Posted by: kelsijo97 | July 8, 2011

July 2011

Beky, B., Bakos, G. A., Hartman, J., Torres, G., Latham, D. W., Jordan, A., Arriagada, P., Bayliss, D., Perumpilly, G., Lazar, J., Papp, I., and Sari, P. “Hat-P-27b: A Hot Jupiter Transiting a G Star on a 3 Day Orbit.” Astrophysical Journal 734, no. 2 (2011).

We report the discovery of HAT-P-27b, an exoplanet transiting the moderately bright G8 dwarf star GSC 0333-00351 (V = 12.214). The orbital period is 3.039586 +/- 0.000012 days, the reference epoch of transit is 2455186.01879 +/- 0.00054 (BJD), and the transit duration is 0.0705 +/- 0.0019 days. The host star with its effective temperature 5300 +/- 90 K is somewhat cooler than the Sun and is more metal-rich with a metallicity of +0.29 +/- 0.10. Its mass is 0.94 +/- 0.04 M-circle dot and radius is 0.90(-0.04)(+0.05) R-circle dot. For the planetary companion we determine a mass of 0.660 +/- 0.033 M-J and radius of 1.038(-0.058)(+0.077) R-J. For the 30 known transiting exoplanets between 0.3 M-J and 0.8 M-J, a negative correlation between host star metallicity and planetary radius and an additional dependence of planetary radius on equilibrium temperature are confirmed at a high level of statistical significance.

Earth Sciences Department.

Bell, Maria C., Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf, Jacobsen, Clemma, Chauhan, Subhash C., Maher, Diane M., and Buchwald, Dedra S. “Risk Factors for Hpv Infection among American Indian and White Women in the Northern Plains.” Gynecologic Oncology 121, no. 3 (2011).

Abstract: Objective: American Indian (AI) women living in the Northern Plains have high incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer. We assessed risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among AI and White women. Methods: We tested cervical samples for HPV infection obtained from women ages 18–65years attending 2 rural AI reservation clinics in South Dakota (n =235) and an urban clinic serving predominantly White women (n =246). Patients self-reported information on HPV risk factors. We used percentages and chi-square tests to compare risk factors, and logistic regression with HPV status as the outcome to quantify the association between HPV and risk factors. Results: AI women had more risk factors than White women, including younger age, less education, less vegetable consumption, more sexual partners, younger age at first sexual experience and first pregnancy, and more pregnancies (p values≤0.003). AI women more often endorsed recreational drug use, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and current smoking; White women reported more alcohol consumption (p values<0.001). In multivariate analysis, younger age and current smoking were associated with higher odds of HPV infection in AI women, whereas a higher number of sexual partners was associated with higher odds of HPV infection in White women. Conclusions: AI women have a high burden of risk factors for HPV disease, and associations with HPV infection appear to differ by community. Knowledge of specific risk factors in AI populations may provide targets for public health officials to decrease HPV infection and disease.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Fals Campus

Billman, G. E., and Harris, William S. “Effect of Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids on the Heart Rate and the Heart Rate Variability Responses to Myocardial Ischemia or Submaximal Exercise.” American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 300, no. 6 (2011).

Billman GE, Harris WS. Effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on the heart rate and the heart rate variability responses to myocardial ischemia or submaximal exercise. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 300: H2288-H2299, 2011. First published April 1, 2011; doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00140.2011.-The consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) has been reported to decrease resting heart rate (HR) and increase heart rate variability (HRV). However, the effects of n-3 PUFAs on these variables in response to a physiological stress (e. g., exercise or acute myocardial ischemia), particularly in postmyocardial infarction (MI) patients, are unknown. Therefore, HR and HRV (high frequency and total R-R interval variability) were evaluated at rest, during submaximal exercise, and during a 2-min coronary artery occlusion at rest and before and 3 mo after n-3 PUFA treatment in dogs with healed MI (n = 59). The dogs were randomly assigned to either placebo (1 g/day corn oil, n = 19) or n-3 PUFA supplement (docosahexaenoic acid + eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl esters; 1 g/day, n = 6; 2 g/day, n = 12; or 4 g/day, n = 22) groups. The treatment elicited significant (P < 0.01) dose-dependent increases in right atrial n-3 PUFA levels but dose-independent reductions in resting HR and increases in resting HRV. In contrast, n-3 PUFAs did not attenuate the large changes in HR or HRV induced by either the coronary occlusion or submaximal exercise. These data demonstrate that dietary n-3 PUFA decreased resting (i.e., preexercise or preocclusion) HR and increased resting HRV but did not alter the cardiac response to physiologic challenges.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Bledsoe, Adam C., Oliver, Kathryn M., Scholl, Jamie L., and Forster, Gina L. “Anxiety States Induced by Post-Weaning Social Isolation Are Mediated by Crf Receptors in the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus.” Brain Research Bulletin 85, no. 3 (2011).

