Posted by: kelsijo97 | March 20, 2014

Welcome to our USD Fac-Pub blog

We’re Danielle Loftus, a technology/fine arts librarian, and Steve Johnson, a business and distance ed librarian at USD’s University Libraries.

To help us in our roles as liaison to several USD departments,we keep tabs on the research of USD. We also are responsible for keeping the departments up-to-date about the library.

This blog exists for organizing and sharing that information. Check out the tabs above for month-by-month publications.

Email us if you have any questions.  Danielle Loftus   Steve Johnson

Posted by: kelsijo97 | March 20, 2014

March 2014

Miskimins, W. Keith, H. J. Ahn, J. Y. Kim, S. Ryu, Y. S. Jung, & J. Y. Choi. (2014). Synergistic Anti-Cancer Effect of Phenformin and Oxamate. Plos One, 9(1).

Phenformin (phenethylbiguanide; an anti-diabetic agent) plus oxamate [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) inhibitor] was tested as a potential anti-cancer therapeutic combination. In in vitro studies, phenformin was more potent than metformin, another biguanide, recently recognized to have anti-cancer effects, in promoting cancer cell death in the range of 25 times to 15 million times in various cancer cell lines. The anti-cancer effect of phenformin was related to complex I inhibition in the mitochondria and subsequent overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Addition of oxamate inhibited LDH activity and lactate production by cells, which is a major side effect of biguanides, and induced more rapid cancer cell death by decreasing ATP production and accelerating ROS production. Phenformin plus oxamate was more effective than phenformin combined with LDH knockdown. In a syngeneic mouse model, phenformin with oxamate increased tumor apoptosis, reduced tumor size and F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography/computed tomography compared to control. We conclude that phenformin is more cytotoxic towards cancer cells than metformin. Furthermore, phenformin and oxamate have synergistic anti-cancer effects through simultaneous inhibition of complex I in the mitochondria and LDH in the cytosol, respectively.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Shi, X. P., X. Chen, X. F. Li, …., Xuejun Wang, Q. P. Dou, & J. B. Liu. (2014). Gambogic Acid Induces Apoptosis in Imatinib-Resistant Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells via Inducing Proteasome Inhibition and Caspase-Dependent Bcr-Abl Downregulation. Clinical Cancer Research, 20(1), 151-163.

Purpose: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is characterized by the constitutive activation of Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase. Bcr-Abl-T315I is the predominant mutation that causes resistance to imatinib, cytotoxic drugs, and the second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The emergence of imatinib resistance in patients with CML leads to searching for novel approaches to the treatment of CML. Gambogic acid, a small molecule derived from Chinese herb gamboges, has been approved for phase II clinical trial for cancer therapy by the Chinese Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In this study, we investigated the effect of gambogic acid on cell survival or apoptosis in CML cells bearing Bcr-Abl-T315I or wild-type Bcr-Abl. Experimental Design: CML cell lines (KBM5, KBM5-T315I, and K562), primary cells from patients with CML with clinical resistance to imatinib, and normal monocytes from healthy volunteers were treated with gambogic acid, imatinib, or their combination, followed by measuring the effects on cell growth, apoptosis, and signal pathways. The in vivo antitumor activity of gambogic acid and its combination with imatinib was also assessed with nude xenografts. Results: Gambogic acid induced apoptosis and cell proliferation inhibition in CML cells and inhibited the growth of imatinib-resistant Bcr-Abl-T315I xenografts in nude mice. Our data suggest that GA-induced proteasome inhibition is required for caspase activation in both imatinib-resistant and -sensitive CML cells, and caspase activation is required for gambogic acid-induced Bcr-Abl downregulation and apoptotic cell death. Conclusions: These findings suggest an alternative strategy to overcome imatinib resistance by enhancing Bcr-Abl downregulation with the medicinal compound gambogic acid, which may have great clinical significance in imatinib-resistant cancer therapy. (C) 2013 AACR.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Zhang, Y. H., E. I. Dedkov, D. Teplitsky, Nathan Y. Weltman, C. J. Pol, V. Rajagopalan, . . . A. M. Gerdes. (2013). Both Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism Increase Atrial Fibrillation Inducibility in Rats. Circulation-Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, 6(5), 952-959.

Background Evidence indicates that cardiac hypothyroidism may contribute to heart failure progression. It is also known that heart failure is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). Although it is established that hyperthyroidism increases AF incidence, the effect of hypothyroidism on AF is unclear. This study investigated the effects of different thyroid hormone levels, ranging from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism on AF inducibility in thyroidectomized rats. Methods and Results Thyroidectomized rats with serum-confirmed hypothyroidism 1 month after surgery were randomized into hypothyroid (N=9), euthyroid (N=9), and hyperthyroid (N=9) groups. Rats received placebo, 3.3-mg l-thyroxine (T4), or 20-mg T4 pellets (60-day release form) for 2 months, respectively. At the end of treatment, hypothyroid, euthyroid, and hyperthyroid status was confirmed. Hypothyroid animals showed cardiac atrophy and reduced cardiac systolic and diastolic functions, whereas hyperthyroid rats exhibited cardiac hypertrophy and increased cardiac function. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism produced opposite electrophysiological changes in heart rates and atrial effective refractory period, but both significantly increased AF susceptibility. AF incidence was 78% in hypothyroid, 67% in hyperthyroid, and the duration of induced AF was also longer, compared with 11% in the euthyroid group (all P<0.05). Hypothyroidism increased atrial interstitial fibrosis, but connexin 43 was not affected. Conclusions Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism lead to increased AF vulnerability in a rat thyroidectomy model. Our results stress that normal thyroid hormone levels are required to maintain normal cardiac electrophysiology and to prevent cardiac arrhythmias and AF.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Kats, L. B., G. Bucciarelli, T. L. Vandergon, …., Jacob L. Kerby, & R. N. Fisher. (2013). Effects of natural flooding and manual trapping on the facilitation of invasive crayfish-native amphibian coexistence in a semi-arid perennial stream. Journal of Arid Environments, 98(x), 109-112.

Aquatic amphibians are known to be vulnerable to a myriad of invasive predators. Invasive crayfish are thought to have eliminated native populations of amphibians in some streams in the semi-arid Santa Monica Mountains of southern California. Despite their toxic skin secretions that defend them from native predators, newts are vulnerable to crayfish attacks, and crayfish have been observed attacking adult newts, and eating newt egg masses and larvae. For 15 years, we have observed invasive crayfish and native California newts coexisting in one stream in the Santa Monica Mountains. During that period, we monitored the densities of both crayfish and newt egg mass densities and compared these to annual rainfall totals. After three seasons of below average rainfall, we reduced crayfish numbers by manual trapping. Our long-term data indicated that crayfish did not fare well in years when rainfall is above the historic average. This invasive predator did not evolve with high velocity streams, and observations indicated that southern California storm events washed crayfish downstream, killing many of them. Newts exhibit increased reproduction in years when crayfish numbers were reduced. A comparison with a nearby stream that does not contain crayfish indicated that newt reproduction positively responded to increased rainfall, but that fluctuations were much greater in the stream that contains crayfish. We suggest that rainfall patterns help explain invasive crayfish/newt coexistence and that management for future coexistence may benefit from manual trapping. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Biology Department.

 

Liu, Ming, & David L. Swanson. (2014). Physiological Evidence That Anthropogenic Woodlots Can Substitute for Native Riparian Woodlands as Stopover Habitat for Migrant Birds. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 87(1), 183-195.

The ability to find sufficient high-quality stopover habitat is a crucial factor for successful migration for woodland migrant birds. Woodland habitats are scarce in the Northern Prairie region of North America, and natural woodlands have been greatly reduced concurrent with the appearance of small anthropogenic woodlands on the landscape. Landbird migrants use both natural and anthropogenic woodlands in this region as stopover habitats, but the relative quality of these two habitats is unknown. We assessed the relative habitat quality of the two habitats by comparing body mass (M-b) and plasma metabolites associated with fattening (triglycerides [TRIG]) or fat catabolism (-hydroxybutyrate [BUTY], glycerol [GLYC]) in individual species, taxa, and foraging guilds of migrating woodland birds during both spring and fall migrations. The only significant difference in M-b between birds in the two habitats occurred for fall yellow-rumped warblers (Setophaga coronata), where M-b was 8% greater in corridors than in woodlots. No significant between-habitat differences occurred for plasma TRIG at either season. Significant between-habitat differences for plasma BUTY occurred only for ruby-crowned kinglets (Regulus calendula; 61% higher in corridors) in fall. Plasma GLYC differed significantly between habitats for a few groups, including vireos (190% higher in woodlots), warbling vireos (Vireo gilvus; 263% higher in woodlots), and Nashville warblers (Oreothlypis ruficapilla; 226% higher in woodlots) in fall. The few significant differences and absence of a consistent direction of variation in M-b and plasma metabolites suggests similar stopover habitat quality in these two habitat types. Thus, during migration through the Northern Prairie region anthropogenic woodlots can, at least partially, substitute as stopover habitat for lost and degraded native riparian habitats for woodland birds.

Biology Department.

 

Swanson, David L., Marissa O. King, & Erin Harmon. (2014). Seasonal variation in pectoralis muscle and heart myostatin and tolloid-like proteinases in small birds: a regulatory role for seasonal phenotypic flexibility? Journal of Comparative Physiology B-Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology, 184(2), 249-258.

Seasonally variable environments produce seasonal phenotypes in small birds such that winter birds have higher thermogenic capacities and pectoralis and heart masses. One potential regulator of these seasonal phenotypes is myostatin, a muscle growth inhibitor, which may be downregulated under conditions promoting increased energy demand. We examined summer-to-winter variation in skeletal muscle and heart masses and used qPCR and Western blots to measure levels of myostatin and its metalloproteinase activators TLL-1 and TLL-2 for two small temperate-zone resident birds, American goldfinches (Spinus tristis) and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Winter pectoralis and heart masses were significantly greater than in summer for American goldfinches. Neither myostatin expression nor protein levels differed significantly between seasons for goldfinch pectoralis. However, myostatin levels in goldfinch heart were significantly greater in summer than in winter, although heart myostatin expression was seasonally stable. In addition, expression of both metalloproteinase activators was greater in summer than in winter goldfinches for both pectoralis and heart, significantly so except for heart TLL-2 (P = 0.083). Black-capped chickadees showed no significant seasonal variation in muscle or heart masses. Seasonal patterns of pectoralis and heart expression and/or protein levels for myostatin and its metalloproteinase activators in chickadees showed no consistent seasonal trends, which may help explain the absence of significant seasonal variation in muscle or heart masses for chickadees in this study. These data are partially consistent with a regulatory role for myostatin, and especially myostatin processing capacity, in mediating seasonal metabolic phenotypes of small birds.

Biology Department.

 

Foss, Berit L., T. W. Maxwell, & Ying Deng. (2014). Chondroprotective supplementation promotes the mechanical properties of injectable scaffold for human nucleus pulposus tissue engineering. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 29, 56-67.

A result of intervertebral disc (ND) degeneration, the nucleus pulposus (NP) is no longer able to withstand applied load leading to pain and disability. The objective of this study is to fabricate a tissue-engineered injectable scaffold with chondroprotective supplementation in vitro to improve the mechanical properties of a degenerative NP. Tissue-engineered scaffolds were fabricated using different concentrations of alginate and calcium chloride and mechanically evaluated. Fabrication conditions were based on structural and mechanical resemblance to the native NP. Chondroprotective supplementation, glucosamine (GCSN) and chondroitin sulfate (CS), were added to scaffolds at concentrations of 0:0 pg/mL (0:0-S), 125:100 lig/mL (125:100-S), 250:2001.tg/mL (250:200-S), and 500:400 pg/mL (500:400-5), GCSN and CS, respectively. Scaffolds were used to fabricate tissue-engineered constructs through encapsulation of human nucleus pulposus cells (HNPCs). The tissue-engineered constructs were collected at days 1, 14, and 28 for biochemical and biomechanical evaluations. Confocal microscopy showed HNPC viability and rounded morphology over the 28 day period. MIT analysis resulted in significant increases in cell proliferation for each group. Collagen type II ELISA quantification and compressive aggregate moduli (HA) showed increasing trends for both 250:200-S and the 500:400-S groups on Day 28 with significantly greater HA compared to 0:0-S group. Glycosaminoglycan and water content decreased for all groups. Results indicate the increased mechanical properties of the 250:200-S and the 500:400-S was due to production of a functional matrix. This study demonstrated potential for a chondroprotective supplemented injectable scaffold to restore biomechanical function of a degenerative disc through the production of a mechanically functional matrix. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Anderson, R. B., S. J. Smith, P. Stanley May, & Mary T. Berry. (2014). Revisiting the NIR-to-Visible Upconversion Mechanism in beta-NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+. Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 5(1), 36-42.

Here, we show that the long-accepted mechanism for the production of red and blue emission through upconversion (UC) of 1 mu m excitation in Yb3+/Er3+-doped materials does not apply in the popular beta-NaYF4 host. We propose a new mechanism involving Yb3+-to-Er3+ energy-transfer UC out of thegreen-emitting H-2(11/2), S-4(3/2) states that quantitatively accounts for all of the observed optical behavior. Rate constants for the relevant radiative and nonradiative processes are reported along with a prediction of the power dependence of the pulsed and continuous-wave UC quantum efficiency.

Chemistry Department.

 

Chen, Jiangchao, Qingguo Meng, P. Stanley May, Mary T. Berry, & Dimtri S. Kilin. (2014). Time-dependent excited-state molecular dynamics of photodissociation of lanthanide complexes for laser-assisted metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. Molecular Physics, 112(3-4), 508-517.

Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) algorithm was modified for treating time-dependent excited-state molecular dynamics (TDESMD). This algorithm addresses the situations when electron density and nuclear potential are being periodically driven by a strong laser field, which induces periodic population-depopulation Rabi cycles. The electron hopping between different potential energy surfaces, such as ground state and ligand-to-metal charge-transfer (LMCT) state, creates the nuclear trajectories. In the computed trajectories, the inter-atomic distances can demonstrate different regimes, from small oscillations to abrupt elongations, corresponding to fragmentation of the studied compound. This algorithm was used to explore photodissociation mechanisms for laser-assisted metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (LCVD or laser-assisted MOCVD) process using lanthanide cyclopentadienyl-type precursors. The computed fragments are compared with the ones elucidated experimentally using photoionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

Chemistry Department.

 

Chu, lek-Heng, Dimitri S. Kilin, & Hai-Ping Cheng. (2013). First-Principles Studies of Photoinduced Charge Transfer in Noncovalently Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 117(35), 17909-17918.

We have studied the energetics, electronic structure, optical excitation, and electron relaxation of dinitromethane molecules (CH2N2O4) adsorbed on semi-conducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) of chiral index (n,0) (n = 7, 10, 13, 16, 19). Using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) with generalized gradient approximations and van der Waals corrections, we have calculated adsorption energies of dinitropentylpyrene, in which the dinitromethane is linked to the pyrene via an aliphatic chain, on a CNT. A 780 meV (18.0 kcal/mol) binding energy has been found, which explains why such aliphatic chain pyrene units can be and have been used in experiments to bind functional molecules to CNTs. The calculated electronic structures. show that the dinitromethane introduces a localized state inside the band gap of CNT systems of n = 10, 13, 16. and 19; such a state can trap an electron when the CNT is photoexcited. We have therefore investigated the dynamics of intraband relaxations using the reduced density matrix formalism in conjunction with Dn. For pristine CNTs, we have found that the calculated charge relaxation constants agree well with the experimental time scales, Upon adsorption, these constants are modified, but there is not a clear trend for the direction and magnitude of the change. Nevertheless, our calculations predict that electron relaxation in the conduction band is faster than hole relaxation in the valence band for CNTs with and without molecular adsorbates.

Chemistry Department.

 

Han, Yulun, S. Tretiak, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2014). Dynamics of charge transfer at Au/Si metal-semiconductor nano-interface. Molecular Physics, 112(3-4), 474-484.

An ab initio analysis of the periodic array of Au/Si nanostructure composed of gold clusters linked to silicon quantum dot (QD) co-doped by aluminium and phosphorus along [111] direction is presented in this paper. The density functional theory (DFT) is used to compute the electronic structure of the simulated system. Non-adiabatic coupling implemented in the form of dissipative equation of motion for reduced density matrix is used to study the phonon-induced relaxation in the simulated system. The density of states clearly shows that the formation of Au-Si bonds contributes states to the band gap of the model. Dynamics of selected photo-excitations shows that hole relaxation in energy and in space is much faster than electron relaxation, which is due to the higher density of states of the valence band.

Chemistry Department.

 

Huang, Shuping, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2014). Electronic structure and hot carrier relaxation in (001) anatase TiO2 nanowire. Molecular Physics, 112(3-4), 539-545.

We present an electronic structure and non-adiabatic excited state dynamics study of 001 anatase TiO2 nanowire (NW) by combining density matrix formalism and ab initio electronic structure calculations. Our results show that quantum confinement increases the energy gap as the dimension of TiO2 is reduced from the bulk to a NW with a diameter of several nanometres and that the probability of electronic transitions induced by lattice vibrations for the NW follows band gap law. The electron non-radiative relaxation to the bottom of the conduction band is involving Ti 3d orbitals, while the hole non-radiative relaxation of holes to the top of the valence band occurs by subsequent occupation of O 2p orbitals.

Chemistry Department.

 

Kryjevski, Andrei, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2014). Multiple exciton generation in silicon quantum dot arrays: density functional perturbation theory computation. Molecular Physics, 112(3-4), 430-440.

We use the density functional theory (DFT) combined with the many-body perturbation theory to derive expressions for the rates of the optical photonexciton and photonbi-exciton processes in nanoparticles, and for quantum efficiency, all to the leading order in the screened Coulomb interaction between Kohn-Sham quasiparticles. Also, we calculate excitonbi-exciton rates due to the impact ionisation (II) mechanism in Si29H36 quantum dots (QDs) with both crystalline and amorphous core structures, and in quasi-one dimensional (1-D) arrays constructed from these QDs. We observe significant dependence of the carrier multiplication rates on the structure’s morphology and structural disorder. Amorphous silicon QD arrays are predicted to have more efficient bi-exciton generation rates as a function of exciton energy compared to their crystalline counterparts, and the isolated QDs of both kinds.

Chemistry Department.

 

Mottishaw, Jeffrey D., Dimitri S. Kilin, H. P. Cheng, V. V. Karasiev, Q. H. Fan, & Haoran Sun. (2014). Elucidating the role of non-radiative processes in charge transfer of core-shell Si SiO2 nanoparticles. Molecular Physics, 112(3-4), 422-429.

Crystalline silicon is the most commonly used material in photovoltaics but has limitations due to its high cost and non-tunable band gap. A new approach of using inexpensive, non-toxic materials with layers that have different band gaps which absorb a wide range of the solar spectrum has the potential to dramatically increase the efficiencies and lower the costs. Core-shell Si-SiO2 nanoparticles are ideally suited for the photovoltaic application and have been synthesised by different groups in an array of sizes allowing for absorption in a wide spectral range. A theoretical investigation of fundamental charge transfer processes in these systems can potentially lead to improved devices. Calculations on a model core-shell interface with the formula Si264O160 which features a silicon layer sandwiched between two SiO2 layers were performed using the Vienna ab initio software package. The Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional in the basis of plane waves was used along with pseudopotentials to simulate electronic structure. The nuclear motion was considered using ab initio molecular dynamics. The density of states, absorption spectrum, partial charge densities, and radiative recombination lifetimes have been calculated. This interface shows quantum confinement behaviour similar to a particle in a box. The role of non-radiative recombination was also determined by relaxation dynamics.

Chemistry Department.

 

Peng, Rui, Cuikun Lin, J. Baltrusaitis, C. M. Wu, N. M. Dimitrijevic, T. Rajh, . . . Ranjit T. Koodali. (2014). Insight into band positions and inter-particle electron transfer dynamics between CdS nanoclusters and spatially isolated TiO2 dispersed in cubic MCM-48 mesoporous materials: a highly efficient system for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible light illumination. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 16(5), 2048-2061.

CdS incorporated Si-MCM-48 and Ti-MCM-48 cubic phased mesoporous photocatalysts were prepared by a two-step modification synthetic approach under relatively mild conditions. A highly efficient (24.8%, apparent quantum yield (AQY)) photocatalyst for visible light (lambda > 400 nm) enabled solar hydrogen evolution can be realized by assembling CdS with Ti-MCM-48 cubic mesoporous materials in the absence of a noble metal co-catalyst. The photocatalytic mechanism was thoroughly investigated and demonstrated by conducting a wealth of characterization techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption isotherm, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UVPS), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, time-resolved fluorescence emission decay, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy studies. This work is the first to unambiguously identify the band positions of both CdS and TiO2 encapsulated in porous materials. The photocatalytic activity of the CdS incorporated Ti-MCM-48 mesoporous photocatalysts was found to be dependent on the content of both CdS and TiO2. A correlation between the electron injection efficiency and the photocatalytic activity was established as well in the CdS incorporated Ti-MCM-48 mesoporous photocatalysts.

Chemistry Department.

 

Putta, Anjaneyulu, Jeffrey D. Mottishaw, Zhihua H. Wang, & Haoran R. Sun. (2014). Rational Design of Lamellar pi-pi Stacked Organic Crystalline Materials with Short Interplanar Distance. Crystal Growth & Design, 14(1), 350-356.

Organic crystalline materials having a lamellar pi-pi stacked structural motif with short interplanar distance are significant for many applications. By asymmetrically introducing perfluoroalkyl substituents onto and polarizable sulfur atoms into N-containing heteroaromatics, we successfully synthesized a novel type of aromatic material that preferentially forms lamellar pi-pi stacked crystalline materials with a interplanar pi-pi distance of 3.247 angstrom, more than 0.1 angstrom shorter than that of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) where interplanar distance ranges from 3.35 to 3.39 angstrom.

Chemistry Department.

 

Yao, Ge, Shuping Huang, Mary T. Berry, P. Stanley May, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2014). Non-collinear spin DFT for lanthanide ions in doped hexagonal NaYF4. Molecular Physics, 112(3-4), 546-556.

Trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln(3+)) doped in hexagonal ()-NaYF4 nanocrystals (Na(24)Y(23)Ln(1)F(96), Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd) were systematically studied by density functional theory (DFT) with a perturbative account for spin-orbit coupling. The simulated results, including the optimised molecular structures, electronic and magnetic properties, are compared to previous spin-polarised DFT studies in the same system. The spin-orbit coupling effects become significant with the increase in the number of unpaired 4f electrons in the doped lanthanide ions, particularly for the Sm3+-, Eu3+- and Gd3+-doped nanocrystals. Abnormal behaviour of Eu3+-doped nanocrystals was observed due to the Wybourne-Downer mechanism. A sandwich-like’ 2p-4f-4d,5d electronic structure for Na(24)Y(23)Ln(1)F(96) and the energies of the highest occupied 4f electrons from Ce3+ to Gd3+ are consistent with Dorenbos’s relationship. The energy difference between the first and second Russell-Saunders terms (L2S+1) of the lanthanide dopant is consistent with Carnall’s experimental results and with earlier spin-polarised DFT calculations.

Chemistry Department.

 

Zhang, Yuchi, Chao Qiu, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2014). Electron dynamics in charged wet TiO2 anatase (001) surface functionalised by ruthenium ions. Molecular Physics, 112(3-4), 441-452.

The surface of charged wet TiO2 anatase (001) functionalised by ruthenium ion at ambient temperatures is studied by computational modelling. Response of this model to photoexcitations at ambient temperatures is explored with the Redfield density matrix equation of motion on the basis of Kohn-Sham orbitals. The parameters of the Redfield equation are on-the-fly non-adiabatic couplings for electronic degrees of freedom obtained along the ab initio molecular dynamics nuclear trajectories. The main results in this study are the following: (1) optical properties of the doped models such as light absorption intensity and transition energies can be tuned by modifying total charge; (2) electron and hole relaxation rates depend on the initial excitation; and (3) in the doped model, excitations of lower energy provide quicker relaxation. Results of computational modelling would benefit understanding of the mechanism of electron transfer processes on the surface of ruthenium-doped TiO2.

Chemistry Department.

 

Zhang, Z. L., M. Dubey, D. Galipeau, Q. H. Fan, James D. Hoefelmeyer, & I. Y. Al-Qaradawi. (2013). Creating textured surfaces using plasma electrolysis. Mrs Communications, 3(4), 255-258.

Plasma electrolysis (PE) is a combination of electrolysis and plasma discharge. Previous studies indicated that PE usually created porous surface with irregular morphology as a result of the plasma-cathode interaction that was dominated by physical reactions. This paper demonstrated that highly ordered textured silicon surfaces could be created using PE. This abnormal anisotropic etching phenomenon implied that the chemical reactions were decoupled from the physical processes and the physical reactions were suppressed. Raman spectra confirmed that the textured silicon surface created by PE conserved the crystalline structure. Therefore, PE may lead to new process regimes for surface engineering.

Chemistry Department.

 

May, P. A., B. G. Tabachnick, J. P. Gossage, …., H. Eugene Hoyme, & C. M. Adnams. (2013). Maternal Factors Predicting Cognitive and Behavioral Characteristics of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 34(5), 314-325.

Objective: To provide an analysis of multiple predictors of cognitive and behavioral traits for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Method: Multivariate correlation techniques were used with maternal and child data from epidemiologic studies in a community in South Africa. Data on 561 first-grade children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial FAS (PFAS), and not FASD and their mothers were analyzed by grouping 19 maternal variables into categories (physical, demographic, childbearing, and drinking) and used in structural equation models (SEMs) to assess correlates of child intelligence (verbal and nonverbal) and behavior. Results: A first SEM using only 7 maternal alcohol use variables to predict cognitive/behavioral traits was statistically significant (B = 3.10, p < .05) but explained only 17.3% of the variance. The second model incorporated multiple maternal variables and was statistically significant explaining 55.3% of the variance. Significantly correlated with low intelligence and problem behavior were demographic (B = 3.83, p < .05) (low maternal education, low socioeconomic status [SES], and rural residence) and maternal physical characteristics (B = 2.70,p < .05) (short stature, small head circumference, and low weight). Childbearing history and alcohol use composites were not statistically significant in the final complex model and were overpowered by SES and maternal physical traits. Conclusions: Although other analytic techniques have amply demonstrated the negative effects of maternal drinking on intelligence and behavior, this highly controlled analysis of multiple maternal influences reveals that maternal demographics and physical traits make a significant enabling or disabling contribution to child functioning in FASD.

May, Philip A. Tabachnick, Barbara G. Gossage, J. Phillip Kalberg, Wendy O. Marais, Anna-Susan Robinson, Luther K. Manning, Melanie A. Blankenship, Jason Buckley, David Hoyme, H. Eugene Adnams, Colleen M.

 

Bersamin, M. M., B. L. Zamboanga, S. J. Schwartz, M. B. Donnellan, …., & S. Jean Caraway. (2014). Risky Business: Is There an Association between Casual Sex and Mental Health among Emerging Adults? Journal of Sex Research, 51(1), 43-51.

A multiethnic sample of single, heterosexual, emerging-adult college students (N=3,907) ages 18 to 25, from 30 institutions across the United States, participated in a study about identity, culture, psychological well-being, and risky behaviors. Given ongoing debates about the connection between casual sex and psychological adjustment, in the current study we assessed the cross-sectional association of participation in casual sex with psychological well-being and distress. A greater proportion of men (18.6%) compared to women (7.4%) reported having had casual sex in the month prior to assessment. Structural equation modeling indicated that casual sex was negatively associated with well-being (ss=.20, p <.001) and positively associated with psychological distress (ss=.16, p <.001). Gender did not moderate these associations. For emerging-adult college students, engaging in casual sex may elevate risk for negative psychological outcomes.

Psychology Department.

 

Dezutter, J., A. S. Waterman, S. J. Schwartz, …., & S. Jean Caraway. (2014). Meaning in Life in Emerging Adulthood: A Person-Oriented Approach. Journal of Personality, 82(1), 57-68.

The present study investigated naturally occurring profiles based on two dimensions of meaning in life: Presence of Meaning and Search for Meaning. Cluster analysis was used to examine meaning-in-life profiles, and subsequent analyses identified different patterns in psychosocial functioning for each profile. A sample of 8,492 American emerging adults (72.5% women) from 30 colleges and universities completed measures on meaning in life, and positive and negative psychosocial functioning. Results provided support for five meaningful yet distinguishable profiles. A strong generalizability of the cluster solution was found across age, and partial generalizability was found across gender and ethnicity. Furthermore, the five profiles showed specific patterns in relation to positive and negative psychosocial functioning. Specifically, respondents with profiles high on Presence of Meaning showed the most adaptive psychosocial functioning, whereas respondents with profiles where meaning was largely absent showed maladaptive psychosocial functioning. The present study provided additional evidence for prior research concerning the complex relationship between Presence of Meaning and Search for Meaning, and their relation with psychosocial functioning. Our results offer a partial clarification of the nature of the Search for Meaning process by distinguishing between adaptive and maladaptive searching for meaning in life.

Psychology Department.

 

Ammann, E. M., J. V. Pottala, William S. Harris, M. A. Espeland, R. Wallace, N. L. Denburg, . . . J. G. Robinson. (2013). Omega-3 fatty acids and domain-specific cognitive aging Secondary analyses of data from WHISCA. Neurology, 81(17), 1484-1491.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that higher levels of red blood cell (RBC) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have a protective association with domain-specific cognitive function in women aged 65 years and older. Methods: A total of 2,157 women with normal cognition enrolled in a clinical trial of postmenopausal hormone therapy were followed with annual cognitive testing for a median of 5.9 years. In this retrospective cohort study, we assessed the relationship between prerandomization RBC DHA +/- EPA levels and a) cognitive measures at baseline, and b) cognitive change over time. Endpoints were composite cognitive function and performance in 7 cognitive domains: fine motor speed, verbal memory, visual memory, spatial ability, verbal knowledge, verbal fluency, and working memory. Results: After adjustment for demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics, no significant (p < 0.01) cross-sectional cognitive differences were found between women in the high and low DHA + EPA tertiles at the time of the first annual cognitive battery. In addition, no significant (p < 0.01) differences were found between the high and low DHA +/- EPA tertiles in the rate of cognitive change over time. Conclusions: We did not find an association between RBC DHA +/- EPA levels and age-associated cognitive decline in a cohort of older, dementia-free women.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Martin-Montalvo, A., I. Gonzalez-Mariscal, T. Pomares-Viciana, Sergio Padilla-Lopez, M. Ballesteros, L. Vazquez-Fonseca, . . . C. Santos-Ocana. (2013). The Phosphatase Ptc7 Induces Coenzyme Q Biosynthesis by Activating the Hydroxylase Coq7 in Yeast. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 288(39), 28126-28137.

The study of the components of mitochondrial metabolism has potential benefits for health span and lifespan because the maintenance of efficient mitochondrial function and antioxidant capacity is associated with improved health and survival. In yeast, mitochondrial function requires the tight control of several metabolic processes such as coenzyme Q biosynthesis, assuring an appropriate energy supply and antioxidant functions. Many mitochondrial processes are regulated by phosphorylation cycles mediated by protein kinases and phosphatases. In this study, we determined that the mitochondrial phosphatase Ptc7p, a Ser/Thr phosphatase, was required to regulate coenzyme Q(6) biosynthesis, which in turn activated aerobic metabolism and enhanced oxidative stress resistance. We showed that Ptc7p phosphatase specifically activated coenzyme Q(6) biosynthesis through the dephosphorylation of the demethoxy-Q(6) hydroxylase Coq7p. The current findings revealed that Ptc7p is a regulator of mitochondrial metabolism that is essential to maintain proper function of the mitochondria by regulating energy metabolism and oxidative stress resistance.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

May, P. A., J. Blankenship, A. S. Marais, …., H. Eugene Hoyme, B. Tabachnick, & S. Seedat. (2013). Maternal alcohol consumption producing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD): Quantity, frequency, and timing of drinking. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 133(2), 502-512.

Background: Concise, accurate measures of maternal prenatal alcohol use are needed to better understand fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Methods: Measures of drinking by mothers of children with specific FASD diagnoses and mothers of randomly-selected controls are compared and also correlated with physical and cognitive/behavioral outcomes. Results: Measures of maternal alcohol use can differentiate maternal drinking associated with FASD from that of controls and some from mothers of alcohol-exposed normals. Six variables that combine quantity and frequency concepts distinguish mothers of FASD children from normal controls. Alcohol use variables, when applied to each trimester and three months prior to pregnancy, provide insight on critical timing of exposure as well. Measures of drinking, especially bingeing, correlate significantly with increased child dysmorphology and negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes in children, especially low non-verbal IQ, poor attention, and behavioral problems. Logistic regression links (p < .001) first trimester drinking (vs. no drinking) with FASD, elevating FASD likelihood 12 times; first and second trimester drinking increases FASD outcomes 61 times; and drinking in all trimesters 65 times. Conversely, a similar regression (p = .008) indicates that drinking only in the first trimester makes the birth of a child with an FASD 5 times less likely than drinking in all trimesters. Conclusions: There is significant variation in alcohol consumption both within and between diagnostic groupings of mothers bearing children diagnosed within the FASD continuum. Drinking measures are empirically identified and correlated with specific child outcomes. Alcohol use, especially heavy use, should be avoided throughout pregnancy. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Nagle, A. S., Matthew A. Barker, S. D. Kleeman, B. Haridas, & T. D. Mast. (2014). Passive biomechanical properties of human cadaveric levator ani muscle at low strains. Journal of Biomechanics, 47(2), 583-586.

The objective of this study was to measure and model the passive biomechanics of cadaveric levator ani muscle in the fiber direction at low strains with a moderately slow deformation rate. Nine levator ani samples, extracted from female cadavers aged 64 to 96 years, underwent preconditioning and uniaxial biomechanical analysis on a tensile testing apparatus after the original width, thickness, and length were measured. The load extension data and measured dimensions were used to calculate stress-strain curves for each sample. The resulting stress-strain curves up to 10% strain were fit to four different constitutive models to determine which model was most appropriate for the data. A power-law model with two parameters was found to fit the data most accurately. Constitutive parameters did not correlate significantly with age in this study; this may be because all of the cadavers were postmenopausal. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Pradip, De, M. Bouzyk, Nandini Dey, & Brian Leyland-Jones. (2013). Dissecting GRB7-mediated signals for proliferation and migration in HER2 overexpressing breast tumor cells: GTP-ase rules. American Journal of Cancer Research, 3(2), 173-U126.

Amplification of human Her2 and its aberrant signaling in 20-30% of early breast cancer patients is responsible for highly aggressive tumors with poor outcome. Grb7 is reported to be co-amplified with Her2. We report a concurrent high expression of mRNA (from FFPE tumor samples; mRNA correlation, Pearson r(2)=0.806), and high levels of GRB7 protein (immunoblot) in HER2+ breast cancer cell lines. We demonstrated the signaling mechanism of HER2 and downstream effectors that contributes to proliferation and migration. Using HER2+ and trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer cell lines, we identified the interaction between GRB7 and HER2 in the control of HER2+ cell proliferation. Our co-IP data show that GRB7 recruits SHC into the HER2-GRB7 signaling complex. This complex formation leads to activation of RAS-GTP. We also observed that following integrin engagement, GRB7 is phosphorylated at tyrosine in a p-FAK (Y397) dependent manner. This FAK-GRB7 complex leads to downstream activation of RAC1-GTP (responsible for migration) probably through the recruitment of VAV2. Our CO-IP data demonstrate that GRB7 directly binds with VAV2 following fibronectin engagement in HER2+ cells. To address whether GRB7 could serve as a pathway specific therapeutic target, we used siRNA to suppress GRB7 expression. Knockdown of GRB7 expression in the HER2+ breast cancer cell lines decreases RAS activation, cell proliferation, 2D and 3D colony formation and also blocked integrin-mediated RAC1 activation along with integrin-directed cell migration. These findings dissected the HER2-mediated signaling cascade into (1) HER2+ cell proliferation (HER2-GRB7-SHC-RAS) and (2) HER2+ cell migration (alpha5 beta1/alpha4 beta1-FAK-GRB7-VAV2-RAC1). Our data clearly demonstrate that a coupling of GRB7 with HER2 is required for the proliferative and migratory signals in HER2+ breast tumor cells.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Randall, Bradley B., D. S. Paterson, E. A. Haas, K. G. Broadbelt, J. R. Duncan, O. J. Mena, . . . H. C. Kinney. (2013). Potential Asphyxia and Brainstem Abnormalities in Sudden and Unexpected Death in Infants. Pediatrics, 132(6), E1616-E1625.

