental approval of drinking and negative consequences of alcohol use among undergraduate students (N = 632)viatwo mechanisms: perceived friends’ approval of drinking and perceived parental monitoring. The path model specified in this study indicated that perceived parental approval of drinking is associated with negative consequences of alcohol use, and that this effect is not fully attributed to perceived parental monitoring, injunctive norms of friends, gender or weekly alcohol consumption. As hypothesized, perceived friends’ approval of drinking partially mediated the relationship between perceived parental approval of drinking and negative consequences of alcohol use. Contrary to hypothesis, the path model did not provide support to the mediating role of perceived parental monitoring.

Psychology Department.

Cui, T. X., Y. M. Lai, J. S. Janicki, & Xuejun Wang. (2016). Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated protein quality control in cardiomyocytes. Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark, 21, 192-202.

Protein quality control (PQC) acts to minimize the level and toxicity of malfolded proteins in the cell. It is performed by an elaborate network of molecular chaperones and targeted protein degradation pathways. PQC monitors and maintains protein homeostasis or proteostasis in the cells. Whilst chaperones may actively promote refolding of malfolded proteins, the malfolded proteins which cannot be correctly refolded are degraded by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagic-lysosome pathway (ALP). The UPS degrades individual misfolded protein molecules, whereas the ALP removes large and less soluble protein aggregates and organelles. Emerging evidence indicates that dysregulated and inadequate PQC play an important role in the pathogenesis of not only classic conformational disease but more common forms of cardiac pathology such as cardiac pathological hypertrophy and heart failure. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master transcription factor of cellular defense, appears to regulate the USP and the ALP by directly controlling the expression of UPS- and ALP- related genes. This article highlights an emerging role of Nrf2 in the regulation of intracellular PQC as well as its potential involvement in cardiac pathology.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Cho, Chanhoo, J. T. Halford, S. Hsu, & L. L. Ng. (2016). Do managers matter for corporate innovation? Journal of Corporate Finance, 36, 206-229.

This paper examines the ability of latent firm and manager characteristics to explain variation in innovation productivity. Evidence suggests that latent, but not observable, firm and manager characteristics explain a large portion of the variation in a firm’s innovation productivity. Our tests mostly show that latent firm characteristics explain slightly more of the variation relative to latent manager characteristics. For robustness, our analysis shows no significant difference in the average change in innovation productivity and in abnormal returns following two different samples of manager-firm separations: one where managers’ expected innovation abilities are high and the other a random sample. Overall, the results suggest that compared to firm characteristics, managers matter moderately less for corporate innovation. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Beacom School of Business.

May, P. A., M. M. de Vries, A. S. Marais, W. O. Kalberg, …., & H. Eugene Hoyme. (2016). The continuum of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in four rural communities in south africa: Prevalence and characteristics. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 159, 207-218.

Background: Prevalence and characteristics of the continuum of diagnoses within fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were researched in previously unstudied rural, agricultural, lower socioeconomic populations in South Africa (ZA). Methods: Using an active case ascertainment approach among first grade learners, 1354 (72.6%) were consented into the study via: height, weight, and/or head circumference <= 25th centile and/or random selection as normal control candidates. Final diagnoses were made following: examination by pediatric dysmorphologists/geneticists, cognitive/behavioral testing, and maternal risk factor interviews. Results: FASD children were significantly growth deficient and dysmorphic: physical measurements, cardinal facial features of FAS, and total dysmorphology scores clearly differentiated diagnostic categories from severe to mild to normal in a consistent, linear fashion. Neurodevelopmental delays were also significantly worse for each of the FASD diagnostic categories, although not as consistently linear across groups. Alcohol use is well documented as the proximal maternal risk factor for each diagnostic group. Significant distal maternal risk factors in this population are: low body weight, body mass, education, and income; and high gravidity, parity, and age at birth of the index child. In this low SES, highly rural region, FAS occurs in 93-128 per 1000 children, PFAS in 58-86, and, ARND in 32-46 per 1000. Total FASD affect 182-259 per 1000 children or 18-26%. Conclusions: Very high rates of FASD exist in these rural areas and isolated towns where entrenched practices of regular binge drinking co-exist with challenging conditions for childbearing and child development. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Downs, C. J., J. L. Brown, Bernard W. M. Wone, E. R. Donovan, & J. P. Hayes. (2016). Speeding up Growth: Selection for Mass-Independent Maximal Metabolic Rate Alters Growth Rates. American Naturalist, 187(3), 295-307.

Investigations into relationships between life-history traits, such as growth rate and energy metabolism, typically focus on basal metabolic rate (BMR). In contrast, investigators rarely examine maximal metabolic rate (MMR) as a relevant metric of energy metabolism, even though it indicates the maximal capacity to metabolize energy aerobically, and hence it might also be important in trade-offs. We studied the relationship between energy metabolism and growth in mice (Mus musculus domesticus Linnaeus) selected for high mass-independent metabolic rates. Selection for high mass-independent MMR increased maximal growth rate, increased body mass at 20 weeks of age, and generally altered growth patterns in both male and female mice. In contrast, there was little evidence that the correlated response in mass-adjusted BMR altered growth patterns. The relationship between mass-adjusted MMR and growth rate indicates that MMR is an important mediator of life histories. Studies investigating associations between energy metabolism and life histories should consider MMR because it is potentially as important in understanding life history as BMR.

