Posted by: reganenosusd | November 30, 2015

November 2015

Abdullah, Ammara, Sane, Sanam, Branick, Kate A., Freeling, Jessica L., Wang, Hongmin M., Zhang, D., & Rezvani, Khosrow. (2015). A plant alkaloid, veratridine, potentiates cancer chemosensitivity by UBXN2A-dependent inhibition of an oncoprotein, mortalin-2. Oncotarget, 6(27), 23561-23581.

Veratridine (VTD), an alkaloid derived from the Liliaceae plant shows anti-tumor effects; however, its molecular targets have not been thoroughly studied. Using a high-throughput drug screen, we found that VTD enhances transactivation of UBXN2A, resulting in upregulation of UBXN2A in the cytoplasm, where UBXN2A binds and inhibits the oncoprotein mortalin-2 (mot-2). VTD-treated cancer cells undergo cell death in UBXN2A- and mot-2-dependent manners. The cytotoxic function of VTD is grade-dependent, and the combined treatment with a sub-optimal dose of the standard chemotherapy, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and etoposide, demonstrated a synergistic effect, resulting in higher therapeutic efficacy. VTD influences the CD44+ stem cells, possibly through UBXN2A-dependent inhibition of mot-2. The VTD-dependent expression of UBXN2A is a potential candidate for designing novel strategies for colon cancer treatment because: 1) In 50% of colon cancer patients, UBXN2A protein levels in tumor tissues are significantly lower than those in the adjacent normal tissues. 2) Cytoplasmic expression of the mot-2 protein is very low in non-cancerous cells; thus, VTD can produce tumor-specific toxicity while normal cells remain intact. 3) Finally, VTD or its modified analogs offer a valuable adjuvant chemotherapy strategy to improve the efficacy of 5-FU-based chemotherapy for colon cancer patients harboring WT-p53.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Ambigapathy, Ganesh, Zheng, Zhaoqim, & Keifer, Joyce. (2015). Regulation of BDNF chromatin status and promoter accessibility in a neural correlate of associative learning. Epigenetics, 10(10), 981-993.

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression critically controls learning and its aberrant regulation is implicated in Alzheimer’s disease and a host of neurodevelopmental disorders. The BDNF gene is target of known DNA regulatory mechanisms but details of its activity-dependent regulation are not fully characterized. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the epigenetic regulation of the turtle BDNF gene (tBDNF) during a neural correlate of associative learning using an in vitro model of eye blink classical conditioning. Shortly after conditioning onset, the results from ChIP-qPCR show conditioning-dependent increases in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and repressor basic helix-loop-helix binding protein 2 (BHLHB2) binding to tBDNF promoter II that corresponds with transcriptional repression. In contrast, enhanced binding of ten-eleven translocation protein 1 (Tet1), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) to promoter III corresponds with transcriptional activation. These actions are accompanied by rapid modifications in histone methylation and phosphorylation status of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). Significantly, these remarkably coordinated changes in epigenetic factors for two alternatively regulated tBDNF promoters during conditioning are controlled by Tet1 and ERK1/2. Our findings indicate that Tet1 and ERK1/2 are critical partners that, through complementary functions, control learning-dependent tBDNF promoter accessibility required for rapid transcription and acquisition of classical conditioning.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Barr, Jeffrey L., Rassmussen, Bruce A., Tallarida, Christopher S., Scholl, Jamie L., Forster, Gina L., Unterwald, Ellen, & Rawls, Scott. (2015). Ceftriaxone attenuates acute cocaine evoked motor activity and dopaminergic neurotransmission in the dorsal and ventral striatum. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 156, e15-e15.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Lucas, Andrea L., Ouellette, Scot P., Kabeiseman, Emily J., Cichos, Kyle H., & Rucks, Elizabeth A. (2015). The trans-Golgi SNARE syntaxin 10 is required for optimal development of Chlamydia trachomatis. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 5.

Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular pathogen, grows inside of a vacuole, termed the inclusion. Within the inclusion, the organisms differentiate from the infectious elementary body (EB) into the reticulate body (RB). The RB communicates with the host cell through the inclusion membrane to obtain the nutrients necessary to divide, thus expanding the chlamydial population. At late time points within the developmental cycle, the RBs respond to unknown molecular signals to redifferentiate into infectious EBs to perpetuate the infection cycle. One strategy for Chlamydia to obtain necessary nutrients and metabolites from the host is to intercept host vesicular trafficking pathways. In this study we demonstrate that a trans -Golgi soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein (SNARE), syntaxin 10, and/or syntaxin 10 associated Golgi elements colocalize with the chlamydial inclusion. We hypothesized that Chlamydia utilizes the molecular machinery of syntaxin 10 at the inclusion membrane to intercept specific vesicular trafficking pathways in order to create and maintain an optimal intra-inclusion environment. To test this hypothesis, we used siRNA knockdown of syntaxin 10 to examine the impact of the loss of syntaxin 10 on chlamydial growth and development. Our results demonstrate that loss of syntaxin 10 leads to defects in normal chlamydial maturation including: variable inclusion size with fewer chlamydial organisms per inclusion, fewer infectious progeny, and delayed or halted RB-EB differentiation. These defects in chlamydial development correlate with an overabundance of NBD-lipid retained by inclusions cultured in syntaxin 10 knockdown cells. Overall, loss of syntaxin 10 at the inclusion membrane negatively affects Chlamydia. Understanding host machinery involved in maintaining an optimal inclusion environment to support chlamydial growth and development is critical toward understanding the molecular signals involved in successful progression through the chlamydial developmental cycle.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Morecraft, Robert J., Stilwell-Morecraft, Kimberly S., Ge, J., Cipolloni, P. B., & Pandya, D. N. (2015). Cytoarchitecture and cortical connections of the anterior insula and adjacent frontal motor fields in the rhesus monkey. Brain Research Bulletin, 119, 52-72.