OBJECTIVE: Sudden and unexplained death is a leading cause of infant mortality. Certain characteristics of the sleep environment increase the risk for sleep-related sudden and unexplained infant death. These characteristics have the potential to generate asphyxial conditions. We tested the hypothesis that infants may be exposed to differing degrees of asphyxia in sleep environments, such that vulnerable infants with a severe underlying brainstem deficiency in serotonergic, g-aminobutyric acid-ergic, or 14-3-3 transduction proteins succumb even without asphyxial triggers (eg, supine), whereas infants with intermediate or borderline brainstem deficiencies require asphyxial stressors to precipitate death. METHODS: We classified cases of sudden infant death into categories relative to a “potential asphyxia” schema in a cohort autopsied at the San Diego County Medical Examiner’s Office. Controls were infants who died with known causes of death established at autopsy. Analysis of covariance tested for differences between groups. RESULTS: Medullary neurochemical abnormalities were present in both infants dying suddenly in circumstances consistent with asphyxia and infants dying suddenly without obvious asphyxia-generating circumstances. There were no differences in the mean neurochemical measures between these 2 groups, although mean measures were both significantly lower (P<.05) than those of controls dying of known causes. CONCLUSIONS: We found no direct relationship between the presence of potentially asphyxia conditions in the sleep environment and brainstem abnormalities in infants dying suddenly and unexpectedly. Brainstem abnormalities were associated with both asphyxia-generating and non-asphyxia generating conditions. Heeding safe sleep messages is essential for all infants, especially given our current inability to detect underlying vulnerabilities.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Smythe, M. A., J. Fanikos, Michael P. Gulseth, A. K. Wittkowsky, S. A. Spinler, W. E. Dager, & E. A. Nutescu. (2013). Rivaroxaban: Practical Considerations for Ensuring Safety and Efficacy. Pharmacotherapy, 33(11), 1223-1245.

Rivaroxaban is the first agent available within a new class of anticoagulants called direct factor Xa inhibitors. Rivaroxaban is approved for use in the United States for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis in patients undergoing total hip replacement and total knee replacement, for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and for the reduction in risk of recurrence of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (with additional indications under review). Rivaroxaban dose and frequency of administration vary depending on the indication. As of result of predictable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, a fixed dose of rivaroxaban is administered without routine coagulation testing. Rivaroxaban has a short half-life, undergoes a dual mode of elimination (hepatic and renal), and is a substrate for P-glycoprotein. Rivaroxaban has a lower potential for drug interactions compared with warfarin. Despite the advantages of a once/day fixed-dose oral agent, in many clinical situations limited evidence is available to guide optimal management of rivaroxaban therapy. In this article, we review the available evidence and provide recommendations where possible for such situations including the desire to monitor the anticoagulation intensity, use in special patient populations, managing drug interactions, and transitioning across anticoagulant agents. Potential strategies for reversing rivaroxaban’s anticoagulant effect are reviewed. Health systems will need to perform a systematic safety evaluation and ensure that numerous hospital policies related to anticoagulation are updated to include rivaroxaban. A comprehensive approach to education is needed for clinicians, patients, and technical support personnel involved in patient interactions to ensure safe use.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Williams, Casey B., S. Kambhampati, W. Fiskus, J. Wick, C. Dutreix, S. Ganguly, . . . J. P. McGuirk. (2013). Preclinical and Phase I Results of Decitabine in Combination with Midostaurin (PKC412) for Newly Diagnosed Elderly or Relapsed/Refractory Adult Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Pharmacotherapy, 33(12), 1341-1352.

PURPOSE To determine the preclinical activity, clinical maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and recommended phase II dose of midostaurin (MS) combined either sequentially or concurrently with intravenous decitabine (DAC) in newly diagnosed patients 60 years or older or relapsed/refractory adult patients (18 years or older) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). PATIENTS AND METHODS Cultured and primary AML cells were treated with DAC and/or MS and analyzed by flow cytometry and immunoblot analyses. In the phase I study, 16 patients were enrolled; 8 were newly diagnosed patients 60 years or older and 8 were 18 years or older with relapsed AML. Only 2 of 16 patients (13%) had FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations, and no patient had KIT mutations. RESULTS Compared with treatment with either agent alone, sequential treatment with DAC and MS exerted superior anti-AML activity in cultured and primary FLT3-ITD-expressing AML cells. In the subsequent phase I study, the MTD and schedule of administration of the combination was identified as DAC followed by MS. Three patients developed dose-limiting toxicities: two patients developed pulmonary edema requiring mechanical ventilation and one patient developed a prolonged QTc greater than 500 msec. Based on an intent-to-treat analysis, 57% of the patients achieved stable disease or better while enrolled in the trial; 25% had a complete hematologic response. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed results similar to those previously reported for MS. CONCLUSION The in vitro combination of DAC and MS is synergistically active against FLT3-ITD mutations expressing AML cells. In a clinical setting, the combination of sequentially administered DAC followed by MS is possible without significant unexpected toxicity, but the concurrent administration of DAC and MS led to pulmonary toxicity after only a few doses. On the basis of these results, additional studies exploring the sequential combination of untreated AML in elderly patients are warranted to further evaluate this combination at the MTD.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Beebe, Justin A., Roger W. Hines, Laura T. McDaniel, & Brenda L. Shelden. (2013). An Isokinetic Training Program for Reducing Falls in a Community-Dwelling Older Adult: A Case Report. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, 36(3), 146-153.

Background: With the population older than 65 years, projected to double by the year 2030, falls in older adults are a substantial health concern. Muscle strength deficits are one of the multifactorial components linked to increased fall risk, and decreasing these deficits has been one of the goals of interventions designed to decrease fall risk. These interventions have traditionally focused on improving peak torque; however, recent research suggests that exercise protocols that focus on the rate of torque development (RTD) may be more effective in decreasing fall risk. Purpose: This case report examines clinical outcomes following implementation of an isokinetic strengthening protocol coupled with a balance program designed to reduce fall risk in a community-dwelling older adult. Methods: The individual was a 70-year-old woman with a history of 3 falls over the past 8 months and no related medical etiology who had self-limited her activities because of fear of another fall. She was classified as having substantial risk for future falls because of fall history, increased fear of falling, and below age norms on the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and the Timed Up and Go (TUG). The treatment program consisted of 12 weeks of high-intensity isokinetic knee extensor training, high challenge dynamic gait and balance activities, and core strengthening. The isokinetic protocol consisted of 4 sets of 10 concentric-only repetitions at speeds of 240 degrees/sec and 300 /sec for a total of 8 work sets. Dynamic gait activities incorporating directional and obstacle drills, and rocker and balance boards were used for balance training activities. Progressive theraband exercises were used for core strengthening. As her home program, the participant was encouraged to return to line dancing twice per week. During the 12-week protocol, the participant completed two 90-minute therapy sessions and two 90-minute dance classes per week. Results: After the 12 weeks of treatment, knee extensor peak torque at 150 ms improved on the right from 67.8 N to 107.1 N (57.9% increase), and on the left from 65.1 N to 97.6 N (49.9% increase). The BBS score improved from 45 to 52; and the TUG improved from 14.0 to 8.6 seconds. Both final scores exceeded fall risk cutoffs (BBS = 48; TUG = 13.5 seconds) and the change score exceeded minimal detectable change (BBS = 7; TUG 5.4 seconds). Conclusions: The treatment program produced improvements in knee extensor peak torque and RTD, but more importantly, the final scores on the clinical outcome measures placed the participant above established fall-risk cutoff scores. Although future research with increased numbers of participants and a control group should be conducted to confirm this study’s results, these findings support the use of isokinetic training to reduce fall risk in older adults.

School of Health Sciences.


Posted by: kelsijo97 | January 24, 2014

January 2014

Bhuiyan, M. S., Pattison, J. Scott, Osinska, H., James, J., Gulick, J., McLendon, P. M., . . . Robbins, J. (2013). Enhanced autophagy ameliorates cardiac proteinopathy. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 123(12), 5284-5297.
 
Basal autophagy is a crucial mechanism in cellular homeostasis, underlying both normal cellular recycling and the clearance of damaged or misfolded proteins, organelles and aggregates. We showed here that enhanced levels of autophagy induced by either autophagic gene overexpression or voluntary exercise ameliorated desmin-related cardiomyopathy (DRC). To increase levels of basal autophagy, we generated an inducible Tg mouse expressing autophagy-related 7 (Atg7), a critical and rate-limiting autophagy protein. Hearts from these mice had enhanced autophagy, but normal morphology and function. We crossed these mice with CryAB(R120G) mice, a model of DRC in which autophagy is significantly attenuated in the heart, to test the functional significance of autophagy activation in a proteotoxic model of heart failure. Sustained Atg7-induced autophagy in the CryAB(R120G) hearts decreased interstitial fibrosis, ameliorated ventricular dysfunction, decreased cardiac hypertrophy, reduced intracellular aggregates and prolonged survival. To determine whether different methods of autophagy upregulation have additive or even synergistic benefits, we subjected the autophagy-deficient CryAB(R120G) mice and the Atg7-crossed CryAB(R120G) mice to voluntary exercise, which also upregulates autophagy. The entire exercised Atg7-crossed CryAB(R120G) cohort survived to 7 months. These findings suggest that activating autophagy may be a viable therapeutic strategy for improving cardiac performance under proteotoxic conditions.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Canguo, Zhao, Shouting, Liu, Changshan, Yang, Xiaofen, Li, Hongbiao, Huang, Ningning, Liu, . . . Jinbao, Liu. (2013). Gambogic acid moderates cardiac responses to chronic hypoxia likely by acting on the proteasome and NF-κB pathway. American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease, 3(3), 135-145.
 
Gambogic acid (GA) is the principal active ingredient of gamboges. GA was reported to exert anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro and in vivo. Previously, we have shown that GA is a more tissue-specific proteasome inhibitor than bortezomib and it is less toxic to peripheral white blood cells compared to bortezomib. Ubiquitous proteasome inhibition was shown by some reports, but not by others, to prevent cardiac remodeling in response to pressure overload by blocking the NF-κB pathway; however, whether GA modulates the development of chronic hypoxia-induced right ventricular hypertrophy has not been investigated yet. Here we report that GA can significantly attenuate right ventricular hypertrophy induced by chronic hypoxia, reduce cardiac fibrosis, and remarkably block the reactivation of bona fide fetal genes in the cardiac tissue. Furthermore, we also investigated the potential molecular targets of GA on right ventricular hypertrophy. The results showed that GA could accumulate the IκB levels associated with decreased proteasomal activity, block the translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, decrease NF-κB DNA-binding activity, and reduce IL-2 levels. In conclusion, GA is capable of preventing the development of chronic hypoxia-induced right ventricular hypertrophy. GA has great potential to be developed into an effective anti-hypertrophy agent.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Novick, Andrew M., Miiller, Leah C., Forster, Gina L., & Watt, Michael J. (2013). Adolescent social defeat decreases spatial working memory performance in adulthood. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 9.
 
Background: Adolescent social stress is associated with increased incidence of mental illnesses in adulthood that are characterized by deficits in cognitive focus and flexibility. Such enhanced vulnerability may be due to psychosocial stress-induced disruption of the developing mesocortical dopamine system, which plays a fundamental role in facilitating complex cognitive processes such as spatial working memory. Adolescent rats exposed to repeated social defeat as a model of social stress develop dopaminergic hypofunction in the medial prefrontal cortex as adults. To evaluate a direct link between adolescent social stress and later deficits in cognitive function, the present study tested the effects of adolescent social defeat on two separate tests of spatial working memory performance. Methods: Adult rats exposed to adolescent social defeat and their controls were trained on either the delayed win-shift task or the delayed alternating T-Maze task and then challenged with various delay periods. To evaluate potential differences in motivation for the food reward used in memory tasks, consumption and conditioned place preference for sweetened condensed milk were tested in a separate cohort of previously defeated rats and controls. Results: Compared to controls, adult rats defeated in adolescence showed a delay-dependent deficit in spatial working memory performance, committing more errors at a 90 s and 5 min delay period on the T-maze and win-shift tasks, respectively. Observed memory deficits were likely independent of differences in reward motivation, as conditioned place preference for the palatable food used on both tasks was similar between the adolescent social defeat group and control. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that severe social stressors during adolescence can produce long term deficits in aspects of cognitive function. Given the dependence of spatial working memory on prefrontal dopamine, pharmacologically reversing dopaminergic deficiencies caused by adolescent social stress has the potential to treat such cognitive deficits.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Rajagopalan, Viswanathan, Mingming, Zhao, Reddy, Sushma, Fajardo, Giovanni, Xuejun, Wang, Dewey, Shannamar, . . . Bernstein, Daniel. (2013). Altered ubiquitin-proteasome signaling in right ventricular hypertrophy and failure. American Journal of Physiology: Heart & Circulatory Physiology, 305(4), H551-H562.
 
Alterations in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) have been described in left ventricular hypertrophy and failure, although results have been inconsistent. The role of the UPS in right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy (RVH) and RV failure (RVF) is unknown. Given the greater percent increase in RV mass associated with RV afterload stress, as present in many congenital heart lesions, we hypothesized that alterations in the UPS could play an important role in RVH/RVF. UPS expression and activity were measured in the RV from mice with RVH/RVF secondary to pulmonary artery constriction (PAC). Epoxomicin and MG132 were used to inhibit the proteasome, and overexpression of the 11S PA28a subunit was used to activate the proteasome. PAC mice developed RVH (109.3% increase in RV weight to body weight), RV dilation with septal shift, RV dysfunction, and clinical RVF. Proteasomal function (26S ß5 chymotrypsin-like activity) was decreased 26% (P < 0.05). Protein expression of 19S subunit Rpt5 (P < 0.05), UCHL1 deubiquitinase (P < 0.0001), and Smurf1 E3 ubiquitin ligase (P < 0.01) were increased, as were polyubiquitinated proteins (P < 0.05) and free-ubiquitins (P = 0.05). Pro-apoptotic Bax was increased (P < 0.0001), whereas anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 decreased (P < 0.05), resulting in a sixfold increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Proteasomal inhibition did not accelerate RVF. However, proteasome enhancement by cardiac-specific proteasome overexpression partially improved survival. Proteasome activity is decreased in RVH/RVF, associated with upregulation of key UPS regulators and pro-apoptotic signaling. Enhancement of proteasome function partially attenuates RVF, suggesting that UPS dysfunction contributes to RVF.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Yuan, Sharleen, & Burrell, Brian D. (2013). Nonnociceptive afferent activity depresses nocifensive behavior and nociceptive synapses via an endocannabinoid-dependent mechanism. Journal of Neurophysiology, 110(11), 2607-2616.
 
Previously, low-frequency stimulation (LFS) of a nonnociceptive touch-sensitive neuron has been found to elicit endocannabinoid-dependent long-term depression (eCB-LTD) in nociceptive synapses in the leech central nervous system (CNS) that requires activation of a presynaptic transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)-like receptor by postsynaptically synthesized 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). This capacity of nonnociceptive afferent activity to reduce nociceptive signaling resembles gate control of pain, albeit longer lasting in these synaptic experiments. Since eCB-LTD has been observed at a single sensory-motor synapse, this study examines the functional relevance of this mechanism, specifically whether this form of synaptic plasticity has similar effects at the behavioral level in which additional, intersegmental neural circuits are engaged. Experiments were carried out using a semi-intact preparation that permitted both synaptic recordings and monitoring of the leech whole body shortening, a defensive withdrawal reflex that was elicited via intracellular stimulation of a single nociceptive neuron (the N cell). The same LFS of a nonnociceptive afferent that induced eCB-LTD in single synapses also produced an attenuation of the shortening reflex. Similar attenuation of behavior was also observed when 2-AG was applied. LFS-induced behavioral and synaptic depression was blocked by tetrahydrolipstatin (THL), a diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor, and by SB366791, a TRPV1 antagonist. The effects of both THL and SB366791 were observed following either bath application of the drug or intracellular injection into the presynaptic (SB366791) or postsynaptic (THL) neuron. These findings demonstrate a novel, endocannabinoid-based mechanism by which nonnociceptive afferent activity may modulate nocifensive behaviors via action on primary afferent synapses.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Zou, Jianqiu, Rezvani, Khosrow, Wang, Hongmin, Lee, K. S., & Zhang, Dong. (2013). BRCA1 downregulates the kinase activity of Polo-like kinase 1 in response to replication stress. Cell Cycle, 12(14), 2255-2265.
 
In response to DNA damage or replication stress, proliferating cells are arrested at different cell cycle stages for DNA repair by downregulating the activity of both the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and other important cell cycle kinases, including Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) . The signaling pathway to inhibit CDKs is relatively well understood, and breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) and other DNA damage response (DDR) factors play a key role in this process. However, the DNA damage-induced inhibition of PLK1 is still largely a mystery. Here we show that DNA damage and replication stress stimulate the association between BRCA1 and PLK1. Most importantly, we demonstrate that BRCA1 downregulates the kinase activity of PLK1 by modulating the dynamic interactions of Aurora A, hBora, and PLK1. Together with previous findings, we propose that in response to replication stress and DNA damage, BRCA1 plays a critical role in downregulating the kinase activity of both CDKs and PLK1.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Ghosh, Suvankar, & Li, X. L. (2013). A Real Options Model for Generalized Meta-Staged Projects-Valuing the Migration to SOA. Information Systems Research, 24(4), 1011-1027.
 
This paper develops an innovative real options (RO) model for valuing multistage information technology (IT) projects that can be viewed as comprising meta stages. In RO literature, multistage investment programs have been treated as either interproject or intraproject programs, with intraproject programs being evaluated using n-fold Geske compound options and interproject programs valued using the so-called “subsidy-to-exercise price” logic. Our innovative RO model integrates the Geske compound option model with the subsidy-to-exercise price approach to value sequential investment programs that are neither purely interproject nor purely intraproject in nature but are composed of meta-stages. A meta-stage as a whole can be considered an interproject stage resulting in cash flows, but internally it consists of several intraproject stages that do not result in cash flows. We show that a key problem in IT, which is migrating to a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) for integrating a firm’s many disparate applications, systems, data, and business processes, is best viewed as an investment program comprising meta-stages. Examining SOA migration from an RO lens is particularly apt at this time not only because of the importance of SOA but also because doubts have surfaced about the value of SOA. We illustrate our RO model by applying it to the simulated case of a firm migrating to SOA. We also develop a software tool based on the Mathematica T computational platform so that practitioners can easily apply our innovative options pricing model to determine the true value of SOA in their business contexts.
 
Beacom School of Business.
 
 
Brown, Jennifer, & Kerby, Jacob. (2013). Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in South Dakota, USA Amphibians. Herpetological Review, 44(3), 457-458.
 
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Bubak, Andrew N., Renner, Kenneth J., & Swallow, John G. (2014). Heightened serotonin influences contest outcome and enhances expression of high-intensity aggressive behaviors. Behavioural Brain Research, 259, 137-142.
 
Highlights: [•] We pharmacologically altered brain 5-HT levels using the precursor 5-HTP. [•] We found heightened 5-HT increased the probability of winning aggressive contests. [•] High-intensity behaviors and retreat threshold are influenced by 5-HT. [•] Other biogenic amines including octopamine remained unaltered following fights.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Siler, Cameron D., Welton, Luke J., Rock, Ashley A., & Brown, Rafe M. (2013). Population Genetic Structure and Revised Geographic Range for the Tridactyl Skink (Brachymeles muntingkamay) from Luzon Island, Philippines. Herpetological Review, 44(1), 30-33.
 
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Thomas, Nathan E., & Swanson, David L. (2013). PLASMA METABOLITES AND CREATINE KINASE LEVELS OF SHOREBIRDS DURING FALL MIGRATION IN THE PRAIRIE POTHOLE REGION. Auk, 130(4), 580-590.
 
Wetland habitats in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America have been greatly reduced since European settlement, but the availability of managed wetlands has increased. The relative efficacy of these two habitats for meeting energetic demands of migrating shorebirds is unknown. To assess the relative suitability of stopover sites, we measured plasma metabolites and creatine kinase in Least Sandpipers (Calidris minutilla), Semipalmated Sandpipers (C. pusilla), and Pectoral Sandpipers (C. melanotos) at natural and managed wetland sites during fall migration in northeastern South Dakota and west-central Minnesota. We used stepwise multiple regression to identify significant effectors of plasma metabolite levels, followed by analysis of covariance to compare metabolite values between birds in the two habitat types. Plasma metabolite levels generally did not differ significantly between birds in the two habitat types, with two exceptions. Plasma triglycerides of Pectoral Sandpipers were 2.6x higher at managed than at natural wetlands, suggesting higher rates of fattening at managed sites, but this was not supported by plasma glycerol levels, which did not differ significantly between birds in the two habitat types, or by body mass, which was greater for adult males in natural wetlands. Plasma creatine kinase levels of Least Sandpipers were 75% higher at managed than at natural wetlands, which suggests that repair of flight-induced muscle damage may be slower for this species at managed wetlands. The general absence of significant differences in plasma metabolites among shorebirds in the two wetland types suggests that natural and managed wetlands serve as similarly effective stopover habitat for fall-migrating shorebirds in the Prairie Pothole Region.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Wu, Chia-Ming, Peng, Rui, Dimitrijevic, Nada M., Rajh, Tijana, & Koodali, Ranjit T. (2014). Preparation of TiO2–SiO2 aperiodic mesoporous materials with controllable formation of tetrahedrally coordinated Ti4+ ions and their performance for photocatalytic hydrogen production. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 39(1), 127-136.
 
Abstract: The efficiency of photocatalytic water splitting for TiO2 dispersed on four SiO2 aperiodic porous supports is discussed in this work. The four TiO2–SiO2 composite materials were prepared via a sol–gel method and then subjected to supercritical drying, natural drying, rotatory vapor drying, or hydrothermal synthesis and the materials were subsequently calcined under identical conditions. These synthetic strategies result in differences in textural properties (specific surface area, pore diameter etc.) and in the amount of tetrahedrally coordinated Ti4+ ions. The TiO2–SiO2 materials were thoroughly characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), nitrogen adsorption studies, FT-IR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies. The photocatalytic activity for hydrogen production is maximum when the amount of tetrahedrally coordinated Ti4+ ions is high. Thus, this work provides guidance towards the preparation of photoactive materials for generating hydrogen from water.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Bersamin, Melina M., Zamboanga, Byron L., Schwartz, Seth J., ….., & Caraway, S. Jean. (2014). Risky Business: Is There an Association between Casual Sex and Mental Health among Emerging Adults? Journal of Sex Research, 51(1), 43-51.
 
A multiethnic sample of single, heterosexual, emerging-adult college students (N = 3,907) ages 18 to 25, from 30 institutions across the United States, participated in a study about identity, culture, psychological well-being, and risky behaviors. Given ongoing debates about the connection between casual sex and psychological adjustment, in the current study we assessed the cross-sectional association of participation in casual sex with psychological well-being and distress. A greater proportion of men (18.6%) compared to women (7.4%) reported having had casual sex in the month prior to assessment. Structural equation modeling indicated that casual sex was negatively associated with well-being (ß = .20,p < .001) and positively associated with psychological distress (ß = .16,p < .001). Gender did not moderate these associations. For emerging-adult college students, engaging in casual sex may elevate risk for negative psychological outcomes.
 
Psychology Department.
 
 
Contractor, A. A., Elhai, J. D., Ractliffe, Kendra C., & Forbes, D. (2013). PTSD’s underlying symptom dimensions and relations with behavioral inhibition and activation. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 27(7), 645-651.
 
Reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) stipulates that individuals have a behavioral activation system (BAS) guiding approach (rewarding) behaviors (Gray, 1971, 1981), and behavioral inhibition system (BIS) guiding conflict resolution between approach and avoidance (punishment) behaviors (Gray & McNaughton, 2000). Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity overall relates to both BIS (e.g., Myers, VanMeenen, & Servatius, 2012; Pickett, Bardeen, & Orcutt, 2011) and BAS (Pickett et al., 2011). Using a more refined approach, we assessed specific relations between PTSD’s latent factors (Simms, Watson, & Doebbeling, 2002) and observed variables measuring BIS and BAS using 308 adult, trauma-exposed primary care patients. Confirmatory factor analysis and Wald chi-square tests demonstrated a significantly greater association with BIS severity compared to BAS severity for PTSD’s dysphoria, avoidance, and re-experiencing factors. Further, PTSD’s avoidance factor significantly mediated relations between BIS/BAS severity and PTSD’s dysphoria factor. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
 
Psychology Department.
 
 
Berdahl, John P., & Jensen, M. P. (2014). The business of refractive laser assisted cataract surgery (ReLACS). Current Opinion in Ophthalmology, 25(1), 62-70.
 
Purpose of reviewRefractive Laser Assisted Cataract Surgery (ReLACS) combines the femtosecond laser with other noncovered tests and services in an attempt to reduce spectacle dependence in combination with cataract surgery. Significant interest is present among ophthalmologists who are considering adopting this technology, however significant capital outlays and continuing expenses can make the decision to adopt ReLACS foreboding. We review the financial considerations of ReLACS and review the trends seen in early adopters of this technology.Recent findingsRecent findings have shown that ReLACS is a growing segment of cataract surgery. Most practices who have implemented the technology have broken even and have a positive outlook on the financial return of implementing the ReLACS program. The average break-even analysis point for practices is around 230 cases a year.SummaryReLACS is growing and appears to be a financial viable approach for many practices.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Doorn, Joshua M., & Kruer, Michael C. (2013). Newly Characterized Forms of Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, 13(12).
 
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) comprises a group of brain iron deposition syndromes that lead to mixed extrapyramidal features and progressive dementia. Historically, there has not been a clearly identifiable molecular cause for many patients with clinical and radiologic features of NBIA. Recent discoveries have shown that mutations in C19orf12 or WDR45 can lead to NBIA. C19orf12 mutations are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, and lead to a syndrome similar to that caused by mutations in PANK2 or PLA2G6. In contrast, WDR45 mutations lead to a distinct form of NBIA characterized by spasticity and intellectual disability in childhood followed by the subacute onset of dystonia-parkinsonism in adulthood. WDR45 mutations act in an X-linked dominant manner. Although the function of C19orf12 is largely unknown, WDR45 plays a key role in autophagy. Each of these new forms of NBIA thus leads to a distinct clinical syndrome, and together they implicate new cellular pathways in the pathogenesis of these disorders.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Hellwig, Thaddaus, & Gulseth, Michael. (2013). Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Drug Interactions With New Oral Anticoagulants: What Do They Mean for Patients With Atrial Fibrillation? Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 47(11), 1478-1487.
 
Objective: To review pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) involving new oral anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation. Data Sources: A literature search was conducted via PubMed and the Cochrane database to identify DDI studies using the terms drug interactions, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. Prescribing information and Food and Drug Administration briefing documents were used to supplement published data. Study Selection and Data Extraction: English publications identified on Medline from 2005 up to August 2013 and US prescribing information for approved oral anticoagulants. Data Synthesis: Articles reviewed focused on drugs affecting the permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter protein and/or cytochrome P (CYP) 450 3A4 enzymes, and pharmacodynamic DDIs when drugs are administered concomitantly. Phase I DDI studies have reported pharmacokinetic DDIs mediated by P-gp alone (dabigatran etexilate) or in combination with CYP3A4 enzymes (rivaroxaban and apixaban). Dabigatran etexilate should not be administered with any P-gp inhibitor in patients with severe renal impairment. Briefing documents indicate that rivaroxaban and apixaban should not be used with drugs that are strong inhibitors of both P-gp and CYP3A4. DDI studies involving rifampicin suggest that rivaroxaban and apixaban should be avoided when strong inducers of P-gp and CYP3A4 are used concurrently. Concomitant use of apixaban and strong dual inhibitors of P-gp and CYP3A4 should be avoided or the dose reduced. Five randomized clinical trials report additive effects with rivaroxaban, dabigatran, and apixaban when used concomitantly with antiplatelet agents; bleeding rates have been found to be higher, especially with dual antiplatelet therapy. Conclusions: Awareness of drugs that alter the function of the P-gp efflux transporter protein and CYP3A4 enzymes and provide additive effects should enable prescribers to anticipate and avoid potential DDIs involving the new oral anticoagulants. To this end, briefing documents and prescribing information have applied cautionary measures for individuals treated with these newer anticoagulants.
 
Sanford SChool of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Stys, Adam T., Stys, Tomasz P., Rajpurohit, Naveen, & Khan, Muhammed A. (2013). A Novel Application of Guide Liner Catheter for Thrombectomy in Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Case Series. Journal of Invasive Cardiology, 25(11), 620-624.
 
Angiographically visible thrombus and distal embolization are relatively common during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in myocardial infarction (MI) and correspond to worse outcomes. Several aspiration and thrombectomy devices have been shown to be effective for prevention of distal embolization. We present a technique with successful use of the GuideLiner catheter (Vascular Solutions) for thrombus aspiration after dedicated manual aspiration thrombectomy devices have failed. Our case series includes large thrombus burden in clinical scenarios of ST-elevation MI in a native vessel, non-ST elevation MI in a vein graft, and ST-elevation MI due to native vessel in stent thrombosis.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Wysocka, M., Kossenkov, A. V., Benoit, B. M., TroxeI, A. B., ….., Nagata, Satoshi, . . . Rook, A. H. (2014). CD164 and FCRL3 Are Highly Expressed on CD4+CD26-T Cells in Sezary Syndrome Patients. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 134(1), 229-236.
 
Sezary syndrome (SS) cells express cell surface molecules also found on normal activated CD4 T cells. In an effort to find a more specific surface marker for malignant SS cells, a nnicroarray analysis of gene expression was performed. Results showed significantly increased levels of mRNA for CD164, a sialomucin found on human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells, and FCRL3, a molecule present on a subset of human natural T regulatory cells. Both markers were increased in CD4 T cells from SS patients compared with healthy donors (HD). Flow cytometry studies confirmed the increased expression of CD164 and FCRL3 primarily on CD4 + CD26 – T cells of SS patients. Importantly, a statistically significant correlation was found between an elevated percentage of CD4 + CD164+ T cells and an elevated percentage of CD4 + CD26 T cells in all tested SS patients but not in patients with mycosis fungoides and atopic dermatitis or HD. FCRL3 expression was significantly increased only in patients with high tumor burden. CD4 + CD164 + cells displayed cerebriform morphology and their loss correlated with clinical improvement in treated patients. Our results suggest that CD164 can serve as a marker for diagnosis and for monitoring progression of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL)/SS and that FCRL3 expression correlates with a high circulating tumor burden.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
Posted by: kelsijo97 | January 24, 2014

December 2013

Bhuiyan, Md Shenuarin, J. Scott Pattison, Hanna Osinska, Jeanne James, James Gulick, Patrick M. McLendon, . . . Jeffrey Robbins. (2013). Enhanced autophagy ameliorates cardiac proteinopathy. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 123(12), 5284-5297.
 
Basal autophagy is a crucial mechanism in cellular homeostasis, underlying both normal cellular recycling and the clearance of damaged or misfolded proteins, organelles and aggregates. We showed here that enhanced levels of autophagy induced by either autophagic gene overexpression or voluntary exercise ameliorated desmin-related cardiomyopathy (DRC). To increase levels of basal autophagy, we generated an inducible Tg mouse expressing autophagy-related 7 (Atg7), a critical and rate-limiting autophagy protein. Hearts from these mice had enhanced autophagy, but normal morphology and function. We crossed these mice with CryABR120G mice, a model of DRC in which autophagy is significantly attenuated in the heart, to test the functional significance of autophagy activation in a proteotoxic model of heart failure. Sustained Atg7-induced autophagy in the CryABR120G hearts decreased interstitial fibrosis, ameliorated ventricular dysfunction, decreased cardiac hypertrophy, reduced intracellular aggregates and prolonged survival. To determine whether different methods of autophagy upregulation have additive or even synergistic benefits, we subjected the autophagy-deficient CryAB mice and the Atg7-crossed CryABR120G mice to voluntary exercise, which also upregulates autophagy. The entire exercised Atg7-crossed CryABR120G cohort survived to 7 months. These findings suggest that activating autophagy may be a viable therapeutic strategy for improving cardiac performance under proteotoxic conditions.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Li, Shuai, Xuejun Wang, Yifan Li, Curtis K. Kost, Jr., & Douglas S. Martin. (2013). Bortezomib, a Proteasome Inhibitor, Attenuates Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension and Aortic Remodeling in Rats. PloS one, 8(10), e78564.
 
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a highly prevalent disorder and a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Hypertensive vascular remodeling is the pathological mal-adaption of blood vessels to the hypertensive condition that contributes to further development of high blood pressure and end-organ damage. Hypertensive remodeling involves, at least in part, changes in protein turnover. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is a major protein quality and quantity control system. This study tested the hypothesis that the proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, would attenuate AngII-induced hypertension and its sequelae such as aortic remodeling in rats.; METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to AngII infusion for two weeks in the absence or presence of bortezomib. Mean arterial pressure was measured in conscious rats. Aortic tissue was collected for estimation of wall area, collagen deposition and expression of tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteases (TIMP), Ki67 (a marker of proliferation), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and VCAM-1 (a marker of inflammation). AngII infusion increased arterial pressure significantly (1604 mmHg vs. vehicle treatment 1332 mmHg). This hypertensive response was attenuated by bortezomib (1385 mmHg). AngII hypertension was associated with significant increases in aortic wall to lumen ratio (29%), collagen deposition (14%) and expression of TIMP1 and TIMP2. AngII also increased MMP2 activity, proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity, Ki67 staining, ROS generation and VCAM-1 immunoreactivity. Co-treatment of AngII-infused rats with bortezomib attenuated these AngII-induced responses.; CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data support the idea that proteasome activity contributes to AngII-induced hypertension and hypertensive aortic vascular remodeling at least in part by modulating TIMP1/2 and MMP2 function. Preliminary observations are consistent with a role for ROS, inflammatory and proliferative mechanisms in this effect. Further understanding of the mechanisms by which the proteasome is involved in hypertension and vascular structural remodeling may reveal novel targets for pharmacological treatment of hypertension, hypertensive remodeling or both.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Morgan, Jeremy P., Helen Magee, Andrew Wong, Tarah Nelson, Bettina Koch, Jonathan D. Cooper, & Jill M. Weimer. (2013). A murine model of variant late infantile ceroid lipofuscinosis recapitulates behavioral and pathological phenotypes of human disease. PloS one, 8(11), e78694.
 
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs; also known collectively as Batten Disease) are a family of autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorders. Mutations in as many as 13 genes give rise to 10 variants of NCL, all with overlapping clinical symptomatology including visual impairment, motor and cognitive dysfunction, seizures, and premature death. Mutations in CLN6 result in both a variant late infantile onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (vLINCL) as well as an adult-onset form of the disease called Type A Kufs. CLN6 is a non-glycosylated membrane protein of unknown function localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In this study, we perform a detailed characterization of a naturally occurring Cln6 mutant (Cln6(nclf)) mouse line to validate its utility for translational research. We demonstrate that this Cln6(nclf) mutation leads to deficits in motor coordination, vision, memory, and learning. Pathologically, we demonstrate loss of neurons within specific subregions and lamina of the cortex that correlate to behavioral phenotypes. As in other NCL models, this model displays selective loss of GABAergic interneuron sub-populations in the cortex and the hippocampus with profound, early-onset glial activation. Finally, we demonstrate a novel deficit in memory and learning, including a dramatic reduction in dendritic spine density in the cerebral cortex, which suggests a reduction in synaptic strength following disruption in CLN6. Together, these findings highlight the behavioral and pathological similarities between the Cln6(nclf) mouse model and human NCL patients, validating this model as a reliable format for screening potential therapeutics.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Blanchard, D. Caroline, Cliff H. Summers, & Robert J. Blanchard. (2013). The role of behavior in translational models for psychopathology: Functionality and dysfunctional behaviors. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 37(8), 1567-1577.
 
The history of science has frequently included a problem-based impetus toward research that can be translated expeditiously into solutions. A current problem is that psychopathologies, typically chronic, contribute hugely to the economic and social burden of medical care, especially in the United States. For behavioral neuroscientists a psychopathology-aimed translational research emphasis particularly involves animal models to facilitate the experimental and invasive work necessary to an understanding of the biology of normal and aberrant behavior. When the etiology of a particular psychopathology is unknown, and there are no specific biomarkers, behavioral parallels between the focal disorder and its putative models become crucial elements in assessing model validity. Evaluation of these parallels is frequently neglected, reflecting in part the lack of a systematic conceptualization of the organization of behavior and how this may be conserved across species. Recent work specifically attempting to bridge this gap suggests that analysis of behaviors that are functional—adaptive in crucial situations such as danger or social contexts—can facilitate an understanding of the parallels between behaviors of human and nonhuman species, including the dysfunctional behaviors of psycho pathologies. As research with animal models comes to provide a more systematic analysis of particular behaviors and their adaptive functions, cross-talk between model and focal psychopathology may be advantageous to understanding both. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Feller, K. D., T. W. Cronin, S. T. Ahyong, & Megan L. Porter. (2013). Morphological and molecular description of the late-stage larvae of Alima Leach, 1817 (Crustacea: Stomatopoda) from Lizard Island, Australia. Zootaxa, 3722(1), 22-32.
 
Alima pacifica and A. orientalis are stomatopods commonly found at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. There are currently no descriptions that link the larvae to the adult morphotype despite the frequent occurrence of the last larval stage of these two species. We used DNA barcoding of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene to link the last stage larvae of A. pacifica and A. orientalis to the respective adult morphotype. Detailed morphological descriptions of the late larva of each species are provided and compared to other described last- stage Alima larvae. These data support previous studies that suggest paraphyly of the genus Alima.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Kats, Lee B., Gary Bucciarelli, Thomas L. Vandergon, ….., Jacob L. Kerby, & Robert N. Fisher. (2013). Effects of natural flooding and manual trapping on the facilitation of invasive crayfish-native amphibian coexistence in a semi-arid perennial stream. Journal of Arid Environments, 98, 109-112.
 