Biology Department.

Santosh, K. C. (2015). g-DICE: graph mining-based document information content exploitation. International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition, 18(4), 337-355.

In this paper, we present document information content (i.e. text fields) extraction technique via graph mining. Real-world users first provide a set of key text fields from the document image which they think are important. These fields are used to initialise a graph where nodes are labelled with the field names in addition to other features such as size, type and number of words, and edges are attributed with relative positioning between them. Such an attributed relational graph is then used to mine similar graphs from document images which are used to update the initial graph iteratively each time we extract them, to produce a graph model. Graph models, therefore, are employed in the absence of users. We have validated the proposed technique and evaluated its scientific impact on real-world industrial problem with the performance of 86.64% precision and 90.80% recall by considering all zones, viz. header, body and footer. More specifically, the proposed technique is well suited for table processing (i.e. extracting repeated patterns from the table) and it outperforms the state-of-the-art method by approximately more than 3%.

Computer Science Department.

Samra, Haifa, J. Dutcher, J. M. McGrath, M. Foster, L. Klein, G. Djira, . . . D. Wallenburg. (2015). Effect of Skin-to-Skin Holding on Stress in Mothers of Late-Preterm Infants A Randomized Controlled Trial. Advances in Neonatal Care, 15(5), 354-364.

Purpose: To examine the effect of skin-to-skin care (SSC) on stress perception between mothers who provided SSC to their late-preterm born infants and mothers who provided blanket holding. Design and Methods: This was a longitudinal 2-group randomized controlled trial of 40 infant-mother dyads recruited from a level 3 neonatal intensive care unit in the upper Midwest. Outcome Measure: Maternal stress was measured using the Parental Stressor : Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS : NICU) scale pre-and post-SSC intervention. Demographic and other mother and infant covariates were extracted from medical records. Physiologic stability was measured by the Stability of the Cardiorespiratory System in Preterm Infants (SCRIP) score. Study personnel used daily logs to track frequency and duration of SSC and holding sessions. Results: The intervention and the control groups had similar pre-(mean +/- standard deviation, 2.34 +/- 0.86 for SSC and 2.94 +/- 0.87 for holding) and post-intervention (mean +/- standard deviation, 2.55 +/- 0.95 for SSC and 2.78 +/- 0.90 for holding) overall stress scores. Hours of SSC holding positively correlated with the change in stress scores for the entire scale (r = 0.58; P =.001), and for infant appearance (r = 0.58; P =.001) and parent role alteration (r = 0.48; P =.02) subscales. This relationship remained significant after controlling for the infant’s length of stay and SCRIP score. Implications for Practice: Mothers who provide SSC may experience more stress related to a more facilitated progression in the mother and infant relationship. Implications for Research: The relationship between increased stress and the number of hours of SSC holding warrants further investigation.

School of Health Sciences.

Thada, Vaughn, Jake N. Miller, Attila D. Kovacs, & David A. Pearce. (2016). Tissue-specific variation in nonsense mutant transcript level and drug-induced read-through efficiency in the Cln1(R151X) mouse model of INCL. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 20(2), 381-385.

About 10% of inherited diseases are caused by nonsense mutations [Trends Mol Med 18 (2012) 688], and nonsense suppression drug therapy promoting translation through premature stop codons is an emerging therapeutic approach. Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL), a childhood neurodegenerative disease, results from mutations in the CLN1 gene encoding the lysosomal enzyme, palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1) [Biochim Biophys Acta 1832 (2013) 1806, Hum Mutat (2012) 63, Biochim Biophys Acta 1832 (2013) 1881]. The nonsense mutation p.R151X is the most common disease-causing CLN1 mutation Hum Mutat (2012) 63. In the novel Cln1(R151X) mouse model of INCL, we found large, tissue-specific variations in Cln1(R151X) mRNA level and PPT1 residual enzyme activity. These tissue-specific differences strongly influenced the read-through efficiency of ataluren (PTC124), a well-known nonsense suppression drug. A two-day treatment with ataluren (10 mg/kg) increased PPT1 enzyme activity in the liver and muscle, but not in any other tissue examined. Our study identifies a new challenge/hurdle for read-through drug therapy: variable efficiency of read-through therapy in the different tissues/organs because of tissue-specific variations in nonsense mutant transcript levels.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Kamble, P., H. Chen, M. L. Johnson, Vinod Bhatara, & R. R. Aparasu. (2015). Concurrent Use of Stimulants and Second-Generation Antipsychotics Among Children With ADHD Enrolled in Medicaid. Psychiatric Services, 66(4), 404-410.