Abstract: Post-weaning social isolation of rats is utilized as a model of early life stress. We have previously demonstrated that rats exposed to post-weaning social isolation exhibit greater anxiety-like behaviors as adults. Furthermore, these rats exhibit greater density of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) type 2 receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Therefore, we examined whether antagonism of CRF<sub>2</sub> receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus reverses the effects of post-weaning social isolation on anxiety states. Male rats were reared in isolation or in groups from day of weaning (postnatal day [PND] 21) to mid-adolescence (PND42) and then allowed to develop to early adulthood housed in groups. At PND62, rats were either infused with vehicle, the CRF<sub>1</sub> receptor antagonist antalarmin (0.25–0.5μg) or the CRF<sub>2</sub> receptor antagonist antisauvagine-30 (2μg) into the dorsal raphe nucleus, 20min prior to being introduced to the elevated plus maze. Isolation-reared rats showed reduced open arm behavior compared to group-reared rats, confirming the anxiogenic effects of post-weaning social isolation. Infusion of the CRF<sub>2</sub> receptor antagonist, but not the CRF<sub>1</sub> receptor antagonist, into the dorsal raphe nucleus of isolation-reared rats increased open arm behavior when compared to that of group-reared rats. Overall, the findings suggest that CRF<sub>2</sub> receptors within the dorsal raphe nucleus mediate anxiety-like states following post-weaning social isolation, and CRF<sub>2</sub> receptors may represent an important target for the treatment of anxiety disorders following early life stressors.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Chen, K., Xu, X. M., Kobayashi, S., Timm, D., Jepperson, T., and Liang, Q. R. “Caloric Restriction Mimetic 2-Deoxyglucose Antagonizes Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyocyte Death by Multiple Mechanisms.” Journal of Biological Chemistry 286, no. 25 (2011).

Caloric restriction (CR) is a dietary intervention known to enhance cardiovascular health. The glucose analog 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) mimics CR effects in several animal models. However, whether 2-DG is beneficial to the heart remains obscure. Here, we tested the ability of 2-DG to reduce cardiomyocyte death triggered by doxorubicin (DOX, 1 mu M), an antitumor drug that can cause heart failure. Treatment of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with 0.5 mM 2-DG dramatically suppressed DOX cytotoxicity as indicated by a decreased number of cells that stained positive for propidium iodide and reduced apoptotic markers. 2-DG decreased intracellular ATP levels by 17.9%, but it prevented DOX-induced severe depletion of ATP, which may contribute to 2-DG-mediated cytoprotection. Also, 2-DG increased the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Blocking AMPK signaling with compound C or small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of the catalytic subunit markedly attenuated the protective effects of 2-DG. Conversely, AMPK activation by pharmacological or genetic approach reduced DOX cardiotoxicity but did not produce additive effects when used together with 2-DG. In addition, 2-DG induced autophagy, a cellular degradation pathway whose activation could be either protective or detrimental depending on the context. Paradoxically, despite its ability to activate autophagy, 2-DG prevented DOX-induced detrimental autophagy. Together, these results suggest that the CR mimetic 2-DG can antagonize DOX-induced cardiomyocyte death, which is mediated through multiple mechanisms, including the preservation of ATP content, the activation of AMPK, and the inhibition of autophagy.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Dvorak, Robert, Simons, Jeffrey, and Wray, Tyler. “Impulsivity Moderates the Association between Depressive Rumination and Number of Quit Attempt Failures by Smokers.” Addiction Research & Theory 19, no. 3 (2011).