Abstract: Aquatic amphibians are known to be vulnerable to a myriad of invasive predators. Invasive crayfish are thought to have eliminated native populations of amphibians in some streams in the semi-arid Santa Monica Mountains of southern California. Despite their toxic skin secretions that defend them from native predators, newts are vulnerable to crayfish attacks, and crayfish have been observed attacking adult newts, and eating newt egg masses and larvae. For 15 years, we have observed invasive crayfish and native California newts coexisting in one stream in the Santa Monica Mountains. During that period, we monitored the densities of both crayfish and newt egg mass densities and compared these to annual rainfall totals. After three seasons of below average rainfall, we reduced crayfish numbers by manual trapping. Our long-term data indicated that crayfish did not fare well in years when rainfall is above the historic average. This invasive predator did not evolve with high velocity streams, and observations indicated that southern California storm events washed crayfish downstream, killing many of them. Newts exhibit increased reproduction in years when crayfish numbers were reduced. A comparison with a nearby stream that does not contain crayfish indicated that newt reproduction positively responded to increased rainfall, but that fluctuations were much greater in the stream that contains crayfish. We suggest that rainfall patterns help explain invasive crayfish/newt coexistence and that management for future coexistence may benefit from manual trapping.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Siler, Cameron D., T. Alex Dececchi, Chris L. Merkord, Drew R. Davis, Tony J. Christiani, & Rafe M. Brown. (2014). Cryptic diversity and population genetic structure in the rare, endemic, forest-obligate, slender geckos of the Philippines. Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution, 70, 204-209.
 
Abstract: Recent studies of forest lizards in Southeast Asia have highlighted spectacular morphological and cryptic genetic diversity in several poorly known clades. Unfortunately, many of the included species have microhabitat preferences for forested environments, and therefore they are threatened by extensive forest destruction throughout the region. This is particularly true in the Philippines, an archipelago with a strikingly high proportion (84%) of endemic geckos. Abundances inferred from historical museum collections suggests that we are in a critical period where apparent declines in population viability and species’ abundance have taken place faster than the growth in our understanding of alpha diversity. This phenomenon is exemplified in the exceedingly rare Philippine slender forest geckos of the genus Pseudogekko. Most of the known species are rarely encountered by field biologists, and species boundaries are unclear; this poor state of knowledge impedes effective conservation measures. Using the first multilocus phylogeny for these taxa, and phylogenetic and population genetic approaches, we elucidate evolutionary lineages and delimit species-level conservation targets in this unique radiation of endemic Philippine geckos. The results support the presence of widespread cryptic diversity in the genus, providing a framework for the re-evaluation of conservation priorities aimed at protecting these rare, forest-obligate species.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Lamichhane, Sujan, Susan Lancaster, Eagappanath Thiruppathi, & Gopinath Mani. (2013). Interaction of endothelial and smooth muscle cells with cobalt-chromium alloy surfaces coated with Paclitaxel deposited self-assembled monolayers. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids, 29(46), 14254-14264.
 
The use of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as a polymer-free platform to deliver an antiproliferative drug, paclitaxel (PAT), from a stent material cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloy has been previously demonstrated. In this study, the interaction of human aortic endothelial cells (ECs) and human aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with CoCr alloy surfaces coated with SAMs- (SAMs-CoCr) and PAT-deposited SAMs (PAT-SAMs-CoCr) was investigated. A polished CoCr with no coatings was used as a control. The viability, proliferation, morphology, and phenotype of ECs and SMCs were investigated on these samples. SAMs-CoCr significantly enhanced the growth of ECs. Also, the ECs were well spreading with its typical morphological features and showed stronger PECAM-1 expression on SAMs-CoCr. This showed that the SAMs-CoCr surface is conducive to endothelialization. For PAT-SAMs-CoCr, although the adhesion of ECs was lower, the cells continued to proliferate with some degree of spreading and limited PECAM-1 expression. For SMCs, a significant decrease in the cell proliferation was observed on SAMs-CoCr when compared with that of Control-CoCr. PAT-SAMs-CoCr showed maximum inhibitory effect on the proliferation of SMCs. Also, the SMCs on PAT-SAMs-CoCr displayed a poorly spread discoid morphology with disarranged alpha-actin filaments. This showed that the PAT released from the SAMs platform successfully inhibited the growth of SMCs. Thus, this study showed the interaction of ECs and SMCs with SAMs-CoCr and PAT-SAMs-CoCr for potential uses in stents and other cardiovascular medical devices.
 
Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Bao, Ying, H. Fong, & Chaoyang Jiang. (2013). Manipulating the Collective Surface Plasmon Resonances of Aligned Gold Nanorods in Electrospun Composite Nanofibers. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 117(41), 21490-21497.
 
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is an interesting optical property that has been intensively studied in recent years. Herein, we report that the SPRs of gold nanorods (Au NRs) embedded in electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibrous films can be manipulated via several approaches such as the change of Au NR percentage in the composite nanofibers, swelling-induced refractive index decrease of local environment, and swelling-induced increase of inter-rod distances among the embedded Au NRs. The electrospun composite nanofibrous films exhibit excellent sensing ability to the swelling solvents with short responsible time and remarkable reversibility. This study advances the fundamental understandings of plasmonic properties for electrospun composite nanofibrous films; thus, it can benefit the novel design of smart nanomaterials for broad sensing and nanophotonic applications.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Chen, Jiangchao, Andrew Schmitz, T. Inerbaev, Q. G. Meng, S. Kilina, S. Tretiak, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2013). First-Principles Study of p-n-Doped Silicon Quantum Dots: Charge Transfer, Energy Dissipation, and Time-Resolved Emission. Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 4(17), 2906-2913.
 
Electron-phonon coupling controls nonradiative relaxation dynamics of the photoexcited electron-hole pair in semiconductor nanostructures. Here the optoelectronic properties for Al- and P-codoped silicon quantum dots (QDs) are calculated by combining time-dependent density matrix methodology and ab initio electronic structure methods. The energy-band landscape of the codoped Si QD is elucidated via time evolution of population density distributions in energy and in coordinate space. Multiple nonradiative relaxation pathways result in a specific charge-separated state, where a hole and an electron are localized on Al and P dopants, respectively. Analysis of the simulated nonradiative decay shows that high-energy photoexcitation relaxes to the band gap edge within 10 ps, forming the final charge-transfer state. We also simulate time-resolved emission spectra of the codoped Si QD that reveals optical and IR emissions below the optical band gap. These emission features are attributed to the intraband transitions introduced by doping.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Hanson, Elizabeth K., David R. Beukelman, & Kathryn M. Yorkston. (2013). Communication Support through Multimodal Supplementation:A Scoping Review. Augmentative and alternative communication (Baltimore, Md. : 1985), 29(4), 310-321.
 
Abstract Speech supplementation strategies improve spoken communication for people with motor speech disorders who experience reduced speech intelligibility. The purpose of this review was to summarize the literature on traditional supplementation strategies (e.g., alphabet supplementation, topic supplementation, and gestural supplementation) and to expand the definition of speech supplementation to include additional modalities, such as augmenting speech with pictures via mobile technology, and conversation management strategies. Results showed that studies of traditional supplementation consistently reported positive outcomes, including increased intelligibility, decreased speech rate, and positive attitudes toward speakers. New modalities, such as supplementing speech through digital photos, may come to be integrated with traditional approaches, given the proliferation of digital photography and mobile tablet technologies. In addition, new research is exploring the role of communication partners in dyads where one speaker has dysarthria, as well as strategies that communication partners employ to understand dysarthric speech.
 
Communication Disorders Department.
 
 
Struckman-Johnson, David, Cindy Struckman-Johnson, Justin D. Kruse, Pamela M. Gross, & Brady J. Sumners. (2013). A Pre-PREA Survey of Inmate and Correctional Staff Opinions on How to Prevent Prison Sexual Assault. Prison Journal, 93(4), 429-452.
 
This study is a content analysis of inmate and staff free responses to a question about good ways to prevent prison sexual assault. Data from 1,094 inmates and 373 correctional staff were abstracted from a 1998 survey of Midwestern prisons. A total of 2,689 distinctive ideas ( 1,830 from inmates and 859 from staff) were distributed across 12 prevention categories. Inmates’ top solutions were classification of inmates and increased sexual outlets. Staff s top choices were increasing security and hiring more and better staff. Similarities and disparities in inmate and staff solutions are discussed in light of Prison Rape Elimination Act-based policies.
 
Computer Science Department.
Psychology Department.
 
 
Sweeney, Mark R., & J. A. Mason. (2013). Mechanisms of dust emission from Pleistocene loess deposits, Nebraska, USA. Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface, 118(3), 1460-1471.
 
Saltation bombardment is commonly believed to be the primary mechanism by which large quantities of dust can be generated. Direct entrainment of silt, on the other hand, is thought to generate minimal quantities of dust. If so, loess landscapes should rarely be major sources of dust unless disturbed by human activity. To test the mechanisms by which loess can be eroded by the wind, we used the Portable In-Situ Wind Erosion Lab (PI-SWERL). PI-SWERL tests were conducted on benches that were carved into loess at field locations. Coarse to fine loess was also collected and tested in a controlled setting using (1) dry, unconsolidated loess and (2) crusted loess. Results indicate that in most cases, the threshold friction velocity for silt is less than that for sand and that most dust generation occurs by direct entrainment of dust. Saltation, even in coarse loess, was nonexistent to intermittent. In a few cases, saltation of sand or soil aggregates preceded dust generation or enhanced emissions after direct entrainment began. Emission fluxes of loess are potentially high in both proximal and distal settings, suggesting that loess is easily entrainable if vegetation density is low. We hypothesize that an arid and windy climate of the late Pleistocene, paired with lower vegetation density, facilitated large-scale erosion of Peoria Loess in Nebraska to generate wind-aligned ridges and troughs. More broadly, our results indicate that loess landscapes have the potential to be major sources as well as sinks of dust.
 
Earth Sciences Department.
 
 
Aguirre, Pablo, José D. Flores, & Eduardo González-Olivares. (2014). Bifurcations and global dynamics in a predator–prey model with a strong Allee effect on the prey, and a ratio-dependent functional response. Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications, 16, 235-249.
 
Abstract: We extend a previous study of a predator–prey model with strong Allee effect on the prey in which the functional response is a function of the ratio of prey to predator. We prove that the solutions are always bounded and non-negative, and that the species can always tend to long-term extinction. By means of bifurcation analysis and advanced numerical techniques for the computation of invariant manifolds of equilibria, we explain the consequences of the (dis)appearance of limit cycles, homoclinic orbits, and heteroclinic connections in the global arrangement of the phase plane near a Bogdanov–Takens bifurcation. In particular, we find that the Allee threshold in the two-dimensional system is given as the boundary of the basin of attraction of an attracting positive equilibrium, and determine conditions for the mutual extinction or survival of the populations.
 
Mathematics Department.
 
 
Georgescu, Catalin, & Gabriel Picioroaga. (2014). FUGLEDE-KADISON DETERMINANTS FOR OPERATORS IN THE VON NEUMANN ALGEBRA OF AN EQUIVALENCE RELATION. Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, 142(1), 173-180.
 
We calculate the Fuglede-Kadison determinant for operators of the form Sigma(n)(i=1) MfiLgi, where L-gi are unitaries or partial isometries coming from Borel (partial) isomorphisms g(i) on a probability space which generate an ergodic equivalence relation and where M-fi are multiplication operators. We obtain formulas for the cases when the relation is treeable or the f(i)’s and g(i)’s satisfy some restrictions.
 
Mathematics Department.
 
 
Leviner, L. E., C. E. Aalseth, M. W. Ahmed, F. T. Avignone, ….., & D. M. Mei. (2014). A segmented, enriched N-type germanium detector for neutrinoless double beta-decay experiments. Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section A, 735, 66-77.
 
Abstract: We present data characterizing the performance of the first segmented, N-type Ge detector, isotopically enriched to 85% 76Ge. This detector, based on the Ortec PT6×2 design and referred to as SEGA (Segmented, Enriched Germanium Assembly), was developed as a possible prototype for neutrinoless double beta-decay measurements by the Majorana collaboration. We present some of the general characteristics (including bias potential, efficiency, leakage current, and integral cross-talk) for this detector in its temporary cryostat. We also present an analysis of the resolution of the detector, and demonstrate that for all but two segments there is at least one channel that reaches the Majorana resolution goal below 4keV FWHM at 2039keV, and all channels are below 4.5keV FWHM.
 
Physics Department.
 
 
Wang, Guojian, X. F. Long, L. Z. Zhang, Z. B. Lin, & G. F. Wang. (2013). Growth and spectral properties of Nd3+:Ba2LiNb5O15 crystal. Optical Materials, 35(12), 2703-2706.
 
Nd3+ doped Ba2LiNb5O15 single crystals with dimension Phi 10 x 30 mm(3) were grown by the Czochralski technique. The refractive indexes were measured. The polarized absorption spectra, polarized fluorescence spectra and fluorescence decay curve were measured at 300 K and the spectral parameters were calculated according to Judd-Ofelt theory. These results indicate that Nd3+:Ba2LiNb5O15 crystal can be regarded as a laser crystal. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Physics Department.
 
 
Zhang, C., D. M. Mei, P. Davis, B. Woltman, & F. Gray. (2013). Measuring fast neutrons with large liquid scintillation detector for ultra-low background experiments. Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section a-Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment, 729, 138-146.
 
We developed a 12-liter volume neutron detector filled with the liquid scintillator EJ301 that measures neutrons in an underground laboratory where dark matter and neutrino experiments are located. The detector target is a cylindrical volume coated on the inside with reflective paint (95% reflectivity) that significantly increases the detector’s light collection. We demonstrate several calibration techniques using point sources and cosmic-ray muons for energies up to 20 MeV for this large liquid scintillation detector. Neutron-gamma separation using pulse shape discrimination with a few MeV neutrons to hundreds of MeV neutrons is shown for the first time using a large liquid scintillator. Published by Elsevier B.V.
 
Physics Department.
 
 
Contractor, Ateka A., Jon D. Elhai, Kendra C. Ractliffe, & David Forbes. (2013). PTSD’s underlying symptom dimensions and relations with behavioral inhibition and activation. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 27(7), 645-651.
 
Highlights: [•] We examined the relation between PTSD factors and BIS/BAS dimensions in a primary care sample. [•] PTSD’s avoidance and dysphoria factor had a significantly greater association with BIS compared to BAS. [•] PTSD’s re-experiencing factor related more to BIS than BAS. [•] PTSD’s avoidance significantly mediated the relation between BIS/BAS and PTSD’s dysphoria.
 
Psychology Department.
 
 
Callahan, Leah B., Kristi E. Tschetter, & Patrick J. Ronan. (2013). Inhibition of corticotropin releasing factor expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala attenuates stress-induced behavioral and endocrine responses. Frontiers in neuroscience, 7, 195.
 
Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is a primary mediator of endocrine, autonomic and behavioral stress responses. Studies in both humans and animal models have implicated CRF in a wide-variety of psychiatric conditions including anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, sleep disorders and addiction among others. The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), a key limbic structure with one of the highest concentrations of CRF-producing cells outside of the hypothalamus, has been implicated in anxiety-like behavior and a number of stress-induced disorders. This study investigated the specific role of CRF in the CeA on both endocrine and behavioral responses to stress. We used RNA Interference (RNAi) techniques to locally and specifically knockdown CRF expression in CeA. Behavior was assessed using the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OF). Knocking down CRF expression in the CeA had no significant effect on measures of anxiety-like behavior in these tests. However, it did have an effect on grooming behavior, a CRF-induced behavior. Prior exposure to a stressor sensitized an amygdalar CRF effect on stress-induced HPA activation. In these stress-challenged animals silencing CRF in the CeA significantly attenuated corticosterone responses to a subsequent behavioral stressor. Thus, it appears that while CRF projecting from the CeA does not play a significant role in the expression stress-induced anxiety-like behaviors on the EPM and OF it does play a critical role in stress-induced HPA activation.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Dey, Nandini, B. Young, M. Abramovitz, M. Bouzyk, B. Barwick, Pradip De, & Brian Leyland-Jones. (2013). Differential Activation of Wnt-beta-Catenin Pathway in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Increases MMP7 in a PTEN Dependent Manner. Plos One, 8(10).
 
Mutations of genes in tumor cells of Triple Negative subset of Breast Cancer (TNBC) deregulate pathways of signal transduction. The loss of tumor suppressor gene PTEN is the most common first event associated with basal-like subtype (Martins, De, Almendro, Gonen, and Park, 2012). Here we report for the first time that the functional upregulation of secreted-MMP7, a transcriptional target of Wnt-beta-catenin signature pathway in TNBC is associated to the loss of PTEN. We identified differential expression of mRNAs in several key-components genes, and transcriptional target genes of the Wnt-beta-catenin pathway (WP), including beta-catenin, FZD7, DVL1, MMP7, c-MYC, BIRC5, CD44, PPARD, c-MET, and NOTCH1 in FFPE tumors samples from TNBC patients of two independent cohorts. A similar differential upregulation of mRNA/protein for beta-catenin, the functional readout of WP, and for MMP7, a transcriptional target gene of beta-catenin was observed in TNBC cell line models. Genetic or pharmacological attenuation of beta-catenin by SiRNA or WP modulators (XAV939 and sulindac sulfide) and pharmacological mimicking of PTEN following LY294002 treatment downregulated MMP7 levels as well as enzymatic function of the secreted MMP7 in MMP7 positive PTEN-null TNBC cells. Patient data revealed that MMP7 mRNA was high in only a subpopulation of TNBC, and this subpopulation was characterized by a concurrent low expression of PTEN mRNA. In cell lines, a high expression of casein-zymograph-positive MMP7 was distinguished by an absence of functional PTEN. A similar inverse relationship between MMP7 and PTEN mRNA levels was observed in the PAM50 data set (a correlation coefficient of -0.54). The PAM50 subtype and outcome data revealed that the high MMP7 group had low pCR (25%) and High Rd (74%) in clinical stage T3 pathologic response in contrast to the high pCR (40%) and low residual disease (RD) (60%) of the low MMP7 group.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Grenon, S. M., M. S. Conte, E. Nosova, H. Alley, K. Chong, William S. Harris, . . . C. D. Owens. (2013). Association between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content of red blood cells and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with peripheral artery disease. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 58(5), 1283-1290.
 
Objective: The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are dietary components derived from fish oil with beneficial cardiovascular effects that may relate in part to anti-inflammatory properties. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is characterized by a marked proinflammatory state. We hypothesized that the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids content of red blood cells (omega-3 index) would be correlated with biomarkers of inflammation and vascular function in a PAD cohort. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of subjects who presented to an outpatient vascular surgery clinic for evaluation of PAD. We used linear regression to evaluate the independent association between the omega-3 index, inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein [CRP], intercellular adhesion molecule-1, interleukin-6, and tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha) and endothelial function (brachial artery flow mediated dilation). Results: 64 subjects (61 claudicants and three with critical limb ischemia) were recruited for the study. The mean CRP level was 5.0 +/- 5.0 mg/L, and the mean omega-3 index was 5.0% +/- 1.8%. In an unadjusted model, the omega- 3 index was negatively associated with CRP (38% increase in CRP for one standard deviation decrease in the omega-3 index; P = .007), which remained significant after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, ankle-brachial index, and high-density lipoprotein (33%; P = .04). There was also evidence for independent associations between the omega-3 index and IL-6 (P = .001). There were no significant associations between the omega-3 index and vascular function tests. Conclusions: In a cohort of patients with PAD, the omega- 3 index was inversely associated with biomarkers of inflammation even after adjustment for covariates including the ankle-brachial index. Because patients with PAD have a high inflammatory burden, further studies should be conducted to determine if manipulation of omega-3 index via dietary changes or fish oil supplementation could improve inflammation and symptoms in these patients.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Harris, William S., Thomas D. Dayspring, & Terrance J. Moran. (2013). Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: new developments and applications. Postgraduate medicine, 125(6), 100-113.
 
The omega-3 fatty acids (FA) found in fish oils, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA and DHA, respectively), have been extensively studied therapeutically in a wide variety of disease conditions, but in none more than cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our review summarizes mechanisms of action, recent meta-analyses of CVD outcome trials, sources (fish and supplements), and recommendations for use of omega-3 FA in clinical practice. With the ability to now measure the omega-3 FA biostatus through blood tests, patients can achieve cardioprotective levels by either taking fish oil supplements or simply eating more oily fish. Two omega-3 FA formulations (both in the ethyl ester form) have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of patients with very high triglyceride levels (> 500 mg/dL); one contains both EPA and DHA, whereas the other contains only EPA. The agents have been extensively tested in 2 patient populations, those with very high triglycerides and those with triglycerides between 200 and 500 mg/dL while on background statin therapy. In general, treatment with EPA+DHA appears to lower patient triglycerides more effectively, but in those patients with very high triglyceride levels, use of EPA+DHA also raised low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, whereas EPA alone did not. Both formulations, at doses that do not lower triglycerides, have been shown to reduce CVD events in some, but not all, studies. Given the favorable risk-to-benefit ratio for these essentially nutritional agents, use is expected to continue to expand.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Irvine, E., & Casey Williams. (2013). Treatment-, Patient-, and Disease-Related Factors and the Emergence of Adverse Events with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. Pharmacotherapy, 33(8), 868-881.
 
Four breakpoint cluster region (BCR)-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors ( s) are currently available for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML): imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib, and bosutinib. Choosing the most appropriate requires clinicians to consider a host of patient-, disease-, and treatment-related factors, not the least of which include the safety profiles of the agents. therapy, with a focus on the underlying mechanisms believed to be responsible for a number of important adverse events associated with these agents and what implications they may have for treatment choice, particularly in the setting of first-line treatment. A literature search of the PubMed database was conducted to identify articles that described the molecular mechanisms of BCR-ABL1-mediated leukemic transformation, the efficacy and safety of imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib, and bosutinib in patients with CML, the kinase-binding spectrum of each , and evidence suggesting a link between the -binding profile and adverse events. . Clinical studies suggest that imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib, and bosutinib have differing safety profiles, which are in part attributable to the specificity and selectivity of each agent. Although much basic research must be conducted to further illuminate the mechanisms responsible for -related adverse events, on- and off-target effects are believed to be at least partly responsible for cardiovascular toxicity, myelosuppression, fluid retention, gastrointestinal toxicity, and dermatologic toxicity. Increased understanding of the factors that affect -associated adverse events and long-term safety data will enable a more informed approach to the selection of therapy best suited to the individual needs of patients with CML.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Khan, Sheema, Deepak Kumar, Meena Jaggi, & Subhash C. Chauhan. (2013). Targeting microRNAs in Pancreatic Cancer: Microplayers in the Big Game. Cancer research, 73(22), 6541-6547.
 
The prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer is extremely poor, and current systemic therapies result in only marginal survival rates for patients. The era of targeted therapies has offered a new avenue to search for more effective therapeutic strategies. Recently, microRNAs (miRNA) that are small noncoding RNAs (18-24 nucleotides) have been associated with a number of diseases, including cancer. Disruption of miRNAs may have important implications in cancer etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. So far, focus has been on the mechanisms that are involved in translational silencing of their targets to fine tune gene expression. This review summarizes the approach for rational validation of selected candidates that might be involved in pancreatic tumorigenesis, cancer progression, and disease management. Herein, we also focus on the major issues hindering the identification of miRNAs, their linked pathways and recent advances in understanding their role as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers, and therapeutic tools in dealing with this disease. miRNAs are expected to be robust clinical analytes, valuable for clinical research and biomarker discovery. Cancer Res; 73(22); 6541-7. 2013 AACR.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Lal, Yasir, & J. Van Heukelom. (2013). Dabigatran: A Cause of Hematologic Emergency. American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 346(3), 190-193.
 
Dabigatran etexilate, a direct thrombin inhibitor, has become an alternative to warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. There remains a concern about its overdose and life-threatening hemorrhage because of unavailability of appropriate coagulation tests to monitor and antidotes to reverse its effects. There are no clinical data about its safety in patients with fluctuating renal function. Multiple bleeding events reported with dabigatran have prompted the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to further investigate these reports. Four clinical cases with life-threatening bleeding, strategies that were used to achieve hemostasis and a brief literature review to demonstrate the hematologic emergency caused by dabigatran are presented in this study.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Tjarks, B. Joel, Jason C. Dorman, Verle D. Valentine, Thayne A. Munce, Paul A. Thompson, Shanna L. Kindt, & Michael F. Bergeron. (2013). Comparison and utility of King-Devick and ImPACT composite scores in adolescent concussion patients. Journal of the neurological sciences, 334(1-2), 148-153.
 
UNLABELLED: The King-Devick (KD) oculomotor test has recently been advocated for sideline diagnosis of concussion. Although visual processing and performance are often impaired in concussion patients, the utility of KD as a concussion diagnostic tool is not validated.; PURPOSE: To examine the diagnostic value of KD, by comparing KD with post-concussion symptom scale (PCSS) and ImPACT composite scores. We hypothesized that KD would be correlated with visual motor speed/memory (VMS, VIS) and reaction time (RT), because all require cognitive visual processing. We also expected parallel changes in KD and PCSS across recovery.; METHODS: Thirty-five concussed individuals (12-19y; 18 females, 17 males) were evaluated with PCSS, ImPACT composite and KD scores over four clinical visits (V).; RESULTS: KD times improved with each visit (DeltaV1-V2: 7.8611.82; DeltaV2-V3: 9.1711.07; DeltaV3-V4: 5.307.87s) and paralleled improvements in PCSS (DeltaV1-V2: 8.9720.27; DeltaV2-V3: 8.6914.70; DeltaV3-V4: 6.317.71), RT (DeltaV1-V2: 0.050.21; DeltaV2-V3: 0.090.19; DeltaV3-V4 0.030.07) and VMS (DeltaV1-V2: -5.276.98; DeltaV2-V3: -2.616.48; DeltaV3-V4: -2.355.22). Longer KD times were associated with slower RT (r=0.67; P<0.0001) and lower VMS (r=-0.70; P<0.0001), respectively.; CONCLUSION: Cognitive visual performance testing using KD has utility in concussion evaluation. Validation would further establish KD as an effective ancillary tool in longitudinal concussion management and research. 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Avoseh, Mejai B. M. (2013). Proverbs as theoretical frameworks for lifelong learning in indigenous African education. Adult Education Quarterly, 63(3), 236-250.
 
Every aspect of a community’s life and values in indigenous Africa provide the theoretical framework for education. The holistic worldview of the traditional system places a strong emphasis on the centrality of the human element and orature in the symmetrical relationship between life and learning. This article focuses on proverbs and the words that form them as important sources of, and foundation for, indigenous African education. The article analyzes proverbs and the power of the spoken word in indigenous African pedagogy. The analysis is used to argue for an increased articulation of indigenous African knowledge into the dialogue on the inclusion of non-Western traditions in the theoretical frameworks for adult education. The article uses the traditional contexts of Ogu and Yoruba of West Africa but draws examples mostly from Yoruba proverbs to present their epistemological significance in traditional African education. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)
 
School of Education.
 
 
Schweinle, Amy, Patti J. Berg, & Ashley R. Sorenson. (2013). Preadolescent perceptions of challenging and difficult course activities and their motivational distinctions. Educational Psychology, 33(7), 797-816.
 
The present research sought to determine if primary school students differentiate between classes that are challenging and those that are difficult, and how these distinctions relate to their motivation and achievement. Results indicated that there are three types of challenges/difficulties.Challengingclasses are those that are demanding of the students but within their ability, are important and are tied to interests; students in these classes are more likely to adopt mastery goal orientations.Purely difficultclasses are not valued, require a lot of effort, but are threatening to students’ efficacy. Classes that aredifficult compared to othersare those that are more demanding for the student than other students or other classes. These classes are not valued and are also seen as a threat to efficacy. Bothpurely difficultanddifficult compared to othersclasses were negatively related to achievement, and students in these classes are more likely to adopt performance avoidance goal orientations.
 
School of Education.
School of Health Sciences.
Psychology Department.
 
 
Ko, Eunjeong, Soonhee Roh, & Doreen Higgins. (2013). Do older Korean immigrants engage in end-of-life communication? Educational Gerontology, 39(8), 613-622.
 
End-of-life communication is an important process as it allows individuals’ treatment preferences to be known, yet not every culture is receptive to such discussions. Planning for end-of-life care is not readily supported in Asian culture, and little is known about individuals’ communication with family and health care professionals among older Korean immigrants related to end-of-life care. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 195 older Korean immigrants on end-of-life communication. Measures include end-of-life communication, attitudes toward end-of-life communication, perceived burden, number of adult children in the United States, health status, and sociodemographic variables. Overall, 21.9% (n = 42) of participants reported to have discussed their end-of-life treatment preferences with others, primarily family members. Attitudes toward end-of-life discussions, perceived burden, religiosity, and the number of children in the U.S. significantly accounted for end-of-life communication. Culturally appropriate interventions are recommended to promote dialogue regarding treatment preferences among older adults, family, and health care professionals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)
 
School of Health Sciences.
Naik, Bijayananda. (2013). INFLUENCE OF CULTURE ON LEARNING STYLES OF BUSINESS STUDENTS. International Journal of Education Research, 8(1), 129-139.
 
The Index of Learning Styles (ILS) instrument based on the Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model was used to investigate the influence of culture on learning style distribution of business students. Business students from three distinctly different cultures, namely, western, middle-eastern, and eastern cultures were surveyed in this research. Western culture was represented by the United States, middle-eastern culture by Egypt, and eastern culture by South Korea. Results of this study show that most business students, in all three cultures, have a balanced learning style in each of the four learning style dimensions of the Felder-Silverman model. A comparison of learning style distributions of business students belonging to the three cultures revealed small but statistically significant differences.
 
Beacom School of Business.
 
 
Buchwald, Dedra, Clemma Muller, Maria Bell, & Delf Schmidt-Grimminger. (2013). Attitudes Toward HPV Vaccination Among Rural American Indian Women and Urban White Women in the Northern Plains. Health Education & Behavior, 40(6), 704-711.
 
Background. American Indian women in the Northern Plains have a high incidence of cervical cancer. We assessed attitudes on vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) in this population. Method. In partnership with two tribal communities, from 2007 to 2009, we surveyed women 18 to 65 years old attending two reservation clinics (n = 118 and n = 76) and an urban clinic in the same region serving primarily White women (n = 158) on HPV knowledge, vaccine familiarity, and willingness to vaccinate children against HPV. We used chi-square tests and binary logistic regression to compare groups and identify correlates of willingness to vaccinate. Results. American Indian women were less knowledgeable about HPV than White women (p < .001), especially its role in cervical cancer. Willingness to vaccinate children was differentially distributed across the three clinic samples (p < .001), but this association did not persist after adjusting for demographics and HPV knowledge. Among all samples, more correct answers to HPV knowledge questions was the only factor positively correlated with willingness to vaccinate (odds ratios = 1.2-1.5; p < .00-.05). Conclusions. These findings underscore the importance of locally relevant educational interventions to increase HPV vaccination rates among American Indian women.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Taub, Gordon E., & Nicholas Benson. (2013). Identifying the Effects of Specific CHC Factors on College Students’ Reading Comprehension. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching & Learning, 7(2), 1-13.
 
Reading comprehension is an important skill for college academic success. Much of the research pertaining to reading in general, and reading comprehension specifically, focuses on the success of primary and secondary school-age students. The present study goes beyond previous research by extending such investigation to the reading comprehension of college-age student participants. Using the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theoretical model, this study investigates the effects of seven broad factors on the reading comprehension of college-age students. Of the seven broad factors identified within the CHC theoretical model, only crystallized intelligence and visual-spatial thinking demonstrate statistically significant direct effects on reading comprehension. Although crystallized intelligence consistently has been identified as playing an integral role in the reading comprehension of primary and secondary school-age students, this study represents the first time visualspatial thinking has been found to have a statistically significant direct effect on reading comprehension, in any population. This study provides hypotheses to explain the effects of visual-spatial thinking on college-age students’ reading comprehension and offers instructional strategies to assist faculty in improving student learning in higher education settings.
 
School of Education.
Posted by: kelsijo97 | November 12, 2013

Welcome to our USD Fac-Pub blog

We’re Danielle Loftus, a technology/fine arts librarian, and Steve Johnson, a business and distance ed librarian at USD’s University Libraries.

To help us in our roles as liaison to several USD departments,we keep tabs on the research of USD. We also are responsible for keeping the departments up-to-date about the library.

This blog exists for organizing and sharing that information. Check out the tabs above for month-by-month publications.

Email us if you have any questions.  Danielle Loftus   Steve Johnson

Posted by: kelsijo97 | November 12, 2013

November 2013

Doorn, Joshua M., & Michael C. Kruer. (2013). Newly characterized forms of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. Current neurology and neuroscience reports, 13(12), 413.
 
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) comprises a group of brain iron deposition syndromes that lead to mixed extrapyramidal features and progressive dementia. Historically, there has not been a clearly identifiable molecular cause for many patients with clinical and radiologic features of NBIA. Recent discoveries have shown that mutations in C19orf12 or WDR45 can lead to NBIA. C19orf12 mutations are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, and lead to a syndrome similar to that caused by mutations in PANK2 or PLA2G6. In contrast, WDR45 mutations lead to a distinct form of NBIA characterized by spasticity and intellectual disability in childhood followed by the subacute onset of dystonia-parkinsonism in adulthood. WDR45 mutations act in an X-linked dominant manner. Although the function of C19orf12 is largely unknown, WDR45 plays a key role in autophagy. Each of these new forms of NBIA thus leads to a distinct clinical syndrome, and together they implicate new cellular pathways in the pathogenesis of these disorders.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Morecraft, Robert J., Jizhi Ge, Kimberly S. Stilwell-Morecraft, David W. McNeal, Marc A. Pizzimenti, & Warren G. Darling. (2013). Terminal distribution of the corticospinal projection from the hand/arm region of the primary motor cortex to the cervical enlargement in rhesus monkey. The Journal of comparative neurology, 521(18), 4205-4235.
 
To further our understanding of the corticospinal projection (CSP) from the hand/arm representation of the primary motor cortex (M1), high-resolution anterograde tracing methodology and stereology were used to investigate the terminal distribution of this connection at spinal levels C5 to T1. The highest number of labeled terminal boutons occurred contralaterally (98%) with few ipsilaterally (2%). Contralaterally, labeled boutons were located within laminae I-X, with the densest distribution found in lamina VII and, to a lesser extent, laminae IX and VI. Fewer terminals were found in other contralateral laminae. Within lamina VII, terminal boutons were most prominent in the dorsomedial, dorsolateral, and ventrolateral subsectors. Within lamina IX, the heaviest terminal labeling was distributed dorsally. Ipsilaterally, boutons were found in laminae V-X. The most pronounced distribution occurred in the dorsomedial and ventromedial sectors of lamina VII and fewer labeled boutons were located in other ipsilateral laminae. Segmentally, contralateral lamina VII labeling was highest at levels C5-C7. In contrast, lamina IX labeling was highest at C7-T1 and more widely dispersed among the quadrants at C8-T1. Our findings suggest dominant contralateral influence of the M1 hand/arm CSP, a contralateral innervation pattern in lamina VII supporting Kuypers (1982) conceptual framework of a “lateral motor system,” and a projection to lamina IX indicating significant influence on motoneurons innervating flexors acting on the shoulder and elbow rostrally (C5-C7), along with flexors, extensors, abductors and adductors acting on the digits, hand and wrist caudally (C8-T1). J. Comp. Neurol. 521:4205-4235, 2013. 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Dececchi, T. Alexander, & H. C. E. Larsson. (2013). BODY AND LIMB SIZE DISSOCIATION AT THE ORIGIN OF BIRDS: UNCOUPLING ALLOMETRIC CONSTRAINTS ACROSS A MACROEVOLUTIONARY TRANSITION. Evolution, 67(9), 2741-2752.
 
The origin of birds and powered flight is a classic major evolutionary transition. Research on their origin often focuses on the evolution of the wing with trends of forelimb elongation traced back through many nonavian maniraptoran dinosaurs. We present evidence that the relative forelimb elongation within avian antecedents is primarily due to allometry and is instead driven by a reduction in body size. Once body size is factored out, there is no trend of increasing forelimb length until the origin of birds. We report that early birds and nonavian theropods have significantly different scaling relationships within the forelimb and hindlimb skeleton. Ancestral forelimb and hindlimb allometric scaling to body size is rapidly decoupled at the origin of birds, when wings significantly elongate, by evolving a positive allometric relationship with body size from an ancestrally negative allometric pattern and legs significantly shorten by keeping a similar, near isometric relationship but with a reduced intercept. These results have implications for the evolution of powered flight and early diversification of birds. They suggest that their limb lengths first had to be dissociated from general body size scaling before expanding to the wide range of fore and hindlimb shapes and sizes present in today’s birds.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Feller, K. D., T. W. Cronin, S. T. Ahyong, & Megan L. Porter. (2013). Morphological and molecular description of the late-stage larvae of Alima Leach, 1817 (Crustacea: Stomatopoda) from Lizard Island, Australia. Zootaxa, 3722(1), 22-32.
 
Alima pacifica and A. orientalis are stomatopods commonly found at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. There are currently no descriptions that link the larvae to the adult morphotype despite the frequent occurrence of the last larval stage of these two species. We used DNA barcoding of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene to link the last stage larvae of A. pacifica and A. orientalis to the respective adult morphotype. Detailed morphological descriptions of the late larva of each species are provided and compared to other described last- stage Alima larvae. These data support previous studies that suggest paraphyly of the genus Alima.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Scott, M. L., G. T. Auble, Mark D. Dixon, W. C. Johnson, & L. A. Rabbe. (2013). LONG-TERM COTTONWOOD FOREST DYNAMICS ALONG THE UPPER MISSOURI RIVER, USA. River Research and Applications, 29(8), 1016-1029.
 