Objective: This study examined the prevalence of and factors associated with concurrent use of long-acting stimulants (LAS) and second-generation antipsychotic agents among children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: The study involved retrospective longitudinal analysis of 2003-2007 Medicaid data from four states for children and adolescents between the ages of six and 17 years who were diagnosed as having ADHD and initiated LAS treatment. Concurrent use of LAS and second-generation antipsychotic medications was defined as simultaneous receipt of both medications for at least 14 days. On the basis of the conceptual framework of the Andersen behavioral model, multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with concurrent use. Results: Among the 61,793 children who initiated LAS treatment for ADHD, 11,866 (19.2%) received LAS and second-generation antipsychotics concurrently for at least 14 days. Overall, the average length of concurrent use was 130 +/- 98 days. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that concurrent use was higher among boys, blacks, and foster care children compared with their respective counterparts. Comorbid psychiatric conditions, including disorders that are not approved indications for second-generation antipsychotic use, were associated with concurrent use of LAS and second-generation antipsychotics. Conclusions: Almost one in five children and adolescents who initiated LAS also received second-generation antipsychotics concurrently for at least 14 days. Approved and nonapproved indications of second-generation antipsychotics influenced concurrent use in pediatric ADHD.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Allingham, Liesl. (2015). Gender and Narrative Crisis in Christoph Martin Wieland’s “Novella without a Title”. Eighteenth Century-Theory and Interpretation, 56(4), 427-444.

Languages, Linguistics and Philosophy Department.

Tsai, Tzong-Ru, Wen-Yun Sung, Y. L. Lio, Shing I. Chang, & Jye-Chyi Lu. (2016). Optimal Two-Variable Accelerated Degradation Test Plan for Gamma Degradation Processes. IEEE Transactions on Reliability, 65(1), 459-468.

An accelerated degradation test (ADT) can be used to assess the reliability of highly reliable products by using degradation information. In this study, to exhibit a monotone increasing pattern, the gamma process is used to model the degradation of a product subject to a constant-stress ADT of two loadings. Maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of the parameters of the ADT model were obtained. Given a budget for the total cost, an optimal ADT procedure was established to minimize the asymptotic variance of the MLE of the mean time to failure of a product, and the sample size and termination time of each run of the ADT at a constant measurement frequency were determined. An algorithm is provided to achieve an optimal ADT plan. An extensive Monte Carlo simulation was implemented to evaluate the sensitivity of the MLE variations to the sample size. A lumen degradation data set of light emitting diodes is presented to illustrate the proposed method.

Mathematics Department.

Hersrud, Samantha L., Ryan D. Geraets, K. L. Weber, C. H. Chan, & David A. Pearce. (2016). Plasma biomarkers for neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Febs Journal, 283(3), 459-471.

The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a group of neurodegenerative genetic diseases that primarily affect children and have no known cure. A unified clinical rating scale for the juvenile form of NCL has been developed, although it has not been validated in other subtypes and does not give a true measure of the pathophysiological changes occurring during disease progression. In the present study, we have identified candidate biomarkers in blood plasma of NCL disease using multiple proteomic approaches, with the aim of developing a panel of biomarkers that could serve as a metric for therapeutic response. Candidate biomarkers were identified as proteins with levels that significantly differed between patients and controls in both sample sets. The seven candidates identified have previously been associated with neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases. Multiplex immunoassay based testing was the most efficient and effective evaluation technique and could be employed on a broad scale to track patient response to treatment.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Wang, Keliang, Yuhe Cao, Xiaomin Wang, …., James D. Hoefelmeyer, & Qihua Fan. (2016). Rod-shape porous carbon derived from aniline modified lignin for symmetric supercapacitors. Journal of Power Sources, 307, 462-467.

Rod-shape porous carbon was prepared from aniline modified lignin via KOH activation and used as electrode materials for supercapacitors. The specific surface area, pore size and shape could be modulated by the carbonization temperature, which significantly affected the electrochemical performance. Unique rod-shape carbon with massive pores and a high BET surface area of 2265 m 2 g −1 were obtained at 700 °C in contrast to irregular morphology created at other carbonization temperatures. In 6 mol L −1 KOH electrolyte, a specific capacitance of 336 F g −1 , small resistance of 0.9 Ω and stable charge/discharge at current density of 1 A g −1 after 1, 000 cycles were achieved using rod-shape porous carbon as electrodes in an electrical double layer capacitor.

Chemistry Department.

Roh, Soonhee, Y. S. Lee, Y. Kim, S. Y. Park, & A. Chaudhuri. (2015). Gender Differences in the Roles of Religious Support and Social Network Support in Reducing Depressive Symptoms Among Older Korean Americans. Journal of Social Service Research, 41(4), 484-497.