Negative mood states have been shown to increase the likelihood of relapse among smokers attempting to quit. Rumination increases the vulnerability to depression among smokers, a relationship that is intensified by impulsivity. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between depressive rumination and impulsivity on smokers” ( n == 53) lifetime quit attempt failures. Depressive rumination was positively associated with number of quit attempt failures. As hypothesized, there was a significant interaction between depressive rumination and impulsivity. At high levels of impulsivity, there was a strong positive association between depressive rumination and number of quit attempt failures. However, at low levels of impulsivity the association between depressive rumination and quit attempt failures was diminished and not significant. The results support an affect regulation model of quit attempt failures, whereby impulsivity strengthens effects of depressive rumination, decreasing the likelihood of successfully quitting smoking.

Psychology Department.

Giger, Jarod T., and Markward, Martha. “The Need to Know Caregiver Perspectives toward Using Smart Home Technology.” Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation 10, no. 2 (2011).

This article reviews the literature on adults with serious mental illness, their caregivers, and smart home technology. The article provides compelling evidence for social workers to undertake research aimed at investigating caregivers’ perceptions toward using smart home technology for care of adult family members or friends with a serious mental illness. Empirical support for using smart home technologies with adults with serious mental illness is provided, and recommendations for future social work research are offered.

School of Health Sciences.

Haddad, Emily A. “General Happiness or Human Bliss: Jane Marcet’s Political Economy in James Morier’s Persia.” Nineteenth-Century Contexts 33, no. 2 (2011).

An essay is presented literary depictions of happiness and social progress in the books “Conversations on Political Economy” by Jane Marcet and “The Adventures of Hajji Baba of Ispahan” by James Morier. Topics discussed include the distribution of wealth and the role of charitable organizations, the influence of economist Adam Smith, and the relationship between happiness and industriousness.

English Department.

Halasa, Natasha, Englund, Janet A., Nachman, Sharon, Weinberg, Geoffrey A., Huber, Victor C., Allison, Kim, Dubovsky, Filip, Yi, Tingting, McCullers, Jonathan A., and Flynn, Patricia M. “Safety of Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in Mild to Moderately Immunocompromised Children with Cancer.” Vaccine 29, no. 24 (2011).

Abstract: Background: The safety of intranasal live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in immunocompromised children with cancer is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the safety and immunogenicity of LAIV in mild to moderately immunocompromised children with cancer. Methods: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind study of LAIV versus placebo in children aged 5–17 years with cancer. LAIV (frozen formulation) or allantoic fluid/buffer was administered intranasally. Reactogenicity, adverse events, blood for immune assays, and nasal swabs for viral shedding were obtained during 5 visits over the first 42 days postvaccination; information concerning serious adverse events (SAEs) was collected for 180 days. Results: 20 subjects were enrolled (LAIV, n =10; placebo, n =10) with a mean age of 12.2 years. Ten subjects had hematologic malignancy (LAIV, n =4; placebo, n =6); 10 subjects had solid tumors (LAIV, n =6; placebo, n =4). One subject was excluded from immunogenicity analysis for not receiving a full dose of LAIV. LAIV resulted in an increased incidence of runny nose/nasal congestion occurring in all LAIV recipients; no related SAEs were observed. Four of 10 LAIV recipients shed vaccine virus, with none exceeding 7–10 days duration. LAIV demonstrated modest immunogenicity by hemagglutination inhibition (≥4 fold rise for any strain, 33%) and microneutralization assays (≥4 fold rise for any strain, 44%). Conclusion: In this small pilot study conducted in mild to moderately immunocompromised children with cancer, runny nose/nasal congestion was increased in LAIV recipients, no related SAEs occurred, and prolonged viral shedding was not detected. Moderate immunogenicity was demonstrated in this small group of individuals.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Li, Wei, Zheng, Zhaoqing Q., and Keifer, Joyce. “Transsynaptic Ephb/Ephrin-B Signaling Regulates Growth of Presynaptic Boutons Required for Classical Conditioning.” Journal of Neuroscience 31, no. 23 (2011).