The upper Missouri River bottomland in north-central Montana, USA, retains much of the physical character it had when traversed by Lewis and Clark around 1805. We used geospatial data to quantify long-term changes in the distribution of bottomland vegetation, land use patterns and channel planform for a 257-rkm segment of the Missouri River above Fort Peck Reservoir. This segment is less ecologically altered than downstream segments, but two dams completed in the mid-1950s have decreased the frequency and magnitude of floods. The area of forest is sparse because of geomorphic setting but, contrary to public perception, has remained relatively constant during the past century. However, the stability of forest area obscures its spatial and temporal dynamics. We used state and transition models to quantify fates and sources of forest during two periods: 1890s-1950s and 1950s-2006. Total forest area was 6% greater in 2006 than it was in the 1890s, largely due to reduced forest loss to erosional processes and gains related to progressive channel narrowing. Channel narrowing resulted in part from human-caused peak flow attenuation. A modified transition matrix, used to examine future steady-state conditions, projected little change in forest area; however, these projections are likely an overestimate. The extent to which 2006 forest area represents a transient adjustment to a new flow regime versus a dynamic, quasi-steady state will be determined by the long-term interplay among hydrologic factors, channel processes, water management and land use practices. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Kibombo, Harrison S., A. S. Weber, Chia-Ming Wu, K. R. Raghupathi, & Ranjit T. Koodali. (2013). Effectively dispersed europium oxide dopants in TiO2 aerogel supports for enhanced photocatalytic pollutant degradation. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology a-Chemistry, 269, 49-58.
 
The influence of supercritical drying and the europium oxide content on the physicochemical properties and the resultant photocatalytic activity of Eu-TiO2 aerogels for the degradation of salicylic acid were explored for the first time. It was demonstrated that the efficiencies might be influenced by a combination of factors such as enhanced adsorption, presence of trap states, and/or suppression of rutile phase formation. The well dispersed europium oxide dopants may act as trap states. A subsequent enhancement of charge separation avails electrons for oxygen attack to form superoxide ions, from which (OH)-O-center dot radicals can be generated, and are postulated to be primary contributors toward the degradation efficiencies in this study. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Chemistry Department
 
 
Kone, K. Y., C. Druon, Etienne Z. Gnimpieba, M. Delmotte, A. Duquenoy, & J. C. Laguerre. (2013). Power density control in microwave assisted air drying to improve quality of food. Journal of Food Engineering, 119(4), 750-757.
 
Currently, the new trend is the development of microwave hot air drying control in order to solve the problem of hot spots on the product. So in this study, a microwave/hot air drying system with the ability of automatic power density control was developed for tomato drying. Three power densities (3, 5 and 7 W/g) at 40 degrees C air temperature were applied and the output, reflected microwave power and the mass of the sample were registered online. Two different drying strategies were implemented. The first consisted of a microwave drying without specific power control. The second one introduced power control. A feedback control based on specific power related to the actual sample mass resulted in the best power control and the improvement of product quality compared to the dry sample without power control. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
 
Computer Science Department.
 
 
Dutkay, D. E., Gabriel Picioroaga, & M. S. Song. (2014). Orthonormal bases generated by Cuntz algebras. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, 409(2), 1128-1139.
 
We show how some orthonormal bases can be generated by representations of the Cuntz algebra; these include Fourier bases on fractal measures, generalized Walsh bases on the unit interval and piecewise exponential bases on the middle third Cantor set. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.
 
Mathematics Department.
 
 
Lio, Y. L., T. R. Tsai, M. Aslam, & Nan Jiang. (2014). Control Charts for Monitoring Burr Type-X Percentiles. Communications in Statistics-Simulation and Computation, 43(4), 761-776.
 
When the sampling distribution of a parameter estimator is unknown, using normality asymptotically, the Shewhart-type chart may provide improper control limits. To monitor Burr type-X percentiles, two parametric bootstrap charts (PBCs) are proposed and compared with the Shewhart-type chart via a Monte Carlo simulation. Simulation results exhibit that the proposed PBCs perform well with a short average run length to signal out-of-control when the process is out-of-control, and have more adequate control limits than the Shewhart-type chart in view of in-control false alarm rate. An example regarding single fiber strength is presented for illustrating the proposed PBCs.
 
Mathematics Department.
 
 
Barker, D., W. Z. Wei, D. M. Mei, & C. Zhang. (2013). Ionization efficiency study for low energy nuclear recoils in germanium. Astroparticle Physics, 48, 8-15.
 
We used the internal conversion (E-0 transition) of germanium-72 to indirectly measure the low energy nuclear recoils of germanium. Together with a reliable Monte Carlo package, in which we implement the internal conversion process, the data was compared to the Lindhard (k = 0.159) and Barker-Mei models. A shape analysis indicates that both models agree well with data in the region of interest within 4%. The most probable value (MPV) of the nuclear recoils obtained from the shape analysis is 17.5 +/- 0.12 (sys) +/- 0.035 (stat) keV with an average path-length of 0.014 mu m. Published by Elsevier B.V.
 
Physics Department.
 
 
Wang, Guojian, Xifa Long, Lizhen Zhang, Zhoubin Lin, & Guofu Wang. (2013). Growth and spectral properties of Nd3+:Ba2LiNb5O15 crystal. Optical Materials, 35(12), 2703-2706.
 
Highlights: [•] Nd3+:Ba2LiNb5O15 crystal was obtained by Czochralski method. [•] The refractive index was measured by the minimum deviation method. [•] The polarized absorption and luminescence spectra were investigated. [•] The spectral parameters were calculated according to Judd–Ofelt theory.
 
Physics Department.
 
 
Dvorak, R. D., Tyler B. Wray, Nicholas J. Kuvaas, & Tess M. Kilwein. (2013). Mania and sexual risk: Associations with behavioral self-regulation. Journal of Affective Disorders, 150(3), 1076-1081.
 
Introduction: Risky sexual behavior among young adults is a central public health concern. Hallmark cognitive effects of mania involve grandiose extrinsic goal-setting, which may be part of a tendency to approach rewarding cues while understanding potential negative consequences. Poor impulse control also reflects a tendency to seek reward and rely on emotional decision-making. In contrast, effortful control is associated with adaptive decision making. Methods: Participants (n=595) completed measures of impulsivity, risk for mania, and risky sexual behavior. Relationships between risk for mania, behavioral self-regulation, and risky sexual behavior were examined in a negative binomial hurdle model. Results: For the hurdle portion, sensation-seeking was positively associated with the likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior. Effortful control was inversely associated with the likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior, but only among those high in risk for mania. Among those endorsing engagement in risky sex, urgency was positively, and effortful control negatively, associated with frequency of risky sex. Risk for mania was positively associated with frequency of risky sex, but only for those low in effortful control. Limitations: Findings were among a homogeneous, young adult, nonclinical population, limiting generalizability. Examining these associations among a clinical population in an active manic episodic is warranted. Conclusion: Results suggest high levels of effortful control may diminish the hallmark effects of mania on cognition thereby reducing engagement in risky sexual behavior. Treatments targeting emotion-based rash action and effortful decision making may be particularly important for those experiencing manic symptoms. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Psychology Department.
 
 
Ammann, Eric M., James V. Pottala, William S. Harris, Mark A. Espeland, Robert Wallace, Natalie L. Denburg, . . . Jennifer G. Robinson. (2013). Omega-3 fatty acids and domain-specific cognitive aging: Secondary analyses of data from WHISCA. Neurology, 81(17), 1484-1491.
 
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that higher levels of red blood cell (RBC) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have a protective association with domain-specific cognitive function in women aged 65 years and older.; METHODS: A total of 2,157 women with normal cognition enrolled in a clinical trial of postmenopausal hormone therapy were followed with annual cognitive testing for a median of 5.9 years. In this retrospective cohort study, we assessed the relationship between prerandomization RBC DHA + EPA levels and a) cognitive measures at baseline, and b) cognitive change over time. Endpoints were composite cognitive function and performance in 7 cognitive domains: fine motor speed, verbal memory, visual memory, spatial ability, verbal knowledge, verbal fluency, and working memory.; RESULTS: After adjustment for demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics, no significant (p < 0.01) cross-sectional cognitive differences were found between women in the high and low DHA + EPA tertiles at the time of the first annual cognitive battery. In addition, no significant (p < 0.01) differences were found between the high and low DHA + EPA tertiles in the rate of cognitive change over time.; CONCLUSIONS: We did not find an association between RBC DHA + EPA levels and age-associated cognitive decline in a cohort of older, dementia-free women.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
De, Pradip, M. Hasmann, & Brian Leyland-Jones. (2013). Molecular determinants of trastuzumab efficacy: What is their clinical relevance? Cancer Treatment Reviews, 39(8), 925-934.
 
Trastuzumab-containing therapy is a standard of care for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. In pre-clinical models, a wide range of molecular mechanisms have been associated with reduced sensitivity to trastuzumab in vitro. These include expression of the truncated HER2 receptor fragment p95(HER2), activating mutation of the gene encoding the class 1A catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PIK3CA), loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), activation of other downstream signal transducers, prevention of cell cycle arrest, increased signaling through alternative (HER or non-HER) tyrosine kinase receptors, and resistance to antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. However, the clinical significance of these mechanisms as determinants of trastuzumab efficacy in vivo has been unclear. Here, we review clinical studies of potential predictive biomarkers of trastuzumab efficacy in HER2-positive breast cancer and consider whether evaluation of such markers might inform patient selection for therapy. We find that clinical evidence relating to potential predictive biomarkers is mostly limited to small, retrospective studies, many of which have yielded conflicting findings. Some trends are evident in the retrospective data and in biomarker analyses from randomized clinical trials, particularly relating to activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway, but none is sufficiently strong to form a basis for patient selection. This may be explained by the fact that multiple mechanisms of action determine the clinical efficacy of trastuzumab. In the absence of novel, validated biomarkers of efficacy, trastuzumab eligibility should continue to be based on evaluation of HER2 status according to standard methods. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Dey, Nandini, Brandon Young, Mark Abramovitz, Mark Bouzyk, Benjamin Barwick, Pradip De, & Brian Leyland-Jones. (2013). Differential Activation of Wnt-beta-Catenin Pathway in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Increases MMP7 in a PTEN Dependent Manner. PloS one, 8(10), e77425.
 
Mutations of genes in tumor cells of Triple Negative subset of Breast Cancer (TNBC) deregulate pathways of signal transduction. The loss of tumor suppressor gene PTEN is the most common first event associated with basal-like subtype (Martins, De, Almendro, Gonen, and Park, 2012). Here we report for the first time that the functional upregulation of secreted-MMP7, a transcriptional target of Wnt-beta-catenin signature pathway in TNBC is associated to the loss of PTEN. We identified differential expression of mRNAs in several key-components genes, and transcriptional target genes of the Wnt-beta-catenin pathway (WP), including beta-catenin, FZD7, DVL1, MMP7, c-MYC, BIRC5, CD44, PPARD, c-MET, and NOTCH1 in FFPE tumors samples from TNBC patients of two independent cohorts. A similar differential upregulation of mRNA/protein for beta-catenin, the functional readout of WP, and for MMP7, a transcriptional target gene of beta-catenin was observed in TNBC cell line models. Genetic or pharmacological attenuation of beta-catenin by SiRNA or WP modulators (XAV939 and sulindac sulfide) and pharmacological mimicking of PTEN following LY294002 treatment downregulated MMP7 levels as well as enzymatic function of the secreted MMP7 in MMP7 positive PTEN-null TNBC cells. Patient data revealed that MMP7 mRNA was high in only a subpopulation of TNBC, and this subpopulation was characterized by a concurrent low expression of PTEN mRNA. In cell lines, a high expression of casein-zymograph-positive MMP7 was distinguished by an absence of functional PTEN. A similar inverse relationship between MMP7 and PTEN mRNA levels was observed in the PAM50 data set (a correlation coefficient of -0.54). The PAM50 subtype and outcome data revealed that the high MMP7 group had low pCR (25%) and High Rd (74%) in clinical stage T3 pathologic response in contrast to the high pCR (40%) and low residual disease (RD) (60%) of the low MMP7 group.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Flock, Michael R., William S. Harris, & Penny M. Kris-Etherton. (2013). Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids: time to establish a dietary reference intake. Nutrition Reviews, 71(10), 692-707.
 
The beneficial effects of consuming omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), specifically eicosapentaenoic acid ( EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid ( DHA), on cardiovascular health have been studied extensively. To date, there is no dietary reference intake ( DRI) for EPA and DHA, although many international authorities and expert groups have issued dietary recommendations for them. Given the substantial new evidence published since the last Institute of Medicine ( IOM) report on energy and macronutrients, released in 2002, there is a pressing need to establish a DRI for EPA and DHA. In order to set a DRI, however, more information is needed to define the intakes of EPA and DHA required to reduce the burden of chronic disease. Information about potential gender- or race-based differences in requirements is also needed. Given the many health benefits of EPA and DHA that have been described since the 2002 IOM report, there is now a strong justification for establishing a DRI for these fatty acids.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Gara, Rishi Kumar, Vasudha Sundram, Subhash C. Chauhan, & Meena Jaggi. (2013). Anti-Cancer Potential of a Novel SERM Ormeloxifene. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 20(33), 4177-4184.
 
Ormeloxifene is a non-steroidal Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM) that is used as an oral contraceptive. Recent studies have shown its potent anti-cancer activities in breast, head and neck, and chronic myeloid leukemia cells. Several in vivo and clinical studies have reported that ormeloxifene possesses an excellent therapeutic index and has been well-tolerated, without any haematological, biochemical or histopathological toxicity, even with chronic administration. A reasonably long period of time and an enormous financial commitment are required to develop a lead compound into a clinically approved anti-cancer drug. For these reasons and to circumvent these obstacles, ormeloxifene is a promising candidate on a fast track for the development or repurposing established drugs as anti-cancer agents for cancer treatment. The current review summarizes recent findings on ormeloxifene as an anti-cancer agent and future prospects of this clinically safe pharmacophore.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Grenon, S. Marlene, Christopher D. Owens, Hugh Alley, ….., William Harris, Millie Hughes-Fulford, & Michael S. Conte. (2013). n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation in peripheral artery disease: the OMEGA-PAD trial. Vascular Medicine, 18(5), 263-274.
 
Despite current consensus guidelines recommending intensive cardiovascular risk factor management for peripheral artery disease (PAD), patients suffering from PAD continue to experience significant morbidity and mortality. This excess morbid burden is at least partially related to impaired vascular function and systemic inflammation. Interventions bridging this gap are critical. Dietary supplementation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been shown to improve endothelial function and reduce inflammation in different cohorts, as well as to decrease cardiovascular events in secondary prevention trials in patients with coronary artery disease. Their effects in the PAD population are, however, less well understood. The OMEGA-PAD trial is a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that examines the impact of a high-dose, short-duration dietary oral supplementation of n-3 PUFA on vascular function and inflammation in patients with established PAD. The purpose of this article is to provide a detailed description of the design and methods of the OMEGA-PAD trial, and a summary of baseline characteristics of the cohort.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Harris, William S., S. A. Varvel, J. V. Pottala, G. R. Warnick, & J. P. McConnell. (2013). Comparative effects of an acute dose of fish oil on omega-3 fatty acid levels in red blood cells versus plasma: Implications for clinical utility. Journal of Clinical Lipidology, 7(5), 433-440.
 
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) biostatus can be estimated with red blood cell (RBC) membranes or plasma. The matrix that exhibits the lower within-person variability and is less affected by an acute dose of n-3 FA is preferred in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: We compared the acute effects of a large dose of n-3 FA on RBC and plasma levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). METHODS: Healthy volunteers (n = 20) were given 4 capsules containing 3.6 g of n-3 FA with a standardized breakfast. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours. The EPA + DHA content of RBC membranes and plasma (the latter expressed as a percentage of total FA and as a concentration) were determined. General linear mixed models were used to analyze the mean response profiles in FA changes over time for plasma and RBCs. RESULTS: At 6 hours after load, the plasma concentration of EPA + DHA had increased by 47% (95% confidence interval [CI], 24% to 73%) and the plasma EPA + DHA percentage of total FA by 19% (95% CI, 4.7% to 36%). The RBC EPA + DHA percentage of composition was unchanged [-0.6% (95% CI, -2.6% to 1.5%)]. At 24 hours, the change in both of the plasma EPA + DHA markers was 10-fold greater than that in RBCs. CONCLUSIONS: An acute dose of n-3 FA (eg, a meal of oily fish or fish oil supplements) taken within a day before a doctor’s visit can elevate levels of EPA + DHA in plasma, whether expressed as a percentage or a concentration, but not in RBC membranes. Similar to hemoglobin A(1c), which is not affected by an acute glycemic deviation, RBCs provide a more reliable estimate of a patient’s chronic EPA + DHA status than does plasma. (c) 2013 National Lipid Association. All rights reserved.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Horn, H. F., D. I. Kim, G. D. Wright, ….., & Kyle J. Roux. (2013). A mammalian KASH domain protein coupling meiotic chromosomes to the cytoskeleton. Journal of Cell Biology, 202(7), 1023-1039.
 
Chromosome pairing is an essential meiotic event that ensures faithful haploidization and recombination of the genome. Pairing of homologous chromosomes is facilitated by telomere-led chromosome movements and formation of a meiotic bouquet, where telomeres cluster to one pole of the nucleus. In metazoans, telomere clustering is dynein and microtubule dependent and requires Sun1, an inner nuclear membrane protein. Here we provide a functional analysis of KASH5, a mammalian dynein-binding protein of the outer nuclear membrane that forms a meiotic complex with Sun1. This protein is related to zebrafish futile cycle (Fue), a nuclear envelope (NE) constituent required for pronuclear migration. Mice deficient in this Fue homologue are infertile. Males display meiotic arrest in which pairing of homologous chromosomes fails. These findings demonstrate that telomere attachment to the NE is insufficient to promote pairing and that telomere attachment sites must be coupled to cytoplasmic dynein and the microtubule system to ensure meiotic progression.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Judd, Kyle T., Sean Burns, & Karen Hand. (2013). Finding a job in an overcrowded market: getting what you want. Journal of orthopaedic trauma, 27 Suppl 1, S2-4.
 
As the number of fellowship-trained orthopaedic trauma surgeons entering the workforce increases, so does the competition for available practice opportunities. The process of finding employment has seemingly become more involved as the relative availability of positions has declined over recent years. To manage this new environment, new graduates need to become much more proactive in the process of seeking and obtaining orthopaedic trauma positions.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
May, Philip A., Jason Blankenship, Anna-Susan Marais, ….., H. Eugene Hoyme, Barbara Tabachnick, & Soraya Seedat. (2013). Maternal alcohol consumption producing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD): Quantity, frequency, and timing of drinking. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 133(2), 502-512.
 
Abstract: Background: Concise, accurate measures of maternal prenatal alcohol use are needed to better understand fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Methods: Measures of drinking by mothers of children with specific FASD diagnoses and mothers of randomly-selected controls are compared and also correlated with physical and cognitive/behavioral outcomes. Results: Measures of maternal alcohol use can differentiate maternal drinking associated with FASD from that of controls and some from mothers of alcohol-exposed normals. Six variables that combine quantity and frequency concepts distinguish mothers of FASD children from normal controls. Alcohol use variables, when applied to each trimester and three months prior to pregnancy, provide insight on critical timing of exposure as well. Measures of drinking, especially bingeing, correlate significantly with increased child dysmorphology and negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes in children, especially low non-verbal IQ, poor attention, and behavioral problems. Logistic regression links (p <.001) first trimester drinking (vs. no drinking) with FASD, elevating FASD likelihood 12 times; first and second trimester drinking increases FASD outcomes 61 times; and drinking in all trimesters 65 times. Conversely, a similar regression (p =.008) indicates that drinking only in the first trimester makes the birth of a child with an FASD 5 times less likely than drinking in all trimesters. Conclusions: There is significant variation in alcohol consumption both within and between diagnostic groupings of mothers bearing children diagnosed within the FASD continuum. Drinking measures are empirically identified and correlated with specific child outcomes. Alcohol use, especially heavy use, should be avoided throughout pregnancy.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Pothula, S., H. E. P. Bazan, & Gudiseva Chandrasekher. (2013). Regulation of Cdc42 Expression and Signaling Is Critical for Promoting Corneal Epithelial Wound Healing. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 54(8), 5343-5352.
 
PURPOSE. Cdc42, a member of Rho GTPases (guanosine triphosphatases), participates in cytokine-and growth factor-controlled biological functions in mammalian tissues. Here, we examined Cdc42 role in corneal epithelial wound healing and the influence of hepatocyte, keratinocyte, and epidermal growth factor (HGF, KGF, and EGF)-mediated signaling on Cdc42. METHODS. Epithelial wounds were created on the corneas of live rabbits by complete debridement and in rabbit corneal epithelial primary cultures through scratch injury. Cdc42 expression in cultures was suppressed using Cdc42 siRNA. Cdc42 activation was determined by pull-down assays with PAK-agarose beads. Cdc42 expression was analyzed by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. Association of Cdc42 with cell-cycle proteins was identified by immunoprecipitation. RESULTS. In rabbit corneas, significant increase in Cdc42 expression that occurred 2 to 4 days after the injury coincided with wound closure, and by 8 days the expression reached near basal levels. Silencing of Cdc42 expression in cultures caused inhibition of wound closure as a result of 60% to 75% decrease in epithelial migration and growth. HGF, KGF, and EGF increased Cdc2 expression, activation, and its phosphorylation on ser71. Inhibition of growth factor-mediated PI-3K signaling resulted in the downregulation of Cdc42 expression and its phosphorylation. Increased association of cell-cycle proteins p27(kip) and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) with Cdc42; and phosphorylated Cdc42 with plasma membrane leading edges was also observed in the presence of growth factors. CONCLUSIONS. Cdc42 is an important regulator of corneal epithelial wound repair. To promote healing, Cdc42 may interact with receptor tyrosine kinase-activated signaling cascades that participate in cell migration and cell-cycle progression.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Sharma, Jitendra, A. Nanda, R. S. Jung, S. Mehta, J. Pooria, & D. P. Hsu. (2013). Risk of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery, 5(6), 543-545.
 
Background and purpose We report the incidence and risk factors for contrast-induced nephropathy after the use of iodinated contrast for endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed in 194 consecutive patients who underwent endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke between January 2006 and January 2011. No patients were excluded from treatment for elevated creatinine (Cr). Each patient received approximately 150ml intra-arterial non-ionic low-osmolar contrast agent (Optiray 320) during the endovascular procedure. Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) was defined according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria as a relative increase of serum Cr 50% above the baseline or an absolute increase of 0.3mg/dl at 48h following the endovascular procedure. Results Of 194 patients (mean age 6514years), 52% were women (n=100) and 25% (n=48) were diabetic. Baseline Cr levels for 191 patients ranged between 0.4 and 2.7mg/dl. Three patients on chronic hemodialysis had baseline Cr levels ranging between 5.3 and 6.1mg/dl. Cr was 1.5mg/dl in 163 patients (84%) and 1.5mg/dl in 31 (16%). Three of the 191 patients (1.5%) developed CIN as noted from Cr measurements between baseline and within 48h. One patient who developed an elevated Cr level had a known history of chronic renal insufficiency (Cr >1.5mg/dl) and two had baseline Cr levels within the normal range. An additional CT angiogram was obtained in 44 patients, none of which developed CIN. Female gender and diabetes were not associated with a higher risk of developing CIN. Conclusions The risk of developing CIN is low among patients with acute stroke who undergo emergency endovascular treatment. Treatment of acute stroke should be performed irrespective of Cr levels.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Smythe, Maureen A., John Fanikos, Michael P. Gulseth, Ann K. Wittkowsky, Sarah A. Spinler, William E. Dager, & Edith A. Nutescu. (2013). Rivaroxaban: Practical Considerations for Ensuring Safety and Efficacy. Pharmacotherapy, 33(11), 1223-1245.
 
Rivaroxaban is the first agent available within a new class of anticoagulants called direct factor Xa inhibitors. Rivaroxaban is approved for use in the United States for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis in patients undergoing total hip replacement and total knee replacement, for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and for the reduction in risk of recurrence of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (with additional indications under review). Rivaroxaban dose and frequency of administration vary depending on the indication. As of result of predictable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, a fixed dose of rivaroxaban is administered without routine coagulation testing. Rivaroxaban has a short half-life, undergoes a dual mode of elimination (hepatic and renal), and is a substrate for P-glycoprotein. Rivaroxaban has a lower potential for drug interactions compared with warfarin. Despite the advantages of a once/day fixed-dose oral agent, in many clinical situations limited evidence is available to guide optimal management of rivaroxaban therapy. In this article, we review the available evidence and provide recommendations where possible for such situations including the desire to monitor the anticoagulation intensity, use in special patient populations, managing drug interactions, and transitioning across anticoagulant agents. Potential strategies for reversing rivaroxaban’s anticoagulant effect are reviewed. Health systems will need to perform a systematic safety evaluation and ensure that numerous hospital policies related to anticoagulation are updated to include rivaroxaban. A comprehensive approach to education is needed for clinicians, patients, and technical support personnel involved in patient interactions to ensure safe use.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Sun, Yuliang, Nandini Dey, M. Brammer, Pradip De, & Brian Leyland-Jones. (2013). Bevacizumab confers additional advantage to the combination of trastuzumab plus pertuzumab in trastuzumab-refractory breast cancer model. Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, 72(4), 733-745.
 
We investigated antitumor activity of trastuzumab (T)/T-DM1 + pertuzumab (P) + bevacizumab (B) in T-sensitive (BT474) and T-resistant (BT474HerR) BC models in order to test whether or not the addition of an anti-angiogenic drug can provide a supplementary advantage to the antitumor activity of double HER2-mAB combination. In addition to the antitumor activity (xenograft model), we tested antiproliferative effect, and HER2-mediated signals of different antibodies (T or P or T-DM1) in HER2-amplified T-sensitive, T-resistant and HER2-amplified/PIK3CA mutated (HCC1954) BT cell lines by 3D ON-TOP clonogenic growth assay and Western blots. Data show (1) T, T-DM1 or P blocked p-AKT (> 60 %), p-ERK (> 50 %) following heregulin in only T-sensitive cells, (2) T/T-DM1 + P, T/T-DM1 + B, and P + B reduced tumor growth as compared to any single-agent treatment, (3) T + P + B achieved almost complete regression of tumor growth, decreased cell proliferation, and inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis, in both models, (4) antitumor activity of T + P + B was associated with the pharmacodynamic knockdown of p-AKT, and (5) T-DM1 + P caused complete regression of tumor volume in both models. Our data demonstrate that B imparts a significant advantage when combined with T + P in the resistant model, in contrast to T-DM1 + P, as the triple combination of T-DM1 + P + B and the double combination of T-DM1 + P showed a comparable antitumor activity. Our study reveals the preclinical evidence in favor of the inclusion of B when combined with T + P in T-resistant BC patients.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Ikiugu, Moses N. (2013). The validity of occupational performance assessments: a validity generalization meta-analysis. Occupational therapy in health care, 27(4), 372-391.
 
ABSTRACT The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine sample weighted mean validity effect sizes for occupational performance assessments, and their generalizability from research to clinical settings. The bare-bones Validity Generalization (VG) guidelines developed by Hunter and Schmidt ( 2004 ) augmented by Maximum Likelihood (ML) procedures were used to complete the meta-analysis. The sample consisted of 27 studies in which convergent, divergent, and predictive validity estimates of occupational performance assessments were investigated. The mean coefficients of assessments validated in the studies constituting the sample for this meta-analysis ranged from medium to large. Further meta-analysis with complete dis-attenuation of observed mean validity coefficients is indicated.
 
School of Health Sciences.
 
 
Nick, Jan M., Nancy C. Sharts-Hopko, & Debra Woodard Leners. (2013). From Committee to Commission: The History of the NLN’s Academic Certified Nurse Educator Program. Nursing Education Perspectives, 34(5), 298-302.
 
AIM: To describe the historical events surrounding the development of the National League for Nursing (NLN) Academic Nurse Educator Certification Program (ANECP) and document its transition from a committee to a commission. BACKGROUND: During the latter half of the 20th century, certification became a demonstrated standard of excellence in nursing. A few visionaries suggested that nursing education itself was a specialty, but the timing for certification was not right. METHOD: The events have been studied through three primary sources: archived minutes, oral interviews, and the authors’ eyewitness accounts. RESULTS: Growing pains, personnel changes and the rapid growth from committee to commission occurred during a few short years. While the NLN made sound decisions during the change process by seeking evidence and the guidance of experts and consultants, unexpected challenges occurred. CONCLUSION: The tremendous growth of the ANECP in its first years demonstrated that change was clearly desired so long as it was anchored in an evidence-based process focused on quality.
 
School of Health Sciences.

 

Posted by: kelsijo97 | November 12, 2013

September/October 2013

Maurstad, Anita, Davis, Dona, & Cowles, Sarah. (2013). Co-being and intra-action in horse-human relationships: a multi-species ethnography of be(com)ing human and be(com)ing horse. Social Anthropology/Anthropologie Sociale, 21(3), 322-335.
 
A multi-species perspective identifies and offers ethnographic insight into a variety of everyday, practical experiences and the roles they may play in shaping human-horse relationships. Analysis of narrative data from 60 open-ended interviews with a wide variety of riders in Norway and the Midwestern USA identifies three central themes of co-being. These are expressed, felt and voiced as embodied moments of mutuality, engagements of two agentive individuals and as a kind of anthropo-zoo-genetic practice, where species domesticate each other through being together. Co-being as intra-acting describes how horse and human meet and change as a result of their meeting. © 2013 European Association of Social Anthropologists.
 
Anthropology and Sociology Department.
 
 
Anbalagan, Srivishnupriya, & Chaussee, Michael S. (2013). Transcriptional Regulation of a Bacteriophage Encoded Extracellular DNase (Spd-3) by Rgg in Streptococcus pyogenes. Plos One, 8(4).
 
The Streptococcus pyogenes transcriptional regulator Rgg controls the expression of virulence-associated genes encoded both within the core genome and within horizontally transmissible DNA such as temperate bacteriophage. Previously, we showed that Rgg binds to the non-coding DNA upstream of the bacteriophage gene encoding an extracellular DNase Spd-3. In the current study, we further characterized Rgg-mediated regulation of spd-3 expression. Two spd-3 transcripts were identified by northern blotting. The 5′ ends were 27 and 594 nucleotides upstream of the start codon as determined with primer extension analysis and 5′ RACE (rapid amplification of c-DNA ends), respectively. Results obtained with gel shift assays showed that purified Rgg bound specifically to non-coding DNA containing the promoters of both transcripts. Transcriptional fusion analyses confirmed the presence of Rgg-repressible promoters within these DNA regions. In addition, repression was associated with direct DNA binding by Rgg as determined with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with quantitative PCR (qPCR). The results show that the chromosomally encoded transcriptional regulator, Rgg, directly represses both bacteriophage promoters controlling the expression of Spd-3. The results provide new information regarding the regulation of prophage encoded virulence factors of S. pyogenes and highlight the complex evolutionary history of S. pyogenes and temperate bacteriophage.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Fen, Tian, Sharma, Shilpy, Jianqiu, Zou, Shiaw-Yih, Lin, Bin, Wang, Rezvani, Khosrow, . . . Dong, Zhang. (2013). BRCA1 promotes the ubiquitination of PCNA and recruitment of translesion polymerases in response to replication blockade. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(33), 13558-13563.
 
Breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) deficient cells not only are hypersensitive to double-strand breaks but also are hypersensitive to UV irradiation and other agents that cause replication blockade; however, the molecular mechanisms behind these latter sensitivities are largely unknown. Here, we report that BRCA1 promotes cell survival by directly regulating the DNA damage tolerance pathway in response to agents that create cross-links in DNA. We show that BRCA1 not only promotes efficient mono- and polyubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) by regulating the recruitment of replication protein A, Rad18, and helicase-like transcription factor to chromatin but also directly recruits translesion polymerases, such as Polymerase eta and Rev1, to the lesions through protein-protein interactions. Our data suggest that BRCA1 plays a critical role in promoting translesion DNA synthesis as well as DNA template switching.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Kabeiseman, Emily J., Cichos, Kyle, Hackstadt, T., Lucas, Andrea, & Moore, Elizabeth R. (2013). Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein 4 and Syntaxin 6 Interactions at the Chlamydial Inclusion. Infection and Immunity, 81(9), 3326-3337.
 
The predominant players in membrane fusion events are the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) family of proteins. We hypothesize that SNARE proteins mediate fusion events at the chlamydial inclusion and are important for chlamydial lipid acquisition. We have previously demonstrated that trans-Golgi SNARE syntaxin 6 localizes to the chlamydial inclusion. To investigate the role of syntaxin 6 at the chlamydial inclusion, we examined the localization and function of another trans-Golgi SNARE and syntaxin 6-binding partner, vesicle-associated membrane protein 4 (VAMP4), at the chlamydial inclusion. In this study, we demonstrate that syntaxin 6 and VAMP4 colocalize to the chlamydial inclusion and interact at the chlamydial inclusion. Furthermore, in the absence of VAMP4, syntaxin 6 is not retained at the chlamydial inclusion. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of VAMP4 inhibited chlamydial sphingomyelin acquisition, correlating with a log decrease in infectious progeny. VAMP4 retention at the inclusion was shown to be dependent on de novo chlamydial protein synthesis, but unlike syntaxin 6, VAMP4 recruitment is observed in a species-dependent manner. Notably, VAMP4 knockdown inhibits sphingomyelin trafficking only to inclusions in which it localizes. These data support the hypothesis that VAMP proteins play a central role in mediating eukaryotic vesicular interactions at the chlamydial inclusion and, thus, support chlamydial lipid acquisition and chlamydial development.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Li, X. F., Liu, S. T., Huang, H. B., …, Wang, Xuejun, Dou, Q. P., & Liu, J. B. (2013). Gambogic Acid Is a Tissue-Specific Proteasome Inhibitor In Vitro and In Vivo. Cell Reports, 3(1), 211-222.
 
Gambogic acid (GA) is a natural compound derived from Chinese herbs that has been approved by the Chinese Food and Drug Administration for clinical trials in cancer patients; however, its molecular targets have not been thoroughly studied. Here, we report that GA inhibits tumor proteasome activity, with potency comparable to bortezomib but much less toxicity. First, GA acts as a prodrug and only gains proteasome-inhibitory function after being metabolized by intracellular CYP2E1. Second, GA-induced proteasome inhibition is a prerequisite for its cytotoxicity and anticancer effect without off-targets. Finally, because expression of the CYP2E1 gene is very high in tumor tissues but low in many normal tissues, GA could therefore produce tissue-specific proteasome inhibition and tumor-specific toxicity, with clinical significance for designing novel strategies for cancer treatment.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Stewart, Brandie M., Baugh, Lee A., Gallivan, Jason P., & Flanagan, J. Randall. (2013). Simultaneous encoding of the direction and orientation of potential targets during reach planning: Evidence of multiple competing reach plans. Journal of Neurophysiology, 110(4), 807-816.
 
Reaches performed in many natural situations involve selecting a specific target from a number of alternatives. Recent studies show that before reaching, multiple potential reach targets are encoded in brain regions involved in action control and that, when people are required to initiate the reach before the target is specified, initial hand direction is biased by the spatial distribution of potential targets. These findings have led to the suggestion that the brain, during planning, simultaneously prepares multiple reaches to potential targets. In addition to hand direction, reach planning often involves specifying other parameters such as wrist orientation. For example, when posting a letter in a mail slot, both the location and orientation of the slot must be encoded to control hand direction and orientation. Therefore, if the brain prepares multiple reaches to potential targets and if these targets require the specification of hand direction and orientation, then both of these variables should be biased by the spatial distribution of potential targets. To test this prediction, we examined a task in which participants moved a hand-held rectangular tool toward multiple rectangular targets of varying location and orientation, one of which was selected, with equal probability as the actual target after movement initiation. We found that initial hand direction and orientation were biased by the spatial distributions of potential target locations and orientations, respectively. This result is consistent with the idea that the brain, in cases of target uncertainty, simultaneously plans fully specified reaching movements to all potential targets. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Su, Huabo, Li, Jie, Osinska, Hanna, Li, Faqian, Robbins, Jeffrey, Liu, Jinbao, . . . Wang, Xuejun. (2013). The COP9 Signalosome Is Required for Autophagy, Proteasome-Mediated Proteolysis, and Cardiomyocyte Survival in Adult Mice. Circulation. Heart failure, 6(5), 1049-1057.
 
Background- The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is an evolutionarily conserved protein complex composed of 8 unique protein subunits (CSN1 through CSN8). We have recently discovered in perinatal mouse hearts that CSN regulates not only proteasome-mediated proteolysis but also macroautophagy. However, the physiological significance of CSN in a post-mitotic organ of adult vertebrates has not been determined. We sought to study the physiological role of CSN8/CSN in adult mouse hearts. Methods and Results-Csn8 was conditionally ablated in the cardiomyocytes of adult mice (CSN8(CKO)) using a temporally controlled Cre-LoxP system. Loss of CSN8 accumulated the neddylated forms of cullins and noncullin proteins, increased ubiquitinated proteins, and stabilized a surrogate substrate of the proteasome in the heart. Autophagic flux was significantly decreased, whereas autophagosomes were markedly increased in CSN8(CKO) hearts, indicative of impaired autophagosome removal. Furthermore, we observed increased oxidized proteins, massive necrotic cardiomyocytes, and morphological and functional changes characteristic of dilated cardiomyopathy in CSN8(CKO) mice. Conclusions- CSN deneddylates substrates more than cullins and is indispensable to cardiomyocyte survival in not only perinatal hearts but also adult hearts. CSN8/CSN regulates both proteasome-mediated proteolysis and the autophagic-lysosomal pathway, critical to the removal of oxidized proteins in the heart.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Werner, G., Coque, T. M., Franz, Cmap, …, & Weaver, Keith. (2013). Antibiotic resistant enterococci-Tales of a drug resistance gene trafficker. International Journal of Medical Microbiology, 303(6-7), 360-379.
 