This study examined gender differences in the interaction effects of religious support and social network support on depressive symptoms among older Korean Americans. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 85 Korean American women and 115 Korean American men aged 65 years or older living in New York City. A 2-step hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that the associations between religious support, social network support, and depressive symptoms were different for older Korean men and women. Among men, social network support was identified as a strong predictor for depressive symptoms. Conversely, religious support was identified as a predictor for depressive symptoms among women. The interaction between social network support and religious support was found to be statistically significant only for women. Additionally, the association of social networks with fewer depressive symptoms was stronger for women with high religious support. Our findings highlight the importance of gender differences in understanding psychological effects of social network support within a religious-cultural context and the need for geriatric practitioners to assess carefully the quality and types of social support systems. Further studies are needed to identify common and gender-specific risk/protective factors among older Korean Americans to develop gender-targeted preventions and interventions to improve their psychological well-being.

School of Health Sciences.

Raisanen, Samuel R., & Kathryn F. Birkeland. (2016). State appropriations and undergraduate borrowing: more debt, less money. Applied Economics Letters, 23(8), 566-570.

When state appropriations decrease, public universities respond by raising tuition. Students borrow more in response to both tuition increases and appropriation cuts. This article investigates the feedback of how borrowing and tuition influence state appropriations. Using a panel data set of 450 four-year public universities from 1999 to 2012, we employ three-stage least squares techniques to control for the endogeneity between state appropriations, tuition and student borrowing. There is evidence that state policy-makers respond to increases in university tuition and student borrowing by decreasing future appropriation levels. After controlling for the effect of appropriations on tuition and borrowing, a one-dollar increase in student borrowing reduces state appropriations per student by $0.06, and a one-dollar increase in tuition results in a decrease of $0.45 in state appropriations per student. When universities increase tuition for reasons other than a reduction in state appropriations, policy-makers respond with a significant cut in future appropriations which could signal an incentive strategy.

Beacom School of Business.

Sterczala, A. J., W. H. DuPont, Brent A. Comstock, S. D. Flanagan, T. K. Szivak, D. R. Hooper, . . . W. J. Kraemer. (2016). PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF NUCLEOTIDE SUPPLEMENTATION ON RESISTANCE EXERCISE STRESS IN MEN AND WOMEN. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(2), 569-578.

School of Education.

Ghimire, Niranjan, Brent L. Foss, Y. Y. Sun, & Ying Deng. (2016). Interactions among osteoblastic cells, Staphylococcus aureus, and chitosan-immobilized titanium implants in a postoperative coculture system: An in vitro study. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 104(3), 586-594.

Biomaterial-related infections (BRIs) have become a major challenge in the field of orthopedic implants. In this study, we delved into the problem of BRI and attempted to reduce the possibility of BRI incidence via surface modification of titanium (Ti) with chitosan (SA-CS-Ti). To comprehensively evaluate the anti-infection potential of SA-CS-Ti, we first constructed a postoperative infection (POI) model with varying concentrations of bacteria (10(2)CFU/sample and 10(4)CFU/sample) and a constant number of SaOS-2 cells (10(5)/sample). Then, we biologically characterized the interactions between the SaOS-2 cells, bacteria, and different Ti implants using the POI model. The results from the osteoblastic cell and bacterial attachment tests demonstrated that the SA-CS-Ti surfaces exhibit superior osteogenic behavior relative to other Ti surfaces studied while showing significant anti-infective activities in the POI model with a low infection ratio (bacteria: cell ratio of 0.001:1) 30min after infection. Additionally, the SA-CS-Ti surfaces showed significantly reduced (p<0.05) bacteria proliferation compared to the control Ti surfaces (UN-Ti), demonstrating their antifouling property. The significantly increased (p<0.05) sensitivity of Staphylococcus. aureus adhered to the SA-CS-Ti surfaces against cefazolin (1mg/L treatment) and gentamicin (10mg/L and 100mg/L treatment) in the coculture system augmented potential of SA-CS-Ti to be used as orthopedic implants. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 586-594, 2016.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

Dietzel, Ranae, Matt Liebman, …., Meghann Jarchow, & Sotirios Archontoulis. (2016). How efficiently do corn- and soybean-based cropping systems use water? A systems modeling analysis. Global Change Biology, 22(2), 666-681.

Agricultural systems are being challenged to decrease water use and increase production while climate becomes more variable and the world’s population grows. Low water use efficiency is traditionally characterized by high water use relative to low grain production and usually occurs under dry conditions. However, when a cropping system fails to take advantage of available water during wet conditions, this is also an inefficiency and is often detrimental to the environment. Here, we provide a systems-level definition of water use efficiency ( sWUE) that addresses both production and environmental quality goals through incorporating all major system water losses (evapotranspiration, drainage, and runoff). We extensively calibrated and tested the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator ( APSIM) using 6 years of continuous crop and soil measurements in corn- and soybean-based cropping systems in central Iowa, USA. We then used the model to determine water use, loss, and grain production in each system and calculated sWUE in years that experienced drought, flood, or historically average precipitation. Systems water use efficiency was found to be greatest during years with average precipitation. Simulation analysis using 28 years of historical precipitation data, plus the same dataset with ± 15% variation in daily precipitation, showed that in this region, 430 mm of seasonal (planting to harvesting) rainfall resulted in the optimum sWUE for corn, and 317 mm for soybean. Above these precipitation levels, the corn and soybean yields did not increase further, but the water loss from the system via runoff and drainage increased substantially, leading to a high likelihood of soil, nutrient, and pesticide movement from the field to waterways. As the Midwestern United States is predicted to experience more frequent drought and flood, inefficiency of cropping systems water use will also increase. This work provides a framework to concurrently evaluate production and environmental performance of cropping systems.