The cytoarchitecture and cortical connections of the ventral motor region are investigated using Nissl, and NeuN staining methods and the fluorescent retrograde tract tracing technique in the rhesus monkey. On the basis of gradual laminar differentiation, it is shown that the ventral motor region stems from the ventral proisocortical area (anterior insula and dorsal Sylvian opercular region). The cytoarchitecture of the ventral motor region is shown to progress in three lines, as we have recently shown for the dorsal motor region. Namely, root (anterior insular and dorsal Sylvian opercular area ProM), belt (ventral premotor cortex) and core (precentral motor cortex) lines. This stepwise architectonic organization is supported by the overall patterns of corticocortical connections. Areas in each line are sequentially interconnected (intralineal connections) and all lines are interconnected (interlinear connections). Moreover, root areas, as well as some of the belt areas of the ventral and dorsal trend are interconnected. The ventral motor region is also connected with the ventral somatosensory areas in a topographic manner. The root and belt areas of ventral motor region are connected with paralimbic, multimodal and prefrontal (outer belt) areas. In contrast, the core area has a comparatively more restricted pattern of corticocortical connections. This architectonic and connectional organization is consistent in part, with the functional organization of the ventral motor region as reported in behavioral and neuroimaging studies which include the mediation of facial expression and emotion, communication, phonic articulation, and language in human.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Sathyanesan, Monica, Girgenti, Matthew J., Warner-Schmidt, Jennifer, & Newton, Samuel S. (2015). Indomethacin induced gene regulation in the rat hippocampus. Molecular Brain, 8.

Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as indomethacin are widely used to treat inflammatory diseases and manage pain, fever and inflammation in several conditions, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Although they predominantly function by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, important COX-independent actions also occur. These actions could be responsible for the adverse side effects associated with chronic and/or high dose usage of this popular drug class. Results: We examined gene regulation in the hippocampus after peripheral administration of indomethacin by employing a microarray approach. Secondary confirmation and the brain expression pattern of regulated genes was examined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Transglutaminase 2, serum glucocorticoid inducible kinase, Inhibitor of NF-kappa B and vascular endothelial growth factor were among genes that were prominently upregulated, while G-protein coupled receptor 56 and neuropeptide Y were among genes that were downregulated by indomethacin. Co-localization studies using blood vessel markers revealed that transglutaminase 2 was induced specifically in brain vasculature. Conclusions: The data demonstrate that COX-inhibitors can differentially regulate gene transcription in multiple, functionally distinctly cell types in the brain. The results provide additional insight into the molecular actions of COX-inhibitors and indicate that their effects on vasculature could influence cerebral blood flow mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Schlenker, Evelyn H., Del Rio, R., & Schultz, H. D. (2015). In adult female hamsters hypothyroidism stimulates D1 receptor-mediated breathing without altering D1 receptor expression. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 218, 32-39.

Hypothyroidism affects cardiopulmonary regulation and function of dopaminergic receptors. Here we evaluated effects of 5 months of hypothyroidism on dopamine D1 receptor modulation of breathing in female hamsters using a D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390. Euthyroid hamsters (EH) served as controls. Results indicated that hypothyroid female hamsters (HH) exhibited decreased body weights and minute ventilation (V-E) following hypoxia due to decreased frequency of breathing (F). Moreover, SCH 23390 administration in HH increased V-E by increasing tidal volume during exposure to air, hypoxia and following hypoxia. Relative to vehicle, SCH 23390 treatment decreased body temperature and hypoxic V-E responsiveness in both groups. In EH, SCH 23390 decreased Fin air, hypoxia and post hypoxia, and V-E during hypoxia trended to decrease (P=0.053). Finally, expression of Ell receptor protein was not different between the two groups in any region evaluated. Thus, hypothyroidism in older female hamsters affected D1 receptor modulation of ventilation differently relative to euthyroid animals, but not expression of D1 receptors. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Summers, Torrie, Wang, Yanqing, Hanten, Brandon, & Burrell, Brandon D. (2015). Physiological, pharmacological and behavioral evidence for a TRPA1 channel that can elicit defensive responses in the medicinal leech. Journal of Experimental Biology, 218(19), 3023-3031.

Transient receptor potential ankyrin subtype 1 (TRPA1) channels are chemosensitive to compounds such as allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, the active component of mustard oil) and other reactive electrophiles and may also be thermodetectors in many animal phyla. In this study, we provide the first pharmacological evidence of a putative TRPA1-like channel in the medicinal leech. The leech’s polymodal nociceptive neuron was activated by both peripheral and central application of the TRPA1 agonist AITC in a concentration-dependent manner. Responses to AITC were inhibited by the selective TRPA1 antagonist HC030031, but also by the TRPV1 antagonist SB366791. Other TRPA1 activators – N-methylmaleimide (NMM) and cinnamaldehyde (CIN) – also activated this nociceptive neuron, although HC030031 only inhibited the effects of NMM. The polymodal nociceptive neurons responded to moderately cold thermal stimuli (< 17 degrees C) and these responses were blocked by HC030031. AITC sensitivity was also found in the pressure-sensitive sensory neurons and was blocked by HC030031, but not by SB366791. AITC elicited a nocifensive withdrawal of the posterior sucker in a concentration-dependent manner that could be attenuated with HC030031. Peripheral application of AITC in vivo also produced swimming-like behavior that was attenuated by HC030031. These results suggest the presence of a TRPA1-like channel in the medicinal leech nervous system that responds to cold temperatures and may interact with the leech TRPV-like channel.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Teng, Y. F., Rezvani, Khosrow, & De Biasi, M. (2015). UBXN2A regulates nicotinic receptor degradation by modulating the E3 ligase activity of CHIP. Biochemical Pharmacology, 97(4), 518-530.

Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the alpha 3 subunit are known for their prominent role in normal ganglionic transmission while their involvement in the mechanisms underlying nicotine addiction and smoking-related disease has been emerging only in recent years. The amount of information available on the maturation and trafficking of alpha 3-containing nAChRs is limited. We previously showed that UBXN2A is a p97 adaptor protein that facilitates the maturation and trafficking of alpha 3-containing nAChRs. Further investigation of the mechanisms of UBXN2A actions revealed that the protein interacts with CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsc70 interacting protein), whose ubiquitin E3 ligase activity regulates the degradation of several disease-related proteins. We show that CHIP displays E3 ligase activity toward the alpha 3 nAChR subunit and contributes to its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. UBXN2A interferes with CHIP-mediated ubiquitination of a3 and protects the nicotinic receptor subunit from endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD). UBXN2A also cross-talks with VCP/p97 and HSC70/HSP70 proteins in a complex where 3 is likely to be targeted by CHIP. Overall,we identify CHIP as an E3 ligase for alpha 3 and UBXN2A as a protein that may efficiently regulate the stability of CHIP’s client substrates. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Yaoqian, Pan, Ruizhu, Liu, Terpstra, Erin, Wang, Yanqing, Qiao, Fangfang, Jin, Wang, Yigang, Tong, & Bo, Pan. (2016). Dysregulation and Diagnostic Potential of microRNA in Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 49(1), 1-12.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases and is considered to be the main cause of cognitive impairment in elderly people. The major symptom of AD is progressive dementia that eventually results in dysfunction of daily life. Due to the fact that AD has a long period of incubation before clinical symptoms emerge, the available therapeutic treatments can only improve the symptoms but not delay the progression of AD. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore effective diagnostic approaches to catch and better treat the disease before clinical symptoms appear. Recent research revealed that abnormal expression of certain miRNA could have a crucial role in the pathological process of neurodegenerative disease including AD. Furthermore, given that AD patients show increased level of miRNAs in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, miRNAs are considered promising non-invasive candidates for AD diagnosis and prognosis. Here, we reviewed the current research related to implications of miRNAs during the development of AD, summarized of actively used approaches to identifying potential miRNA biomarkers in body fluids, and discussed the diagnostic potential of microRNAs as biomarkers for AD.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Dececchi, T. Alexander, Balhoff, J. P., Lapp, H., & Mabee, Paula M. (2015). Toward Synthesizing Our Knowledge of Morphology: Using Ontologies and Machine Reasoning to Extract Presence/Absence Evolutionary Phenotypes across Studies. Systematic Biology, 64(6), 936-952.

The reality of larger and larger molecular databases and the need to integrate data scalably have presented a major challenge for the use of phenotypic data. Morphology is currently primarily described in discrete publications, entrenched in noncomputer readable text, and requires enormous investments of time and resources to integrate across large numbers of taxa and studies. Here we present a new methodology, using ontology-based reasoning systems working with the Phenoscape Knowledgebase (KB; kb.phenoscape.org), to automatically integrate large amounts of evolutionary character state descriptions into a synthetic character matrix of neomorphic (presence/absence) data. Using the KB, which includes more than 55 studies of sarcopterygian taxa, we generated a synthetic supermatrix of 639 variable characters scored for 1051 taxa, resulting in over 145,000 populated cells. Of these characters, over 76% were made variable through the addition of inferred presence/absence states derived by machine reasoning over the formal semantics of the source ontologies. Inferred data reduced the missing data in the variable character-subset from 98.5% to 78.2%. Machine reasoning also enables the isolation of conflicts in the data, that is, cells where both presence and absence are indicated; reports regarding conflicting data provenance can be generated automatically. Further, reasoning enables quantification and new visualizations of the data, here for example, allowing identification of character space that has been undersampled across the fin-to-limb transition. The approach and methods demonstrated here to compute synthetic presence/absence supermatrices are applicable to any taxonomic and phenotypic slice across the tree of life, providing the data are semantically annotated. Because such data can also be linked to model organism genetics through computational scoring of phenotypic similarity, they open a rich set of future research questions into phenotype-to-genome relationships.

Biology Department.

Liu, Ming, & Swanson, David L. (2015). Stopover duration, movement patterns and temporary home ranges of fall migrant yellow-rumped warblers Setophaga coronata in native and anthropogenic woodlands of the Northern Prairie region, USA. Journal of Avian Biology, 46(5), 452-461.

Stopover behavior of migrant birds is influenced by their energetic condition, but also by extrinsic factors, including weather conditions and habitat attributes such as vegetation structure, microclimates, predation pressure, competition, and food availability. Anthropogenic habitats may differ from natural habitats in these attributes, which could promote differing stopover behaviors for migrants in the two habitat types and affect overall habitat suitability. We used radio-telemetry to measure stopover behaviors of fall migrant yellow-rumped warblers Setophaga coronata in native riparian corridor woodlands (corridors) and anthropogenic woodlots (woodlots) in the Northern Prairie region. We measured stopover duration, movement rate, and temporary home range size for birds in both habitat types by attaching radio-transmitters and relocating birds to either corridor (n = 17) or woodlot (n = 16) study sites. We used AIC(C) to rank null, global, and reduced models, which included habitat type, energetic condition, habitat size, year, date, and movement rate (for stopover duration analyses only) as explanatory variables. Model rankings showed that habitat type was not included in any of the top models (Delta AIC(C) < 2) for movement behavior, temporary home range size, or stopover duration, which suggests similar functional habitat quality between the two habitat types. These data add similar behavioral responses for birds in the two habitat types to similar fattening rates and stress physiology, further confirming similar suitability of native and anthropogenic woodland habitats in this region as stopover habitat. We also applied logistic regression with a model selection approach, including cloud cover, tail wind component, temperature, and barometric pressure as independent variables, and departure decision as the dependent variable, to evaluate the effects of weather variables on departure. Model selection suggested that cloud cover is a prominent factor affecting departure decisions and the other variables may also influence departure decisions of yellow-rumped warblers from inland stopover sites.

Biology Department.

Budhi, S., Wu, Chia-Ming, Zhao, D., & Koodali, Ranjit T. (2015). Investigation of Room Temperature Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide Nanoclusters Dispersed on Cubic MCM-48 Mesoporous Materials. Catalysts, 5(3), 1603-1621.