Enterococci have been recognized as important hospital-acquired pathogens in recent years, and isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium are the third- to fourth-most prevalent nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Acquired resistances, especially against penicilin/ampicillin, aminoglycosides (high-level) and glycopeptides are therapeutically important and reported in increasing numbers. On the other hand, isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium are commensals of the intestines of humans, many vertebrate and invertebrate animals and may also constitute an active part of the plant flora. Certain enterococcal isolates are used as starter cultures or supplements in food fermentation and food preservation. Due to their preferred intestinal habitat, their wide occurrence, robustness and ease of cultivation, enterococci are used as indicators for fecal pollution assessing hygiene standards for fresh- and bathing water and they serve as important key indicator bacteria for various veterinary and human resistance surveillance systems. Enterococci are widely prevalent and genetically capable of acquiring, conserving and disseminating genetic traits including resistance determinants among enterococci and related Gram-positive bacteria. In the present review we aimed at summarizing recent advances in the current understanding of the population biology of enterococci, the role mobile genetic elements including plasmids play in shaping the population structure and spreading resistance. We explain how these elements could be classified and discuss mechanisms of plasmid transfer and regulation and the role and cross-talk of enterococcal isolates from food and food animals to humans. (C) 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Zou, Jianqiu, Rezvani, Khosrow, Wang, Hongmin, Lee, Kyung S., & Zhang, Dong. (2013). BRCA1 downregulates the kinase activity of Polo-like kinase 1 in response to replication stress. Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.), 12(14), 2255-2265.
 
In response to DNA damage or replication stress, proliferating cells are arrested at different cell cycle stages for DNA repair by downregulating the activity of both the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and other important cell cycle kinases, including Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) . The signaling pathway to inhibit CDKs is relatively well understood, and breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) and other DNA damage response (DDR) factors play a key role in this process. However, the DNA damage-induced inhibition of PLK1 is still largely a mystery. Here we show that DNA damage and replication stress stimulate the association between BRCA1 and PLK1. Most importantly, we demonstrate that BRCA1 downregulates the kinase activity of PLK1 by modulating the dynamic interactions of Aurora A, hBora, and PLK1. Together with previous findings, we propose that in response to replication stress and DNA damage, BRCA1 plays a critical role in downregulating the kinase activity of both CDKs and PLK1.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Butler, Stephen A. (2013). Do you solve managerial problems in a straightforward, linear manner, or do you break the mold? Strategic Finance, 95(8), 48-53.
 
The article discusses lateral thinking, or the ability to envision different ways of solving a problem. Key elements to lateral thinking include a willingness to test assumptions, asking appropriate questions, bringing creativity to bear on a problem, then examining the solution to ensure it withstands logical analysis.
 
Beacom School of Business.
 
 
Blanchard, D. Caroline, Summers, Cliff H., & Blanchard, Robert J. (2013). The role of behavior in translational models for psychopathology: Functionality and dysfunctional behaviors. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 37(8), 1567-1577.
 
Highlights: [•] The health care burden of psychopathologies demands research relevant to solutions. [•] Animal models of psychopathologies are a weak link in the translatability of such research. [•] Their weakness reflects the lack of an adequate conception of the organization of behavior. [•] The adaptive functions of behavior may enable identification of cross-species parallels. [•] Permitting cross-talk between model and psychopathology that aids understanding of both.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Bubak, Andrew N., Swallow, John G., & Renner, Kenneth J. (2013). Whole brain monoamine detection and manipulation in a stalk-eyed fly. Journal of neuroscience methods, 219(1), 124-130.
 
Understanding the physiological mechanisms that influence conflict resolution is of great importance because the outcome of contests over limited resources such as mates, territories, and food has significant fitness consequences. Male stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis dalmanni) compete over territory and mates and provide an excellent model system to study aggression. To investigate potential effects of serotonin (5-HT) on aggressive behavior in these flies, we developed a dissection and sample preparation method sufficiently sensitive to measure monoamine concentrations from whole brain samples of small insects. This new method allows the detection of monoamines from a single fly brain using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The method allows for the detection and quantification of octopamine (OA), 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), tyramine (TA), and serotonin (5-HT) and provides a means for assessing changes in stalk-eyed fly brain monoamine concentrations in response to drug administration in food media. We successfully elevated 5-HT levels approximately 8-fold that of control levels in stalk-eyed fly brains by oral administration of the 5-HT precursor 5-HTP. Furthermore, in size-matched competitions for a food resource, flies that had elevated 5-HT in response to 5-HTP pretreatment exhibited a high probability of winning the contests. These results suggest that 5-HT enhances aggression in the stalk-eyed fly and highlight the potential of our method for testing putative roles of monoamines in modulating self and rival assessment in conflict resolution. Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Dahdul, Wasila M., Balhoff, J. P., Blackburn, D. C., Diehl, A. D., Haendel, M. A., Hall, B. K., . . . Mabee, Paula M. (2012). A Unified Anatomy Ontology of the Vertebrate Skeletal System. Plos One, 7(12).
 
The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Dececchi, T. Alexander, & Larsson, Hans C. E. (2013). BODY AND LIMB SIZE DISSOCIATION AT THE ORIGIN OF BIRDS: UNCOUPLING ALLOMETRIC CONSTRAINTS ACROSS A MACROEVOLUTIONARY TRANSITION. Evolution, 67(9), 2741-2752.
 
The origin of birds and powered flight is a classic major evolutionary transition. Research on their origin often focuses on the evolution of the wing with trends of forelimb elongation traced back through many nonavian maniraptoran dinosaurs. We present evidence that the relative forelimb elongation within avian antecedents is primarily due to allometry and is instead driven by a reduction in body size. Once body size is factored out, there is no trend of increasing forelimb length until the origin of birds. We report that early birds and nonavian theropods have significantly different scaling relationships within the forelimb and hindlimb skeleton. Ancestral forelimb and hindlimb allometric scaling to body size is rapidly decoupled at the origin of birds, when wings significantly elongate, by evolving a positive allometric relationship with body size from an ancestrally negative allometric pattern and legs significantly shorten by keeping a similar, near isometric relationship but with a reduced intercept. These results have implications for the evolution of powered flight and early diversification of birds. They suggest that their limb lengths first had to be dissociated from general body size scaling before expanding to the wide range of fore and hindlimb shapes and sizes present in today’s birds.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Johnson, Laura A., Welch, Bill, & Whitfield, Steven M. (2013). Interactive effects of pesticide mixtures, predators, and environmental regimes on the toxicity of two pesticides to red-eyed tree frog larvae. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry, 32(10), 2379-2386.
 
Global amphibian declines have many corroborative causes, and the use of pesticides in agriculture is a likely contributor. In places with high pesticide usage, such as Costa Rica, agrochemical pesticides may interact with other factors to contribute to rapid species losses. Classical ecotoxicological studies rarely address the effects of a pesticide in combination with other stressors. The present study investigated the synergistic roles of 2 pesticides (chlorothalonil and endosulfan), predator stress, and environmental regimes (controlled laboratory environments versus ambient conditions) on the survival of red-eyed tree frog larvae ( Agalychnis callidryas). No synergistic effects of pesticide mixtures or predator stress were found on the toxicity of either chlorothalonil or endosulfan. Both pesticides, however, were considerably more toxic under realistic ambient temperature regimes than in a climate-controlled laboratory. Overall, endosulfan displayed the highest toxicity to tadpoles, although chlorothalonil was also highly toxic. The median lethal concentration estimated to kill 50% of a tested population (LC50) for endosulfan treatments under ambient temperatures was less than one-half of that for laboratory treatments (3.26 µg/L and 8.39 µg/L, respectively). Studies commonly performed in stable temperature-controlled laboratories may significantly underestimate toxicity compared with more realistic environmental regimes. Furthermore, global climatic changes are leading to warmer and more variable climates and may increase impacts of pesticides on amphibians.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Schultz, Rebecca L., Kullman, E. L., Waters, R. P., Huang, H., Kirwan, J. P., Gerdes, A. M., & Swallow, John G. (2013). Metabolic Adaptations of Skeletal Muscle to Voluntary Wheel Running Exercise in Hypertensive Heart Failure Rats. Physiological Research, 62(4), 361-369.
 
The Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rat mimics the human progression of hypertension from hypertrophy to heart failure. However, it is unknown whether SHHF animals can exercise at sufficient levels to observe beneficial biochemical adaptations in skeletal muscle. Thirty-seven female SHHF and Wistar-Furth (WF) rats were randomized to sedentary (SHHFsed and WFsed) and exercise groups (SHHFex and WFex). The exercise groups had access to running wheels from 6-22 months of age. Hindlimb muscles were obtained for metabolic measures that included mitochondrial enzyme function and expression, and glycogen utilization. The SHHFex rats ran a greater distance and duration as compared to the WFex rats (P<0.05), but the WFex rats ran at a faster speed (P<0.05). Skeletal muscle citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase enzyme activity was not altered in the SHHFex group, but was increased (P<0.05) in the WFex animals. Citrate synthase protein and gene expression were unchanged in SHHFex animals, but were increased in WFex rats (P<0.05). In the WFex animals muscle glycogen was significantly depleted after exercise (P<0.05), but not in the SHHFex group. We conclude that despite robust amounts of aerobic activity, voluntary wheel running exercise was not sufficiently intense to improve the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle in adult SHHF animals, indicating an inability to compensate for declining heart function by improving peripheral oxidative adaptations in the skeletal muscle.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Kibombo, Harrison S., Rasalingam, Shivatharsiny, & Koodali, Ranjit T. (2013). Facile template free method for textural property modulation that enhances adsorption and photocatalytic activity of aperiodic titania supported silica materials. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 142-143, 119-128.
 
Highlights: [•] Pore modulation of titania–silica was achieved using aprotic co-solvents. [•] Dark adsorption capacities of Rhodamine B were dependent on the pore volume. [•] Photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B was found to depend on pore diameter.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Kibombo, Harrison S., Weber, Amanda S., Wu, Chia-Ming, Raghupathi, Krishna Reddy, & Koodali, Ranjit T. (2013). Effectively dispersed europium oxide dopants in TiO2 aerogel supports for enhanced photocatalytic pollutant degradation. Journal of Photochemistry & Photobiology A: Chemistry, 269, 49-58.
 
Highlights: [•] Eu2O3 doped TiO2 aerogels synthesized under high temperature supercritical drying. [•] High temperature supercritical drying disperses europium ions in TiO2 support. [•] Eu2O3 doping enhanced adsorption and photodegradation of salicylic acid. [•] Photodegradation due to amount of hydroxyl radicals produced.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Netzer, Nathan L., Tanaka, Z., Chen, B., & Jiang, Chaoyang. (2013). Tailoring the SERS Enhancement Mechanisms of Silver Nanowire Langmuir-Blodgett Films via Galvanic Replacement Reaction. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 117(31), 16187-16194.
 
We report a new facile route for preparing surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SEAS) substrates with tailored enhancement mechanisms. Silver nanowires were assembled using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique and further processed via galvanic replacement reactions (GRRs). The GRRs provided an efficient method to decrease the spectral noise caused by the capping agent polyvinylpyrrolidone. A decrease in noise along with the addition of gold nanostructures to the system revealed Raman signals from nonfluorescent molecules associated with a charge-transfer mechanism. The GRR LB substrates exhibited ultrasensitive SERS ability with a detection limit as low as 8 nM using 4-aminothiophenol, partially due to the strong chemical binding between the SERS substrates and probe molecules. Furthermore, the GRRs provide a facile route in tailoring SERS substrates to target molecules in a controlled manner.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Parayil, Sreenivasan Kaliyat, Kibombo, Harrison S., Wu, Chia-Ming, Peng, Rui, Kindle, Trevor, Mishra, S., . . . Koodali, Ranjit T. (2013). Synthesis-Dependent Oxidation State of Platinum on TiO2 and Their Influences on the Solar Simulated Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Water. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 117(33), 16850-16862.
 
Platinized TiO2 photocatalysts of different compositions of Pt-0 and PtO2 were prepared by modifying the synthesis procedures. The physicochemical properties of the composite materials were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements confirmed the presence of Pt species existing as PtO2 and/or mixtures of Pt-0 and PtO2. The composite material, Pt-TiO2-2%H, contained a high amount of metallic Pt-0 and PtO2 in close proximity with TiO2 that promoted an enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity under simulated solar light irradiation. Although Pt-TiO2-2%C and Pt-TiO2-2%T consisted of similar compositions of PtO2, these oxidized platinum species seem to appear further apart from TiO2 in Pt-TiO2-2%C than Pt-TiO2-2%T. This caused dramatic variation in their optical behaviors such as strong fluorescence quenching and lower photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity in the former photocatalyst. A photocatalyst prepared by the conventional photodeposition method was also prepared, characterized, and its photocatalytic activity assessed. This work provides an opportunity to understand the role of PtO2 for photocatalytic production of hydrogen from platinized TiO2 composites and the importance of heterojunctions in such photocatalysts for solar energy conversion.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Rasalingam, Shivatharsiny, Peng, Rui, & Koodali, Ranjit T. (2013). An investigation into the effect of porosities on the adsorption of rhodamine B using titania–silica mixed oxide xerogels. Journal of Environmental Management, 128, 530-539.
 
Abstract: Aperiodic mesoporous titania–silica (TiO2·SiO2) xerogels with varying silica contents were synthesized under ambient conditions. The physico-chemical properties of the xerogels were examined by a variety of techniques that include powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption, Fourier Transform-Infra-Red spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopies (SEM and TEM), Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), zeta potential, and Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopic (DRS) studies. The adsorption of a model dye molecule, rhodamine B (RhB) was studied over the titania–silica xerogels and compared with titania and silica. It was determined that the pore volume of the xerogels mainly influences the adsorption of RhB. The xerogels exhibited good adsorption capacity with more than 90% dye removal at low dye concentrations. Our results suggest that low cost approaches to the synthesis of xerogels with tailored properties such as large pore volume could provide cost-effective solutions to mitigate environmental problems related to removal of water based toxic pollutants such as dyes by simple adsorption processes.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Wang, Zhihula, Putta, Anjaneyula, Mottishaw, Jeffrey D., Wei, Qiang, Wang, H., & Sun, Haoran. (2013). Molecular Origin of Isomerization Effects on Solid State Structures and Optoelectronic Properties: A Comparative Case Study of Isomerically Pure Dicyanomethylene Substituted Fused Dithiophenes. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 117(33), 16759-16768.
 
Introduction of a strong electron-withdrawing dicyanomethylene (-CH-(CN)(2)) group onto a fused bithiophene frame is a useful strategy to convert fused bithiophene derivatives from p-type organic semiconductor materials into n-type materials. Here, through systematic studies of isomerically pure 7-dicyanomethylene-7H-cyclopenta-[1,2-b:4,3-b']dithiophene (1), 4-dicyanomethylene-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene (2), and 7-dicyanomethylene-7H-cyclopenta[1,2-b:3,4-b']dithiophene (3) as well as their oligomers and polymers, we report that isomerization has the potential to fine-tune the optoelectronic properties of these materials including band gap (E-g), electron affinities (EAs), ionization potentials (IPs), electrochemical polymerization behaviors, and the solid state molecular packing, all of which are important for the performance of semiconductor devices. The monomers of these isomers exhibit noticeable difference in maximum absorption energies; and the oligomers and polymers composed of these monomers exhibit increased band gap difference as predicted by DFT calculation. Furthermore, the isomer 2 exhibits better electrochemical polymerization behavior as well as profound electrochromic switching in the near to middle infrared region. X-ray diffraction and quantum mechanical calculations reveal that the difference of dipole and quadrupole moments in these isomers is likely responsible for the difference in the solid state packing and subsequent polymer assembly.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Yao, Ge, Berry, Mary T., May, P. Stanley, & Kilin, Dmitri. (2013). DFT Calculation of Russell-Saunders Splitting for Lanthanide Ions Doped in Hexagonal (beta)-NaYF4 Nanocrystals. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 117(33), 17177-17185.
 
A systematic investigation is reported of the optimized geometry and electronic structure of trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln(3+)) doped in hexagonal (beta)-NaYF4 nanocrystals in the basis of density functional theory with a spin polarization approach. A model Na(24)Y(23)Ln(1)F(96) nano-crystal with a single central lanthanide dopant (Ln(3+)) is used. Electron spins couple to give a total spin, S, and electron orbital angular momenta couple to give total orbital angular momentum, L. Spin-orbit coupling is neglected in this initial study. Several key observables are found to be strongly related to the number of unpaired f-electrons in the model. After geometry optimization, the phenomenon of the lanthanide contraction is observed, and the configurations of 4f-electron-like orbitals satisfy Hund’s Rule under the orbital decomposition. Spin-polarized density functional theory is applied to generate the Russell Saunders terms (L2s+1) terms of lanthanide ions. The energy differences between the first and the second terms are calculated and show good agreement with experimental measurements. The free-ion-like behavior of Ln(3+) ions in the nanocrystal is observed as well.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Semmler, Shane M., & Bobby, Jacob. (2013). Consumer Materialism: An Ideological Critique and a Dialogic Response. Western Journal of Communication, 77(5), 559-581.
 
By constructively critiquing consumer materialism as a fantastic ideological form (Zizek, 1997), this article answered Rogers’s (1998) call to develop communication theories that resurrect a place for the natural, affirm that humans are embedded in a nonhuman world, listen to nonhuman agents, and deconstruct binaries like subject/object, social/natural, and ideational/material. Through the lens of Zizek’s (1989, 1997) interpretation of Lacanian fantasy, it was revealed that consumer materialism reproduces itself in consumer advertising (intersubjectivity), planned obsolescence (problematic of the fall), popular film (empty gesture), the Gross Domestic Product (symptom), and efforts to resist materialism manifested in presidential Earth Day commemorations (problematic of the fall and empty gesture). This essay concluded by articulating a transhuman, material, dialogic (Rogers, 1998) concept of productive-consumption as a means of transcending the signified Desire of the Other at consumer materialism’s ideological core. Productive-consumption was illustrated with wilderness travel, food production, and meal preparation.
 
Communication Studies Department.
 
 
Kone, K. Y., Druon, C., Gnimpieba, Etienne Z., Delmotte, M., Duquenoy, A., & Laguerre, J. C. (2013). Power density control in microwave assisted air drying to improve quality of food. Journal of Food Engineering, 119(4), 750-757.
 
Currently, the new trend is the development of microwave hot air drying control in order to solve the problem of hot spots on the product. So in this study, a microwave/hot air drying system with the ability of automatic power density control was developed for tomato drying. Three power densities (3, 5 and 7 W/g) at 40 degrees C air temperature were applied and the output, reflected microwave power and the mass of the sample were registered online. Two different drying strategies were implemented. The first consisted of a microwave drying without specific power control. The second one introduced power control. A feedback control based on specific power related to the actual sample mass resulted in the best power control and the improvement of product quality compared to the dry sample without power control. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
 
Computer Science Department.
 
 
Aslam, M., Lio, Y. L., & Jun, C. H. (2013). Repetitive acceptance sampling plans for burr type XII percentiles. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 68(1-4), 495-507.
 
Under truncated life tests, two types of repetitive acceptance sampling plans are proposed to ensure the quality of products in terms of percentile lifetime when the lifetime follows the Burr type XII distribution. The proposed acceptance sampling plans, including the ordinary repetitive acceptance sampling plan and the repetitive version of a group acceptance sampling plan, are developed to meet producer’s and consumer’s risks at two specified lifetime percentiles, simultaneously. Useful tables have been established for a wide range of Burr type XII distributions which include the log-logistic distribution for practical utilization. Finally, some examples are provided for illustration.
 
Mathematics Department.
 
 
Dutkay, Dorin Ervin, Picioroaga, Gabriel, & Song, Myung-Sin. (2014). Orthonormal bases generated by Cuntz algebras. Journal of Mathematical Analysis & Applications, 409(2), 1128-1139.
 
Abstract: We show how some orthonormal bases can be generated by representations of the Cuntz algebra; these include Fourier bases on fractal measures, generalized Walsh bases on the unit interval and piecewise exponential bases on the middle third Cantor set.
 
Mathematics Department.
 
 
Barker, D., Wei, W. Z., Mei, D. M., & Zhang, C. (2013). Ionization efficiency study for low energy nuclear recoils in germanium. Astroparticle Physics, 48, 8-15.
 
We used the internal conversion ( transition) of germanium-72 to indirectly measure the low energy nuclear recoils of germanium. Together with a reliable Monte Carlo package, in which we implement the internal conversion process, the data was compared to the Lindhard (k =0.159) and Barker–Mei models. A shape analysis indicates that both models agree well with data in the region of interest within 4%. The most probable value (MPV) of the nuclear recoils obtained from the shape analysis is 17.5±0.12 (sys) ±0.035 (stat) keV with an average path-length of 0.014 m.
 
Physics Department.
 
 
Yang, Gang, Mei, Dongming, Govani, Jayesh, Wang, Guojran, & Khizar, Muhammed. (2013). Effect of annealing on contact performance and electrical properties of p-type high purity germanium single crystal. Applied Physics a-Materials Science & Processing, 113(1), 207-213.
 
Van de Pauw Hall measurement is an effective method to characterize the properties of semiconductors, such as bulk concentration, mobility, and resistivity, all of which are used to describe the purity level in the semiconductors. However, the performance of the ohmic contacts has a direct impact on the reliability and accuracy of the results obtained from the Van de Pauw Hall measurement. In the present work, the influences of different annealing techniques on the performance of the InSn ohmic contacts have been investigated using a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) crystal sample. The results show that the preferred annealing condition is at 400 A degrees C for 1 hour, which has provided a significant improvement of the InSn contact quality and microscopic homogenization of the impurities in the HPGe crystal. The carrier concentration, charge mobility, and resistivity of the sample annealed at 400 A degrees C for 1 hour are 5.772×10(10)/cm(3), 1.883×10(4)xA cm(2)/Vs, and 5.795×10(3)x Omega cm at 77 K, respectively.
 
Physics Department.
 
 
Dvorak, Robert D., Wray, Tyler B., Kuvaas, Nicholas J., & Kilwein, Tess M. (2013). Mania and sexual risk: Associations with behavioral self-regulation. Journal of Affective Disorders, 150(3), 1076-1081.
 
Abstract: Introduction: Risky sexual behavior among young adults is a central public health concern. Hallmark cognitive effects of mania involve grandiose extrinsic goal-setting, which may be part of a tendency to approach rewarding cues while underestimating potential negative consequences. Poor impulse control also reflects a tendency to seek reward and rely on emotional decision-making. In contrast, effortful control is associated with adaptive decision making. Methods: Participants (n=595) completed measures of impulsivity, risk for mania, and risky sexual behavior. Relationships between risk for mania, behavioral self-regulation, and risky sexual behavior were examined in a negative binomial hurdle model. Results: For the hurdle portion, sensation-seeking was positively associated with the likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior. Effortful control was inversely associated with the likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior, but only among those high in risk for mania. Among those endorsing engagement in risky sex, urgency was positively, and effortful control negatively, associated with frequency of risky sex. Risk for mania was positively associated with frequency of risky sex, but only for those low in effortful control. Limitations: Findings were among a homogeneous, young adult, nonclinical population, limiting generalizability. Examining these associations among a clinical population in an active manic episode is warranted. Conclusion: Results suggest high levels of effortful control may diminish the hallmark effects of mania on cognition thereby reducing engagement in risky sexual behavior. Treatments targeting emotion-based rash action and effortful decision making may be particularly important for those experiencing manic symptoms.
 
Psychology Department.
 
 
Ansarullah, A., Lu, Yan, Holstein, Martha, DeRuyter, Brittany, Rabinovitch, Alex, & Guo, Zhiguang. (2013). Stimulating beta-Cell Regeneration by Combining a GPR119 Agonist with a DPP-IV Inhibitor. Plos One, 8(1).
 
Background: Activating G-protein coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) by its agonists can stimulate glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release. GLP-1 is rapidly degraded and inactivated by dipeptidylpeptidase-IV (DPP-IV). We studied the efficiency of combining PSN632408, a GPR119 agonist, with sitagliptin, a DPP-IV inhibitor, on beta-cell regeneration in diabetic mice. Materials & Methods: Diabetes in C57BL/6 mice was induced by streptozotocin. PSN632408 and sitagliptin alone or in combination were administered to diabetic mice for 7 weeks along with BrdU daily. Nonfasting blood glucose levels were monitored. After treatment, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), plasma active GLP-1 levels, beta-cell mass along with alpha- and beta-cell replication, and beta-cell neogenesis were evaluated. Results: Normoglycemia was not achieved in vehicle-treated mice. By contrast, 32% (6 of 19) of PSN632408-treated diabetic mice, 36% (5 of 14) sitagliptin-treated diabetic mice, and 59% (13 of 22) diabetic mice treated with PSN632408 and sitagliptin combination achieved normoglycemia after 7 weeks treatment. Combination therapy significantly increased plasma active GLP-1 levels, improved glucose clearance, stimulated both alpha- and beta-cell replication, and augmented beta-cell mass. Furthermore, treatment with combination therapy induced beta-cell neogenesis from pancreatic duct-derived cells. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that combining a GPR119 agonist with a DPP-IV inhibitor may offer a novel therapeutic strategy for stimulating beta-cell regeneration and reversing diabetes.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Chen, Kai, Kobayashi, Satoru, Xu, Xianmin, Viollet, B., & Liang, Qiangrong. (2013). AMP Activated Protein Kinase Is Indispensable for Myocardial Adaptation to Caloric Restriction in Mice. Plos One, 8(3).
 
Caloric restriction (CR) is a robust dietary intervention known to enhance cardiovascular health. AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been suggested to mediate the cardioprotective effects of CR. However, this hypothesis remains to be tested by using definitive loss-of-function animal models. In the present study, we subjected AMPK alpha 2 knockout (KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates to a CR regimen that reduces caloric intake by 20%-40% for 4 weeks. CR decreased body weight, heart weight and serum levels of insulin in both WT and KO mice to the same degree, indicating the effectiveness of the CR protocol. CR activated cardiac AMPK signaling in WT mice, but not in AMPK alpha 2 KO mice. Correspondingly, AMPK alpha 2 KO mice had markedly reduced cardiac function during CR as determined by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements. The compromised cardiac function was associated with increased markers of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and myocyte apoptosis. Mechanistically, CR down-regulated the expression of ATP5g2, a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase, and reduced ATP content in AMPK alpha 2 KO hearts, but not in WT hearts. In addition, CR accelerated cardiac autophagic flux in WT mice, but failed to do so in AMPK alpha 2 KO mice. These results demonstrated that without AMPK, CR triggers adverse effects that can lead to cardiac dysfunction, suggesting that AMPK signaling pathway is indispensible for energy homeostasis and myocardial adaptation to CR, a dietary intervention that normally produces beneficial cardiac effects.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Dolisca, Sarah-Bianca, Mehta, Mitali, Pearce, David A., Mink, Jonathan W., & Maria, Bernard L. (2013). Batten Disease: Clinical Aspects, Molecular Mechanisms, Translational Science, and Future Directions. Journal of Child Neurology, 28(9), 1074-1100.
 
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, collectively the most common neurodegenerative disorders of childhood, are primarily caused by an autosomal recessive genetic mutation leading to a lysosomal storage disease. Clinically, these diseases manifest at varying ages of onset, and associated symptoms include cognitive decline, movement disorders, seizures, and retinopathy. The underlying cell biology and biochemistry that cause the clinical phenotypes of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses are still being elaborated. The 2012 Neurobiology of Disease in Children Symposium, held in conjunction with the 41st Annual Meeting of the Child Neurology Society, aimed to (1) provide a survey of the currently accepted forms of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses and their associated genetic mutations and clinical phenotypes; (2) highlight the specific pathology of Batten disease; (3) discuss the contemporary understanding of the molecular mechanisms that lead to pathology; and (4) introduce strategies that are being translated from bench to bedside as potential therapeutics.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Drack, Arlene V., Miller, Jake N., & Pearce, David A. (2013). A Novel c.1135_1138delCTGT Mutation in CLN3 Leads to Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis. Journal of Child Neurology, 28(9), 1112-1116.
 
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is the most common childhood neurodegenerative disorder in the world, with an incidence of 1 in 100 000 live births. More than 400 mutations in at least 14 different genes are linked to multiple clinical variants. These progressive genetic disorders primarily manifest in the central nervous system due to an extensive loss of neurons, primarily in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices. Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is the most common form and is primarily due to mutations in CLN3, which encodes a protein of unknown function. The most common such mutation in CLN3 is a 1.02-kb deletion that results in a frameshift and subsequent premature termination codon. Here we describe a patient with juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis who has a novel c.1135_1138delCTGT mutation in CLN3. This deletion induces a frameshift and premature termination codon in CLN3 messenger ribonucleic acid that is likely recognized by nonsense-mediated decay and degraded, subsequently leading to decreased CLN3 protein abundance.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Finn, Rozzy, Kovacs, Attila D., & Pearce, David A. (2013). Treatment of the Ppt1-/- Mouse Model of Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis With the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) Receptor Antagonist Memantine. Journal of child neurology, 28(9), 1159-1168.
 
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, a family of neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders, represent the most common cause of pediatric-onset neurodegeneration. The infantile form has a devastatingly early onset and one of the fastest-progressing disease courses. Despite decades of research, the molecular mechanisms driving neuronal loss in infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis remain unknown. We have previously shown that N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors in the Ppt1(-/-) mouse model of this disease exhibit a hyperfunctional phenotype and postulate that aberrant glutamatergic activity may contribute to neural pathology in both the mouse model and human patients. To test this hypothesis, we treated Ppt1(-/-) mice with the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine and assessed their response to the drug using an accelerating rotarod. At 20 mg/kg, memantine treatment induced a delayed but notable improvement in Ppt1(-/-) mice. Much remains to be assessed before moving to patient trials, but these results suggest memantine has potential as a treatment.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Getty, Amanda, Kovacs, Attila D., Lengyel-Nelson, Timea, Cardillo, Andrew, Hof, Caitlin, Chan, Chin Hung, & Pearce, David A. (2013). Osmotic Stress Changes the Expression and Subcellular Localization of the Batten Disease Protein CLN3. Plos One, 8(6).
 
Juvenile CLN3 disease (formerly known as juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis) is a fatal childhood neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the CLN3 gene. CLN3 encodes a putative lysosomal transmembrane protein with unknown function. Previous cell culture studies using CLN3-overexpressing vectors and/or anti-CLN3 antibodies with questionable specificity have also localized CLN3 in cellular structures other than lysosomes. Osmoregulation of the mouse Cln3 mRNA level in kidney cells was recently reported. To clarify the subcellular localization of the CLN3 protein and to investigate if human CLN3 expression and localization is affected by osmotic changes we generated a stably transfected BHK (baby hamster kidney) cell line that expresses a moderate level of myc-tagged human CLN3 under the control of the human ubiquitin C promoter. Hyperosmolarity (800 mOsm), achieved by either NaCl/urea or sucrose, dramatically increased the mRNA and protein levels of CLN3 as determined by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. Under isotonic conditions (300 mOsm), human CLN3 was found in a punctate vesicular pattern surrounding the nucleus with prominent Golgi and lysosomal localizations. CLN3-positive early endosomes, late endosomes and cholesterol/sphingolipid-enriched plasma membrane microdomain caveolae were also observed. Increasing the osmolarity of the culture medium to 800 mOsm extended CLN3 distribution away from the perinuclear region and enhanced the lysosomal localization of CLN3. Our results reveal that CLN3 has multiple subcellular localizations within the cell, which, together with its expression, prominently change following osmotic stress. These data suggest that CLN3 is involved in the response and adaptation to cellular stress.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Harpin, Scott, Kenyon, DenYelle B., Kools, Susan, Bearinger, Linda H., & Ireland, Marjorie. (2013). Correlates of emotional distress in out‐of‐home youth. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 26(2), 110-118.
 
Problem: Adolescents in out-of-home placement have a high prevalence of mental health distress, and their vulnerability to poor mental health outcomes continues during placement. Risk and protective factors may influence mental health outcomes; however, little is known about their relationship to mental health distress in this population. Methods: Using data from a population-based survey conducted in schools, mental health distress, along with other risk and protective factors, was evaluated in young people who reported living in out-of-home placements (n = 5,516) and a comparison group (n = 5,500). Multivariate analysis was used to determine the strength of association between risk and protective factors and mental health distress in the youth reporting out-of-home placement. Findings: Comparisons of risk and protective factors indicated that out-of-home youth had greater risks (suicidal risk, mental health distress) and fewer protective factors (feeling parents care about them, other adults care, and school connectedness) than those in the comparison group. Multivariate analyses showed significant associations (38% explained variance) between mental health distress and the risk and protective factors,with the exception of other adult connectedness. Conclusions: Findings from this population-based school survey of young people reiterate that youth in out-of-home placements have higher levels of mental health distress and lower levels of protective factors compared to other youth. These results offer insights for those working with out-of-home or precariously housed young people. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Harris, William S., Kennedy, Kevin F., O’Keefe, James H., Jr., & Spertus, John A. (2013). Red blood cell fatty acid levels improve GRACE score prediction of 2-yr mortality in patients with myocardial infarction. International journal of cardiology, 168(1), 53-59.
 
BACKGROUND: Blood omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid levels have been associated with reduced risk for total mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD), but their relationships with mortality in the setting of myocardial infarction (MI) are unknown.; OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid levels measured at admission and 2-year mortality in MI patients, independent of the GRACE risk score, a traditional mode of risk stratification.; DESIGN: Admission RBC fatty acid levels were measured in patients enrolled in a prospective, 24-center MI registry (TRIUMPH). Two-year mortality was modeled with Cox proportional hazards regression to assess the extent to which the inclusion of fatty acid levels would improve, over and above the GRACE score, risk stratification for 2-year mortality.; RESULTS: RBC fatty acid data were available from 1144 patients who did not report taking fish oil supplements after discharge. Two RBC fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic n-6 (DPA)] were univariate predictors of total mortality. The combined fatty acid c-statistic (0.60, p<0.001) improved the c-statistic of the GRACE score alone from 0.747 (p<0.001) to 0.768 (p<0.05 vs. GRACE alone). The net reclassification index improved by 31% (95% CI, 15% to 48%) and the relative incremental discrimination index improved by 19.8% (7.5% to 35.7%).; CONCLUSION: RBC EPA and DPA n-6 levels improved the prediction of 2-yr mortality over and above the GRACE score in MI patients. Copyright 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Kriscenski-Perry, Elizabeth, Kovács, Attila D., & Pearce, David A. (2013). Seizure Susceptibility, Phenotype, and Resultant Growth Delay in the nclf and mnd Mouse Models of Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses. Journal of Child Neurology, 28(9), 1137-1141.
 
We examined flurothyl gas–induced seizure latencies and phenotype in 2 mouse models of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses: the nclf (Cln6 mutant) variant late-infantile model and the mnd (Cln8 mutant) Northern epilepsy model. Mnd mice on postnatal days 35 to 42 had increased latency to loss of posture compared with wild-type controls. Nclf, mnd, and wild-type mice on postnatal days 21 days to 25 displayed similar latency profiles during repeated seizure induction (kindling) and retesting; seizure phenotypes were different, however. Kindled wild-type mice reexposed to flurothyl after a 28-day recovery displayed brainstem generalized seizures exclusively. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses mutants demonstrated a lack of brainstem seizures at retesting after 28 days. Repeated induction of generalized seizures delayed weight gain in both nclf and mnd mice compared with wild-type mice. These and our previous results suggest that abnormal seizure-related neuronal connectivity and/or plasticity are shared characteristics of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Lal, Yasir, & Van Heukelom, Joel. (2013). Dabigatran: a cause of hematologic emergency. The American journal of the medical sciences, 346(3), 190-193.
 
Dabigatran etexilate, a direct thrombin inhibitor, has become an alternative to warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. There remains a concern about its overdose and life-threatening hemorrhage because of unavailability of appropriate coagulation tests to monitor and antidotes to reverse its effects. There are no clinical data about its safety in patients with fluctuating renal function. Multiple bleeding events reported with dabigatran have prompted the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to further investigate these reports. Four clinical cases with life-threatening bleeding, strategies that were used to achieve hemostasis and a brief literature review to demonstrate the hematologic emergency caused by dabigatran are presented in this study.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Lang, K. C., Thompson, Paul A., & Wolf, S. L. (2013). The EXCITE Trial: Reacquiring Upper-Extremity Task Performance With Early Versus Late Delivery of Constraint Therapy. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 27(7), 654-663.
 