Biology Department.

Viboud, Cécile, Lone Simonsen, Rodrigo Fuentes, Jose Flores, Mark A. Miller, & Gerardo Chowell. (2016). Global Mortality Impact of the 1957-1959 Influenza Pandemic. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 213(5), 738-745.

<bold>Background: </bold>Quantitative estimates of the global burden of the 1957 influenza pandemic are lacking. Here we fill this gap by modeling historical mortality statistics.<bold>Methods: </bold>We used annual rates of age- and cause-specific deaths to estimate pandemic-related mortality in excess of background levels in 39 countries in Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, and the Americas. We modeled the relationship between excess mortality and development indicators to extrapolate the global burden of the pandemic.<bold>Results: </bold>The pandemic-associated excess respiratory mortality rate was 1.9/10 000 population (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.6 cases/10 000 population) on average during 1957-1959. Excess mortality rates varied 70-fold across countries; Europe and Latin America experienced the lowest and highest rates, respectively. Excess mortality was delayed by 1-2 years in 18 countries (46%). Increases in the mortality rate relative to baseline were greatest in school-aged children and young adults, with no evidence that elderly population was spared from excess mortality. Development indicators were moderate predictors of excess mortality, explaining 35%-77% of the variance. Overall, we attribute 1.1 million excess deaths (95% CI, .7 million-1.5 million excess deaths) globally to the 1957-1959 pandemic.<bold>Conclusions: </bold>The global mortality rate of the 1957-1959 influenza pandemic was moderate relative to that of the 1918 pandemic but was approximately 10-fold greater than that of the 2009 pandemic. The impact of the pandemic on mortality was delayed in several countries, pointing to a window of opportunity for vaccination in a future pandemic.

Mathematics Department.

Rasalingama, Shivatharsiny, & Ranjit T. Koodali. (2016). Visible-light driven oxygen evolution over CoTiO3 perovskites via a modified Pechini method: impact of humidity on their phase composition. Crystengcomm, 18(6), 868-871.

A set of CoTiO3 materials were synthesized using a modified Pechini method under different relative humidity conditions. Humidity alters the structural composition of the final materials via changing the coordination and/or oxidation state of the cobalt ion (Co2+) in the precursor solution. The amount of CoTiO3 present in the composite material was found to be the key factor for the variation in the amount of oxygen evolved.

Chemistry Department.

Ghosh, Suvankar, & O. Felix Offodile. (2016). A real options model of phased migration to cellular manufacturing. International Journal of Production Research, 54(3), 894-906.

The literature is replete with models that examine various aspects of cellular manufacturing (CM), such as optimisation of cell layouts. However, many firms may realise zero to marginal returns from CM. Given this uncertainty, the manager should first determine the value of CM to the firm before deploying it. Although traditional valuation models employing discounted cash flow analysis allow for uncertainty, they treat future investments as fixed when computing the investment’s present value. The real options (RO) logic of valuation allows the manager to exercise the option to invest in or abandon a project based on expected outcomes. Future investments are thus options. This paper presents an RO model for CM migration that addresses whether a firm should migrate to CM; and it prescribes thesequenceof cell deployment, which has not been addressed in the literature. Our model is also much more transparent and accessible to practitioners, with an accompanying software tool for prospective users. Finally, we use simulation extensively to discover the drivers of the optimal cell deployment sequence. Our results show that there is a complex interplay between net present value, speed of cellularisation, inter-cell learning and volatility in terms of their influence on the cell sequence.

Beacom School of Business.

Son, Jung Ho, Sem Raj Tamang, & James D. Hoefelmeyer. (2015). Crystal structure of bis(3-bromomesityl)(quinolin-1-ium-8-yl) boron(III) tribromide. Acta Crystallographica Section E-Crystallographic Communications, 71, 1114-+.

The title compound, C27H26.82BBr2.18N+center dot Br-3(-), is a cationic triarylborane isolated as its tribromide salt. The aryl substituents include a protonated 8-quinolyl group and two 3-bromomesityl groups. The molecule was prepared on combination of 3: 1 Br-2 and dimesityl(quinolin-8-yl) borane in hexanes. The refinement of the structure indicated a degree of ‘over-bromination’ (beyond two bromine atoms) for the cation. There are two tribromide ions in the asymmetric unit, both completed by crystallographic inversion symmetry.

Chemistry Department.

Miller, Ross A., D. R. Mody, Kimberly C. Tams, & M. J. Thrall. (2015). Glandular Lesions of the Cervix in Clinical Practice A Cytology, Histology, and Human Papillomavirus Correlation Study From 2 Institutions. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 139(11), 1431-1436.