Learning-related presynaptic remodeling has been documented in only a few systems, and its molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we describe a role for the bidirectional EphB/ephrin-B signaling system in structural plasticity of presynaptic nerve terminals using an in vitro model of classical conditioning. Conditioning or BDNF application induced significant growth of auditory nerve presynaptic boutons that convey the conditioned stimulus to abducens motor neurons. Interestingly, bouton enlargement occurred only for those synapses apposed to motor neuron dendrites rather than to somata. Phosphorylation of ephrin-B1, but not EphB2, was induced by both conditioning and BDNF application and was inhibited by postsynaptic injections of ephrin-B antibody. Finally, suppression of postsynaptic ephrin-B function inhibited presynaptic bouton enlargement that was rescued by activation of EphB2 by ephrin-B1-Fc. These data provide evidence for ephrin-B-induced EphB2 forward signaling in presynaptic structural plasticity during classical conditioning. They also reveal a functional interaction between BDNF/TrkB and the Eph/ephrin signaling systems in the coordination of presynaptic and postsynaptic modifications during conditioning.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

McNair, L. D., Newswander, Chad, Boden, D., and Borrego, M. “Student and Faculty Interdisciplinary Identities in Self-Managed Teams.” Journal of Engineering Education 100, no. 2 (2011).

BACKGROUND Interdisciplinary teamwork is increasingly important for engineering graduates. Yet, the reality of teaching interdisciplinarity requires faculty and students to navigate structures of engineering programs that do not accommodate interdisciplinary work. PURPOSE (HYPOTHESIS) The purpose of this study is to understand how students and faculty negotiate interdisciplinary identities and how self-managed work teams can be used as a pedagogical strategy for promoting interdisciplinarity. Gee’s concepts of affinity identity and institutional identity are used to theorize interdisciplinary teaming. DESIGN/METHOD Multiple data sets from observations and interviews are used to present a case study of one interdisciplinary design course from the points of view of faculty and students. This approach, combined with research literature, is used to propose a pedagogical model for interdisciplinary teaming. RESULTS A pedagogical approach of self-managed teaming can promote interdisciplinary identities if (a) faculty model institutional identities as interdisciplinary researchers and instructors, (b) students are encouraged to perform as decision-makers in groups constructed through affinity identities, and (c) faculty provide scaffolding for self-managed teams and encourage valuing of different disciplinary perspectives. CONCLUSIONS In the midst of an international shift toward interdisciplinarity, structural boundaries within academia present challenges to interdisciplinary collaborations. Gee’s identity theory can facilitate our understanding of academic structures, especially in examining how overlapping affinity and institutional identities are at the center of newly formed interdisciplinary spaces. Issues critical to aiding interdisciplinary teaming include conflict management, scaffolding by instructors, and realistic appraisal of disciplinary grounding.

Political Science and Criminal Justice Department.

Newswander, Chad B. “The Emergence of Partisans and Terrorists.” Administrative Theory & Praxis (M.E. Sharpe) 33, no. 2 (2011).

The changing status and capacity of enemies of the state play an important role in the evolution of the securitization of the state. Examining how enemies of the state mold state action, this article uses Foucault’s concern with governmentality and Schmitt’s theory of the partisan to describe how and where agencies have begun to manage closed and open spaces. From this administrative angle, the interplay between these two ideas sheds light on how administrators devise disciplinary and security-based measures. This article more fully describes the dynamic of how administrators have countered active threats by constructing closed spaces designed to discipline and operating in open spaces designed to exclude. The execution and interaction of extending mechanisms of control and calculation to closed and open spaces not only provide enhanced protection but also threaten the fruition of constitutional and democratic values in the twenty-first century.

Political Science and Criminal Justice Department.