Objective. This study examines performance of Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) tasks in terms of the ability of EXCITE trial participants (who had suffered a stroke 3-9 months before recruitment) to complete the task within the timed interval. Methods. Data were collected from participants who received constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) 3 to 9 months poststroke (CIMT-I, n = 106) or 15 to 21 months poststroke (CIMT-D, n = 116). Performance on the 15 timed WMFT tasks was converted into binary values, and changes in completion of the tasks were analyzed with generalized estimating equation methods, under the assumption of a binomial or Poisson process for completion. Results. During CIMT, the CIMT-I group showed significant within-group improvements in 3 fine-movement tasks and in total noncompleted tasks (noncompletes), whereas the CIMT-D group did not (P .0036). CIMT-I improvement was significantly greater than CIMT-D improvement for the lifting pencil task and total noncompletes. During the year following CIMT, neither group showed significant changes in completion of WMFT tasks. Over all time intervals, only the CIMT-I group displayed significant improvement in several tasks and total noncompletes. Between groups, there were significant and almost-significant differences between the improvements of the 2 groups in 3 tasks requiring fine distal movement. Conclusion. Receiving CIMT earlier appears to improve reacquisition and retention of WMFT tasks, especially those requiring fine motor skills. Combined with earlier findings, these results indicate that improvements in existing motor abilities are possible with both immediate and delayed CIMT, but early CIMT is necessary for significant reacquisition of tasks.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Martín-Montalvo, Alejandro, Gonzalez-Mariscal, Isabel, Pomares-Viciana, Teresa, Padilla-López, Sergio, Ballesteros, Manuel, Vazquez-Fonseca, Luis, . . . Santos-Ocana, Carlos. (2013). The Phosphatase Ptc7 Induces Coenzyme Q Biosynthesis by Activating the Hydroxylase Coq7 in Yeast. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 288(39), 28126-28137.
 
The study of the components of mitochondrial metabolism has potential benefits for health span and lifespan because the maintenance of efficient mitochondrial function and antioxi-dant capacity is associated with improved health and survival. In yeast, mitochondrial function requires the tight control of several metabolic processes such as coenzyme Q biosynthesis, assuring an appropriate energy supply and antioxidant functions. Many mitochondrial processes are regulated by phosphor-ylation cycles mediated by protein kinases and phosphatases. In this study, we determined that the mitochondrial phosphatase Ptc7p, a Ser/Thr phosphatase, was required to regulate coenzyme Q6 biosynthesis, which in turn activated aerobic metabolism and enhanced oxidative stress resistance. We showed that Ptc7p phosphatase specifically activated coenzyme Q6 biosynthesis through the dephosphorylation of the demethoxy-Q6 hydroxylase Coq7p. The current findings revealed that Ptc7p is a regulator of mitochondrial metabolism that is essential to maintain proper function of the mitochondria by regulating energy metabolism and oxidative stress resistance.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Metkus, T. S., Timpone, J., Leaf, D., Goetz, M. B., Harris, William S., & Brown, T. T. (2013). Omega-3 fatty acid therapy reduces triglycerides and interleukin-6 in hypertriglyeridemic HIV patients. Hiv Medicine, 14(9), 530-539.
 
Objectives Cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis are common in HIV-infected patients and residual systemic inflammation is thought to contribute to both of these disorders. We performed a randomized placebo-controlled trial of omega-3-acid (O3A) ethyl esters in HIV-infected patients with hypertriglyceridaemia, hypothesizing that O3A would decrease serum levels of triglycerides, markers of systemic inflammation, and markers of bone turnover. Methods HIV-infected patients (n=48 recruited at three sites) with CD4 count >200cells/L, suppressed viral load, and triglycerides >200mg/dL were randomized to placebo or 3.6g/d of O3A. Fasting lipid profiles and markers of inflammation and bone turnover were assessed at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment. Results Baseline HIV status, lipid profile, bone metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors were similar between the groups. Inflammatory markers were similar between the treatment groups at baseline, except for interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-, which were higher in the O3A group. The concentration of triglycerides in patients receiving O3A decreased by a median (interquartile range (IQR)) of -34 (-149, 9.5) mg/dL vs. a median increase of 46.5 (-51, 123) mg/dL in the placebo group (P=0.01). The median percentage change in IL-6 was greater in the O3A group compared with the placebo group [-39% (-63, 12%) vs. 29% (10, 177%), respectively; P=0.006]. Similar results were observed for TNF-, but not other inflammatory or bone turnover markers. Conclusions O3A ethyl esters decreased the concentrations of triglycerides, IL-6 and TNF- in patients with well-controlled HIV infection and hypertriglyceridaemia. Larger studies are required to confirm these findings and investigate their clinical significance.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Miller, J. N., & Pearce, David A. (2013). A Novel c.776_777insA Mutation in CLN1 Leads to Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis. Journal of Child Neurology, 28(9), 1106-1111.
 
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses are the most common autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorders in children, with a worldwide incidence of 1 in 100000 live births. Multiple clinical variants are caused by more than 400 mutations in at least 14 different genes. These progressive genetic disorders primarily manifest in the central nervous system because of an extensive loss of neurons, specifically in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices. Patients with mutations in CLN1, which encodes palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1), primarily manifest with infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (Haltia-Santavuori disease). Affected children usually present between 1 and 2 years of age and typically die by 8 to 13 years of age. We describe a patient with infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis with a novel c.776_777insA mutation in CLN1. This insertion induces a frameshift and a premature stop codon late within the CLN1 messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript which is likely recognized by nonsense-mediated translation repression, decreasing PPT1 abundance.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Rae, J. M., Regan, M. M., Thibert, J. N., Gersch, C., Thomas, D., Leyland-Jones, Brian, . . . Van Poznak, C. (2013). Concordance Between CYP2D6 Genotypes Obtained From Tumor-Derived and Germline DNA. Jnci-Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 105(17), 1332-1334.
 
Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors (FFPETs) are a valuable source of DNA for genotype association studies and are often the only germline DNA resource from cancer clinical trials. The anti-estrogen tamoxifen is metabolized into endoxifen by CYP2D6, leading to the hypothesis that patients with certain CYP2D6 genotypes may not receive benefit because of their inability to activate the drug. Studies testing this hypothesis using FFPETs have provided conflicting results. It has been postulated that CYP2D6 genotype determined using FFPET may not be accurate because of somatic tumor alterations. In this study, we determined the concordance between CYP2D6 genotypes generated using 3 tissue sources (FFPETs; formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded unaffected lymph nodes [FFPELNs]; and whole blood cells [WBCs]) from 122 breast cancer patients. Compared with WBCs, FFPET and FFPELN genotypes were highly concordant (>94%), as were the predicted CYP2D6 metabolic phenotypes (>97%). We conclude that CYP2D6 genotypes obtained from FFPETs accurately represent the patient’s CYP2D6 metabolic phenotype.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Roux, Kyle J. (2013). Marked by association: techniques for proximity-dependent labeling of proteins in eukaryotic cells. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 70(19), 3657-3664.
 
Various methods have been established for the purpose of identifying and characterizing protein-protein interactions (PPIs). This diverse toolbox provides researchers with options to overcome challenges specific to the nature of the proteins under investigation. Among these techniques is a category based on proximity-dependent labeling of proteins in living cells. These can be further partitioned into either hypothesis-based or unbiased screening methods, each with its own advantages and limitations. Approaches in which proteins of interest are fused to either modifying enzymes or receptor sequences allow for hypothesis-based testing of protein proximity. Protein crosslinking and BioID (proximity-dependent biotin identification) permit unbiased screening of protein proximity for a protein of interest. Here, we evaluate these approaches and their applications in living eukaryotic cells.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Sharma, Jitendra, Nanda, Ashish, Jung, Richard S., Mehta, Sonal, Pooria, Javad, & Hsu, Daniel P. (2013). Risk of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Journal of neurointerventional surgery, 5(6), 543-545.
 
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We report the incidence and risk factors for contrast-induced nephropathy after the use of iodinated contrast for endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke.; METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed in 194 consecutive patients who underwent endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke between January 2006 and January 2011. No patients were excluded from treatment for elevated creatinine (Cr). Each patient received approximately 150 ml intra-arterial non-ionic low-osmolar contrast agent (Optiray 320) during the endovascular procedure. Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) was defined according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria as a relative increase of serum Cr 50% above the baseline or an absolute increase of 0.3 mg/dl at 48 h following the endovascular procedure.; RESULTS: Of 194 patients (mean age 6514 years), 52% were women (n=100) and 25% (n=48) were diabetic. Baseline Cr levels for 191 patients ranged between 0.4 and 2.7 mg/dl. Three patients on chronic hemodialysis had baseline Cr levels ranging between 5.3 and 6.1 mg/dl. Cr was ≤1.5 mg/dl in 163 patients (84%) and ≥1.5 mg/dl in 31 (16%). Three of the 191 patients (1.5%) developed CIN as noted from Cr measurements between baseline and within 48 h. One patient who developed an elevated Cr level had a known history of chronic renal insufficiency (Cr >1.5 mg/dl) and two had baseline Cr levels within the normal range. An additional CT angiogram was obtained in 44 patients, none of which developed CIN. Female gender and diabetes were not associated with a higher risk of developing CIN.; CONCLUSIONS: The risk of developing CIN is low among patients with acute stroke who undergo emergency endovascular treatment. Treatment of acute stroke should be performed irrespective of Cr levels.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Shinozaki, Gen, Kumar, Y., Rosen, B. H., Rundell, J. R., Mrazek, D. A., & Kung, S. (2013). “Diminished” association between the serotonin transporter linked polymorphism (5HTTLPR) and body mass index in a large psychiatric sample. Journal of Affective Disorders, 151(1), 397-400.
 
Background: The role of the promoter polymorphism (5HTTLPR) of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) in psychiatric illnesses has been studied extensively. Serotonergic function also regulates many central nervous system, including appetite and feeding behaviors. The 5HTTLPR short allele was found to be associated with increased body mass index and obesity risk among the general population. No data is available to support generalizability of such association among psychiatric population. Methods: We examined the relationship between BMI and the 5HTTLPR genotype in a large sample of 1831 psychiatric patients at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, using a retrospective chart review. Results: Average BMI among groups with the short/short (2829 +/- 7.27 kg/m(2)), the short/long (28.07 +/- 6.45 kg/m(2)) and the long/long (28.15 +/- 7.51 kg/m(2)) genotypes of 5HTTLPR were not statistically different. This negative association persisted even with the sub-analysis of the Caucasians. However, we observed an increased rate of obesity among our psychiatric patient sample compared to the general population of Minnesota (36.6% versus 27.6%, p=0.0001 for males, 30.3% versus 24.4%, p=0.0001 for Females). Also, sub-analysis showed female inpatients to have a significantly higher average BMI than outpatients (28.64 +/- 8.08 kg/m(2) versus 27.13 +/- 692 kg/m(2), p=0.026). This confirmed a significant association between mental health disorder and BMI. Limitations: Retrospective study design with limited control for potential confounders. Conclusions: In this large sample of psychiatric patients we found no significant association between 5HTTLPR genotype and BMI, which is different from the case with general population reported in the literature. Published by Elsevier B.V.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Shinozaki, Gen, Romanowicz, M., Mrazek, D. A., & Kung, S. (2013). HTR2A gene-child abuse interaction and association with a history of suicide attempt among Caucasian depressed psychiatric inpatients. Journal of Affective Disorders, 150(3), 1200-1203.
 
Background: The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5HTTLPR) has been associated with vulnerability for depression after exposure to stressful life event as well as with difference in treatment response to SSRI. Although the A/A genotype of the serotonin receptor SNP (rs7997012) was associated with better citalopram response than the G/C, in the STAR*D sample, the effects of this SNP in the moderation of child abuse history on the characteristics of mental illnesses are not well understood. We examined if there are similar gene-environment interaction with he SNP. Methods: Retrospective chart review of 250 Caucasian depressed psychiatric inpatients, who had genotype for rs7997012. Subjects with each genotype were subcategorized into 2 groups with/without history of child abuse. The history of suicide attempts of each group was compared. Results: A trend for an interaction was found between the HTR2A genotype and child abuse history influencing the prevalence of suicide attempts. Although each genotype did not show significant difference in the risk of suicide attempt when there was no abuse history, the A carriers (A/A+A/G) showed significantly higher rate of suicide attempt compared to the G/C, when there is a history of child abuse (48.4%, versus 22.7% respectively, p=0.0050). The likelihood ratio test from the logistic model showed a trend for an interaction between the A/A genotype and abuse history (Odds Ratio 2.10, chi(2)=2.49, p=0.11). Limitations: Retrospective study design and small sample size with borderline significance. Conclusions: Our findings showed a potential interaction between the HTR2A gene and stressful life events. Published by Elsevier B.V.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Shinozaki, Gen, Romanowicz, Magdalena, Passov, Victoria, Rundell, James, Mrazek, David, & Kung, Simon. (2013). State dependent gene–environment interaction: Serotonin transporter gene–child abuse interaction associated with suicide attempt history among depressed psychiatric inpatients. Journal of Affective Disorders, 147(1-3), 373-378.
 
Background: The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5HTTLPR) and child abuse history have been associated with an increased suicide risk for general population, but such association is not clear among psychiatric depressed inpatients. Methods: A chart review identified 422 depressed inpatients genotyped for 5HTTLPR. Child abuse and suicide attempt history were recorded. The relationship between 5HTTLPR, child abuse, and suicide attempts were analyzed. Results: There was a significant relationship between 5HTTLPR and history of suicide attempt (the long/ long versus the short carriers, 47.9% versus 31.8%, p = 0.0015). There was also a significant main effect from child abuse history (abused versus not abused, 45.1% versus 28.6%, p = 0.0001). The likelihood ratio test showed a significant result for the l/l genotype group with child abuse history (odds ratio 4.11, χ² = 23.5, p < 0.0001). No significant result was obtained from other groups. Limitations: This is a retrospective study based on chart review. Replication with more standardized research setting for measurements of child abuse history and suicide attempt history is needed. The rs25531 variant among a long allele (long-A and long-G) of 5HTTLPR was not genotyped. Conclusions: In addition to the direct effect from 5HTTLPR and child abuse history, an interaction between the 5HTTLPR gene and child abuse history influenced psychiatric profiles of depressed inpatients. Contrary to the widely recognized “reactivity” associated with the short allele, our patients with the l/l genotype and child abuse history showed significantly severer psychiatric pathology than short carriers with child abuse history. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Sun, Yuliang, Dey, Nandini, Brammer, Melissa, De, Pradip, & Leyland-Jones, Brian. (2013). Bevacizumab confers additional advantage to the combination of trastuzumab plus pertuzumab in trastuzumab-refractory breast cancer model. Cancer Chemotherapy & Pharmacology, 72(4), 733-745.
 
Purpose: We investigated antitumor activity of trastuzumab (T)/T-DM1 + pertuzumab (P) + bevacizumab (B) in T-sensitive (BT474) and T-resistant (BT474HerR) BC models in order to test whether or not the addition of an anti-angiogenic drug can provide a supplementary advantage to the antitumor activity of double HER2-mAB combination. Methods: In addition to the antitumor activity (xenograft model), we tested antiproliferative effect, and HER2-mediated signals of different antibodies (T or P or T-DM1) in HER2-amplified T-sensitive, T-resistant and HER2-amplified/ PIK3CA mutated (HCC1954) BT cell lines by 3D ON-TOP clonogenic growth assay and Western blots. Results: Data show (1) T, T-DM1 or P blocked p-AKT (>60 %), p-ERK (>50 %) following heregulin in only T-sensitive cells, (2) T/T-DM1 + P, T/T-DM1 + B, and P + B reduced tumor growth as compared to any single-agent treatment, (3) T + P + B achieved almost complete regression of tumor growth, decreased cell proliferation, and inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis, in both models, (4) antitumor activity of T + P + B was associated with the pharmacodynamic knockdown of p-AKT, and (5) T-DM1 + P caused complete regression of tumor volume in both models. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that B imparts a significant advantage when combined with T + P in the resistant model, in contrast to T-DM1 + P, as the triple combination of T-DM1 + P + B and the double combination of T-DM1 + P showed a comparable antitumor activity. Our study reveals the preclinical evidence in favor of the inclusion of B when combined with T + P in T-resistant BC patients.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Vermeer, Paola D., Colbert, Paul L., Wieking, Bryant G., Vermeer, Daniel W., & Lee, John H. (2013). Targeting ERBB Receptors Shifts Their Partners and Triggers Persistent ERK Signaling through a Novel ERBB/EFNB1 Complex. Cancer research, 73(18), 5787-5797.
 
Most squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC) overexpress ERBB1/EGFR, but EGF receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapies have yielded disappointing clinical results in treatment of this cancer. Here, we describe a novel interaction between EGFR and the ligand EphrinB1 (EFNB1), and we show that EFNB1 phosphorylation and downstream signaling persists in the presence of cetuximab. Mechanistically, cetuximab drives a shift in EGFR dimerization partners within the signaling complex, suggesting that targeted drugs may trigger partner rearrangements that allow persistent pathway activation. EFNB1 attenuation slowed tumor growth and increased survival in a murine model of HNSCC, suggesting a substantial contribution of EFNB1 signaling to HNSCC development. Together, our findings suggest that EFNB1 is part of the EGFR signaling complex and may mediate drug resistance in HNSCC as well as other solid tumors. Cancer Res; 73(18); 5787-97. 2013 AACR.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Weber, Krystal, & Pearce, David A. (2013). Large Animal Models for Batten Disease: A Review. Journal of Child Neurology, 28(9), 1123-1127.
 
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, collectively referred to as Batten disease, make up a group of inherited childhood disorders that result in blindness, motor and cognitive regression, brain atrophy, and seizures, ultimately leading to premature death. So far more than 10 genes have been implicated in different forms of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Most related research has involved mouse models, but several naturally occurring large animal models have recently been discovered. In this review, we discuss the different large animal models and their significance in Batten disease research.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Benson, Nicholas, Hulac, David M., & Bernstein, Joshua D. (2013). An Independent Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Integrated: What Do the Process Approach Subtests Measure? Psychological Assessment, 25(3), 692-705.
 
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Integrated contains the WISC-IV core and supplemental subtests along with process approach subtests designed to facilitate a process-oriented approach to score interpretation. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which WISC-IV Integrated subtests measure the constructs they are purported to measure. In addition to examining the measurement and scoring model provided in the manual, this study also tested hypotheses regarding Cattell-Horn-Carroll abilities that might be measured along with other substantive questions regarding the factor structure of the WISC-IV Integrated and the nature of abilities measured by process approach subtests. Results provide insight regarding the constructs measured by these subtests. Many subtests appear to be good to excellent measures of psychometric g (i.e., the general factor presumed to cause the positive correlation of mental tasks). Other abilities measured by subtests are described. For some subtests, the majority of variance is not accounted for by theoretical constructs included in the scoring model. Modifications made to remove demands such as memory recall and verbal expression were found to reduce construct-irrelevant variance. The WISC-IV Integrated subtests appear to measure similar constructs across ages 6-16, although strict factorial invariance was not supported.
 
School of Education.
 
 
Benson, Nicholas, & Taub, Gordon E. (2013). Invariance of Woodcock-Johnson III Scores for Students With Learning Disorders and Students Without Learning Disorders. School Psychology Quarterly, 28(3), 256-272.
The purpose of this study was to test the invariance of scores derived from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Ability (WJ HI COG) and Woodcock- Johnson HI Tests of Academic Achievement (WJ III ACH) across a group of students diagnosed with learning disorders (n = 994) and a matched sample of students without known clinical diagnoses (n = 994). This study focused on scores reflecting broad cognitive abilities and areas of academic achievement in which children may demon- strate learning disabilities. Results of this study support the conclusion that the WJ III COG and WJ III ACH measure similar constructs for students with learning disabilities and students without learning disabilities. However, large and pervasive between- groups differences were found with regard to intercepts. Intercepts can be defined as predicted group means for individual tests, in which predicted group means are based on the factor loadings of these tests on the latent variable they are intended to measure. As many intercepts are not equivalent, it is possible that observed scores may not accurately reflect differences in the construct of interest when testing children with learning disabilities. However, tests displaying the largest intercept differences also displayed the largest group differences in observed scores, providing some support for the conclusion that these differences reflect construct-relevant between-group differences. Implications of this research are discussed.
 
School of Education.
 
 
Kindle, Karen J., & Schmidt, Cynthia M. (2013). DEVELOPING PRESERVICE TEACHERS: A SELF-STUDY OF INSTRUCTOR SCAFFOLDING. Reading Improvement, 50(3), 83-100.
In this collaborative self-study, two teacher educators examined transcripts of preservice teachers’ inquiry groups focused on assessment and tutoring of struggling readers as part of a reading methods course. The analysis identified instances of scaffolding by the course instructor that influenced preservice teachers’ development. Types of scaffolding included a shift in instructor stance from authority to expert peer, strategic prompts to promote inquiry, modeling professional language, and the transfer of responsibility from instructor to preservice teachers.
School of Education.
 
 
Newland, Lisa A., Hui-Hua, Chen, & Coyl-Shepherd, Diana D. (2013). ASSOCIATIONS AMONG FATHER BELIEFS, PERCEPTIONS, LIFE CONTEXT, INVOLVEMENT, CHILD ATTACHMENT AND SCHOOL OUTCOMES IN THE U.S. AND TAIWAN. Fathering: A Journal of Theory, Research, & Practice about Men as Fathers, 11(1), 3-30.
This study was designed to examine connections among father beliefs, perceptions, context, and involvement, and school-aged children’s attachment and school outcomes in the U.S. and Taiwan (n = 274 father-child dyads). Fathers completed questionnaires regarding their family demographics, education-related beliefs, perceptions, and involvement, and children’s school achievement. Children completed a pictorial measure of attachment and standardized socio-emotional assessments. Father involvement was related to father beliefs and perceptions and to children’s attachment-related secure exploration. Children’s positive and negative school outcomes were related to father beliefs, perceptions, involvement, and children’s attachment. School outcomes were uniquely predicted from nationality, attachment, father-teacher relationship quality, and fathers’ beliefs about teachers, motivation for involvement, perceptions of invitations for involvement, efficacy, and school-based involvement, as well as from family income and mother involvement. Results are discussed in the context of “relationship-focused” education.
School of Education.
 
 
Jackson, Darla W. (2013). Lawyers Can’t Be Luddites Anymore: Do Law Librarians Have a Role in Helping Lawyers Adjust to the New Ethics Rules Involving Technology? Law Library Journal, 105(3), 395-404.
In August 2012, the American Bar Association, recognizing the influence of technology, amended the Model Rules of Professional Conduct. These changes to the standards of professional conduct require attorneys to have some basic technological competence. Ms. Jackson focuses on specific areas in which law librarians may find opportunities to share both newly developed and well-established technological expertise with attorneys.
School of Law.
Posted by: kelsijo97 | August 19, 2013

August 2013

Liu, C., L. Q. Guo, S. Menon, D. Jin, E. Pick, Xuejun Wang, . . . N. Wei. (2013). COP9 Signalosome Subunit Csn8 Is Involved in Maintaining Proper Duration of the G(1) Phase. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 288(28), 20443-20452.

The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a conserved protein complex known to be involved in developmental processes of eukaryotic organisms. Genetic disruption of a CSN gene causes arrest during early embryonic development in mice. The Csn8 subunit is the smallest and the least conserved subunit, being absent from the CSN complex of several fungal species. Nevertheless, Csn8 is an integral component of the CSN complex in higher eukaryotes, where it is essential for life. By characterizing the mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) that express Csn8 at a low level, we found that Csn8 plays an important role in maintaining the proper duration of the G(1) phase of the cell cycle. A decreased level of Csn8, either in Csn8 hypomorphic MEFs or following siRNA-mediated knockdown in HeLa cells, accelerated cell growth rate. Csn8 hypomorphic MEFs exhibited a shortened G1 duration and affected expression of G(1) regulators. In contrast to Csn8, down-regulation of Csn5 impaired cell proliferation. Csn5 proteins were found both as a component of the CSN complex and outside of CSN (Csn5-f), and the amount of Csn5-f relative to CSN was increased in the Csn8 hypomorphic cells. We conclude that CSN harbors both positive and negative regulators of the cell cycle and therefore is poised to influence the fate of a cell at the crossroad of cell division, differentiation, and senescence.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Ambigapathy, Ganesh, Zhaoqing Zheng, Wei Li, & Joyce Keifer. (2013). Identification of a Functionally Distinct Truncated BDNF mRNA Splice Variant and Protein in Trachemys scripta elegans. PloS one, 8(6), e67141.

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a diverse functional role and complex pattern of gene expression. Alternative splicing of mRNA transcripts leads to further diversity of mRNAs and protein isoforms. Here, we describe the regulation of BDNF mRNA transcripts in an in vitro model of eyeblink classical conditioning and a unique transcript that forms a functionally distinct truncated BDNF protein isoform. Nine different mRNA transcripts from the BDNF gene of the pond turtle Trachemys scripta elegans (tBDNF) are selectively regulated during classical conditioning: exon I mRNA transcripts show no change, exon II transcripts are downregulated, while exon III transcripts are upregulated. One unique transcript that codes from exon II, tBDNF2a, contains a 40 base pair deletion in the protein coding exon that generates a truncated tBDNF protein. The truncated transcript and protein are expressed in the naive untrained state and are fully repressed during conditioning when full-length mature tBDNF is expressed, thereby having an alternate pattern of expression in conditioning. Truncated BDNF is not restricted to turtles as a truncated mRNA splice variant has been described for the human BDNF gene. Further studies are required to determine the ubiquity of truncated BDNF alternative splice variants across species and the mechanisms of regulation and function of this newly recognized BDNF protein.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Lei, Daoxiong, Faqian Li, Huabo Su, Jinbao Liu, Ning Wei, & Xuejun Wang. (2013). Hepatic Deficiency of COP9 Signalosome Subunit 8 Induces Ubiquitin-Proteasome System Impairment and Bim-Mediated Apoptosis in Murine Livers. PloS one, 8(7), e67793.

The COP9 signalosome (CSN), an evolutionally highly conserved protein complex composed of 8 unique subunits (CSN1 through CSN8) in higher eukaryotes, is purported to modulate protein degradation mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) but this has not been demonstrated in a critical mitotic parenchymal organ of vertebrates. Hepatocyte-specific knockout of the Cops8 gene (HS-Csn8KO) was shown to cause massive hepatocyte apoptosis and liver malfunction but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we report that Csn8/CSN exerts profound impacts on hepatic UPS function and is critical to the stability of the pro-apoptotic protein Bim. Significant decreases in CIS (cytokine-inducible Src homology 2 domain-containing protein), a Bim receptor of a cullin2-based ubiquitin ligase, were found to co-exist with a marked increase of Bim proteins. Csn8 deficiency also significantly decreased 19S proteasome subunit Rpt5 and markedly increased high molecular weight neddylated and ubiquitinated proteins. The use of a surrogate UPS substrate further reveals severe impairment of UPS-mediated proteolysis in HS-Csn8KO livers. Inclusion body-like materials were accumulated in Csn8 deficient hepatocytes. In addition to Bim, massive hepatocyte apoptosis in HS-Csn8KO livers is also associated with elevated expression of other members of the Bcl2 family, including pro-apoptotic Bax as well as anti-apoptotic Bcl2 and Bcl-XL. Increased interaction between Bcl2 and Bim, but not between Bcl2 and Bax, was detected. Hence, it is concluded that hepatic CSN8 deficiency impairs the UPS in the liver and the resultant Bim upregulation likely plays an important role in triggering hepatocyte apoptosis via sequestering Bcl2 away from Bax.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Ranek, Mark J., Erin J. M. Terpstra, Jie Li, D. A. Kass, & Xuejun Wang. (2013). Protein Kinase G Positively Regulates Proteasome-Mediated Degradation of Misfolded Proteins. Circulation, 128(4), 365-376.

Background Proteasome functional insufficiency is implicated in a large subset of cardiovascular diseases and may play an important role in their pathogenesis. The regulation of proteasome function is poorly understood, hindering the development of effective strategies to improve proteasome function. Methods and Results Protein kinase G (PKG) was manipulated genetically and pharmacologically in cultured cardiomyocytes. Activation of PKG increased proteasome peptidase activities, facilitated proteasome-mediated degradation of surrogate (enhanced green fluorescence protein modified by carboxyl fusion of degron CL1) and bona fide (CryAB(R120G)) misfolded proteins, and attenuated CryAB(R120G) overexpression-induced accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and cellular injury. PKG inhibition elicited the opposite responses. Differences in the abundance of the key 26S proteasome subunits Rpt6 and 5 between the PKG-manipulated and control groups were not statistically significant, but the isoelectric points were shifted by PKG activation. In transgenic mice expressing a surrogate substrate (GFPdgn), PKG activation by sildenafil increased myocardial proteasome activities and significantly decreased myocardial GFPdgn protein levels. Sildenafil treatment significantly increased myocardial PKG activity and significantly reduced myocardial accumulation of CryAB(R120G), ubiquitin conjugates, and aberrant protein aggregates in mice with CryAB(R120G)-based desmin-related cardiomyopathy. No discernible effect on bona fide native substrates of the ubiquitin-proteasome system was observed from PKG manipulation in vitro or in vivo. Conclusions PKG positively regulates proteasome activities and proteasome-mediated degradation of misfolded proteins, likely through posttranslational modifications to proteasome subunits. This may be a new mechanism underlying the benefit of PKG stimulation in treating cardiac diseases. Stimulation of PKG by measures such as sildenafil administration is potentially a new therapeutic strategy to treat cardiac proteinopathies.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Weltman, Nathan Y., K. Ojamaa, Olga V. Savinova, Y. F. Chen, Evelyn H. Schlenker, R. Zucchi, . . . A. M. Gerdes. (2013). Restoration of Cardiac Tissue Thyroid Hormone Status in Experimental Hypothyroidism: A Dose-Response Study in Female Rats. Endocrinology, 154(7), 2542-2552.

Thyroid hormones (THs) play a pivotal role in regulating cardiovascular homeostasis. To provide a better understanding of the coordinated processes that govern cardiac TH bioavailability, this study investigated the influence of serum and cardiac TH status on the expression of TH transporters and cytosolic binding proteins in the myocardium. In addition, we sought to determine whether the administration of T-3 (instead of T-4) improves the relationship between THs in serum and cardiac tissue and cardiac function over a short-term treatment period. Adult female Sprague Dawley rats were made hypothyroid by 7 weeks treatment with the antithyroid drug 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU). After establishing hypothyroidism, rats were assigned to 1 of 5 graded T-3 dosages plus PTU for a 2-week dose-response experiment. Untreated, age-matched rats served as euthyroid controls. PTU was associated with depressed serum and cardiac tissue T-3 and T-4 levels, arteriolar atrophy, altered TH transporter and cytosolic TH binding protein expression, fetal gene reexpression, and cardiac dysfunction. Short-term administration of T-3 led to a mismatch between serum and cardiac tissue TH levels. Normalization of serum T-3 levels was not associated with restoration of cardiac tissue T-3 levels or cardiac function. In fact, a 3-fold higher T-3 dosage was necessary to normalize cardiac tissue T-3 levels and cardiac function. Importantly, this study provides the first comprehensive data on the relationship between altered TH status (serum and cardiac tissue), cardiac function, and the coordinated in vivo changes in cardiac TH membrane transporters and cytosolic TH binding proteins in altered TH states.

Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.

 

Brown, Jennifer R., Tyler Miiller, & Jacob L. Kerby. (2013). The interactive effect of an emerging infectious disease and an emerging contaminant on Woodhouse’s toad (Anaxyrus woodhousii) tadpoles. Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC, 32(9), 2003-2008.

Two factors that influence amphibian population declines are infectious diseases and exposure to anthropogenic contaminants. The authors examined an emerging fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and its interaction with an emerging contaminant, the antimicrobial triclosan. They first conducted a 2*2*4 factorial study to examine the interactive impacts of dragonfly predator cues, Bd, and triclosan (0g/L, 10g/L, 100g/L, and 1000g/L) on Woodhouse’s toad (Anaxyrus woodhousii) tadpoles. The authors measured the lethal and sublethal impacts of these stressors on tadpoles over 4 wk. All tadpoles in the 100-g/L and 1000-g/L concentrations of triclosan died within 24h of exposure, but tadpoles in the low concentration (10g/L) survived. Tadpoles exposed to only Bd (no triclosan) exhibited a low survival rate (67.5%), whereas those exposed to both 10g/L triclosan and Bd exhibited a high survival rate (91.1%), implying that triclosan inhibits effects of Bd on tadpoles. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and predator cue exposure individually increased the developmental rate of the surviving tadpoles, but this effect was absent when these factors were combined with triclosan. In a follow-up study, the authors found Bd growth in culture was significantly inhibited at the 10-g/L concentration of triclosan and completely inhibited at 100g/L. These findings suggest that interactions among multiple stressors can be complex and require examination in conjunction with one another to evaluate actual impacts to aquatic fauna. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:2003-2008. 2013 SETAC. Copyright 2013 SETAC.

Biology Department.

 

Ricci, Lesley, Cliff H. Summers, Earl T. Larson, Donald O’Malley, & Richard H. Melloni. (2013). Development of aggressive phenotypes in zebrafish: interactions of age, experience and social status. Animal Behaviour, 86(2), 245-252.

Aggression is important in the life history of most vertebrate species and influences ecological and social relationships by regulating the dynamics of territoriality, hierarchy, predation and resource utilization. The expression of aggressive behaviour develops as an individual ages and is often shaped by social experience. Even though the heritability of traits that yield dominant–subordinate relationships is high, strong environmental influences also shape the expression of these individual behaviours. In this study we present evidence for the first time of a necessary interplay between factors that generate behavioural phenotypic plasticity in zebrafish. Select presumptively genetic and environmental elements interacted developmentally to produce the behavioural phenotypes necessary for dominant–subordinate relationships in dyads. Aggressive and submissive acts increased in focus and intensity and were correlated with social rank during development, but decreased with duration of the paired interaction.

Biology Department.

 

Welton, L. J., Cameron D. Siler, G. W. Linkem, A. C. Diesmos, M. L. Diesmos, E. Sy, & R. M. Brown. (2013). Dragons in our midst: Phyloforensics of illegally traded Southeast Asian monitor lizards. Biological Conservation, 159, 7-15.

We provide a phylogenetic and population genetic evaluation of the illegal pet and bush meat trade of monitor lizards in the Philippines. We use a molecular dataset assembled from vouchered samples with known localities throughout the country, as a reference for statistical phylogenetic, population genetic, and DNA barcoding analyses of genetic material obtained during a three year survey of the Manila pet trade. Our results provide the first genetic evaluation of a major Southeast Asian city’s illegal trade in monitors and allow us to establish several important conclusions regarding actual, versus reported, origins of Manila’s black market Varanus. Monitor lizards are clearly transported throughout the archipelago for trade; we identified genotypes from areas surrounding Manila, the distinct Bicol faunal subregion of Luzon, Mindanao Island, the Visayan islands, islands of the Romblon Province, the Babuyan islands, and Mindoro Island. Numerous species are involved, including multiple endemic Philippine taxa, the threatened Gray’s monitor (Varanus olivaceus), and the presumably non-Philippine rough-neck monitor (Varanus rudicollis). Our results suggest that traders frequently and deliberately misrepresent the provenance of traded animals, in an apparent effort to increase their perceived market value. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Biology Department.

 

Gallo, Annemarie, & Gopinath Mani. (2013). A stent for co-delivering paclitaxel and nitric oxide from abluminal and luminal surfaces: Preparation, surface characterization, and in vitro drug release studies. Applied Surface Science, 279, 216-232.

Most drug-eluting stents currently available are coated with anti-proliferative drugs on both abluminal (toward blood vessel wall) and luminal (toward lumen) surfaces to prevent neointimal hyperplasia. While the abluminal delivery of anti-proliferative drugs is useful for controlling neointimal hyperplasia, the luminal delivery of such drugs impairs or prevents endothelialization which causes late stent thrombosis. This research is focused on developing a bidirectional dual drug-eluting stent to co-deliver an anti-proliferative agent (paclitaxel – PAT) and an endothelial cell promoting agent (nitric oxide – NO) from abluminal and luminal surfaces of the stent, respectively. Phosphonoacetic acid, a polymer-free drug delivery platform, was initially coated on the stents. Then, the PAT and NO donor drugs were co-coated on the abluminal and luminal stent surfaces, respectively. The co-coating of drugs was collectively confirmed by the surface characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), 3D optical surface profilometry, and contact angle goniometry. SEM showed that the integrity of the co-coating of drugs was maintained without delamination or cracks formation occurring during the stent expansion experiments. In vitro drug release studies showed that the PAT was released from the abluminal stent surfaces in a biphasic manner, which is an initial burst followed by a slow and sustained release. The NO was burst released from the luminal stent surfaces. Thus, this study demonstrated the co-delivery of PAT and NO from abluminal and luminal stent surfaces, respectively. The stent developed in this study has potential applications in inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia as well as encouraging luminal endothelialization to prevent late stent thrombosis. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Kakade, Sandeep, & Gopinath Mani. (2013). A comparative study of the effects of vitamin C, sirolimus, and paclitaxel on the growth of endothelial and smooth muscle cells for cardiovascular medical device applications. Drug Design Development and Therapy, 7, 529-544.