Context.-The Papanicolaou (Pap) test has indisputably decreased cervical cancer mortality, as rates have declined by up to 80% in the United States since its implementation. However, the Pap test is considered less sensitive for detecting glandular lesions than for detecting those of squamous origin. Some studies have even suggested an increasing incidence of cervical adenocarcinoma, which may be a consequence of a relatively reduced ability to detect glandular lesions with cervical cancer screening techniques. Objective.-To evaluate the detection rate of glandular lesions with screening techniques currently used for cervical cancer screening and to provide insight as to which techniques are most efficacious in our study population. Design.-We retrospectively reviewed any available cytology, human papillomavirus (HPV), and histologic malignancy data in patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma in situ and adenocarcinoma from 2 geographically and socioeconomically disparate hospital systems. Identified patients having had a negative/unsatisfactory Pap test within 5 years of adenocarcinoma in situ or adenocarcinoma tissue diagnosis were considered Pap test screening failures. Patients with negative HPV tests on cytology samples were considered HPV screening failures. Results.-One hundred thirty cases were identified (age range, 22-93 years); 39 (30%) had no Pap history in our files. Eight of 91 remaining cases (8.8%) were screening failures. The detected sensitivity for identifying adenocarcinoma in situ/adenocarcinoma in this study was 91.2% by cytology alone and 92.3% when incorporating HPV testing. The most common cytologic diagnosis was atypical glandular cells (25 cases), and those diagnosed with adenocarcinoma were 7.4 years older than those diagnosed with adenocarcinoma in situ (50.3 versus 42.9 years). Nine of 24 HPV-tested cases (37.5%) were called atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance on cytology. Conclusions.-Our results highlight the importance of combined Pap and HPV cotesting. Although the number of cases identified is relatively small, our data suggest screening for squamous lesions facilitates the recognition of glandular lesions in the cervix. Additionally, increased use of combined Pap and HPV cotesting may decrease detection failure rates with regard to glandular lesions.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Xu, Tao, J. M. Miszuk, Yong Zhao, H. L. Sun, & Hao Fong. (2015). Electrospun Polycaprolactone 3D Nanofibrous Scaffold with Interconnected and Hierarchically Structured Pores for Bone Tissue Engineering. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 4(15), 2238-2246.

For the first time, electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) 3D nanofibrous scaffold has been developed by an innovative and convenient approach (i.e., thermally induced nanofiber self-agglomeration followed by freeze drying), and the scaffold possesses interconnected and hierarchically structured pores including macropores with sizes up to approximate to 300 mu m. The novel PCL 3D scaffold is soft and elastic with very high porosity of approximate to 96.4%, thus it is morphologically/structurally similar to natural extracellular matrix and well suited for cell functions and tissue formation. The in vitro studies reveal that the scaffold can lead to high cell viability; more importantly, it is able to promote more potent BMP2-induced chondrogenic than osteogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Consistent to the in vitro findings, the in vivo results indicate that the electrospun PCL 3D scaffold acts as a favorable synthetic extracellular matrix for functional bone regeneration through the physiological endochondral ossification process.

Biomedical Engineering Department, Sioux Falls Campus.

Gawecka, J. E., S. Boaz, K. Kasperson, H. Nguyen, Donald P. Evenson, & W. S. Ward. (2015). Luminal fluid of epididymis and vas deferens contributes to sperm chromatin fragmentation. Human Reproduction, 30(12), 2725-2736.

STUDY QUESTION: Do the luminal fluids of the epididymis and the vas deferens contribute to sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF) in mice? SUMMARY ANSWER: The luminal fluids of both organs are required for activating SCF in mice, but the vas deferens luminal fluid does this more efficiently than that of the epididymis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Mice sperm have the ability to degrade their DNA in an apoptotic-like fashion when treated with divalent cations in a process termed SCF. SCF has two steps: the induction of reversible double-strand DNA breaks at the nuclear matrix attachment sites, followed by the irreversible degradation of DNA by nuclease. Single stranded DNA breaks accompany SCF. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Luminal fluids from two reproductive organs of the mouse (B6D2F1 strain), the epididymis and vas deferens, were extracted and tested for SCF activation with divalent cations using four different combinations of the sperm and the surrounding luminal fluids: (i) in situ-sperm were kept in their luminal fluid and activated directly; (ii) reconstituted-sperm were centrifuged and resuspended in their luminal fluid before SCF activation; (iii) mixed-sperm were centrifuged and resuspended in the luminal fluid of the other organ; (iv) no luminal fluid-sperm were centrifuged and reconstituted in buffer. All four experiments were performed without (controls) and with divalent cations (resulting in SCF). For each experimental condition, two different mice were used and the analyses averaged. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: DNA damage by SCF was analyzed by three different methods, the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis and field inversion gel electrophoresis. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: In all three assays that we used, the vas deferens luminal fluid was much more efficient in stimulating SCF in the sperm from either source than that of the epididymis (P < 0.0001). Vas deferens sperm were capable of initiating lower levels of SCF in the absence of luminal fluid (P < 0.0001). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Analyses were performed in only one species, the mouse, but we used three separate assays in our analysis. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The data suggest that the luminal fluid of the male reproductive tract interacts with sperm during their transit providing a mechanism to degrade the DNA. We hypothesize that this is part of an apoptotic-like mechanism that allows the reproductive tract to eliminate defective sperm. The SCF model also allowed us to identify differences in the types of DNA lesions that the three tests can identify, providing important background information for the use of these tests clinically.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Huang, H. B., Y. N. Liao, N. N. Liu, …., Xuejun Wang, & J. B. Liu. (2016). Two clinical drugs deubiquitinase inhibitor auranofin and aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor disulfiram trigger synergistic anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo. Oncotarget, 7(3), 2796-2808.