Novick, Andrew M. “Antidepressant Psychopharmacology and the Social Brain.” Psychiatry: Journal for the Study of Interpersonal Processes 74, no. 1 (2011).

Antidepressant drugs are a mainstay in psychiatric treatment and have the ability to influence neural substrates related to social bonding and interaction. This article explores the potential neurobiological overlap between social attachment and antidepressant mechanisms and reviews work related to the effects of antidepressants on separation distress, social affiliation, dominance hierarchies, romantic love, and socio-emotional processing. It is proposed that similarities between antidepressant pharmacology and the neurobiological effects of an effective care-giver may help create a sense of safety that in turn promotes changes in behavior and mood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Park, S., Murthy, P. S. K., Mohan, Y. Murali, and Koh, W. G. “Preparation of Silver Nanoparticle-Containing Semi-Interpenetrating Network Hydrogels Composed of Pluronic and Poly(Acrylamide) with Antibacterial Property.” Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 17, no. 2 (2011).

In this investigation, we prepared semi-interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogels composed of pluronic and poly(acrylamide), using free radical polymerization with a redox initiator system in the presence of N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide. The hydrogels served as templates for producing highly stable and uniformly distributed silver nanoparticles via in situ reduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as reducing agent. We confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles using ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Stability and morphology of the nanoparticles was examined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Finally, we demonstrated the presence of antibacterial activity in the developed hydrogel-silver nanocomposite. (C) 2011 The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Riley, Lynn, McGlaughlin, Mitchell E., and Helenurm, Kaius. “Isolation of Microsatellite Loci from Rhamnus Pirifolia.” Conservation Genetics Resources 3, no. 3 (2011).

Rhamnus pirifolia Greene (Rhamnaceae), the island redberry, is a small evergreen tree endemic to the California Channel Islands and Guadalupe Island, Mexico. Nine polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated from the taxon and were screened for variability in populations from three California Channel Islands. Moderate levels of variability were observed, with mean numbers of alleles per locus ranging from 1.3 to 4.7. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.01 to 0.53 and 0.01 to 0.56, respectively. These new loci will be useful in conservation genetic and evolutionary studies within Rhamnus.

Biology Department.

Sabirzhanov, Boris, and Keifer, Joyce. “Cloning and Characterization of Glutamate Receptor Subunit 4 (Glua4) and Its Alternatively Spliced Isoforms in Turtle Brain.” Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 44, no. 3 (2011).

Ionotropic glutamate receptors sensitive to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), GluAs, play an important role in neural development, synaptic plasticity, and neurodegeneration. Previous studies using an in vitro model of eyeblink classical conditioning in pond turtles suggested that acquisition of conditioning is associated with synaptic delivery of AMPA receptors containing GluA4 subunits. However, sequences of the GluA4 subunit, expression profile, and its alternatively spliced isoforms in turtle brain have not been previously determined. The sequence and domain structure of turtle GluA4 (tGluA4) and its splice variants was characterized. We found ten isoforms of tGluA4 including several previously unidentified truncated variants. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences of tGluA4 flip/flop, tGluA4c flip/flop, and tGluA4s showed they are highly similar to known isoforms of the GluA4 subunit identified in chick. Examination of the relative abundance of mRNA expression for the tGluA4 variants showed that the flip and flop versions of tGluA4 and tGluA4c, and a novel truncated variant, tGluA4trc1, which is also expressed as protein, are major forms in the adult turtle brain. Identification of these alternatively spliced isoforms of tGluA4 will provide a unique opportunity to assess their role in synaptic plasticity through the application of short interfering RNAs.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Soluk, Daniel A., Zercher, Deanna S., and Worthington, Amy M. “Influence of Roadways on Patterns of Mortality and Flight Behavior of Adult Dragonflies near Wetland Areas.” Biological Conservation 144, no. 5 (2011).