Titania containing cubic MCM-48 mesoporous materials were synthesized successfully at room temperature by a modified Stober method. The integrity of the cubic mesoporous phase was retained even at relatively high loadings of titania. The TiO2-MCM-48 materials were extensively characterized by a variety of physico-chemical techniques. The physico-chemical characterization indicate that Ti4+ ions can be substituted in framework tetrahedral positions. The relative amount of Ti4+ ions in tetrahedral position was dependent on the order of addition of the precursor. Even at relatively high loadings of titania, no distinct bulk phase of titania could be observed indicating that the titania nanoclusters are well dispersed on the high surface area mesoporous material and probably exist as amorphous nanoclusters. The TiO2-MCM-48 materials were found to exhibit 100% selectivity in the cyclohexene oxidation at room temperature in the presence of tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP) as the oxidant. The results suggest that room temperature synthesis is an attractive option for the preparation of TiO2-MCM-48 materials with interesting catalytic properties.

Chemistry Department.

Yulun, Han, Qingguo, Meng, Bakhtiyor, Rasulev, May, P. Stanley, Mary, T. Berry, & Dmitri, S. Kilin. (2015). Photofragmentation of the Gas-Phase Lanthanum IsopropylcyclopentadienylComplex: Computational Modeling vs Experiment. Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 119(44), 10838-10848.

Photofragmentationof the lanthanum isopropylcyclopentadienyl complex,La(iCp), was explored through time-dependent excited-state moleculardynamics (TDESMD), excited-state molecular dynamics (ESMD), and thermalmolecular dynamics (MD). Simulated mass spectra were extracted from ab initiomolecular dynamics simulations through a new andsimple method and compared to experimental photoionization time-of-flight(PI–TOF) mass spectra. The computational results indicate thatthe value of excitation energy and mechanism of excitation determinethe dissociation process.

Chemistry Department.

Santosh, K. (2015). g-DICE: graph mining-based document information content exploitation. International Journal on Document Analysis & Recognition, 18(4), 337-355.

In this paper, we present document information content (i.e. text fields) extraction technique via graph mining. Real-world users first provide a set of key text fields from the document image which they think are important. These fields are used to initialise a graph where nodes are labelled with the field names in addition to other features such as size, type and number of words, and edges are attributed with relative positioning between them. Such an attributed relational graph is then used to mine similar graphs from document images which are used to update the initial graph iteratively each time we extract them, to produce a graph model. Graph models, therefore, are employed in the absence of users. We have validated the proposed technique and evaluated its scientific impact on real-world industrial problem with the performance of 86.64 % precision and 90.80 % recall by considering all zones, viz. header, body and footer. More specifically, the proposed technique is well suited for table processing (i.e. extracting repeated patterns from the table) and it outperforms the state-of-the-art method by approximately more than 3 %.

Computer Science Department.

Newswander, Chad B. (2015). Administrative Character. American Review of Public Administration, 45(6), 746-759.

Managerial competence expressed in the promise of science provides administrators with a set of dispositions. In attempting to achieve such a character, the Supreme Court set up a hard look orientation that used rational means to justify the substance of administrative power. Even though this mode of operation grants legitimacy resulting from meeting a high threshold, it also began to cripple administrative reasoning and movement. When problems are multifaceted, administrative character must be given room to explore. Taking this into consideration, the court also established an alternative space rooted in a soft look that encouraged a different type of administrative character. It has done this by establishing the foundations of a legal framework that privileges deference, which allows for prudence to emerge. Rooted in classical origin and updated in modern parlance, prudence can be leveraged as a way to not only deal with questions of law but also with substance.

Political Science and Criminal Justice Department.

Pirog, Maureen, & Gerrish, Ed. (2015). Impact of the Child Support Performance and Incentive Act on child support order establishment. Children & Youth Services Review, 58, 104-117.

This paper examines the impact of the Child Support Performance and Incentive Act (CSPIA) of 1998 on the establishment of child support orders for never-married mothers who receive welfare assistance compared to those that do not. We primarily focus on the first year of motherhood after the birth of the first child. Using Survey on Income and Program Participation (SIPP) data, we find that CSPIA changed the provision of service by 12 percentage points between these two groups, largely due to a significant increase in child support orders for non-welfare families; CSPIA did not substantially alter the order establishment rate for families receiving welfare.

Political Science and Criminal Justice Department.

Hahn, Austin M., Tirabassi, Christine K., Simons, Raluca M., & Simons, Jeffrey S. (2015). Military sexual trauma, combat exposure, and negative urgency as independent predictors of PTSD and subsequent alcohol problems among OEF/OIF veterans. Psychological Services, 12(4), 378-383.

This study tested a path model of relationships between military sexual trauma (MST), combat exposure, negative urgency, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and alcohol use and related problems. The sample consisted of 86 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans who reported drinking at least one alcoholic beverage per week. PTSD mediated the relationships between MST and alcohol-related problems, negative urgency and alcohol-related problems, and combat exposure and alcohol-related problems. In addition, negative urgency had a direct effect on alcohol problems. These results indicate that MST, combat exposure, and negative urgency independently predict PTSD symptoms and PTSD symptoms mediate their relationship with alcohol-related problems. Findings support previous literature on the effect of combat exposure and negative urgency on PTSD and subsequent alcohol-related problems. The current study also contributes to the limited research regarding the relationship between MST, PSTD, and alcohol use and related problems. Clinical interventions aimed at reducing emotional dysregulation and posttraumatic stress symptomology may subsequently improve alcohol-related outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Rivera, P. M., Gonzales-Backen, M. A., Yedlin, J., Brown, E. J., Schwartz, S. J., Caraway, S. Jean, Weisskirch, R. S., Kim, S. Y., & Ham, L. S. (2015). Family Violence Exposure and Sexual Risk-Taking Among Latino Emerging Adults: The Role of Posttraumatic Stress Symptomology and Acculturative Stress. Journal of Family Violence, 30(8), 967-976.

This study proposes that posttraumatic stress symptomology and acculturative stress may further explain the relationship between family violence exposure and sexual risk-taking behaviors among Latino emerging adults (N = 1,100). A moderated mediation analysis indicated that lifetime rates of family violence exposure were positively associated with sexual risk-taking via posttraumatic stress symptomology, and this mediation significantly varied as a function of acculturative stress. Overall, the findings of the current study underscore a need for a better understanding of how family violence exposure puts Latino emerging adults at risk for aversive health outcomes and suggest the use of an ecological systemic framework that examines the interactions between family, individual, and cultural systems in relation to health risk-taking behaviors.