Inhibition of proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (DUBs) is emerging as a novel strategy for cancer therapy. It was recently reported that auranofin (Aur), a gold (I)-containing compound used clinically to treat rheumatoid arthritis, is a proteasome-associated DUB inhibitor. Disulfiram (DSF), an inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase, is currently in clinical use for treating alcoholism. Recent studies have indicated that DSF can also act as an antitumor agent. We investigated the effect of combining DSF and Aur on apoptosis induction and tumor growth in hepatoma cancer cells. Here we report that (i) the combined treatment of Aur and DSF results in synergistic cytotoxicity to hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo; (ii) Aur and DSF in combination induces caspase activation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; (iii) pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK could efficiently block apoptosis but not proteasome inhibition induced by Aur and DSF combined treatment, and ROS is not required for Aur+DSF to induce apoptosis. Collectively, we demonstrate a model of synergism between DSF and proteasomeassociated DUB inhibitor Aur in the induction of apoptosis in hepatoma cancer cells, identifying a potential novel anticancer strategy for clinical use in the future.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Han, Yulun, Qingguo Meng, Bakhtiyor Rasulev, P. Stanley May, Mary T. Berry, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2015). Photofragmentation of the Gas-Phase Lanthanum Isopropylcyclopentadienyl Complex: Computational Modeling vs Experiment. Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 119(44), 10838-10848.

Photofragmentation of the lanthanum isopropylcyclopentadienyl complex, La(iCp), was explored through time-dependent excited-state molecular dynamics (TDESMD), excited-state molecular dynamics (ESMD), and thermal molecular dynamics (MD). Simulated mass spectra were extracted from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations through a new and simple method and compared to experimental photoionization time-of-flight (PI-TOF) mass spectra. The computational results indicate that the value of excitation energy and mechanism of excitation determine the dissociation process.

Chemistry Department.

Alaparthi, Madhubabu, Kadarkaraisamy Mariappan, E. Dufek, Mariah Hoffman, & Andrew G. Sykes. (2016). A new detection mechanism involving keto-enol tautomerization: selective fluorescence detection of Al(III) by dehydration of secondary alcohols in mixed DMSO/aqueous media. Rsc Advances, 6(14), 11295-11302.

A newmechanismfor the fluorescence detection of metal cations in solution is introduced involving a unique keto-enol tautomerization. Reduction of 1,8-anthraquinone-18-crown-5 yields the doubly reduced secondary alcohol, 2. Compound 2 acts as a chemodosimeter for Al(III) ions producing a strong blue emission due to the formation of the anthracene fluorophore, 3, via dehydration of the internal secondary alcohol in DMSO/aqueous solution. The enol form is not the most thermodynamically stable form under these conditions however and slowly converts to the keto form 4. Reduction of 1 with Fe/AcOH or the reaction of 2 with HCl directly yields compound 4, the keto tautomer of 3, which also produces the same blue emission in more polar solvents. Competition studies reveal that compound 2 produces a blue emission exclusively in the presence of the strong Lewis acidic Al(III) ion and at relatively low pH.

Chemistry Department.

Tamang, Sem Raj, & James D. Hoefelmeyer. (2015). Chloro({2- mesityl(quinolin-8-yl-kappa N)boryl -3,5-dimethyl-phenyl}methyl-kappa C)palladium(II) as a Catalyst for Heck Reactions. Molecules, 20(7), 12979-12991.

We recently reported an air and moisture stable 16-electron borapalladacycle formed upon combination of 8-quinolyldimesitylborane with bis(benzonitrile) dichloropalladium(II). The complex features a tucked mesityl group formed upon metalation of an ortho-methyl group on a mesityl; however it is unusually stable due to contribution of the boron p(z) orbital in delocalizing the carbanion that gives rise to an eta(4)-boratabutadiene fragment coordinated to Pd(II), as evidenced from crystallographic data. This complex was observed to be a highly active catalyst for the Heck reaction. Data of the catalyst activity are presented alongside data found in the literature, and initial comparison reveals that the borapalladacycle is quite active. The observed catalysis suggests the borapalladacycle readily undergoes reductive elimination; however the Pd(0) complex has not yet been isolated. Nevertheless, the ambiphilic ligand 8-quinolyldimesitylborane may be able to support palladium in different redox states.

Chemistry Department.