Abstract: The relatively low population size and long adult lifespan of dragonflies (Odonata, Anisoptera) makes them one of the few non-vertebrate groups likely to be impacted by direct roadway mortality. We studied adult dragonfly mortality and behavior associated with roadways for a number of species. Daily mortality rates for dragonflies were estimated from standardized surveys along predetermined lengths of roads. Relative abundance and flight behavior around and across roadways, a potentially important mortality factor, was determined from timed roadside observations. Observed flight behavior provided no evidence that roads act as significant barriers to dispersal for adult dragonflies. Estimated mean number killed ranged from 2 to 35 dragonflies/km/day. Species varied greatly in their susceptibility to motor vehicles. Two species (Plathemis lydia and Libellula luctuosa) made up more than 70% of the dead dragonflies collected, but only represented 14% and 31% of live dragonflies observed, respectively. The relatively low flight heights of these two species over roads (typically under 2m) may explain their susceptibility; however, another common species (Tramea lacerata) also exhibited low flight height but did not experience high mortality, possibly because of its increased flight agility. Large numbers of adult dragonflies were killed over the entire flight season by motor vehicle collisions, exhibiting the need for assessing the long-term impact of roadway mortality on dragonfly population dynamics.

Biology Department.

Stevens, Dennis C., Helseth, C. C., Khan, M. A., Munson, D. P., and Reid, E. J. “A Comparison of Parent Satisfaction in an Open-Bay and Single-Family Room Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.” Herd-Health Environments Research & Design Journal 4, no. 3 (2011).

Objective: The purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that parental satisfaction with neonatal intensive care is greater in a single-family room facility as compared with a conventional open-bay neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Methods: This investigation was a prospective cohort study comparing satisfaction survey results for parents who responded to a commercially available parent NICU satisfaction survey following the provision of NICU care in open-bay and single-family room facilities. A subset of 16 items indicative of family-centered care was also computed and compared for these two NICU facilities. Results: Parents whose babies received care in the single-family room facility expressed significantly improved survey responses in regard to the NICU environment, overall assessment of care, and total survey score than did parents of neonates in the open-bay facility. With the exception of the section on nursing in which scores in both facilities were high, nonsignificant improvement in median scores for the sections on delivery, physicians, discharge planning, and personal issues were noted. The total median item score for family-centered care was significantly greater in the single-family room than the open-bay facility. Conclusions: Parental satisfaction with care in the single-family room NICU was improved in comparison with the traditional open-bay NICU. The single-family room environment appears more conducive to the provision of family-centered care. Improved parental satisfaction with care and the potential for enhanced family-centered care need to be considered in decisions made regarding the configuration of NICU facilities in the future.

Sanford School of Medicine

Vallcaneras, Sandra S., Casais, Marilina, Anzulovich, Ana C., Delgado, Silvia M., Sosa, Zulema, Telleria, Carlos M., and Rastrilla, Ana M. “Androstenedione Acts on the Coeliac Ganglion and Modulates Luteal Function Via the Superior Ovarian Nerve in the Postpartum Rat.” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology 125, no. 3-5 (2011).

Abstract: Androstenedione can affect luteal function via a neural pathway in the late pregnant rat. Here, we investigate whether androstenedione is capable of opposing to regression of pregnancy corpus luteum that occurs after parturition, indirectly, from the coeliac ganglion. Thus, androstenedione was added into the ganglionar compartment of an ex vivo coeliac ganglion–superior ovarian nerve–ovary system isolated from non-lactating rats on day 4 postpartum. At the end of incubation, we measured the abundance of progesterone, androstenedione and oestradiol released into the ovarian compartment. Luteal mRNA expression and activity of progesterone synthesis and degradation enzymes, 3β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 20α-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase (20α-HSD), respectively, as well as the aromatase, Bcl-2, Bax, Fas and FasL transcript levels, were also determined. Additionally, we measured the ovarian release of norepinephrine, nitric oxide and luteal inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression. The presence of androstenedione in the ganglion compartment significantly increased the release of ovarian progesterone, androstenedione and oestradiol without modifying 3β-HSD and 20α-HSD activities or mRNA expression. The ovarian release of oestradiol in response to the presence of androstenedione in the ganglion compartment declined with time of incubation in accord with a reduction in the aromatase mRNA expression. Androstenedione added to the ganglion compartment decreased FasL mRNA expression, without affecting luteal Bcl-2, Bax and Fas transcript levels; also increased the release of norepinephrine, decreased the release of nitric oxide and increased iNOS mRNA. In summary, on day 4 after parturition, androstenedione can mediate a luteotropic effect acting at the coeliac ganglion and transmitting to the ovary a signaling via a neural pathway in association with increased release of norepinephrine, decreased nitric oxide release, and decreased expression of FasL