Antiproliferative drugs such as sirolimus (SIR) and paclitaxel (PAT) are currently released from stents and vascular grafts to inhibit the growth of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), thereby preventing neointimal hyperplasia. However, these drugs delay or impair the growth of endothelial cells (ECs) on implant surfaces causing late thrombosis. Hence, there is a need to use alternative drugs in these implants to encourage the growth of ECs and to inhibit the growth of SMCs. Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid [L-AA]) is one such drug which has been shown to encourage EC growth and inhibit SMC growth when orally administered or added directly to the cell cultures. In this research, four sets of in vitro cell culture experiments were carried out to compare the effects of L-AA, SIR, and PAT on the growth of ECs and SMCs under similar conditions, and to compare the effects of different doses of L-AA to determine the optimal dose for promoting maximum EC growth and inhibiting SMC growth. The ECs and SMCs treated with different drugs were characterized for their viability and proliferation, and morphology using the quantitative resazurin assay (as well as qualitative fluorescence microscopy characterization) and phase contrast microscopy, respectively, for up to 7 days. Also, the phenotype of ECs was characterized using immunofluorescence microscopy. Both SIR and PAT significantly inhibited the EC growth while L-AA significantly encouraged EC growth even more than that of the controls with no drugs. Also, L-AA significantly inhibited SMC growth although the inhibitory effect was inferior to that of SIR and PAT. The L-AA dosage study demonstrated that 100 mu g and 300 mu g of L-AA showed maximum EC growth after 7 days when compared to other dosages (1 mu g, 500 mu g, and 1000 mu g) of L-AA and controls investigated in this study. Also, the 100 mu g and 300 mu g L-AA doses significantly inhibited the SMC growth. Thus, this study demonstrates that L-AA is a promising drug for potential use in stents and vascular grafts, to promote their endothelialization and inhibit neointimal hyperplasia.

Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Baride, Aravind, Daniel Engebretson, Mary T. Berry, & P. Stanley May. (2013). Quenching of coumarin emission by CdSe and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots: Implications for fluorescence reporting. Journal of Luminescence, 141, 99-105.

The photoinduced release of highly fluorescent 7-diethylamino coumarin (7DEAC) from CdSe quantum dots (QD) modified with a thiocinnamate ligand (11-mercapto undecyl-E-3-(4-(N,N-diethylamino)-2-hydroxy phenyl) propenoate, [4DEATC]) has been previously described. Coumarin fluorescence was used to ‘report’ the photochemical reaction. The current study quantifies the quenching effect of the QDs on the coumarin emission in this system. A systematic study is presented on the quenching of 7DEAC by CdSe and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots capped with 2-[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy] ethanethiol (PEG-thiol). A new method for the functionalization of CdSe and CdSe/ZnS QDs with PEG-thiol was developed, which does not require isolation of the as-synthesized QDs. Stern-Volmer analysis was applied to quantify the effect of the PEG-CdSe and PEG-CdSe/ZnS on 7DEAC emission. The Stern-Volmer constant, K-SV, was shown to be inversely proportional to temperature for quenching by PEG-CdSe, and the fluorescence lifetime of 7DEAC was shown to be independent of PEG-CdSe concentration. Room-temperature K-SV values were similar for the PEG-CdSe and PEG-CdSe/ZnS quenchers. The large magnitude of K-SV, the temperature dependence of K-SV, the lifetime data, and the similarity of K-SV values for the core and core-shell QD quenchers are all consistent with a static quenching mechanism. Assuming a static quenching mechanism, the temperature dependence of the coumarin-QD binding constant, K-b, was used to estimate the Delta H and Delta S for the binding process. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chemistry Department.

 

Baroughi, M. F., D. Dachhepati, U. Gautam, K. Bayat, & P. Stanley May. (2013). Highly tunable self-assembled plasmonic lattices through nanosphere lithography. Optics Letters, 38(12), 2153-2155.

This Letter reports a method to produce two-dimensional self-assembled plasmonic nanopillar (NP) arrays with independent control of the diameter (d), spacing (s), and height (h) of the NPs. A plasmonic lattice was designed and optimized for maximum plasmonic activity at 980 nm using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations. The optimized lattice with d = 365 nm, s = 410 nm, and h = 70 nm was fabricated utilizing a self-assembled nanosphere lithography approach. Outstanding agreement between the observed and predicted results confirms the validity of the design process and the controllability and repeatability of the fabrication process. The excellent short-range order in the lattice structure suggests that this method can replace the electron-beam lithography approach in a scalable and cost-effective manner. (C) 2013 Optical Society of America

Chemistry Department.

 

Inerbaev, T. M., James D. Hoefelmeyer, & Dmitri S. Kilin. (2013). Photoinduced Charge Transfer from Titania to Surface Doping Site. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 117(19), 9673-9692.

We evaluate a theoretical model in which Ru is substituting for Ti at the (100) surface of anatase TiO2. Charge transfer from the photoexcited TiO2 substrate to the catalytic site triggers the photocatalytic event (such as water oxidation or reduction half-reaction). We perform ab initio computational modeling of the charge transfer dynamics on the interface of the TiO2 nanorod and catalytic site. A slab of TiO2 represents a fragment of the TiO2 nanorod in the anatase phase. Titanium to ruthenium replacement is performed in a way to match the symmetry of the TiO2 substrate. One molecular layer of adsorbed water is taken into consideration to mimic the experimental conditions. It is found that these adsorbed water molecules saturate dangling surface bonds and affect the electronic properties of systems investigated. The modeling is performed by the reduced density matrix method in the basis of Kohn-Sham orbitals. A nanocatalyst modeled through replacement defect contributes energy levels near the bottom of the conduction band of the TiO2 nanostructure. An exciton in the nanorod is dissipating due to interaction with lattice vibrations, treated through nonadiabatic coupling. The electron relaxes to the conduction band edge and then to the Ru site with a faster rate than the hole relaxes to the Ru site. These results are of importance for an optimal design of nanomaterials for photocatalytic water splitting and solar energy harvesting.

Chemistry Department.

 

Kang, Wonjun, C. S. Spanjers, R. M. Rioux, & James D. Hoefelmeyer. (2013). Synthesis of brookite TiO2 nanorods with isolated Co(II) surface sites and photocatalytic degradation of 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone dye. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 1(26), 7717-7728.

Decomposition of CO2(CO)(8) in the presence of ca. 4 nm x 20 nm oleic acid stabilized brookite TiO2 nanorods was performed according to a prior report in the literature in which Co-TiO2 hybrid nanocrystals had been observed. The hybrid nanocrystals could not be duplicated; however, we report a procedure that consistently led to a mixture of blue Co(II)-TiO2 nanorods and Co precipitate. The Co(II)-TiO2 nanorods have single-site Co(II) ions selectively attached to the TiO2 nanocrystal surface. Transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction data show the crystal phase and morphology of the nanorod is unchanged on addition of Co(II) and no new crystal phases or particulate domains are associated with the colloid. A combination of UV-visible, X-ray photoelectron, and X-ray absorption spectroscopic analysis indicates Co(II) sites are present on the surface of the TiO2 nanorods in octahedral and tetrahedral coordination in similar to 1 : 1 ratio. A mechanism is proposed in which the Co-Co bond of the precursor undergoes heterolysis followed by disproportionation of Co(I) to yield Co(II) and Co(0) precipitate. The Co(II)-TiO2 nanorods were shown to exhibit greater activity than TiO2 nanorods in the degradation of 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone dye under visible light irradiation.

Chemistry Department.

 

Parayil, Sreenivasan Koliyat, Rhett J. Psota, & Ranjit T. Koodali. (2013). Modulating the textural properties and photocatalytic hydrogen production activity of TiO2 by high temperature supercritical drying. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 38(25), 10215-10225.

Abstract: We report a facile method for the synthesis of TiO2 aerogels by a single step high temperature supercritical drying (HTSCD) of sol–gel derived TiO2. The morphological and structural features of the resultant materials were determined by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, Diffuse Reflectance (DR) spectra, and Fourier Transform infra-Red spectroscopy (FT-IR) measurements. The materials exhibited enhanced solar hydrogen production from water using methanol as sacrificial reagent under Ultra-Violet (UV) light in the absence of Pt as a co-catalyst. Among the TiO2 aerogel samples synthesized, TiO2-M-6h evolved 390 μmol g−1 of H2 after 4 h of irradiation, whereas TiO2-M-2h produced 217 μmol g−1 of H2 after 4 h of irradiation under identical conditions, indicating the importance of aging the gels prior to HTSCD step. The enhancement was credited to increase in surface area, and decrease in particle size in TiO2-M-6h as evidenced from N2-sorption and DRS studies respectively. Upon comparison with a room temperature synthesized TiO2-xerogel, the aerogel materials exhibited enhanced hydrogen production. The results validate the superior performance of TiO2 aerogel materials over TiO2 xerogels and indicate the potential of HTSCD method for the preparation of titania aerogels for solar energy applications.

Chemistry Department.

 

Paudel, H. P., D. Dachhepati, K. Bayat, S. S. Mottaghian, P. Stanley May, Cuikiun Lin, . . . M. F. Baroughi. (2013). Design, fabrication, and characterization of a plasmonic upconversion enhancer and its prospects for photovoltaics. Journal of Photonics for Energy, 3, x.

The design, fabrication, and characterization of an upconversion-luminescence enhancer based on a two-dimensional plasmonic crystal are described. Full-wave finite-difference time domain analysis was used for optimizing the geometrical parameters of the plasmonic crystal for maximum plasmon activity, as signified by minimum light reflection. The optimum design produced >20x enhancement in the average electromagnetic field intensity within a one-micron-thick dielectric film over the plasmonic crystal. The optimized plasmonic upconverter was fabricated and used to enhance the upconversion efficiency of sodium yttrium fluoride: 3% erbium, 17% ytterbium nanocrystals dispersed in a poly(methylmethcrylate) matrix. A thin film of the upconversion layer, 105 nm in thickness, was spin-coated on the surface of the plasmonic crystal, as well as on the surfaces of planar gold and bare glass, which were used as reference samples. Compared to the sample with a planar gold back reflector, the plasmonic crystal showed an enhancement of 3.3x for upconversion of 980-nm photons to 655-nm photons. The upconversion enhancement was 25.9x compared to the same coating on bare glass. An absorption model was developed to assess the viability of plasmonically enhanced upconversion for photovoltaic applications. (c) The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI.

Chemistry Department.

 

Aslam, M., M. Azam, Y. L. Lio, & C. H. Jun. (2013). Two-Stage Group Acceptance Sampling Plan for Burr Type X Percentiles. Journal of Testing and Evaluation, 41(4), 525-533.

A two-stage group acceptance sampling plan for the percentile of lifetimes which have the Burr type X distribution is discussed under the time truncated life test. The sampling plan parameters for the two-stage sampling plan are determined such that the producer’s risk and consumer’s risk are satisfied simultaneously for the given tester size and experiment time. The advantage of the proposed two-stage sampling plan over the single-stage sampling plan is also discussed. Useful tables are given for practical purpose.

Mathematics Department.

 

Chen, D. G., Y. L. Lio, & Nan Jiang. (2013). Lower Confidence Limits on the Generalized Exponential Distribution Percentiles Under Progressive Type-I Interval Censoring. Communications in Statistics-Simulation and Computation, 42(9), 2106-2117.

In industrial life test and survival analysis, the percentile estimation is always a practical issue with lower confidence bound required for maintenance purpose. Sampling distributions for the maximum likelihood estimators of percentiles are usually unknown. Bootstrap procedures are common ways to estimate the unknown sampling distributions. Five parametric bootstrap procedures are proposed to estimate the confidence lower bounds on maximum likelihood estimators for the generalized exponential (GE) distribution percentiles under progressive type-I interval censoring. An intensive simulation is conducted to evaluate the performances of proposed procedures. Finally, an example of 112 patients with plasma cell myeloma is given for illustration.

Mathematics Department.

 

Garay-Narvaez, L., M. Arim, Jose D. Flores, & R. Ramos-Jiliberto. (2013). The more polluted the environment, the more important biodiversity is for food web stability. Oikos, 122(8), 1247-1253.

Human activities have led to massive influxes of pollutants, degrading the habitat of species and simplifying their biodiversity. However, the interaction between food web complexity, pollution and stability is still poorly understood. In this study we evaluate the effect exerted by accumulable pollutants on the relationship between complexity and stability of food webs. We built model food webs with different levels of richness and connectance, and used a bioenergetic model to project the dynamics of species biomasses. Further, we developed appropriate expressions for the dynamics of bioaccumulated and environmental pollutants. We additionally analyzed attributes of organisms’ and communities as determinants of species persistence (stability). We found that the positive effect of complexity on stability was enhanced as pollutant stress increased. Additionally we showed that the number of basal species and the maximum trophic level shape the complexity-stability relationship in polluted systems, and that in-degree of consumers determines species extinction in polluted environments. Our study indicates that the form of biodiversity and the complexity of interaction networks are essential to understand and project the effects of pollution and other ecosystem threats.

Mathematics Department.

 

Boswell, M. S., S. R. Elliott, D. V. Perepelitsa, M. Devlin, N. Fotiades, R. O. Nelson, . . . V. E. Guiseppe. (2013). Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Cu as a background in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. Physical Review C, 87(6).

Background: Experiments designed to study rare processes, such as neutrinoless double-beta decay (0 nu beta beta), are crucial tests for physics beyond the standard model. These experiments rely on reducing the intrinsic radioactive background to unprecedented levels, while adequately shielding the detectors from external sources of radioactivity. Purpose: The purpose of this work is focused on understanding the background rates from neutron interactions in Cu shielding in regions around the Q values of many candidate 0 nu beta beta decay isotopes, as well as providing data for benchmarking Monte Carlo simulations of background events. Methods: Using the broad-spectrum neutron beam at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, we have measured gamma rays emitted from inelastic neutron scattering on Cu-nat. Results: We extracted the level cross sections from the gamma-production cross section for 46 energy levels in Cu-nat. These level cross sections were compared with the available experimental data, as well as the ENDF/B-VII evaluation for discrete levels. Conclusions: For energy levels above 2 MeV we found significant discrepancies between the suggested level cross sections for both nuclei and our data. We found reasonable agreement between our measurement and the ENDF/B-VII evaluation for the total neutron inelastic cross section in Cu-63. Our measurement of the total neutron inelastic scattering cross section in Cu-65 was 30% lower than the ENDF/B-VII evaluations, which we attribute to unobserved transitions in Cu-65. Furthermore, we found that the implementation of the ENDF/B-VII evaluation in simulations did not properly model the decay properties of the nucleus to the degree necessary for estimating backgrounds in rear-event searches. Finally, we examined the potential implications of our measurements on 0 nu beta beta measurements and found that many of the commonly studied 0 nu beta beta isotopes had Q values below the cutoff for ENDF/B-VII evaluated discrete levels in either Cu nucleus.

Physics Department.

 

Struckman-Johnson, Cindy, & Dave Struckman-Johnson. (2013). Stopping Prison Rape: The Evolution of Standards Recommended by PREA’s National Prison Rape Elimination Commission. Prison Journal, 93(3), 335-354.

The authors, one a past member of the National Prison Rape Elimination Commission (NPREC), review the historic literature on solutions to prison sexual assault. We contend that pressure for humanitarian treatment of inmates as well as other forces internal and external to the prison system brought about the 2003 Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) and NPREC. We review the 40 standards to stop prison rape in adult prisons and jails proposed by NPREC in 2009 and compare their scope to solutions from past literature. We recommend that the effectiveness of NPREC standards be evaluated and that the search for solutions continue.

Psychology Department.

Computer Science Department.

 

Getty, Amanda, Attila D. Kovacs, Timea Lengyel-Nelson, Andrew Cardillo, Caitlin Hof, Chun-Hung Chan, & David A. Pearce. (2013). Osmotic Stress Changes the Expression and Subcellular Localization of the Batten Disease Protein CLN3. PloS one, 8(6), e66203.

Juvenile CLN3 disease (formerly known as juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis) is a fatal childhood neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the CLN3 gene. CLN3 encodes a putative lysosomal transmembrane protein with unknown function. Previous cell culture studies using CLN3-overexpressing vectors and/or anti-CLN3 antibodies with questionable specificity have also localized CLN3 in cellular structures other than lysosomes. Osmoregulation of the mouse Cln3 mRNA level in kidney cells was recently reported. To clarify the subcellular localization of the CLN3 protein and to investigate if human CLN3 expression and localization is affected by osmotic changes we generated a stably transfected BHK (baby hamster kidney) cell line that expresses a moderate level of myc-tagged human CLN3 under the control of the human ubiquitin C promoter. Hyperosmolarity (800 mOsm), achieved by either NaCl/urea or sucrose, dramatically increased the mRNA and protein levels of CLN3 as determined by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. Under isotonic conditions (300 mOsm), human CLN3 was found in a punctate vesicular pattern surrounding the nucleus with prominent Golgi and lysosomal localizations. CLN3-positive early endosomes, late endosomes and cholesterol/sphingolipid-enriched plasma membrane microdomain caveolae were also observed. Increasing the osmolarity of the culture medium to 800 mOsm extended CLN3 distribution away from the perinuclear region and enhanced the lysosomal localization of CLN3. Our results reveal that CLN3 has multiple subcellular localizations within the cell, which, together with its expression, prominently change following osmotic stress. These data suggest that CLN3 is involved in the response and adaptation to cellular stress.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Kovacs, Attila D., & David A. Pearce. (2013). Location- and sex-specific differences in weight and motor coordination in two commonly used mouse strains. Scientific reports, 3, 2116.

Several studies have shown that environmental factors can affect the outcome of behavioral experiments, shedding doubts on the inter-laboratory reproducibility of behavioral test results. When our laboratory moved from the University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, to Sanford Research in Sioux Falls, SD, our mouse colony was also transferred and the new environment caused strain-dependent changes in the weight, motor coordination and motor learning capability of mice. Here we report the observed changes for two wild type mouse strains commonly used in transgenic studies, C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEv, and show that the type of rodent diet is partially responsible for the geographical location-specific differences. We also found sex-specific differences in weight and motor coordination in both mouse strains. Our results show that environmental factors specific to a geographical location can change the body weight, motor coordination and motor learning capability of wild type mice commonly used as controls in transgenic studies.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Lee, Lance. (2013). Riding the wave of ependymal cilia: Genetic susceptibility to hydrocephalus in primary ciliary dyskinesia. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 91(9), 1117-1132.

Congenital hydrocephalus is a relatively common and debilitating birth defect with several known physiological causes. Dysfunction of motile cilia on the ependymal cells that line the ventricular surface of the brain can result in hydrocephalus by hindering the proper flow of cerebrospinal fluid. As a result, hydrocephalus can be associated with primary ciliary dyskinesia, a rare pediatric syndrome resulting from defects in ciliary and flagellar motility. Although the prevalence of hydrocephalus in primary ciliary dyskinesia patients is low, it is a common hallmark of the disease in mouse models, suggesting that distinct genetic mechanisms underlie the differences in the development and physiology of human and mouse brains. Mouse models of primary ciliary dyskinesia reveal strain-specific differences in the appearance and severity of hydrocephalus, indicating the presence of genetic modifiers segregating in inbred strains. These models may provide valuable insight into the genetic mechanisms that regulate susceptibility to hydrocephalus under the conditions of ependymal ciliary dysfunction. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

 

Matsumura, J. S., D. Yamanouchi, J. A. Goldstein, C. W. Pollock, M. Bosiers, Greg A. Schultz, . . . K. J. Rocha-Singh. (2013). The United States StuDy for EvalUating EndovasculaR TreAtments of Lesions in the Superficial Femoral Artery and Proximal Popliteal By usIng the Protege EverfLex NitInol STent SYstem II (DURABILITY II). Journal of Vascular Surgery, 58(1), 73-+.

Objective: Angioplasty and stenting are options for revascularization of symptomatic femoral popliteal disease. Although angioplasty alone is effective in short lesions, longer lesions are often treated with stents. Multiple overlapping stents are expensive and may be associated with stent fracture. This trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of a single self-expanding stent up to 20 cm in length in patients with atherosclerotic disease of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) and proximal popliteal artery. Methods: Patients with lesions >4 cm and <18 cm were enrolled in this nonrandomized, prospective, multicenter trial that evaluated the Protege EverFlex Self-Expanding Peripheral Stent System (Covidien, Plymouth, Minn). The study’s primary end points were the 30-day major adverse event rate and duplex ultrasound-assessed patency at 1 year. These were compared with published performance goals. A preplanned analysis was conducted for the primary effectiveness end points at 1 year. Follow-up, including history, ankle-brachial index, patient-reported outcomes, duplex ultrasound assessment, and radiographs, is planned through 3 years. There was core laboratory review of angiograms, ultrasound scans, and plain radiographs. A subgroup of patients was studied with graded treadmill testing. Results: The study enrolled 287 patients (66% male; mean age, 68 years) with stenotic, restenotic, or occluded lesions of the SFA at 44 investigational sites in the United States and Europe. Systemic comorbidities included hypertension (88%), hyperlipidemia (86%), diabetes (43%), and prior SFA intervention (41%). The mean lesion length measured by the core laboratory was 89 mm. The mean normal-to-normal lesion length measured by sites was 110 mm. A total of 303 stents were implanted, and 95% of patients received a single stent. No major adverse events occurred at 30 days. At 1 year, primary outcome of duplex ultrasound stent patency was 67.7% in evaluable patients, and among 1-year secondary outcomes, the mean ankle-brachial index increased by 0.25. Walking Improvement Questionnaire scores improved in pain by 33.7, distance by 37.1, speed by 18.6, and stair climbing by 24.7. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of primary patency was 77.2%, primary assisted patency was 86.9%, and secondary patency was 87.3%. Rutherford clinical category improved in 83.5% of patients. Stent fracture rate was 0.4%. Matched absolute claudication distance was 412 feet greater and was not statistically different in this subgroup of 29 individuals. Conclusions: The results of DURABILITY II (StuDy for EvalUating EndovasculaR TreAtments of Lesions in the Superficial Femoral Artery and Proximal Popliteal By usIng the Protege EverfLex NitInol Stent SYstem II) suggest that a new single stent strategy is safe and effective for the treatment of long lesions of the SFA and proximal popliteal arteries at 1 year.

Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.

Brown-Rice, Kathleen A., & S. Furr. (2013). Preservice Counselors’ Knowledge of Classmates’ Problems of Professional Competency. Journal of Counseling and Development, 91(2), 224-233.

Master’s-level students (N = 389) in programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs were surveyed to determine their knowledge of classmates’ problems of professional competency (PPC). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data, and a principal components analysis and Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were applied to reduce and investigate the pattern of correlations among participants’ responses. Findings suggest that the majority of preservice counselors are aware of classmates with PPC and report frustration with faculty for not addressing problematic peers.

School of Education.

Erford, B. T., T. Richards, E. Peacock, Kelly Duncan, H. McGair, B. Muller, . . . C. Y. Chang. (2013). Counseling and Guided Self-Help Outcomes for Clients With Bulimia Nervosa: A Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials From 1980 to 2010. Journal of Counseling and Development, 91(2), 152-172.

This meta-analysis included 111 clinical trials exploring the effectiveness of counseling/psychotherapy and guided self-help approaches in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. In general, single-group studies supported higher efficacy of counseling/psychotherapy, whereas wait-list, treatment-as-usual, and placebo studies indicated both approaches were equally effective at termination (posttest) and follow-up in altering binging, purging, laxative use, and self-reported bulimia or body dissatisfaction perceptions in nearly all comparisons.

School of Education.

 

Hulac, David M., Garry Wickerd, & Odell Vining. (2013). Allowing Students to Administer Their Own Interventions: An Application of the Self-Administered Folding-In Technique. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 32(2), 31-36.

This study sought to determine the efficacy of a self-administered folding-in technique to help fourth grade students at-risk for math difficulties improve their fluency with multiplication facts. The investigators used a multiple baseline across participants design during a two-phase intervention. While 4 of the 5 students made progress during the first phase of the intervention, all student participants demonstrated significant gains in math fact performance during the second phase of the intervention. During the second phase, the investigators divided the students’ cards into known and unknown piles weekly. This preliminary research suggests interspersal technology may allow students to make progress on fluency tasks with limited adult supervision.

School of Education.

 

Roh, Soonhee, Kyoung Hag Lee, & Dong Pil Yoon. (2013). General Well-Being of Korean Immigrant Elders: The Significance of Religiousness/Spirituality and Social Support. Journal of Social Service Research, 39(4), 483-497.

This study examined how religiousness/spirituality (values/beliefs, private religious practice, religious/spiritual coping, and religious support) and social support are related to the general well-being (positive well-being, general health, vitality, self-control, anxiety, and depression) of 177 Korean immigrant elders (KIEs). Regression analysis revealed a significant association between religious/spiritual coping, religious support, and social support and the general well-being of KIEs. Social workers need to provide spiritually sensitive religious support and coping skills to KIEs to enhance their well-being. A future study needs to use a probability sampling method to confirm generalizable findings concerning the relationship between religiousness/spirituality and general well-being among KIEs.

School of Health Sciences.

Posted by: kelsijo97 | July 19, 2013

Welcome to our USD fac-pub blog

We’re Danielle Loftus, a technology/fine arts librarian, and Steve Johnson, a business and distance ed librarian at USD’s University Libraries.

To help us in our roles as liaison to several USD departments,we keep tabs on the research of USD. We also are responsible for keeping the departments up-to-date about the library.

This blog exists for organizing and sharing that information. Check out the tabs above for month-by-month publications.

Email us if you have any questions.  Danielle Loftus   Steve Johnson

Posted by: kelsijo97 | July 19, 2013

July 2013

Darling, Warren, Nicole Helle, Marc Pizzimenti, Diane Rotella, Stephanie Hynes, Jizhi Ge, Kimberly Stillwell-Morecraft Robert Morecraft. (2013). Laterality affects spontaneous recovery of contralateral hand motor function following motor cortex injury in rhesus monkeys. Experimental Brain Research, 228(1), 9-24.
 
The purpose of this study was to test whether brain laterality influences spontaneous recovery of hand motor function after controlled brain injuries to arm areas of M1 and lateral premotor cortex (LPMC) of the hemisphere contralateral to the preferred hand in rhesus monkeys. We hypothesized that monkeys with stronger hand preference would exhibit poorer recovery of skilled hand use after such brain injury. Degree of handedness was assessed using a standard dexterity board task in which subjects could use either hand to retrieve small food pellets. Fine hand/digit motor function was assessed using a modified dexterity board before and after the M1 and LPMC lesions in ten monkeys. We found a strong negative relationship between the degree of handedness and the recovery of manipulation skill, demonstrating that higher hand preference was associated with poorer recovery of hand fine motor function. We also observed that monkeys with larger lesions within M1 and LPMC had greater initial impairment of manipulation and poorer recovery of reaching skill. We conclude that monkeys with a stronger hand preference are likely to show poorer recovery of contralesional hand fine motor skill after isolated brain lesions affecting the lateral frontal motor areas. These data may be extended to suggest that humans who exhibit weak hand dominance, and perhaps individuals who use both hands for fine motor tasks, may have a more favorable potential for recovery after a unilateral stroke or brain injury affecting the lateral cortical motor areas than individuals with a high degree of hand dominance.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Sun, Z., S. Lawson, R. Langenhorst, Kara L. McCormick, Colin Brunick, T. Opriessnig, . . . Y. Fang. (2013). Construction and immunogenicity evaluation of an epitope-based antigen against swine influenza A virus using Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin B subunit as a carrier-adjuvant. Veterinary Microbiology, 164(3-4), 229-238.
 
Influenza A virus causes a highly contagious respiratory disease in a variety of avian and mammalian hosts, including humans and pigs. The primary means for preventing influenza epidemics is vaccination. Epitope-based vaccine represents a new approach to achieve protective immunity. The objective of this study was to construct and evaluate the immunogenicity of an epitope-based antigen for its potential application in future influenza vaccine development. The antigen, comprised of a set of consensus influenza A virus epitopes (IAVe), was genetically linked to a subunit of the bacterial heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB) as an adjuvant. Immunogenicity of this LTB-IAVe antigen was evaluated in a pig model. Despite an inability to detect neutralizing antibodies directed toward the whole virus, humoral immunity against the IAVe was demonstrated in both serum (IgA and IgG) and mucosal secretions (IgG) of immunized pigs. Specific cellular immunity was also induced after LTB-IAVe immunization, as evidenced by up-regulating of IL-1 beta, IL-8, and IL-4 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of vaccinated pigs. In comparison to the non-immunized pigs, pigs immunized with the LTB-IAVe showed improved protection against a pathogenic HI NI swine influenza virus challenge, with about 50% decrease of pneumonic lesions and 10-fold reduction of the viral load in lung and nasal secretion at five days post challenge. This study establishes a platform for future construction of epitope-based vaccines against influenza A virus infection. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Waters, R. P., R. B. Pringle, Gina L. Forster, Kenneth J. Renner, J. L. Malisch, T. Garland, & J. G. Swallow. (2013). Selection for increased voluntary wheel-running affects behavior and brain monoamines in mice. Brain Research, 1508, 9-22.
 
Selective-breeding of house mice for increased voluntary wheel-running has resulted in multiple physiological and behavioral changes. Characterizing these differences may lead to experimental models that can elucidate factors involved in human diseases and disorders associated with physical inactivity, or potentially treated by physical activity, such as diabetes, obesity, and depression. Herein, we present ethological data for adult males from a line of mice that has been selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel-running and from a non-selected control line, housed with or without wheels. Additionally, we present concentrations of central monoamines in limbic, striatal, and midbrain regions. We monitored wheel-running for 8 weeks, and observed home-cage behavior during the last 5 weeks of the study. Mice from the selected line accumulated more revolutions per day than controls due to increased speed and duration of running. Selected mice exhibited more active behaviors than controls, regardless of wheel access, and exhibited less inactivity and grooming than controls. Selective-breeding also influenced the longitudinal patterns of behavior. We found statistically significant differences in monoamine concentrations and associated metabolites in brain regions that influence exercise and motivational state. These results suggest underlying neurochemical differences between selected and control lines that may influence the observed differences in behavior. Our results bolster the argument that selected mice can provide a useful model of human psychological and physiological diseases and disorders. Published by Elsevier B.V.
 
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Vermillion Campus.
 
 
Porter, Megan L., Daniel I. Speiser, Alexander K. Zaharoff, Roy L. Caldwell, Thomas W. Cronin, & Todd H. Oakley. (2013). The Evolution of Complexity in the Visual Systems of Stomatopods: Insights from Transcriptomics. Integrative & Comparative Biology, 53(1), 39-49.
 
Stomatopod crustaceans have complex visual systems containing up to 16 different spectral classes of photoreceptors, more than described for any other animal. A previous molecular study of this visual system focusing on the expression of opsin genes found many more transcripts than predicted on the basis of physiology, but was unable to fully document the expressed opsin genes responsible for this diversity. Furthermore, questions remain about how other components of phototransduction cascades are involved. This study continues prior investigations by examining the molecular function of stomatopods’ visual systems using new whole eye 454 transcriptome datasets from two species, Hemisquilla californiensis and Pseudosquilla ciliata. These two species represent taxonomic diversity within the order Stomatopoda, as well as variations in the anatomy and physiology of the visual system. Using an evolutionary placement algorithm to annotate the transcriptome, we identified the presence of nine components of the stomatopods’ G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) phototransduction cascade, including two visual arrestins, subunits of the heterotrimeric G-protein, phospholipase C, transient receptor potential channels, and opsin transcripts. The set of expressed transduction genes suggests that stomatopods utilize a Gq-mediated GPCR-signaling cascade. The most notable difference in expression between the phototransduction cascades of the two species was the number of opsin contigs recovered, with 18 contigs found in retinas of H. californiensis, and 49 contigs in those of P. ciliata. Based on phylogenetic placement and fragment overlap, these contigs were estimated to represent 14 and 33 expressed transcripts, respectively. These data expand the known opsin diversity in stomatopods to clades of arthropod opsins that are sensitive to short wavelengths and ultraviolet wavelengths and confirm the results of previous studies recovering more opsin transcripts than spectrally distinct types of photoreceptors. Many of the recovered transcripts were phylogenetically placed in an evolutionary clade of crustacean opsin sequences that is rapidly expanding as the visual systems from more species are investigated. We discuss these results in relation to the emerging pattern, particularly in crustacean visual systems, of the expression of multiple opsin transcripts in photoreceptors of the same spectral class, and even in single photoreceptor cells.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Swanson, David L., Zhang Yufeng, & Marisa O. King. (2013). Individual Variation in Thermogenic Capacity Is Correlated with Flight Muscle Size but Not Cellular Metabolic Capacity in American Goldfinches (Spinus tristis). Physiological & Biochemical Zoology, 86(4), 421-431.
 
Cold tolerance and overwinter survival are positively correlated with organismal thermogenic capacity (=summit metabolic rate [Msum]) in endotherms. Msum varies seasonally in small-bird populations and may be mechanistically associated with variation in flight muscle size or cellular metabolic capacity, but the relative roles of these traits as drivers of individual variation in thermogenic performance are poorly known. We measured flight muscle size by ultrasonography, pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscle masses, and muscular activities of key aerobic enzymes (citrate synthase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) and correlated these measurements with Msum for individual American goldfinches (Spinus tristis) to test the hypotheses that muscle size and/or cellular metabolic capacity serve as prominent drivers of individual variation in organismal metabolic capacity. Ultrasonographic flight muscle size was weakly positively correlated with Msum (P = 0.054). Both log10-transformed Msum and flight muscle mass were significantly correlated with log10 body mass, so we calculated allometric residuals for log Msum and for log flight muscle mass to test their correlation independent of body mass. Flight muscle mass residuals were significantly positively correlated with Msum residuals, and this correlation was primarily driven by variation in pectoralis muscle mass. In contrast, none of the mass-specific activities of any enzyme in any muscle were significantly correlated with Msum. These data suggest that flight muscle size, not cellular metabolic capacity, is the primary driver of individual variation in thermogenic performance in goldfinches. This is consistent with the idea that phenotypic flexibility of flight muscle mass is a general mechanism mediating variation in metabolic performance in response to changing energy.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Welton, L. J., Cameron D. Siler, J. R. Oaks, A. C. Diesmos, & R. M. Brown. (2013). Multilocus phylogeny and Bayesian estimates of species boundaries reveal hidden evolutionary relationships and cryptic diversity in Southeast Asian monitor lizards. Molecular Ecology, 22(13), 3495-3510.
 
Recent conceptual, technological and methodological advances in phylogenetics have enabled increasingly robust statistical species delimitation in studies of biodiversity. As the variety of evidence purporting species diversity has increased, so too have the kinds of tools and inferential power of methods for delimiting species. Here, we showcase an organismal system for a data-rich, comparative molecular approach to evaluating strategies of species delimitation among monitor lizards of the genus Varanus. The water monitors ( Varanus salvator Complex), a widespread group distributed throughout Southeast Asia and southern India, have been the subject of numerous taxonomic treatments, which have drawn recent attention due to the possibility of undocumented species diversity. To date, studies of this group have relied on purportedly diagnostic morphological characters, with no attention given to the genetic underpinnings of species diversity. Using a 5-gene data set, we estimated phylogeny and used multilocus genetic networks, analysis of population structure and a Bayesian coalescent approach to infer species boundaries. Our results contradict previous systematic hypotheses, reveal surprising relationships between island and mainland lineages and uncover novel, cryptic evolutionary lineages (i.e. new putative species). Our study contributes to a growing body of literature suggesting that, used in concert with other sources of data (e.g. morphology, ecology, biogeography), multilocus genetic data can be highly informative to systematists and biodiversity specialists when attempting to estimate species diversity and identify conservation priorities. We recommend holding in abeyance taxonomic decisions until multiple, converging lines of evidence are available to best inform taxonomists, evolutionary biologists and conservationists.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Whitfield, Steven M., Erica Geerdes, I. Chacon, E. B. Rodriguez, R. R. Jimenez, M. A. Donnelly, & Jacob L. Kerby. (2013). Infection and co-infection by the amphibian chytrid fungus and ranavirus in wild Costa Rican frogs. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 104(2), 173-178.
 
Amphibian populations are globally threatened by emerging infectious diseases, and 2 pathogens in particular are recognized as major threats: the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and ranaviruses. Here, we evaluated the prevalence of infection by Bd and ranavirus in an assemblage of frogs from a lowland wet forest in Costa Rica. We found an overall prevalence of 21.3% for Bd and 16.6% for ranavirus, and detected both pathogens widely among our 20 sampled species. We found a positive association between ranavirus and Bd infection in one of our 4 most commonly sampled species. We also found a positive but non-significant association be tween infection by ranavirus and infection by Bd among species overall. Our study is among the first detailed evaluations of ranavirus prevalence in the American tropics, and to our knowledge is the first to detect a positive association between Bd and ranavirus in any species. Considerable research attention has focused on the ecology of Bd in tropical regions, yet we argue that greater research focus is necessary to understand the ecology and conservation impact of ranaviruses on amphibian populations already decimated by the emergence of Bd.
 
Biology Department.
 
 
Simpson, K. J., Jae P. Yom, Y. C. Fu, S. W. Arnett, S. O’Rourke, & C. N. Brown. (2013). Does Wearing a Prophylactic Ankle Brace During Drop Landings Affect Lower Extremity Kinematics and Ground Reaction Forces? Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 29(2), 205-213.
 
The objective of the study was to determine if prophylactic ankle bracing worn by females during landings produces abnormal lower extremity mechanics. Angular kinematic and ground reaction force (GRF) data were obtained for 16 athletically experienced females who performed brace and no-brace drop landings. The brace condition displayed reduced in/external rotation and flexion displacements about the ankle and knee joints and increased vertical and mediolateral GRF peak magnitudes and rate of vertical GRF application (paired t test, P < .05). The ankle and knee joints landed in a less plantar flexed and more flexed position, respectively. No significant ab/adduction outcomes may have occurred due to interparticipant variability and/or a lack of brace restriction. Conclusion: During typical landings, this lace-up brace increases vertical GRF, decreases ankle and knee joint displacements of flexion and int/external rotation, but minimally affects ab/adduction displacements.
 