Psychology Department.

Simons, Jeffrey S., Joseph Clarke, C., Simons, Raluca M., & Spelman, Philip J. (2016). Marijuana consequences in a motivational context: Goal congruence reduces likelihood of taking steps toward change. Addictive Behaviors, 52, 83-90.

This study tested a model of marijuana use, problems, and motivation and barriers to change among a sample of 422 undergraduate students ages 18-25 (M=19.68, SD=1.60) who used marijuana at least once in the past 6months. We tested a structural equation model (SEM) with use motives (i.e., coping, enhancement, and expansion), perceived use utility, and gender as exogenous variables predicting marijuana use behavior (i.e., use and problems), motivation to change (i.e., problem recognition and perceived costs and benefits of change), and the ultimate outcome, taking steps to reduce marijuana use. Controlling for level of use and problems, expansion motives had a direct effect on increased perceived costs of change and enhancement motives had direct inverse effects on problem recognition and perceived benefits of change. However, the total effect of expansion motives on taking steps was not significant. The perceived role of marijuana in achieving personal strivings (i.e., use utility) was inversely associated with problem recognition, perceived benefits of change, and taking steps toward change. In contrast, coping motives, despite being associated with greater perceived costs of change, were positively associated with taking steps. Problem recognition was positively associated with both increased perceived costs and benefits of reducing marijuana use, reflecting individuals’ ambivalence about change. As expected, perceived benefits and costs of reducing use were positively and negatively associated with taking steps toward changing marijuana use, respectively. The results identify individual difference factors that contribute to motivation for change and are consistent with motivational models of change readiness. These results highlight the extent to which integration of marijuana use with personal goal achievement may interfere with taking steps to change use patterns despite associated negative consequences.

Psychology Department.

Wang, X. T., Ong, L. S., & Tan, J. (2015). Sense and sensibility of ownership: Type of ownership experience and valuation of goods. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, 58, 171-177.

This study examined how the type of ownership experience affects the valuation of a good. We hypothesized that the sense of ownership is a psychological derivative of resource acquisition and allocation. We predicted a valuation order of stable ownership or no-ownership < alternating (interchanging) ownership < sudden reversals in ownership. One hundred and sixty-six participants played an object-acquisition “game”, a computer simulation of gaining or losing the ownership of an object (e.g., a pen, a mug, or a flashlight) with different outcome sequences, preprogramed but unbeknownst to the participants. After each game, the participant valued the target object by indicating their willingness-to-pay price, if the last outcome was a loss, or willingness-to-accept price, if the last outcome was a gain. The valuation of an object was highest after experiencing a final reversal in ownership from losses to a final gain or from gains to a final loss, followed by alternating ownership and stable (patrimonial) ownership or constant non-ownership. Wins or losses are not created equal due to different trajectories in how people come to own (lose) objects. The results also suggest that loss aversion is better understood as a specific result of ownership experience. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Psychology Department.

Belcher, Harolyn, Stone, Jacqueline, McFadden, Jenese, Hemmingson, Tyler, Kreutzer, Cary, Harris, Lisa, Wheeler, Barbara, Osdel, Joanne, Avila, Margaret, Yorker, Beatrice, Hoffman, Beth, & Turner-Musa, Jocelyn. (2015). Evaluating Maternal and Child Health and Leadership Competencies of Emerging MCH Leaders: The MCHC/RISE-UP Experience. Maternal & Child Health Journal, 19(12), 2560-2567.

Purpose: This study examines maternal and child health core competencies and leadership characteristics of undergraduate students following participation in the Maternal and Child Health Careers/Research Initiatives for Student Enhancement-Undergraduate Program (MCHC/RISE-UP). MCHC/RISE-UP is a 10-week public health leadership program designed to promote diversity in public health workforce through mentored research, community engagement and advocacy, and clinical experiences for undergraduate students. Description: The MCHC/RISE-UP is a national consortium of University Centers for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities including, (1) Kennedy Krieger Institute (Kennedy Krieger, lead institution) partnering with Morgan State University, a Historically Black University, (2) the University of South Dakota partnering with Tribal Serving Institutions; and (3) the University of Southern California Children’s Hospital-Los Angeles and their partner institution, California State University Los Angeles, a Hispanic Serving Institution. Assessment: Eighty-four junior and senior undergraduates and recent baccalaureate degree students who participated in the MCHC/RISE-UP worked on 48 maternal and child health projects. Following the MCHC/RISE-UP, students demonstrated statistically significant improvements in all maternal and child health core competencies. Transformational leadership characteristics also increased (mean increase 9.4, 95 % CI 7.2-11.8; p < 0.001). At closing interview, over twice as many students endorsed a public health career goal compared to program admission (17.9 vs 57.7 %; p = 0.022). Conclusion: Multi-institutional collaborative public health leadership programs may extend the reach and recruitment of diverse students into the maternal and child health field. Experiential, didactic, and mentored learning opportunities may enhance student integration of maternal and child health competencies and transformational leadership characteristics.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus

Brudvig, Jon J., & Weimer, Jill M. (2015). X MARCKS the spot: myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate in neuronal function and disease. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 9.

Intracellular protein-protein interactions are dynamic events requiring tightly regulated spatial and temporal checkpoints. But how are these spatial and temporal cues integrated to produce highly specific molecular response patterns? A helpful analogy to this process is that of a cellular map, one based on the fleeting localization and activity of various coordinating proteins that direct a wide array of interactions between key molecules. One such protein, myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) has recently emerged as an important component of this cellular map, governing a wide variety of protein interactions in every cell type within the brain. In addition to its well-documented interactions with the actin cytoskeleton, MARCKS has been found to interact with a number of other proteins involved in processes ranging from intracellular signaling to process outgrowth. Here, we will explore these diverse interactions and their role in an array of brain-specific functions that have important implications for many neurological conditions.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Gawecka, Joanna E., Boaz, Segal, Kasperson, Kay, Hieu, Nguyen, Evenson, Donald P., Ward, W. Steven, & Nguyen, Hieu. (2015). Luminal fluid of epididymis and vas deferens contributes to sperm chromatin fragmentation. Human Reproduction, 30(12), 2725-2736.