Onserio, Bernard O., Sem Raj Tamang, & James D. Hoefelmeyer. (2015). Crystal structure of 8-iodoquinolinium tetrachloridoaurate(III). Acta Crystallographica Section E-Crystallographic Communications, 71, M261-+.

The structure of the title salt, (C9H7IN)[AuCl4], is comprised of planar 8-iodoquinolinium cations (r.m.s. deviation = 0.05 angstrom) and square -planar tetrachloridoaurate(III) anions. The asymmetric unit contains one 8-iodoquinolinium cation and two halfs of [AuCl4](-) anions, in each case with the central Au-III atom located on an inversion center. Intermolecular halogen-halogen contacts were found between centrosymmetric pairs of I [3.6178 (4) angstrom] and Cl atoms [3.1484 (11), 3.3762 (13), and 3.4935 (12) angstrom]. Intermolecular N-H center dot center dot center dot Cl and C-H center dot center dot center dot Cl hydrogen bonding is also found in the structure. These interactions lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network. Additionally, there is an intramolecular N-H center dot center dot center dot I hydrogen bond between the aromatic iminium and iodine. There are no aurophilic interactions or short contacts between I and Au atoms, and there are no notable pi-stacking interactions between the aromatic cations.

Chemistry Department.

Maisto, S. A., & Jeffrey S. Simons. (2016). Research on the Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Arousal on Sexual Risk in Men who have Sex with Men: Implications for HIV Prevention Interventions. Aids and Behavior, 20, S158-S172.

The purpose of this paper was to describe and appraise the research evidence on the effects of acute alcohol intoxication and sexual arousal on sexual risk behaviors in men who have sex with men (MSM) and to examine its implications for design of HIV prevention interventions that target MSM. Toward that end, the paper begins with a discussion of research on sexual arousal in men and alcohol and their acute effects on sexual behaviors. This is followed by a review of empirical evidence on the combined acute effects of alcohol and sexual arousal in heterosexual men (the large majority of studies) and then in MSM. The empirical evidence and related theoretical developments then are integrated to derive implications for developing effective HIV prevention interventions that target MSM.

Psychology Department.

Hofman, Nicole L., Austin M. Hahn, Christine K. Tirabassi, & Raluca M. Gaher. (2016). Social support, emotional intelligence, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: A mediation analysis. Journal of Individual Differences, 37(1), 31-39.

Exposure to traumatic events and the associated risk of developing Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms is a significant and overlooked concern in the college population. It is important for current research to identify potential protective factors associated with the development and maintenance of PTSD symptoms unique to this population. Emotional intelligence and perceived social support are two identified protective factors that influence the association between exposure to traumatic events and PTSD symptomology. The current study examined the mediating role of social support in the relationship between emotional intelligence and PTSD symptoms. Participants included 443 trauma-exposed university students who completed online questionnaires. The results of this study indicated that social support mediates the relationship between emotional intelligence and reported PTSD symptoms. Thus, emotional intelligence is significantly associated with PTSD symptoms and social support may play an integral role in the relationship between emotional intelligence and PTSD. The current study is the first to investigate the role of social support in the relationship between emotional intelligence and PTSD symptoms. These findings have important treatment and prevention implications with regard to PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Messler, Erick C., Aaron A. Lee, Randal P. Quevillon, & Raluca M. Simons. (2016). Parents do matter, but why? Examining two mediators of the association between parental approval and negative consequences of alcohol use. Journal of Substance Use, 21(2), 179-184.

College student drinking is a public health concern with potentially serious consequences. A growing body of literature indicates perceived parental approval of alcohol use is associated with drinking outcomes in college populations, and that parent-based interventions may be a viable way to reduce alcohol use on campus. However, researchers have not yet identified the mechanism responsible for this relationship. In this study, a path model was used to look at the relationship between perceived parental approval of drinking and negative consequences of alcohol use among undergraduate students (N = 632) via two mechanisms: perceived friends’ approval of drinking and perceived parental monitoring. The path model specified in this study indicated that perceived parental approval of drinking is associated with negative consequences of alcohol use, and that this effect is not fully attributed to perceived parental monitoring, injunctive norms of friends, gender or weekly alcohol consumption. As hypothesized, perceived friends’ approval of drinking partially mediated the relationship between perceived parental approval of drinking and negative consequences of alcohol use. Contrary to hypothesis, the path model did not provide support to the mediating role of perceived parental monitoring. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Roh, Soonhee, Youseung Kim, Kyoung Hag Lee, Yeon-Shim Lee, Catherine E. Burnette, & Michael J. Lawler. (2015). Religion, social support, and life satisfaction among American Indian older adults. Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought, 34(4), 414-434.

This study examined the associations among religion, social support, and life satisfaction with 233 older American Indians in the Northern Plains region. Hierarchical regression indicated that those with higher religiousness and greater social support were found to have greater life satisfaction. Findings suggest that religion and social support provide promising pathways to build upon existing strengths to ameliorate mental health disparities. Health professionals must be sensitive to the complexities of religion and social support, and consider ways to incorporate cultural practices into health education and interventions to promote the quality of life for older American Indians. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

School of Health Sciences.


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