Biomedical Engineering, Sioux Falls.
 
 
Bao, Ying, C. L. Lai, Z. T. Zhu, H. Fong, & Chaoyang Jiang. (2013). SERS-active silver nanoparticles on electrospun nanofibers facilitated via oxygen plasma etching. Rsc Advances, 3(23), 8998-9004.
 
Manipulating the interaction between inorganic building blocks and polymeric supporting materials is crucial in the fabrication and optimization of hybrid hierarchical nanostructures. Herein, oxygen plasma etching was used to modify electrospun nanofibers of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for facilitating the growth of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The PMMA nanofibers in the form of overlaid films, surface-decorated with Ag NPs, were explored as active substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Strong SERS enhancement was observed from the Ag NP-PMMA films, as well as individual nanofibers. Our work not only fabricated nanocomposite materials with controlled hierarchical structures and remarkable SERS performances, but also provided a versatile method in tuning interfacial interactions within nanostructured materials.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Kilina, S. V., A. J. Neukirch, B. F. Habenicht, Dmitri S. Kilin, & O. V. Prezhdo. (2013). Quantum Zeno Effect Rationalizes the Phonon Bottleneck in Semiconductor Quantum Dots. Physical Review Letters, 110(18).
 
Quantum confinement can dramatically slow down electron-phonon relaxation in nanoclusters. Known as the phonon bottleneck, the effect remains elusive. Using a state-of-the-art time-domain ab initio approach, we model the observed bottleneck in CdSe quantum dots and show that it occurs under quantum Zeno conditions. Decoherence in the electronic subsystem, induced by elastic electron-phonon scattering, should be significantly faster than inelastic scattering. Achieved with multiphonon relaxation, the phonon bottleneck is broken by Auger processes and structural defects, rationalizing experimental difficulties.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Koodali, Ranjit T., T. Mokhtari, C. M. Sorensen, & K. J. Klabunde. (2013). Role of solvents in the gelation process: can light scattering studies shed some light? Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 66(1), 43-49.
 
Sol-gel reactions continue to be of interest for the preparation of nanostructured materials. Two chemical reactions that are important in the sol-gel process are the hydrolysis and condensation reactions. The rate of the these two reactions are affected by a number of factors such as reaction pH, temperature, humidity, amount of water, type of alkoxide, molar ratio of alkoxide to water, and nature of solvent. Moreover, there is a physical process, that of particle aggregation that is also important in the overall gelation process. The role of solvents in these chemical and physical processes is still not very clear. In order to clarify the role of solvents in the gelation process, small angle light scattering studies (SALS) were carried out. A model system chosen was a colloidal silica solution that contained preformed silica particles of 10-15 nm in diameter. SALS studies indicate that gelation times are independent of the nature of solvent.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Mariappan, Kadarkaraisamy, Prem Nath Basa, Vinothini Balasubramanian, Sarah Fuoss, & Andrew G. Sykes. (2013). Synthesis, reactivity, catenation and X-ray crystallography of Ag+ and Cu+ complexes of anthraquinone-based selenoethers: A luminescent chemodosimeter for Cu2+ and Fe3+. Polyhedron, 55, 144-154.
 
Abstract: Reaction of the PhSe− anion with 1,8-bis(2-bromoethoxy)anthracene-9,10-dione, 1,5-bis(2-bromoethoxy)anthracene-9,10-dione, 1,8-bis(2-bromoethylethyleneoxy)anthracene-9,10-dione in 1:1 ratio generates 1,8-bis(2-phenylselenoethoxy)anthracene-9,10-dione (2), 1,5-bis(2-phenylselenoethoxy)anthracene-9,10-dione (3) and 1,8-bis(2-phenylselenoethylethyleneoxy)anthracene-9,10-dione (4). The reaction of 2 with a methanolic solution of Ag(CH3CN)4BF4 and Cu(CH3CN)4BF4, yielded metal complexes 5 and 6, respectively. 3 formed a 1D coordination polymer (7) with Ag(CH3CN)4BF4 in a 1:2 ratio. The anthraquinone in 3 exhibits π–π interactions with distances in a range of 3.512–3.840Å. 2 acts as a chemodosimeter for Cu2+ and Fe3+ as it undergoes an aryl ether cleavage with Cu2+ and Fe3+, and produces the luminescent 1-hydroxy-8-(2-phenylselenoethoxy)anthracene-9,10-dione (8). Intramolecular hydrogen bonding in 8 is responsible for the red–orange (λ max 595nm) emission. The X-ray structures of 5, 6, 7, and 8 are reported along with cyclic voltammetric analyses of new organoselenium compounds.
 
Chemistry Department.
 
 
Mormer, Elaine, Catherine Palmer, Cheryl Messick, & Lindsey Jorgensen. (2013). An Evidence-Based Guide to Clinical Instruction in Audiology. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 24(5), 393-406.
 
Background: A significant portion of the AuD curriculum occurs in clinical settings outside the classroom. Expert clinicians, employed within and outside of the university, are called upon to provide this clinical education. Most have had little or no formal training in clinical teaching yet face pedagogical and logistical challenges when simultaneously providing clinical service and teaching. Training to provide optimal methods and approaches to clinical instruction should be based on research evidence; however, there is a paucity of research in this area within the audiology discipline. Purpose: This article provides a review of literature supplying evidence for important concepts, elements, and approaches to the clinical instruction process. Additionally, we provide readers with some practical tools with which to facilitate application of optimal clinical teaching principles. Research Design: We conducted a systematic review of literature on clinical education in audiology and across a wide array of health professions. Through the use of content analysis we identified four elements of the clinical teaching process most critical in examining optimal practices. Results: The elements identified as critical to positive clinical learning outcomes include the establishment of mutual expectations and goals; structured content and delivery of feedback; establishment of a positive instructor/student relationship; and questioning strategies that lead to the development of critical thinking skills. Conclusions: Many disciplines outside of audiology demonstrate robust research activity related to understanding and optimizing the clinical education process. The application of a number of evidence- based clinical teaching principles should allow us to improve student outcomes in audiology. Researchers in our field might consider if and how we should develop our own research literature in clinical education.
 
Communication Disorders Department.
 
 
Sternadori, Miglena. (2013). Heroines Under Control: Unexpected Portrayals of Women in the Organ of the Bulgarian Communist Party, 1944–1989. Women’s Studies in Communication, 36(2), 142-166.
 
This is a framing analysis of the news coverage of women’s issues in the official newspaper of the Bulgarian Communist Party over three nonconsecutive years. At the start of the Communist regime, women were ideologically constructed as warriors and tearless mothers of lost sons, deserving of complete equality. In the 1960s, the emphasis unexpectedly shifted to fashion and beauty as part of the Party’s pronatalist propaganda. The age of perestroika in the late 1980s deconstructed the “double burden” faced by women and suggested social policies to relieve it, while still maintaining that chores were women’s work only. Throughout the decades, the ideal Bulgarian woman was seen as androgynous, combining masculine and feminine traits to both contribute to the country’s industrialization and birth the next generation of male elites. The analysis shows how quasi-feminist policies offered women limited career fulfillment while maintaining oppressive expectations, such as having sons over daughters, being attractive, and shouldering all household chores.
 
Contemporary Media Department.
 
 
Dutkay, D. E., D. G. Han, P. E. T. Jorgensen, & Gabriel Picioroaga. (2013). On common fundamental domains. Advances in Mathematics, 239, 109-127.
 
We find conditions under which two measure preserving actions of two groups on the same space have a common fundamental domain. Our results apply to commuting actions with separate fundamental domains, lattices in groups of polynomial growth, and some semidirect products. We prove that two lattices of equal co-volume in a group of polynomial growth, one acting on the left, the other on the right, have a common fundamental domain. Published by Elsevier Inc.
 
Mathematics Department.
 
 
Valdovinos, F. S., P. M. de Espanes, Jose D. Flores, & R. Ramos-Jiliberto. (2013). Adaptive foraging allows the maintenance of biodiversity of pollination networks. Oikos, 122(6), 907-917.
 
Pollination systems are recognized as critical for the maintenance of biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems. Therefore, the understanding of mechanisms that promote the integrity of those mutualistic assemblages is an important issue for the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem function. In this study we present a new population dynamics model for plantpollinator interactions that is based on the consumerresource approach and incorporates a few essential features of pollination ecology. The model was used to project the temporal dynamics of three empirical pollination network, in order to analyze how adaptive foraging of pollinators (AF) shapes the outcome of community dynamics in terms of biodiversity and network robustness to species loss. We found that the incorporation of AF into the dynamics of the pollination networks increased the persistence and diversity of its constituent species, and reduced secondary extinctions of both plants and animals. These findings were best explained by the following underlying processes: 1) AF increased the amount of floral resources extracted by specialist pollinators, and 2) AF raised the visitation rates received by specialist plants. We propose that the main mechanism by which AF enhanced those processes is (trophic) niche partitioning among animals, which in turn generates (pollen vector) niche partitioning among plants. Our results suggest that pollination networks can maintain their stability and diversity by the adaptive foraging of generalist pollinators.
 
Mathematics Department.
 
 
Gaher, Raluca M., Nicole L. Hofman, Jeffrey S. Simons, & Ryan Hunsaker. (2013). Emotion Regulation Deficits as Mediators Between Trauma Exposure and Borderline Symptoms. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 37(3), 466-475.
 
We tested a model of mechanisms linking the experience of trauma exposure with borderline personality symptoms via deficits in core aspects of emotion regulation. Participants were college students (N = 579). History of traumatic exposure and negative affectivity were positively and emotional intelligence inversely associated with borderline symptoms. These effects were mediated via alexithymia. Deficits in identifying and describing emotions, in turn, were associated with poor tolerance for emotional distress and an increase in acting rashly when negatively aroused. Finally, distress tolerance exhibited both direct, and indirect (via urgency), associations with borderline personality symptoms. Deficits in the ability to identify, describe, and understand emotion are related to intolerance for distress and impulsive behavior when negatively aroused. The effects of distress tolerance are consistent with theoretical models that posit that intolerance for distress contributes to deficits in behavioral regulation. Borderline personality symptoms reflect deficits in behavioral control when negatively aroused as well as a pattern of negative evaluations, poor self-efficacy, and emotional absorption contributing to marked interference with adaptive goal directed activity when distressed.
 
Psychology Department.
 
 
Chen, S. Y., N. Wu, Michael Gulseth, J. LaMori, B. K. Bookhart, L. Boulanger, . . . J. Schein. (2013). One-Year Adherence to Warfarin Treatment for Venous Thromboembolism in High-Risk Patients and Its Association with Long-term Risk of Recurrent Events. Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy, 19(4), 291-301.
 
BACKGROUND: Warfarin is the predominant oral anticoagulant used for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) events. However, its long-term use is complicated by the need to manage the drug within a narrow therapeutic range and by possible food and drug interactions. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between 1-year adherence, measured through compliance with and persistence on warfarin treatment for VTE, and long-term risk of recurrent events among patients at high risk. METHODS: Medical and pharmacy claims for patients with commercial or Medicare supplemental insurance in the Thomson Reuters Market Scan database were analyzed. Adult patients with medical claims with an associated VIE diagnosis between January 1, 2006, and March 31, 2008, were identified. The index date was defined as the date of the first observed VIE claim or the date of discharge if the index event was a hospital stay. High-risk patients (patients with cancer, or noncancer patients who did not have reversible risk factors during the 3-month period prior to the index date) who filled a warfarin prescription within 2 weeks of the index date were included. Persistence was evaluated in terms of discontinuation, defined as a 90-day gap in warfarin supply during a 1-year assessment period following the index date. Compliance was measured by the proportion of days covered (PDC) over the 1-year assessment period, with PDC <0.8 defined as noncompliance. Recurrent VIE events were identified as hospitalizations where VIE was the primary diagnosis after the 1-year assessment period and until patients were lost to follow-up. The association between adherence to warfarin therapy and VTE recurrence was evaluated descriptively via Kaplan-Meier curves and a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusted for patient demographic and clinical characteristics. A similar analysis using the medication possession ratio (MPR) as a measure of compliance was also performed in a subset of patients who had filled at least 2 warfarin prescriptions. RESULTS: The study included 8,040 VIE patients identified as being at high risk of recurrence (mean age 61 years, 59.4% male), of whom 76.9% were not compliant with warfarin therapy based on PDC, and 51.5% discontinued therapy. Among those with at least 2 warfarin prescriptions (n=7612), 34.1% of high-risk patients were not compliant with warfarin therapy between the first and last refills based on MPR. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that patients who were compliant or continued warfarin therapy were less likely to experience a VTE event (all P<0.05). Noncompliant patients had a 3 times greater risk of VTE recurrence than compliant patients, based on PDC (hazard ratio [HR]=3.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28-4.97). Among the subpopulation who filled at least 2 warfarin prescriptions, noncompliant patients (based on MPR) were also found to be more likely to have recurrent VIE events, compared with compliant patients (HR=1.60, 95% CI: 1.18-2.16). Patients who discontinued warfarin were more likely to have recurrent VTE events compared with patients who did not discontinue on warfarin treatment (HR=1.48, 95% CI: 1.09-2.01). CONCLUSION: Adherence to a year of therapy was low in patients at high risk of recurrent VIE, even though long-term therapy should be considered in this population. Noncompliance and discontinuation of warfarin treatment over a 1-year period was associated with a higher risk of recurrent VIE. Future research should investigate and differentiate between patient and provider discontinuation to develop strategies to improve compliance and persistence with appropriate anticoagulation therapy that may potentially reduce recurrent VTE. Copyright (C) 2013, Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy. All rights reserved.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Coppock, Joseph D., Bryant G. Wieking, Alfredo A. Molinolo, J. Silvio Gutkind, W. Keith Miskimins, & John H. Lee. (2013). Improved Clearance during Treatment of HPV-Positive Head and Neck Cancer through mTOR Inhibition. Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.), 15(6), 620-630.
 
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) incidence is increasing at a near epidemic rate. We investigated whether the mammalian (or mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, rapamycin, can be used as a concurrent agent to standard-of-care cisplatin/radiation therapy (CRT) to attenuate tumor lactate production, thus enhancing CRT-induced immune-mediated clearance of this antigenic tumor type. A C57Bl/6-derived mouse oropharyngeal epithelial cell line retrovirally transduced with HPV type 16 E6/E7 and human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were evaluated for their response to rapamycin in vitro with proliferation assays, Western blots, and lactate assays. Clonogenic assays and a preclinical mouse model were used to assess rapamycin as a concurrent agent to CRT. The potential of rapamycin to enhance immune response through lactate attenuation was assessed using quantitative tumor lactate bioluminescence and assessment of cell-mediated immunity using E6/E7-vaccinated mouse splenocytes. Rapamycin alone inhibited mTOR signaling of all cancer cell lines tested in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, rapamycin administered alone significantly prolonged survival in vivo but did not result in any long-term cures. Given concurrently, CRT/rapamycin significantly enhanced direct cell killing in clonogenic assays and prolonged survival in immunocompromised mice. However, in immunocompetent mice, concurrent CRT/rapamycin increased long-term cures by 21%. Preliminary findings suggest that improved survival involves increased cell killing and enhanced immune-mediated clearance in part due to decreased lactate production. The results may provide rationale for the clinical evaluation of mTOR inhibitors concurrent with standard-of-care CRT for treatment of HPV-positive HNSCC.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Franco, A., B. Damdinsuren, Tomoko Ise, J. Dement-Brown, H. F. Li, Satoshi Nagata, & M. Tolnay. (2013). Human Fc Receptor-Like 5 Binds Intact IgG via Mechanisms Distinct from Those of Fc Receptors. Journal of Immunology, 190(11), 5739-5746.
 
Fc receptor-like (FCRL) 5 regulates B cell Ag receptor signaling and has been reported to bind aggregated IgG. Using surface plasmon resonance, we analyzed the interaction of native IgG samples with FCRL5, revealing a complex binding mechanism, where isotype is just one factor. FCRL5 bound IgG1 and IgG4 with similar to 1 mu M K-D, whereas the interaction with IgG3 was a magnitude weaker. However, IgG2 samples displayed a wide range of affinities, indicating that additional factors affect binding. We used a panel of 19 anti-FCRL5 mAbs with defined reactivity to identify domains involved in ligand binding. Six mAbs blocked IgG binding, indicating critical roles of FCRL5 domains 1 and 3, as well as epitopes at the domain 1/2 and domain 2/3 boundaries. We found that only glycosylated IgG containing both Fab arms and the Fc region bound with high affinity. Furthermore, the presence of sialic acid in the IgG carbohydrate altered FCRL5 binding. The interaction of IgG and FCRL5 consisted of two kinetic components, suggesting a complex binding mechanism. We established that the IgG-Fc and IgG-F(ab ‘)(2) fragments bind FCRL5 independently but with low affinity, revealing the mechanism behind the two-step binding of whole IgG. This complex binding mechanism is distinct from that of Fc receptors, which bind through the Fc. We propose that FCRL5 is a new type of receptor that recognizes intact IgG, possibly enabling B cells to sense Ig quality. Recognition of undamaged IgG molecules by FCRL5 could allow B cells to engage recently produced Abs.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Hayflick, Susan J., Michael C. Kruer, Allison Gregory, Tobias B. Haack, Manju A. Kurian, Henry H. Houlden, . . . Connie Schrander-Stumpel. (2013). Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration: a new X-linked dominant disorder with brain iron accumulation. Brain: A Journal of Neurology, 136(6), 1708-1717.
 
Neurodegenerative disorders with high iron in the basal ganglia encompass an expanding collection of single gene disorders collectively known as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. These disorders can largely be distinguished from one another by their associated clinical and neuroimaging features. The aim of this study was to define the phenotype that is associated with mutations in WDR45, a new causative gene for neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation located on the X chromosome. The study subjects consisted of WDR45 mutation-positive individuals identified after screening a large international cohort of patients with idiopathic neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. Their records were reviewed, including longitudinal clinical, laboratory and imaging data. Twenty-three mutation-positive subjects were identified (20 females). The natural history of their disease was remarkably uniform: global developmental delay in childhood and further regression in early adulthood with progressive dystonia, parkinsonism and dementia. Common early comorbidities included seizures, spasticity and disordered sleep. The symptoms of parkinsonism improved with l-DOPA; however, nearly all patients experienced early motor fluctuations that quickly progressed to disabling dyskinesias, warranting discontinuation of l-DOPA. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed iron in the substantia nigra and globus pallidus, with a ‘halo’ of T1 hyperintense signal in the substantia nigra. All patients harboured de novo mutations in WDR45, encoding a beta-propeller protein postulated to play a role in autophagy. Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration, the only X-linked disorder of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, is associated with de novo mutations in WDR45 and is recognizable by a unique combination of clinical, natural history and neuroimaging features.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Higgins, Alexandra, Sharleen Yuan, Yanqing Wang, & Brian D. Burrell. (2013). Differential modulation of nociceptive versus non-nociceptive synapses by endocannabinoids. Molecular pain, 9(1), 26.
 
BACKGROUND: Although a number of clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated analgesic effects of cannabinoid treatments, there are also instances when cannabinoids have had no effect or even exacerbated pain. The observed pro-nociceptive effects appear to be due to cannabinoid-induced disinhibition of afferent synaptic input to nociceptive circuits. To better understand how cannabinoid-mediated plasticity can have both pro- and anti-nociceptive effects, we examined the possibility that cannabinoids differentially modulate nociceptive vs. non-nociceptive synapses onto a shared postsynaptic target. These experiments were carried out in the central nervous system (CNS) of the medicinal leech, in which it is possible to intracellularly record from presynaptic nociceptive (N-cell) or pressure-sensitive (P-cell) neurons and their shared postsynaptic targets.; RESULTS: The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2AG) elicited significant long-lasting depression in nociceptive (N-cell) synapses. However, non-nociceptive (P-cell) synapses were potentiated following 2AG treatment. 2AG-induced potentiation of non-nociceptive synapses was blocked by the TRPV antagonist SB366791, suggesting involvement of the same TRPV-like receptor that has already been shown to mediate endocannabinoid-dependent depression in nociceptive inputs. Treatment with the GABA receptor antagonist bicuculline also blocked 2AG-induced potentiation, consistent with the idea that increased synaptic signaling was the result of endocannabinoid-mediated disinhibition. Interestingly, while bicuculline by itself increased non-nociceptive synaptic transmission, nociceptive synapses were depressed by this GABA receptor antagonist indicating that nociceptive synapses were actually excited by GABAergic input. Consistent with these observations, GABA application depolarized the nociceptive afferent and hyperpolarized the non-nociceptive afferent.; CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that endocannabinoids can differentially modulate nociceptive vs. non-nociceptive synapses and that GABAergic regulation of these synapses plays an important role in determining whether endocannabinoids have a potentiating or depressing effect.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Judd, Kyle T., L. K. Cannada, & W. Obremskey. (2013). Correlation of Orthopaedic Trauma Practice Opportunities and Number of Fellows Trained: Are Trauma-Specific Practice Opportunities Scarce? Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 27(6), 352-354.
 
Recent trauma fellows are concerned with difficulty finding a job. Our hypothesis was that the increased number of trauma fellows has led to a decrease in the number of jobs available and a subsequent decrease in advertised trauma positions. To determine the number of advertised positions, a review and tabulation of the advertised trauma specific orthopaedic surgery practice opportunities for the past 9 years (2003-2011) was completed. The number of trauma fellows has increased significantly in the last decade from 19 to 64. The number of Trauma fellowship positions available has increased from 58 to 81. We found that from 2003 to 2011 fewer advertised practice opportunities were present overall. The increase in number of orthopedic trauma fellows correlates closely with the decrease in advertised, trauma specific practice opportunities implying a relationship between the two.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
McMahon, Tracey, DenYelle Kenyon, & Jessica Carter. (2013). ‘My Culture, My Family, My School, Me’: Identifying Strengths and Challenges in the Lives and Communities of American Indian Youth. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 22(5), 694-706.
 
Historically, the majority of research with American Indian (AI) youth and communities has focused on vulnerabilities, problems, and needs rather than resilience, strengths, and assets. Adding to the limited research which has examined AI youth and communities using the strengths perspective, we examined community assets, personal strengths, community challenges, and personal hardships as perceived by reservation-based, Northern Plains AI youth via open-ended survey questions. The present study was conducted during the spring and fall of 2009 at a tribal school in the Northern Plains (N = 95; n = 37 males; n = 58 females; aged 14.4-20.95 years; M = 17.3, SD = 1.47 years). The majority of youth self-identified their ethnic background as solely AI (85.3 %), with small percentages reporting additional ethnic backgrounds. Analyses revealed that the people in their lives, especially their families, are significant sources of strength for AI youth. Findings also indicated that AI youth have a positive orientation toward themselves and their communities, which was evidenced by the fact that the youth identified more strengths than challenges in their lives. Somewhat unexpectedly, when asked what aspects of their lives and communities they would most like to change, a significant number of the youth identified they wanted to change ‘nothing’ about their personal lives or their communities. Reasons for these responses are explored.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Miller, Jake N., Chun-Hong Chan, & David A. Pearce. (2013). The role of nonsense-mediated decay in neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Human Molecular Genetics, 22(13), 2723-2734.
 
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), commonly referred to as Batten disease, is a group of autosomal recessive neurodegenerative diseases of childhood characterized by seizures, blindness, motor and cognitive decline and premature death. Currently, there are over 400 known mutations in 14 different genes, leading to five overlapping clinical variants of NCL. A large portion of these mutations lead to premature stop codons (PTCs) and are predicted to predispose mRNA transcripts to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). Nonsense-mediated decay is associated with a number of other genetic diseases and is an important regulator of disease pathogenesis. We contend that NMD targets PTCs in NCL gene transcripts for degradation. A number of PTC mutations in CLN1, CLN2 and CLN3 lead to a significant decrease in mRNA transcripts and a corresponding decrease in protein levels and function in patient-derived lymphoblast cell lines. Inhibiting NMD leads to an increased transcript level, and where protein function is known, increased activity. Treatment with read-through drugs also leads to increased protein function. Thus, NMD provides a promising therapeutic target that would allow read-through of transcripts to enhance protein function and possibly ameliorate Batten disease pathogenesis.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf, L. Frerichs, A. E. B. Bird, K. Workman, Mitchell Dobberpuhl, & S. Watanabe-Galloway. (2013). HPV Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Among Northern Plains American Indian Adolescents, Parents, Young Adults, and Health Professionals. Journal of Cancer Education, 28(2), 357-366.
 
Native American women in the Northern Plains have a high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and high incidence of cervical disease and cervical cancer. HPV vaccination coverage is shown to be lower among nonwhite populations and disparity populations. We assessed HPV knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs towards HPV and HPV vaccination during a community-based participatory research project among tribal youth, young adults, parents, and health professionals. In 2009, we recruited a total of 73 individuals to participate in four tribal focus groups: tribal health providers, (n = 10), Indian Health Service providers (n = 7), young adult women ages 19-26 (n = 22), girls (14-18) (n = 18), and parents (n = 16). Of these, 62 (84.93 %) completed a survey, which included 10 healthcare providers, 22 young adults, 14 teens, and 16 parents. We employed a qualitative thematic analysis of focus group transcript data and conducted frequency analysis of survey data, which were both reviewed and triangulated by a Community Advisory Board. Based on the results of this study, the tribal community advisory board identified local tribal settings for interventions to increase HPV vaccination coverage through health education classes and a school-based vaccination clinic. In addition to tribal community-wide education events to increase awareness of HPV disease, the HPV vaccine, provider-specific training was identified as a potential intervention. These community-based focus group findings underscore the importance of locally and cultural tailored educational interventions to further increase HPV knowledge and HPV vaccination among disparate populations like American Indian adolescent and young adult women.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Xu, Xianmin, Satoru Kobayashi, Kai Chen, Derek Timm, Paul Volden, Yuan Huang, . . . Qiangrong Liang. (2013). Diminished autophagy limits cardiac injury in mouse models of type 1 diabetes. The Journal of biological chemistry, 288(25), 18077-18092.
 
Cardiac autophagy is inhibited in type 1 diabetes. However, it remains unknown if the reduced autophagy contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. We addressed this question using mouse models with gain- and loss-of-autophagy. Autophagic flux was inhibited in diabetic hearts when measured at multiple time points after diabetes induction by streptozotocin as assessed by protein levels of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 form 2 (LC3-II) or GFP-LC3 puncta in the absence and presence of the lysosome inhibitor bafilomycin A1. Autophagy in diabetic hearts was further reduced in beclin 1- or Atg16-deficient mice but was restored partially or completely by overexpression of beclin 1 to different levels. Surprisingly, diabetes-induced cardiac damage was substantially attenuated in beclin 1- and Atg16-deficient mice as shown by improved cardiac function as well as reduced levels of oxidative stress, interstitial fibrosis, and myocyte apoptosis. In contrast, diabetic cardiac damage was dose-dependently exacerbated by beclin 1 overexpression. The cardioprotective effects of autophagy deficiency were reproduced in OVE26 diabetic mice. These effects were associated with partially restored mitophagy and increased expression and mitochondrial localization of Rab9, an essential regulator of a non-canonical alternative autophagic pathway. Together, these findings demonstrate that the diminished autophagy is an adaptive response that limits cardiac dysfunction in type 1 diabetes, presumably through up-regulation of alternative autophagy and mitophagy.
 
Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls Campus.
 
 
Avoseh, Mejai B. M. (2013). Proverbs as Theoretical Frameworks for Lifelong Learning in Indigenous African Education. Adult Education Quarterly, 63(3), 236-250.
 
Every aspect of a community’s life and values in indigenous Africa provide the theoretical framework for education. The holistic worldview of the traditional system places a strong emphasis on the centrality of the human element and orature in the symmetrical relationship between life and learning. This article focuses on proverbs and the words that form them as important sources of, and foundation for, indigenous African education. The article analyzes proverbs and the power of the spoken word in indigenous African pedagogy. The analysis is used to argue for an increased articulation of indigenous African knowledge into the dialogue on the inclusion of non-Western traditions in the theoretical frameworks for adult education. The article uses the traditional contexts of Ogu and Yoruba of West Africa but draws examples mostly from Yoruba proverbs to present their epistemological significance in traditional African education.
 
School of Education.
 
 
Flynn, Stephen V., Kelly J. Duncan, & Lori L. Evenson. (2013). An Emergent Phenomenon of American Indian Secondary Students’ Career Development Process. Career Development Quarterly, 61(2), 124-140.
 
Nine single-race American Indian secondary students’ career development experiences were examined through a phenomenological methodology. All 9 participants were in the transition period starting in late secondary school (age 18). Data sources included individual interviews and journal analysis. The phenomenon of American Indian secondary students’ career development process comprised 7 themes, which were integrated into 3 interacting dimensions: introspective, relational, and contextual. Findings reveal unique career development processes for American Indian secondary students living in tribal settings, including career decision process, career options, outcome expectations, and self-efficacy. Implications for school counselors and counselor educators are discussed.
 
School of Education.
 
 
Paquette, Daniel, Diana D. Coyl-Shepherd, & Lisa A. Newland. (2013). Fathers and development: new areas for exploration. Early Child Development & Care, 183(6), 735-745.
 
An introduction is presented in which the editor discusses various reports within the issue on topics including the key features of father child rough-and-tumble play, the link between rough-and-tumble play and the father-child activation relationship and the values of fathers and mothers in relation children’s social competence.
 
School of Education.
 
 
Youngbauer, Vincent W. (2013). Application of Media Literacy and Cultural Studies in K–12 Social Studies Curricula. Social Studies, 104(5), 183-189.
 
In 2009 the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) released a position statement calling for the implementation of media literacy in social studies education. NCSS argues that if today’s students are to become engaged citizens as adults, they must acquire the skills and knowledge associated with media literacy. Using this position statement as foundation, I developed a media literacy framework for use in the social studies classroom that applies prevailing theories on media and cultural studies. For consumers of media to engage in the practice of citizenship they need to acquire the tools needed to negotiate the waters of the many media texts that are produced. For a consumer of media texts to negotiate the meaning and influence of those texts, that consumer must use a framework that applies approaches that are historical, empirical, interpretive, and critical. As we shall see, these approaches are necessary if citizens are to engage effectively in a democracy that is flooded with such texts.
 
School of Education.
 
 
Beebe, Justin A., Roger W. Hines, Laura T. McDaniel, & Brenda L. Shelden. (2013). An isokinetic training program for reducing falls in a community-dwelling older adult: a case report. Journal of geriatric physical therapy (2001), 36(3), 146-153.
 
BACKGROUND: With the population older than 65 years, projected to double by the year 2030, falls in older adults are a substantial health concern. Muscle strength deficits are one of the multifactorial components linked to increased fall risk, and decreasing these deficits has been one of the goals of interventions designed to decrease fall risk. These interventions have traditionally focused on improving peak torque; however, recent research suggests that exercise protocols that focus on the rate of torque development (RTD) may be more effective in decreasing fall risk.; PURPOSE: This case report examines clinical outcomes following implementation of an isokinetic strengthening protocol coupled with a balance program designed to reduce fall risk in a community-dwelling older adult.; METHODS: The individual was a 70-year-old woman with a history of 3 falls over the past 8 months and no related medical etiology who had self-limited her activities because of fear of another fall. She was classified as having substantial risk for future falls because of fall history, increased fear of falling, and below age norms on the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and the Timed Up and Go (TUG). The treatment program consisted of 12 weeks of high-intensity isokinetic knee extensor training, high challenge dynamic gait and balance activities, and core strengthening. The isokinetic protocol consisted of 4 sets of 10 concentric-only repetitions at speeds of 240°/sec and 300°/sec for a total of 8 work sets. Dynamic gait activities incorporating directional and obstacle drills, and rocker and balance boards were used for balance training activities. Progressive theraband exercises were used for core strengthening. As her home program, the participant was encouraged to return to line dancing twice per week. During the 12-week protocol, the participant completed two 90-minute therapy sessions and two 90-minute dance classes per week.; RESULTS: After the 12 weeks of treatment, knee extensor peak torque at 150 ms improved on the right from 67.8 N to 107.1 N (57.9% increase), and on the left from 65.1 N to 97.6 N (49.9% increase). The BBS score improved from 45 to 52; and the TUG improved from 14.0 to 8.6 seconds. Both final scores exceeded fall risk cutoffs (BBS = 48; TUG = 13.5 seconds) and the change score exceeded minimal detectable change (BBS = 7; TUG 5.4 seconds).; CONCLUSIONS: The treatment program produced improvements in knee extensor peak torque and RTD, but more importantly, the final scores on the clinical outcome measures placed the participant above established fall-risk cutoff scores. Although future research with increased numbers of participants and a control group should be conducted to confirm this study’s results, these findings support the use of isokinetic training to reduce fall risk in older adults.
 
School of Health Sciences.
 
 
Ferley, Derek D., Roy W. Osborn, & Matthew D. Vukovich. (2013). The Effects of Uphill Vs. Level-Grade High-Intensity Interval Training on Vo2max, Vmax, VLT, and Tmax in Well-Trained Distance Runners. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins), 27(6), 1549-1559.
 
The article discusses research on distance running, with a focus on uphill running and high-intensity interval training on maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max), running speed associated with lactate threshold (VLT), running speed associated with Vo2max (Vmax), and sustained Vmax (Tmax). Topics include incline running, sprinting, and analysis of variance.
 
School of Health Sciences.
 
 
Karges, Joy Renae, Patrick Stephen Cross, Patrick L. Hauer, Heather Blom, Jared Burcham, Amanda K. Myers, & Casey Grimsrud. (2013). Effectiveness of the emergency response course in improving student physical therapists’ and licensed physical therapists’ decision-making related to acute sports injuries and medical conditions. International journal of sports physical therapy, 8(3), 277-289.
 
PURPOSE: To analyze the effectiveness of the American Red Cross Emergency Response Course (ARC ERC) in improving decision-making skills of physical therapists (PTs) and third semester clinical doctorate student physical therapists (SPTs) when assessing acute sports injuries and medical conditions.; METHODS: An existing questionnaire was modified, with permission from the original authors of the instrument. The questionnaire was administered to PTs and SPTs before the start of and immediately after the completion of 5 different ARC ERCs. The overall percentages of “Appropriate” responses for the 17 case scenarios were calculated for each participant for the pre-and post-tests. Participants also rated their perceived level of preparedness for managing various conditions using a 5-point Likert Scale (ranging from Prepared to Unprepared). The overall percentage of “Prepared/Somewhat Prepared” responses for the 16 medical conditions was calculated for each participant for the pre-and post-tests. In addition, mean Likert scale scores were calculated for level of perceived preparedness for each of the 16 medical conditions. Paired t-tests, calculated with SPSS 20.0, were used to analyze the data.; RESULTS: 37 of 37 (100.0%) of eligible PTs and 45 of 48 (93.8%) of eligible SPTs completed the pre- and post-test questionnaires. The percentage of “Appropriate” responses for all 17 cases in the aggregate (PTs: 76.8% pre-test, 89.0% post-test; SPTs: 68.5%, 84.3%), as well as the percentage of “Prepared/Somewhat Prepared” responses for all conditions in the aggregate (PTs: 67.5%, 96.5%; SPTs: 37.1%, 90.6%) were significantly different from pre-test to post-test (P = .000). There was also a significant difference (P < .05) in the mean overall preparedness Likert scale scores from pre-test to post-test for each medical condition for the SPT’s, and 15 of the 16 medical conditions (muscle strains: P = .119) for the PTs.; CONCLUSIONS: The ARC ERC appears to be effective in improving both PTs’ and SPTs’ decision-making skills related to acute sports injuries and medical conditions, as both “Appropriate” responses and perceived level of preparedness improved.; LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3.
 
School of Health Sciences.
 
 
Kindle, Peter A. (2013). The Financial Literacy of Social Work Students. Journal of Social Work Education, 49(3), 397-407.
 
The financial literacy of social work students has become the focus of curriculum development and research, but no study to date has attempted to assess the financial knowledge possessed by social work students. This study addressed that gap by assessing the level of objective financial knowledge reported by social work student respondents (N = 1,506) to an Internet-based survey. Results indicated that the majority of social work student respondents scored more than 70% correct on a 48-item measure of financial literacy. Multiple regression analysis explained 33.7% of the variance and suggested that the dominant pathway to acquiring objective financial knowledge is through personal experience. Accordingly, financial education programs for social work students may be most appropriate for traditional undergraduates.
 
School of Health Sciences.
 
 
Ko, Eunjeong, Soonhee Roh, & Doreen Higgins. (2013). Do Older Korean Immigrants Engage in End-of-Life Communication? Educational Gerontology, 39(8), 613-622.
 
End-of-life communication is an important process as it allows individuals’ treatment preferences to be known, yet not every culture is receptive to such discussions. Planning for end-of-life care is not readily supported in Asian culture, and little is known about individuals’ communication with family and health care professionals among older Korean immigrants related to end-of-life care. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 195 older Korean immigrants on end-of-life communication. Measures include end-of-life communication, attitudes toward end-of-life communication, perceived burden, number of adult children in the United States, health status, and sociodemographic variables. Overall, 21.9% (n = 42) of participants reported to have discussed their end-of-life treatment preferences with others, primarily family members. Attitudes toward end-of-life discussions, perceived burden, religiosity, and the number of children in the U.S. significantly accounted for end-of-life communication. Culturally appropriate interventions are recommended to promote dialogue regarding treatment preferences among older adults, family, and health care professionals.
 
School of Health Sciences.

Older Posts »

Categories

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.