Study Question: </bold>Do the luminal fluids of the epididymis and the vas deferens contribute to sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF) in mice?<bold>Summary Answer: </bold>The luminal fluids of both organs are required for activating SCF in mice, but the vas deferens luminal fluid does this more efficiently than that of the epididymis.<bold>What Is Known Already: </bold>Mice sperm have the ability to degrade their DNA in an apoptotic-like fashion when treated with divalent cations in a process termed SCF. SCF has two steps: the induction of reversible double-strand DNA breaks at the nuclear matrix attachment sites, followed by the irreversible degradation of DNA by nuclease. Single stranded DNA breaks accompany SCF.<bold>Study Design, Size, Duration: </bold>Luminal fluids from two reproductive organs of the mouse (B6D2F1 strain), the epididymis and vas deferens, were extracted and tested for SCF activation with divalent cations using four different combinations of the sperm and the surrounding luminal fluids: (i) in situ-sperm were kept in their luminal fluid and activated directly; (ii) reconstituted-sperm were centrifuged and resuspended in their luminal fluid before SCF activation; (iii) mixed-sperm were centrifuged and resuspended in the luminal fluid of the other organ; (iv) no luminal fluid-sperm were centrifuged and reconstituted in buffer. All four experiments were performed without (controls) and with divalent cations (resulting in SCF). For each experimental condition, two different mice were used and the analyses averaged.<bold>Participants/materials, Setting, Methods: </bold>DNA damage by SCF was analyzed by three different methods, the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis and field inversion gel electrophoresis.<bold>Main Results and the Role Of Chance: </bold>In all three assays that we used, the vas deferens luminal fluid was much more efficient in stimulating SCF in the sperm from either source than that of the epididymis (P < 0.0001). Vas deferens sperm were capable of initiating lower levels of SCF in the absence of luminal fluid (P < 0.0001).<bold>Limitations, Reasons For Caution: </bold>Analyses were performed in only one species, the mouse, but we used three separate assays in our analysis.<bold>Wider Implications Of the Findings: </bold>The data suggest that the luminal fluid of the male reproductive tract interacts with sperm during their transit providing a mechanism to degrade the DNA. We hypothesize that this is part of an apoptotic-like mechanism that allows the reproductive tract to eliminate defective sperm. The SCF model also allowed us to identify differences in the types of DNA lesions that the three tests can identify, providing important background information for the use of these tests clinically.<bold>Study Funding/competing Interests: </bold>Funding was obtained from the National Institutes of Health, USA Grant HD060722 to W.S.W. and SCSA Diagnostics, Brookings, SD, USA.Two of the authors work for SCSA Diagnostics, and one owns the company and the patents.<bold>Trial Registration Number: </bold>Trial registration number is only required for clinical trials.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Kovács, Attila D., Hof, Caitlin, & Pearce, David A. (2015). Abnormally increased surface expression of AMPA receptors in the cerebellum, cortex and striatum of Cln3−/− mice. Neuroscience Letters, 607, 29-34.

Mutations in the CLN3 gene cause a fatal neurodegenerative disorder, juvenile CLN3 disease. Exploring the cause of the motor coordination deficit in the Cln3 −/− mouse model of the disease we have previously found that attenuation of AMPA receptor activity in 1-month-old Cln3 −/− mice significantly improves their motor coordination [20] . To elucidate the mechanism of the abnormally increased AMPA receptor function in Cln3 −/− mice, we examined the surface expression of AMPA receptors using surface cross-linking in brain slices from 1-month-old wild type (WT) and Cln3 −/− mice. In surface cross-linked brain samples, Western blotting for AMPA receptor subunits revealed significantly increased surface levels of GluA1 and GluA2 in the cerebellum, and of GluA2 in the cortex and striatum of Cln3 −/− mice as compared to WT mice. Expression levels of the GluA4 subunit were similar in the cerebellum of WT and Cln3 −/− mice. While intracellular GluA1 levels in the WT and Cln3 −/− cerebellum or cortex were similar, the intracellular expression of GluA1 in the Cln3 −/− striatum was decreased to 56% of the WT level. Our results show a prominent increase in AMPA receptor surface expression in the brain of Cln3 −/− mice and suggest that CLN3 is involved in the regulation of AMPA receptor surface expression.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Larson, Eric A., & Wilke, R. A. (2015). Integration of Genomics in Primary Care. American Journal of Medicine, 128(11).

Primary care is changing rapidly. The wide-scale expansion of electronic medical records is redefining the way we approach chronic disease management, and automated decision support is increasingly being leveraged to reduce risk and optimize quality. Many of these interventions are now beginning to integrate genomic data. We explore the convergence of these 2 forces (expansion of clinical informatics and integration of translational genomics), and we highlight several applications where these forces are helping our patients avoid potentially preventable events. Because gene-environment interactions are dynamic, the utility of gene-based decision support varies over time. Primary care providers will serve a key role as our patients navigate these changes. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

May, Philip A., Keaster, C., Bozeman, R., Goodover, J., Blankenship, J., …., & Hoyme, H. Eugene. (2015). Prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome and partial fetal alcohol syndrome in a Rocky Mountain Region City. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 155, 118-127.