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

Willyard, Ann, Wallace, Lisa E., Wagner, Warren L., Weller, Stephen G., Sakai, Ann K., and Nepokroeff, Molly. “Estimating the Species Tree for Hawaiian Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae) from Multiple Loci in the Presence of Reticulate Evolution.” Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution 60, no. 1 (2011).

Abstract: Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae) is a monophyletic genus of 34 species, all endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, that arose from a single colonization, providing one of the best examples of adaptive radiation in Hawai‘i. Species utilize a range of habitats and exhibit a variety of growth forms and transitions in breeding systems from hermaphroditism toward dimorphism or autogamy. Our study included the most thorough sampling to date: 2–5 individuals per species and 4 independent genetic partitions: eight plastid and three low-copy nuclear loci (9217bps), allowing a three-locus BEST species tree. Despite incomplete resolution at the tips, our results support monophyly for each extant species. Gene trees revealed several clear cases of cytonuclear incongruence, likely created by interspecific introgression. Conflict occurs at the divergence of section Alphaschiedea as well as at the tips. Ages inferred from a BEAST analysis allow an original colonization onto either Nihoa or Kauaì and inform some aspects of inter-island migrations. We suggest that several hard polytomies on the species tree are biologically realistic, signifying either nearly simultaneous speciation or historical introgressive hybridization. Based on inferred node ages that exceed expected coalescent times, we propose that undetected nuclear introgression may play a larger role than incomplete lineage sorting in sections Schiedea and Mononeura.

Biology Department.

Wray, Tyler B., Simons, Jeffrey S., and Dvorak, Robert D. “Alcohol-Related Infractions among College Students: Associations with Subsequent Drinking as a Function of Sensitivity to Punishment.” PSYCHOLOGY OF ADDICTIVE BEHAVIORs    25, no. 2 (2011).

Problematic alcohol use on college campuses is a significant concern. Violations of campus alcohol policies can lead to disciplinary action from the university. These and other alcohol-related legal infractions may be a sign of significant alcohol-related problems. However, few studies have focused on determining predictors of alcohol-related infractions among college students. Likewise, the role of infractions in reducing future use is unclear. In the present study, we tested whether alcohol-related infractions were associated with decreased alcohol use, and whether the effect of the infraction varied as a function of initial drinking levels, sensitivity to punishment (SP), and sensitivity to reward (SR) in a 6-month prospective design. Alcohol use, grade point average, and SR were significantly associated with receiving an alcohol-related infraction. For heavier drinkers, receiving an infraction was associated with decreased drinking at follow-up, and this decrease was most pronounced among those with higher sensitivity to punishment. SP appeared to increase responsiveness to the infraction, resulting in greater attenuation of drinking at follow-up. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)

Psychology Department.

Yallapu, M. M., Jaggi, M., and Chauhan, S. C. “Design and Engineering of Nanogels for Cancer Treatment.” Drug Discovery Today 16, no. 9-10 (2011).

Here, we provide a comprehensive insight into current advances in the use of nanogel-mediated chemotherapy for cancer treatment. Nanogels are composed of cross-linked three-dimensional polymer chain networks that are formed via covalent linkages or self-assembly processes. The porosity between the cross-linked networks of nanogels not only provides an ideal reservoir for loading drugs, oligonucleotides and imaging agents, but also protects them from environmental degradation and hazards. Here, we focus mainly on novel synthetic strategies and key considerations in the design of nanogel-based drug delivery systems for controlled and targeted cancer therapeutic applications.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

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