Background: The prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) in the United States (US) are not well known. Methods: This active case ascertainment study in a Rocky Mountain Region City assessed the prevalence and traits of children with FAS and PFAS and linked them to maternal risk factors. Diagnoses made by expert clinical dysmorphologists in multidisciplinary case conferences utilized all components of the study: dysmorphology and physical growth, neurobehavior, and maternal risk interviews. Results: Direct parental (active) consent was obtained for 1278 children. Averages for key physical diagnostic traits and several other minor anomalies were significantly different among FAS, PFAS, and randomly-selected, normal controls. Cognitive tests and behavioral checklists discriminated the diagnostic groups from controls on 12 of 14 instruments. Mothers of children with FAS and PFAS were significantly lower in educational attainment, shorter, later in pregnancy recognition, and suffered more depression, and used marijuana and methamphetamine during their pregnancy. Most pre-pregnancy and pregnancy drinking measures were worse for mothers of FAS and PFAS. Excluding a significant difference in simply admitting drinking during the index pregnancy (FAS and PFAS = 75% vs. 39.4% for controls), most quantitative intergroup differences merely approached significance. This community’s prevalence of FAS is 2.9-7.5 per 1000, PFAS is 7.9-17.7 per 1000, and combined prevalence is 10.9-25.2 per 1000 or 1.1-15%. Conclusions: Comprehensive, active case ascertainment methods produced rates of FAS and PFAS higher than predicted by long-standing, popular estimates. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Miller, Ross A., Mody, Dina R., Tams, Kimberlee C., & Thrall, Michael J. (2015). Glandular Lesions of the Cervix in Clinical Practice. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 139(11), 1431-1436.

Context.–The Papanicolaou (Pap) test has indisputably decreased cervical cancer mortality, as rates have declined by up to 80% in the United States since its implementation. However, the Pap test is considered less sensitive for detecting glandular lesions than for detecting those of squamous origin. Some studies have even suggested an increasing incidence of cervical adenocarcinoma, which may be a consequence of a relatively reduced ability to detect glandular lesions with cervical cancer screening techniques. Objective.–To evaluate the detection rate of glandular lesions with screening techniques currently used for cervical cancer screening and to provide insight as to which techniques are most efficacious in our study population. Design.–We retrospectively reviewed any available cytology, human papillomavirus (HPV), and histologic malignancy data in patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma in situ and adenocarcinoma from 2 geographically and socioeconomically disparate hospital systems. Identified patients having had a negative/unsatisfactory Pap test within 5 years of adenocarcinoma in situ or adenocarcinoma tissue diagnosis were considered Pap test screening failures. Patients with negative HPV tests on cytology samples were considered HPV screening failures. Results.–One hundred thirty cases were identified (age range, 22-93 years); 39 (30%) had no Pap history in our files. Eight of 91 remaining cases (8.8%) were screening failures. The detected sensitivity for identifying adenocarcinoma in situ/adenocarcinoma in this study was 91.2% by cytology alone and 92.3% when incorporating HPV testing. The most common cytologic diagnosis was atypical glandular cells (25 cases), and those diagnosed with adenocarcinoma were 7.4 years older than those diagnosed with adenocarcinoma in situ (50.3 versus 42.9 years). Nine of 24 HPV-tested cases (37.5%) were called atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance on cytology. Conclusions.–Our results highlight the importance of combined Pap and HPV cotesting. Although the number of cases identified is relatively small, our data suggest screening for squamous lesions facilitates the recognition of glandular lesions in the cervix. Additionally, increased use of combined Pap and HPV cotesting may decrease detection failure rates with regard to glandular lesions.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Song, Xue, Posgai, Amanda, Wasserfall, Clive, Myhr, Courtney, …., Rabinovitch, Alex, Savinov, Alexei, Battaglia, Manuela, Schatz, Desmond, Haller, Michael, Atkinson, Mark A., & Xue, Song. (2015). Combination Therapy Reverses Hyperglycemia in NOD Mice With Established Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes, 64(11), 3873-3884.

An increasing number of therapies have proven effective at reversing hyperglycemia in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes (T1D), yet situations of successful translation to human T1D are limited. This may be partly due to evaluating the effect of treating immediately at diagnosis in mice, which may not be reflective of the advanced disease state in humans at disease onset. In this study, we treated NOD mice with new-onset as well as established disease using various combinations of four drugs: antithymocyte globulin (ATG), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor (DPP-4i), and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). Therapy with all four drugs induced remission in 83% of new-onset mice and, remarkably, in 50% of NOD mice with established disease. Also noteworthy, disease remission occurred irrespective of initial blood glucose values and mechanistically was characterized by enhanced immunoregulation involving alterations in CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, and natural killer cells. This combination therapy also allowed for effective treatment at reduced drug doses (compared with effective monotherapy), thereby minimizing potential adverse effects while retaining efficacy. This combination of approved drugs demonstrates a novel ability to reverse T1D, thereby warranting translational consideration.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Xue, S., Posgai, A., Wasserfall, C., Myhr, C., Campbell-Thompson, M., Mathews, C. E., Brusko, T., Rabinovitch, Alex, Sayinov, Alexi, Battaglia, M., Schatz, D., Haller, M., & Atkinson, M. A. (2015). Combination Therapy Reverses Hyperglycemia in NOD Mice With Established Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes, 64(11), 3873-3884.

An increasing number of therapies have proven effective at reversing hyperglycemia in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes (T1D), yet situations of successful translation to human T1D are limited. This may be partly due to evaluating the effect of treating immediately at diagnosis in mice, which may not be reflective of the advanced disease state in humans at disease onset. In this study, we treated NOD mice with new-onset as well as established disease using various combinations of four drugs: antithymocyte globulin (ATG), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor (DPP-4i), and a proton pump inhibitor (PP. Therapy with all four drugs induced remission in 83% of new-onset mice and, remarkably, in 50% of NOD mice with established disease. Also noteworthy, disease remission occurred irrespective of initial blood glucose values and mechanistically was characterized by enhanced immunoregulation involving alterations in CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, and natural killer cells. This combination therapy also allowed for effective treatment at reduced drug doses (compared with effective monotherapy), thereby minimizing potential adverse effects while retaining efficacy. This combination of approved drugs demonstrates a novel ability to reverse T1D, thereby warranting translational consideration.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Roh, Soonhee, Brown-Rice, Kathleen A., Lee, K. H., Lee, Y. S., Yee-Melichar, D., & Talbot, E. P. (2015). Attitudes Toward Mental Health Services Among American Indians by Two Age Groups. Community Mental Health Journal, 51(8), 970-977.

This study examined determinants of attitudes toward mental health services with a sample of American Indian younger-old-adults (aged 50-64, n = 158) and American Indian older-old adults (aged 65 and older, n = 69). Adapting Andersen’s behavioral model of healthcare utilization, predisposing factors, mental health needs, and enabling factors were considered as potential predictors. Female and those with higher levels of social support tend to report more positive attitudes toward mental health services. Culture-influenced personal belief was associated with negative attitudes toward mental health services among American Indian younger-old -adults. Age and higher chronic medical conditions were significantly related to negative attitudes toward mental health services. Health insurance was positively associated with positive attitudes toward mental health services in the American Indian older-old adults. Findings indicate that practitioners should engage how culture, social support, and chronic conditions influence the response to mental health needs when working with older American Indians.

School of Health Sciences

School of Education

Cross, S. L., Drywater-Whitekiller, V., Holder, L. A., Norris, Debra, Caringi, J., & Trautman, A. (2015). NCWWI Tribal Traineeship Programs: Promoting Diversity in the Child Welfare Workforce. Journal of Social Work Education, 51, S225-S238.

Twelve universities and one American Indian (AI) tribal college were selected for the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute’s 5-year stipend traineeship program. These tribal traineeships were designed to provide social work child welfare education for tribal and nontribal students. Twenty-two AI students and 58 nontribal students completed a bachelor or master’s of social work degree. The students’ field placements were in tribal agencies or public agencies that served a segment of the AI population. These programs were enhanced through the use of valuable relationships (i.e., partnerships, mentorships, allies), and cultural competence was a key aspect of the students’ education. The students’ education was enriched with a specific child welfare curriculum, cultural teachings, tribal traineeship collaborations, and tribal community events.

School of Health Sciences.

Isaacson, Mary, Karel, Beth, Varilek, Brandon M., Steenstra, Whitney J., Tanis-Heyenga, Jordan P., & Wagner, Amanda. (2015). Insights From Health Care Professionals Regarding Palliative Care Options on South Dakota Reservations. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 26(5), 473-479.

Purpose: Palliative care options are limited for Native Americans (NA) in South Dakota (SD). This exploratory study offers the perspectives of Native and non-Native health care professionals regarding palliative care specific to NAs. Design: Semi-structured interviews were conducted (N = 7) with participants representing NA (4) and non-Native (3) ethnicities. NonNative participants were practicing health care professionals in palliative medicine, whereas the NA health care professionals had experience with palliative care. Findings: Concept analysis revealed two main themes and five subthemes: (a) barriers to palliative care, for example, insufficient funding, lack of infrastructure, and misconceptions; and (b) implementation strategies, for example, openness and listening and creating the right team. Discussion: Genuine interest and concern exists for the provision of palliative care to NA communities using collaborative and innovative approaches. Implications: To address the health disparities of the NA population specific to palliative care, public health policy reform and education for health professionals are necessary.

School of Health Sciences.

Louw, Adriaan, Puentedura, Emilio J., & Zimney, Kory. (2015). A clinical contrast: physical therapists with low back pain treating patients with low back pain. Physiotherapy Theory & Practice, 31(8), 562-567.

Patients with low back pain (LBP) often display faulty beliefs and cognitions regarding their pain experience. Pain neuroscience education (PNE) aims to alter the pain experience by targeting these faulty beliefs and cognitions. One PNE strategy aims specifically to reframe commonly held beliefs about tissues by patients with LBP as the single source of pain. In line with this reasoning, it is hypothesized that physical therapists (PT) treating patients with LBP may indeed experience similar, if not worse, pain experiences while treating a patient with LBP. To date, this assumption has never been studied. A PT LBP questionnaire was developed, validated and distributed to a convenience sample of attendees of an international PT conference. One-hundred and ten PTs completed the questionnaire for a 71% response rate. Ninety percent of the PTs reported having experienced LBP, with 27% at the conference experiencing LBP at the time. Of the PTs that have experienced LBP 75% reported not having received any imaging; 81% no formal diagnoses, 58% no treatment and 86% not having missed work due to LBP. Eighty-six percent of therapists reported having experienced LBP while treating a patient with LBP, with 50% convinced their LBP was higher than the LBP experienced by the patient they were treating. The results from this study indicate PTs often treat patients with LBP while suffering LBP. It is suggested that this knowledge may potentially help patients with LBP reconceptualize their LBP experience leading to expedited recovery.

School of Health Sciences.

Riebschleger, J., Norris, Debra, Pierce, B., Pond, D. L., & Cummings, C. (2015). Preparing Social Work Students for Rural Child Welfare Practice: Emerging Curriculum Competencies. Journal of Social Work Education, 51, S209-S224.

Multiple issues that are unique to child welfare social work practice in rural areas markedly affect workforce recruitment and retention, yet little attention is given to the proficiencies needed to equip emerging social workers for this growing area of the field. Curriculum content is needed that provides students with the opportunity to master the skills needed to thrive as child welfare social workers in rural areas. Using an evidence-based practice critical thinking model as a guide, a systematic review of literature and documents addresses many of the competencies needed to prepare social work students for child welfare practice in rural areas. These competencies are identified. Suggestions for integration into the social work curriculum are offered.

School of Health Sciences.

Roh, Soonhee, Kim, Youseung, Lee, Kyoung Hag, Lee, Yeon-Shim, Burnette, Catherine E., & Lawler, Michael J. (2015). Religion, Social Support, and Life Satisfaction Among American Indian Older Adults. Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work, 34(4), 414-434.

This study examined the associations among religion, social support, and life satisfaction with 233 older American Indians in the Northern Plains region. Hierarchical regression indicated that those with higher religiousness and greater social support were found to have greater life satisfaction. Findings suggest that religion and social support provide promising pathways to build upon existing strengths to ameliorate mental health disparities. Health professionals must be sensitive to the complexities of religion and social support, and consider ways to incorporate cultural practices into health education and interventions to promote the quality of life for older American Indians.

School of Health Sciences.

 

 

 

 

 

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